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US007591773B2

( 12) Ulllted States Patent ( 10) Patent N 0. : US 7, 591, 773 B2


Weir et al. ( 4 5) Date o f Patent: * Sep . 22, 2009
( 54 ) ABDOMIN AL MUSCLE TRAIN IN G 4 , 552, 4 04 A * 11/1985 Co ngleto n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297/330
APPARATUS 4 , 589, 699 A * 5/1986 Dungan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297/4 2312
D286, 822 S * 11/1986 Op svik . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D6/335
( 75) Invento rsi ROSS Jo hn Weir, Lo ughbo ro ugh ( GB) ; D291, 155 s * 8/1987 Wertheim er D6/335
Mlchael Peter Cam e, CFOPStOn ( GB) 4 , 74 3, 010 A * 5/1988 Geraci . . . . . . . . . 4 82/72
_ _ _ D299, 594 S * 1/1989 Richardso n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D6/335
( 73) Asslgnee: ivgf egslglgswts Techno lo gles 4 , 809, 804 A * 3/1989 H o usto n et a1. . . . . . . . . . . 180/65. 51
m l 6 ( ) 4 , 913, 4 87 A * 4 /1990 Breckel et a1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297/14
( * ) I\ IOtiCeZ Subj ect to any disclaim er the term o f this 5, 054 , 852 A : 10/1991 Tho lkes . . . . . . . . . . . . 297/172
p atent is extended o r adj usted under 35 5, 306, 218 A 4 /1994 H uang Chen . . . 4 82/72
U_ S_ C_ 154 ( 1) ) by o days D34 8, 568 s * 7/1994 Landry . . . . . . . . . . D6/330
5, 356, 358 A * 10/1994 Chen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 82/96
This p atent is subj ect to a term inal dis- 5, 4 01, 078 A * 3/1995 Riach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297/4 23. 11
claim er.
( 21) Ap p 1. N 0. : 11/652 4 4 0
( Co ntinued)
( 22) Flled: Jan' 11 2007 Prim ary Exam ineriLo ri Am erso n
. . . 74 ) Allo rn A en! 0r Firm iRenner Kenner Greive
65 P P bl t D t ( 6y] g I
( ) no r u lea Io n a a Bo bak, Taylo r & Weber
US 2007/0184 94 9 A1 Aug. 9, 2007
( 57) ABSTRACT
( 30) Fo reign Ap p licatio n Prio rity Data
A . 31 2005 GB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05176912
A3: 30 2006 PCT/GB2006/050263 Exercise ap p aratus ( 10) f o r training the abdo m inal m uscles o f
' """"""" " a user ( 4 1) co m p rises a lever f ram e ( 11) linked to a sup p o rt
( 51) Int_ CL f ram e ( 12) at a p ivo t ( 13) . The lever f ram e ( 11) has ? rst and
A63B 26/00 ( 200601) seco nd arm s ( 14 , 15) j o ined at a central j unctio n ( 16) Which
( 52) U 5 Cl 4 82/14 0, 297/4 23 11, 297/195 11, also f o rm s a f ulcrum f o r the lever f ram e ( 11) . The sup p o rt
' l l """""" " 282/129 4 82130 4 82/72 f ram e ( 12) co nsists o f a base m em ber ( 19) having a seat
( 58) Field o f classi? catio n Search 4 82/123 p o rtio n ( 21) asso ciated therewith. The ap p aratus ( 10) is
4 82/129 121 14 0 280/32 5f adap tedto sup p o rtauser ( 4 1) inahalf - kneeling p o sitio n so as
297 /4 23 11 1 6 195 to p ro m o te neutral p elvic alignm ent during the p erf o rm ance
See a licatio n ? le f o r Co m lete Search histo ' o f abdo m inal m uscle training exercise. In use, the exercise
p p p ry' ap p aratus ( 10) is o p erated by the user ( 4 1) p ushing the ? rst
( 56) Ref erences Cited arm ( 14 ) aWay f ro m his o r her bo dy so as to cause the lever
f ram e ( 11) to ro tate abo ut its f ulcrum ( 16) . This lif ts the
US' PATEN T DOCUMEN TS seco nd arm ( 15) , Which in turn causes the seat p o rtio n ( 21)
3 669 4 93 A * @1972 VOWleS _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 297/4 23, asso ciated With the base m em ber ( 19) to lif t and/o r tilt. The
4 , 24 9, 774 A * Z 1981 Andreasso n 297/311 user s abdo m inal m uscles are thus exercised in lif ting his o r
D265, 612 s * 8/1982 Gusrud etal. D6/373 her Own bo dy m ass
4 , 390, 076 A * 6/1983 Wier et a1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180/11
4 , 534 , 590 A * 8/1985 Yam am ura et a1. 297/18012 17 Claim s, 6 Drawing Sheets
US 7, 591, 773 B2
Page2
U. S. PATEN T DOCUMEN TS 7, 115, 081 B2* 10/2006 Stearns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 82/14 0
7, 14 4 , 080 B2* 12/2006 Llo yd . . . . . . 297/195. 11
5, 4 58, 553 A * 10/1995 Wu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 82/95 1155524 9 S > l< 11/2007 Ro leder et a1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ D24 /184
5, 54 5, 177 A * 8/1996 C9899 - - ~606/204 D555, 794 s * 11/2007 Ro leder et a1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . D24 /184
D398, 669 S * 9/1998 Anderso n et a1. . D2l/662 7, 367, 623 132* 5/2008 Tho lkes et 31 297/3008
5, 857, 74 7 A * V1999 Mundko wski - - - - - - - - - ~ 297/4 2311 7, 4 88, 281 B2* 2/2009 Weir et a1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 82/14 0
5, 884 , 935 A * 3/1999 Tho lkes - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 280/657 2002/0067060 A1* 6/2002 Llo yd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297/195. 11
5, 971, 4 85 A * 10/1999 Clark . . . . . . . . . 297/4 23. 12 2002/0101108 A1* 8/2002 Ro leder et a1. . 297/4 23. 12
D4 25, 321 s * 5/2000 Tho lkesetal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D6/338 2002/0171281 A1* 11/2002 Co chran . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297/4 23. 11
6, 065, 808 A * 5/2000 Tinsley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297/4 23. 11 2003/0090131 A1* 5/2003 Ro leder et a1. . . . . . . . . . 297/195. 11
6, 123, 392 A * 9/2000 Alf red etal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297/4 66 2004 /0070253 A1* 4 /2004 Murp hy etal - 297/4 2311
6, 34 9, 993 131* 2/2002 Walsh _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 297/4 66 2005/003564 4 Al* 2/2005 Llo yd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297/4 23. 11
6, 4 4 0, 04 6 131* 80002 Tho lkes _ _ _ _ _ _ 4 82/14 2 2006/0100070 A1* 5/2006 Abdo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 82/121
6, 54 3, 853 131* 4 0003 SPlane Jr _ _ _ _ 297/4 23 2006/0252613 A1* 11/2006 Barnes et al. . . 4 82/95
6, 698, 831 132* 3/2004 Llo yd _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 297/195, 2007/0021280 A1* 1/2007 Tyree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 82/94
6, 729, 690 B2, , 5/2004 Ro leder et a1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 297/4 23 2008/009674 3 A1* 4 /2008 W611 et a1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 82/14 0
6, 923, 74 9 B1 * 8/2005 Sm ith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 82/72 * cited by exam iner
US. Patent Sep . 22, 2009 Sheet 1 o f 6 US 7, 591, 773 B2
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US. Patent Sep . 22, 2009 Sheet 2 o f 6 US 7, 591, 773 B2
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Figure 2
Figure 3
US. Patent Sep . 22, 2009 Sheet 3 o f 6 US 7, 591, 773 B2
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Figure 5
US. Patent Sep . 22, 2009 Sheet 4 o f 6 US 7, 591, 773 B2
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Figure 6
Figure 8
US. Patent Sep . 22, 2009 Sheet 5 o f 6 US 7, 591, 773 B2
US. Patent Sep . 22, 2009 Sheet 6 o f 6 US 7, 591, 773 B2
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US 7, 591, 773 B2
1
ABDOMIN AL MUSCLE TRAIN IN G
APPARATUS
FIELD OF TH E IN VEN TION
This inventio n relates to exercise ap p aratus f o r training a
user s abdo m inal m uscles. In p articular, it relates to such
ap p aratus in Which the user exercises in a sup p o rted half
kneeling p o sitio n, p ro m o ting neutral p elvic alignm ent.
BACKGROUN D OF TH E IN VEN TION
During the p erf o rm ance o f p hysical exercise, the bo dy is
subj ected to stresses and strains beyo nd that Which Wo uld
no rm ally be enco untered in m o st p eo p le s everyday activi
ties. These stresses and strains increase the risk o f inj ury
o ccurring to vulnerable areas o f the bo dy such as the j o ints,
and care sho uld be taken to m inim ise such risks Wherever
p o ssible during training.
In the p erf o rm ance o f exercises f o r training the abdo m inal
m uscles, With Which the p resent inventio n is co ncerned, the
j o int betWeen the p elvis and the sp ine is p articularly at risk. To
m inim ise the risk o f inj ury to this j o int, it is tho ught to be
bene? cial to m aintain the p elvis, so f ar as is p o ssible during
the p erf o rm ance o f the exercise, in a p o sitio n substantially at
the m id- p o int o f its range o f anterio r to p o sterio r ro tatio n
abo ut the j o int. This p o sitio n is ref erred to herein as neutral
p elvic alignm ent.
Fitness eq uip m ent f o r training a user s abdo m inal m uscles
generally o p erates With the user in a sup ine bo dy p o sitio n.
H o Wever, f o r users lacking m o bility, such as tho se Who are
disabled, o bese o r elderly, it can be dif ? cult co m f o rtably to
ado p t the sup ine p o sitio n, and even m o re dif ? cult to return to
a standing p o sitio n af terWards. As a result, tho se users Who
are likely to bene? t m o st f ro m abdo m inal m uscle training can
? nd them selves excluded f ro m p erf o rm ing such exercise.
In an attem p t to o verco m e this p ro blem , so m e abdo m inal
exercise devices have been p ro vided Which o f f er the user the
o p tio n o f exercising f ro m a seated p o sitio n. H o Wever, such
devices do no t p ro m o te neutral p elvic alignm ent, leaving the
user at an increased risk o f inj ury.
The ideal bo dy p o sitio n f o r m aintaining neutral p elvic
alignm ent is ref erred to herein as the half - kneeling p o sitio n.
This invo lves the butto cks and knees o nly being sup p o rted,
With a so m eWhat larger angle being f o rm ed betWeen the
abdo m en and the up p er legs than is custo m ary in a no rm al
seated p o sitio n. Static seats, kno Wn as kneel chairs, Which
sup p o rt a user in the half - kneeling p o sitio n are Well kno Wn
and are Widely used by tho se suf f ering f ro m back traum a, as
an aid to rehabilitatio n. H o Wever it is believed that, until no W,
no exercise ap p aratus has so ught to sup p o rt a user in the
half - kneeling p o sitio n f o r the p erf o rm ance o f abdo m inal
m uscle training exercise. Furtherm o re, current designs o f
kneel chairs do no t p ro m o te easy and saf e m o unting and
dism o unting o f the seat, req uiring the user to m o unt the seat
f ro m the f ro nt o f the chair and to step back into the seat.
In additio n to the abo ve discussed co ncerns regarding neu
tral p elvic alignm ent, m any kno Wn abdo m inal training
devices suf f er f urther sho rtco m ings in that they rely so lely o n
Weight- stacks o r elastic resistance elem ents to p ro vide the
resistive f o rce Which the user m ust o verco m e during exercise.
The use o f Weight- stacks inevitably greatly increases the
o verall m ass o f the p ro duct, m aking it dif ? cult and exp ensive
to ship , and cum berso m e to m o ve o nce installed. A draWback
invo lved in the use o f elastic resistance elem ents alo ne is that
the resistive lo ad increases exp o nentially as the m aterial is
stretched. Unless used in co m binatio n With o ther resistive
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lo ads, this p ro vides an unnatural lo ad and decreases the sp eci
? city o f the exercise, i. e. the targeting o f a p articular exercise
to a p articular gro up o f m uscles.
SUMMARY OF TH E IN VEN TION
The p resent inventio n seeks to address these p ro blem s by
enabling a user to p erf o rm abdo m inal m uscle training exer
cise f ro m a half - kneeling p o sitio n, thus p ro m o ting neutral
p elvic alignm ent, With the resistive lo ad being p ro vided p ri
m arily by the user s o Wn bo dy m ass. The p resent inventio n
f urther seeks to p ro vide exercise ap p aratus cap able o f being
adap ted f o r use as a static kneel chair, in Which the user m ay
easily and saf ely m o unt and dism o unt f ro m the rear o f the
seat.
Acco rding to the p resent inventio n there is p ro vided exer
cise ap p aratus co m p rising:
a sup p o rt f ram e having a base m em ber and a seat p o rtio n
asso ciated thereWith, adap ted to sup p o rt a user in a half
kneeling p o sitio n; and
a lever f ram e having a ? rst arm adap ted f o r m anual o p era
tio n by said user, and a seco nd arm linked to the base
m em ber, said ? rst and seco nd arm s being j o ined at a
j unctio n at o r adj acent a f ulcrum f o r the lever f ram e;
Whereby in use, the exercise ap p aratus is o p erable by said
user m anually p ushing said ? rst arm aWay f ro m his o r her
bo dy thereby to ro tate the lever f ram e abo ut its f ulcrum , thus
lif ting said seco nd arm , Which in turn causes the seat p o rtio n
asso ciated With the base m em ber to lif t and/o r tilt, the user s
abdo m inal m uscles thereby being exercised in lif ting the
user s o Wn bo dy m ass.
In a currently p ref erred em bo dim ent o f the p resent inven
tio n, the ? rst and seco nd arm s o f the lever f ram e are arranged
generally p erp endicular to o ne ano ther thereby to f o rm a
generally L- shap ed lever f ram e. The lever f ram e thus has a
handle end, adap ted f o r m anual o p eratio n, and a f ree end,
With the j unctio n being lo cated therebetWeen. The j unctio n
betWeen the ? rst and seco nd arm s is p ref erably ro unded and
arranged to bear against a Wo rking surf ace beneath the exer
cise ap p aratus. The ro unded j unctio n m ay be arranged to bear
directly against the Wo rking surf ace, o r in alternative em bo di
m ents o f the p resent inventio n m ay be arranged to bear
against the Wo rking surf ace via an interm ediary m em ber.
Suitable co nstructio ns o f interm ediary m em ber include the
use o f a ro cker bar arranged p erp endicularly acro ss the lever
f ram e and having ro unded f eet at either end thereo f adap ted to
bear against the Wo rking surf ace. The f o rces im p arted by the
user during exercise are thus disp laced to either side o f the
ap p aratus, giving enhanced stability.
The exercise ap p aratus is o p erated by the user rep eating a
cycle o f p ushing the ? rst arm aWay f ro m his o r her bo dy, and
subseq uently releasing the m anual f o rce ap p lied to the ? rst
arm . As the m anual f o rce is released, the user s bo dy m ass
urges the seat p o rtio n back to its initial rest p o sitio n, Which in
turn causes the lever f ram e to return to its rest p o sitio n. The
lever f ram e thus ro tates abo ut the f ulcrum in a back- and- f o rth
ro cking m o tio n as the m anual f o rce is rep eatedly ap p lied and
released. To p ro vide co m f o rt to the user, and to enable the
p erf o rm ance o f a range o f dif f erent exercises, the ? rst arm
p ref erably co m p rises a handlebar adap ted f o r m anual o p era
tio n by the user.
The seco nd arm o f the lever f ram e is p ref erably linked to
the sup p o rt f ram e base m em ber via a p ivo t. Op eratio n o f the
lever f ram e causes the seco nd arm and the p ivo t to lif t aWay
f ro m the Wo rking surf ace, causing the seat p o rtio n bo th to lif t
and to tilt. This actio n ensures that bo th the user s up p er and
lo Wer abdo m inal m uscles are exercised in lif ting his o r her
US 7, 591, 773 B2
3
bo dy m ass, thus p ro m o ting the executio n o f a co rrect abdo m i
nal co ntractio n. Co unter- clo ckwise ro tatio n o f the lever
f ram e abo ut the f ulcrum causes clo ckwise ro tatio n o f the
sup p o rt f ram e abo ut the p ivo t, and vice versa.
The sup p o rt f ram e base m em ber extends f ro m the p ivo t to
a f o o t adap ted to bear against the Wo rking surf ace beneath the
exercise ap p aratus. The f o o t rem ains in co ntact With the
Wo rking surf ace thro ugho ut the p erf o rm ance o f exercise, and
is adap ted f o r translatio nal m o vem ent alo ng the Wo rking sur
f ace to Wards the lever f ram e f ulcrum , When the p ivo t is lif ted
aWay f ro m the Wo rking surf ace by the actio n o f the lever
f ram e. The f o o t theref o re ef f ectively acts as a f urther f ulcrum
f o r the sup p o rt f ram e.
To f acilitate the translatio nal m o vem ent o f the f o o t alo ng
the Wo rking surf ace, the f o o t is p ref erably p ro vided With a
ro tatio nal m em ber. Mo st p ref erably, the ro tatio nal m em ber
co m p rises o ne o r m o re Wheel( s) o r ro ller( s) .
In a currently p ref erred co nstructio n o f exercise ap p aratus
acco rding to the p resent inventio n, the base m em ber extends
beyo nd the p ivo t, distal f ro m the f o o t. The seat p o rtio n is then
j o ined to the base m em ber at a co nnectio n p o int lo cated distal
f ro m the f o o t, such that the p ivo t is lo cated betWeen said f o o t
and said co nnectio n p o int.
In this em bo dim ent, the seat p o rtio n is j o ined to the base
m em ber at an acutely angled j unctio n, thereby f o rm ing a
generally V- shap ed sup p o rt f ram e. This shap e enables the seat
p o rtio n to be co rrectly aligned f o r sup p o rting a user in the
half - kneeling p o sitio n, and also f acilitates the interactio n
betWeen the lever f ram e and the sup p o rt f ram e, as the gener
ally L- shap ed lever f ram e and the generally V- shap ed sup p o rt
f ram e can be arranged such that the resp ective j unctio ns o f
said f ram es are generally co - incident When the ap p aratus is at
rest. To im p art f urther strength to the sup p o rt f ram e structure,
the seat p o rtio n m ay be f urther sup p o rted by o ne o r m o re
struts extending f ro m the base m em ber at o r adj acent the f o o t.
Mo di? catio ns m ay be m ade to the exercise ap p aratus to
allo W the user to p erf o rm Wo rk against an ap p lied resistive
lo ad in additio n to the Wo rk do ne in lif ting his o r her o Wn bo dy
m ass. Fo r exam p le, o ne o r m o re additio nal m ass elem ent( s)
m ay be susp ended betWeen the resp ective j unctio ns o f the
generally L- shap ed lever f ram e and the generally V- shap ed
sup p o rt f ram e. Alternatively, o r additio nally, the resp ective
j unctio ns o f the generally L- shap ed lever f ram e and the gen
erally V- shap ed sup p o rt f ram e m ay additio nally be linked by
an elastic resistance elem ent.
Elastic resistance elem ents m ay instead be utilised to link
the f ree end o f the lever f ram e With the f o o t end o f the sup p o rt
f ram e. In such em bo dim ents, the f o o t end o f the sup p o rt
f ram e is p ref erably p ro vided With o ne o r m o re ? xing p o ints,
Whilst the elastic resistance elem ents are p ref erably adap ted
to extend f ro m the f ree end o f the lever f ram e and are p ro vided
With co m p lem entary engagem ent m eans to co nnect to said
? xing p o ints.
In o rder to sup p o rt the user in the half - kneeling p o sitio n,
and thereby p ro m o te neutral p elvic alignm ent, the seat p o r
tio n co m p rises a butto ck sup p o rt elem ent and a knee rest
elem ent. The knee rest elem ent m ay be f o rm ed either as a
single unit extending acro ss the sup p o rt f ram e and adap ted to
acco m m o date bo th knees, o r alternatively m ay take the f o rm
o f tWo sep arate units, disp laced slightly to the sides o f the
sup p o rt f ram e, each adap ted to acco m m o date o ne knee.
In a currently p ref erred em bo dim ent o f exercise ap p aratus
acco rding to the p resent inventio n, tWo sep arate knee rest
elem ents are p ro vided, each being m o unted indep endently o f
the o ther via a ? exible m o unt. The ? exible m o unt p erm its
m inim al m o vem ent o f each knee rest elem ent relative to the
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sup p o rt f ram e, thereby to acco m m o date leg m o vem ent during
exercise Witho ut causing undue stress to the user s knees.
The p ivo t betWeen the lever f ram e and the sup p o rt f ram e
p ref erably co m p rises a lo ckable p in engageable With a
co m p lem entary ap erture f o rm ed in each o f the seco nd arm o f
the lever f ram e and the base m em ber o f the sup p o rt f ram e.
Mo st p ref erably, the seco nd arm o f the lever f ram e and the
base m em ber o f the sup p o rt f ram e each co m p rise a p lurality
o f sp aced like ap ertures, to enable the lo catio n o f the p ivo t to
be adj usted. The resistance p ro vided by the user s bo dy m ass,
and hence the Wo rk req uired to o verco m e that resistance, can
thus be adj usted by changing the lo catio n o f the p ivo t.
The co nstructio n o f exercise ap p aratus acco rding to the
p resent inventio n is no t lim ited to any p articular f o rm , ho W
ever it is p ref erred that at least o ne o f the lever f ram e and the
sup p o rt f ram e are f o rm ed With a p arallel tubular co nstructio n,
Whilst in certain em bo dim ents each said f ram e is f o rm ed With
a p arallel tubular co nstructio n. In such em bo dim ents, the
lever f ram e thus co m p rises a p air o f p arallel tubular m em bers
cro ss- linked at the handlebar and/ o r at o r adj acent the p ivo t,
Whilst the sup p o rt f ram e co m p rises a p air o f p arallel tubular
m em bers cro ss- linked at the seat p o rtio n and/ o r at o r adj acent
the f o o t. In em bo dim ents Where the use o f elastic resistance
elem ents linking the f o o t end o f the sup p o rt f ram e With the
f ree end o f the lever f ram e is co m bined With the tubular
co nstructio n o f the lever f ram e, the elastic resistance ele
m ents m ay co nveniently be reco iled Within the tubular lever
f ram e f o r sto rage When no t in use.
The sup p o rt f ram e is p ref erably detachable f ro m the lever
f ram e thereby to f o rm a static kneel chair. One o r bo th o f the
thus- disassem bled f ram es is p ref erably f urther f o ldable to
f acilitate sto rage o f said exercise ap p aratus When no t in use.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF TH E SEVERAL
VIEWS OF TH E DRAWIN GS
In o rder that the p resent inventio n m ay be f ully understo o d,
p ref erred em bo dim ents thereo f Will no W be described in
detail, tho ugh o nly by Way o f exam p le, With ref erence to the
acco m p anying draWings in Which:
FIG. 1 is a p ersp ective vieW o f exercise ap p aratus acco rd
ing to a ? rst em bo dim ent o f the p resent inventio n;
FIGS. 2 and 3 are side vieWs o f the exercise ap p aratus o f
FIG. 1, f o rm ing an illustrative seq uence sho Wing the relative
p o sitio ns o f the lever and sup p o rt f ram es during exercise;
FIGS. 4 and 5 are side vieWs o f a seco nd em bo dim ent o f
exercise ap p aratus acco rding to the p resent inventio n, f o rm
ing an illustrative seq uence sho Wing the relative p o sitio ns o f
the lever and sup p o rt f ram es during exercise;
FIGS. 6 and 7 are p ersp ective vieWs o f a third em bo dim ent
o f exercise ap p aratus acco rding to the p resent inventio n,
f o rm ing an illustrative seq uence sho Wing the relative p o si
tio ns o f the lever and sup p o rt f ram es and the user during
exercise;
FIG. 8 is a p ersp ective vieW o f the exercise ap p aratus o f
FIGS. 6 and 7, sho Wing the user p erf o rm ing an alternative
abdo m inal m uscle training exercise;
FIG. 9 is a p ersp ective side vieW o f a f o urth em bo dim ent o f
exercise ap p aratus acco rding to the p resent inventio n;
FIG. 10 is a p ersp ective rear vieW o f the exercise ap p aratus
o f FIG. 9;
FIG. 11 is a detailed vieW o f a f eature o f the exercise
ap p aratus o f FIGS. 9 and 10; and
FIG. 12 is a p ersp ective vieW o f the exercise ap p aratus o f
FIGS. 9 to 11, sho Wing a user p erf o rm ing an abdo m inal
m uscle training exercise.
US 7, 591, 773 B2
5
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF TH E IN VEN TION
Ref erring ? rst to FIG. 1, there is sho wn a ? rst em bo dim ent
o f exercise ap p aratus, generally indicated 10, acco rding to the
p resent inventio n. The exercise ap p aratus 10 co m p rises a
lever f ram e 11 and a sup p o rt f ram e 12 linked via a p ivo t,
generally indicated 13, as Will be discussed in m o re detail
belo W.
The lever f ram e 11 is generally L- shap ed, having ? rst and
seco nd arm s 14 , 15 j o ined at a ro unded central j unctio n 16
Which f o rm s a f ulcrum f o r the lever f ram e 11. The ? rst arm 14
term inates at a handlebar 17, Whilst the seco nd arm 15 is
p ro vided With a p lurality o f sp aced ap ertures 18 f o r receiving
a p ivo t p in ( no t sho Wn) as Will be discussed in m o re detail
belo W.
The sup p o rt f ram e 12 is generally V- shap ed, having a base
m em ber 19 With a seat p o rtio n 21 j o ined thereto at a ro unded
central j unctio n 22. The base m em ber 19 is p ro vided With a
p lurality o f f urther sp aced ap ertures 18, and term inates in a
f o o t 23 Which is p ro vided With a p air o f Wheels 24 , o ne at each
side o f the sup p o rt f ram e 12. The seat p o rtio n 21 co m p rises a
butto ck rest elem ent 25 and a p air o f knee rest elem ents 26,
o ne to each side o f the sup p o rt f ram e 12. The relatively thin
shap e o f the sup p o rt f ram e 12 and the seat p o rtio n 21 allo Ws
a user ( no t sho Wn in FIG. 1) easily to m o unt and dism o unt
f ro m the back o f the seat p o rtio n 21, With his o r her knees
sliding p ast the butto ck rest elem ent 25 and o nto the knee rest
elem ents 26.
As can be seen f ro m FIG. 1, each o f the lever f ram e 11 and
the sup p o rt f ram e 12 is f o rm ed as a p air o f cro ss- linked
p arallel tubular m em bers. This f acilitates the req uired relative
sp atial arrangem ent o f the lever f ram e 11 and the sup p o rt
f ram e 12, as the seco nd arm 15 o f the lever f ram e 11 can be
inserted betWeen the p arallel tubular m em bers o f the sup p o rt
f ram e base m em ber 19. The L- shap ed lever f ram e 11 and the
V- shap ed sup p o rt f ram e 12 can thus be aligned so that their
resp ective central j unctio ns 16, 22 are generally co - incident.
Ref erring no W to FIGS. 2 and 3, there is sho Wn an illustra
tive seq uence sho Wing the relative p o sitio ns o f the lever f ram e
11 and the sup p o rt f ram e 12 as the exercise ap p aratus 10 is
o p erated f ro m its rest p o sitio n ( FIG. 2) thro ugh to Wards the
lim it o f its dynam ic range ( FIG. 3) .
Starting f ro m the rest p o sitio n as sho Wn in FIG. 2, o p era
tio n o f the exercise ap p aratus 10 begins With a user ( no t
sho Wn) sup p o rted o n the seat p o rtio n 21 p ushing the ? rst arm
14 aWay f ro m his o r her bo dy using the handlebar 17, as
indicated by arro W a. This causes the lever f ram e 11 to ro tate
in a co unter- clo ckWise directio n o n its ro unded central j unc
tio n 16, Which acts as a f ulcrum by bearing against a Wo rking
surf ace 27 beneath the exercise ap p aratus 10, as indicated by
arro W b. The ro tatio n o f the lever f ram e 1 1 lif ts the seco nd arm
15 ( no t visible in FIG. 2) , causing the p ivo t 13 to be disp laced
vertically up Wards, as indicated by arro W c.
Due to the p ivo tal co nnectio n o f the lever f ram e 11 to the
sup p o rt f ram e 12 at the p ivo t 13, the sup p o rt f ram e 12 is then
caused to ro tate in a clo ckWise directio n, as indicated by
arro W d. The lif ting and tilting m o tio n c, d o f the sup p o rt
f ram e is assisted by the translatio nal m o vem ent o f the
Wheeled f o o t 23, 24 alo ng the Wo rking surf ace 27 to Wards the
f ulcrum 16, as indicated by arro W e.
The co n? guratio n achieved by the exercise ap p aratus 10 as
it reaches the lim it o f its dynam ic range by virtue o f the
m o tio n a, b, c, d, e o f the lever f ram e 11 and the sup p o rt f ram e
12 is sho Wn in FIG. 3. As can be seen, at this p o int in the
seq uence, the p ivo t 13 has been lif ted clear o f the Wo rking
surf ace 27 by the scisso r- like actio n o f the seco nd arm 15 o f
the lever f ram e 11 With the sup p o rt f ram e base m em ber 19.
20
25
30
35
4 0
4 5
50
55
60
65
6
The seat p o rtio n 21 has been bo th lif ted and tilted backWards
clo ser to the ho riZ o ntal, Whilst the ? rst arm 14 o f the lever
f ram e 11 is f urther f ro m the seat p o rtio n 21 than in the rest
p o sitio n sho Wn in FIG. 2.
Fro m the p o sitio n sho Wn in FIG. 3, the user returns the
exercise ap p aratus 10 to its rest p o sitio n by releasing the
m anual f o rce ap p lied to the ? rst arm 14 o f the lever f ram e 11.
As the f o rce is released, the user s bo dy m ass urges the
sup p o rt f ram e 12 back to its rest p o sitio n by ro tating it in a
co unter- clo ckWise directio n, as indicated by arro W f , and
lo Wering the p ivo t 13 back to Wards the Wo rking surf ace 27, as
indicated by arro W g. The m o tio n f , g o f the sup p o rt f ram e 12
is assisted by the translatio nal m o tio n o f the Wheeled f o o t 23,
24 alo ng the Wo rking surf ace 27 aWay f ro m the f ulcrum 16, as
indicated by arro W h. As the p ivo t 13 is lo Wered g, the seco nd
arm 15 o f the lever f ram e 11 is also lo Wered back to Wards the
Wo rking surf ace 27, causing the lever f ram e 11 to ro ck back
o n its f ulcrum 16 in a clo ckWise directio n, as indicated by
arro W j , Which in turn brings the handlebar 17 back to its rest
p o sitio n, as indicated by arro W k.
The m o tio n f , g, h, j , k o f the lever f ram e 11 and the sup p o rt
f ram e 12 returns the exercise ap p aratus 10 to its rest p o sitio n
ready f o r the start o f the next seq uence. The seq uence illus
trated in FIGS. 2 and 3 Will typ ically be rep eated m any tim es
during o p eratio n o f the exercise ap p aratus 10, in a back- and
f o rth ro cking m o tio n.
Ref erring no W to FIGS. 4 and 5, there is sho Wn a seco nd
em bo dim ent o f exercise ap p aratus, generally indicated 30,
acco rding to the p resent inventio n. The seco nd em bo dim ent
30 is bro adly sim ilar to the ? rst em bo dim ent 10 described
abo ve With ref erence to FIGS. 1 to 3, and Where ap p ro p riate,
like ref erence num erals have been used to indicate like co m
p o nents. Sim ilarly, the m o tio n o f the lever f ram e 11 and the
sup p o rt f ram e 12 o f the seco nd em bo dim ent 30 f ro m its rest
p o sitio n ( FIG. 4 ) thro ugh to Wards the lim it o f its dynam ic
range ( FIG. 5) is identical to the seq uence described abo ve
With ref erence to FIGS. 2 and 3.
The seco nd em bo dim ent 30 dif f ers f ro m the ? rst em bo di
m ent 10 in that an elastic resistance elem ent 31 links the
L- shap ed lever f ram e 11 to the V- shap ed sup p o rt f ram e 12 at
the resp ective central j unctio ns 16, 22 thereo f .
The resistance elem ent 31 p ro vides a f urther resistive lo ad
against Which the user m ust Wo rk, in additio n to the resistive
lo ad asso ciated With the user s o Wn bo dy m ass. As sho Wn in
FIG. 5, the resistance elem ent 31 m ust be extended in o rder
f o r the sup p o rt f ram e 12 to achieve its f ull dynam ic range.
Additio nally, the resistance elem ent 31 m ay be used to ap p ly
a resistive lo ad to the seq uence o f returning the exercise
ap p aratus 10 f ro m the p o sitio n sho Wn in FIG. 5 to its rest
p o sitio n.
Ref erring no W to FIGS. 6 and 7, there is sho Wn a third
em bo dim ent o f exercise ap p aratus, generally indicated 4 0,
acco rding to the p resent inventio n, in the p ro cess o f sup p o rt
ing a user 4 1, f o r the p erf o rm ance o f a basic abdo m inal
m uscle training exercise. Again, the third em bo dim ent 4 0 is
bro adly sim ilar to the ? rst and seco nd em bo dim ents 10, 30
described abo ve With ref erence to FIGS. 1 to 5, and Where
ap p ro p riate like ref erence num erals have been used to indi
cate like co m p o nents. Sim ilarly, the m o tio n o f the lever f ram e
11 and the sup p o rt f ram e 12 o f the third em bo dim ent 4 0 f ro m
its rest p o sitio n ( FIG. 6) thro ugh to Wards the lim it o f its
dynam ic range ( FIG. 7) is identical to the seq uences
described abo ve With ref erence to FIGS. 2 to 5.
The third em bo dim ent 4 0 dif f ers f ro m the ? rst and seco nd
em bo dim ents 10, 30 in that it co m p rises a single knee rest
elem ent 4 2 extending acro ss the sup p o rt f ram e 12 to acco m
m o date bo th knees o f the user 4 1, rather than having a sep a
US 7, 591 , 773 B2
7
rate knee rest elem ent f o r each knee. The seat p o rtio n 21 is
also p ro vided With a p air o f struts 4 3 ancho red to the f o o t 23
o f the sup p o rt f ram e 12 to p ro vide additio nal strength and
rigidity to the sup p o rt f ram e 12.
As can be seen in FIG. 6, With the exercise ap p aratus 4 0 in
its rest p o sitio n, the user 4 1 is sup p o rted via the butto ck rest
elem ent 25 and the knee rest elem ent 26 so as to assum e the
half - kneeling p o sitio n Whilst retaining a straight back, thus
p ro m o ting neutral p elvic alignm ent. The f o rward m o tio n a o f
the handlebar 17, co up led With the rearWard tilting d and
lif ting c o f the seat p o rtio n results in the user 4 1 being f o rced
into a half - cro uching p o sitio n, as sho Wn in FIG. 7. This p o si
tio n req uires the up p er and lo Wer abdo m inal m uscles o f the
user 4 1 to m o ve to Wards o ne ano ther and ensures that bo th
sets o f m uscles are em p lo yed in lif ting the user s bo dy m ass.
FIGS. 6 and 7 also illustrate the adj ustable p ivo t 13 m echa
nism in m o re detail. A lo ckable p ivo t p in 4 4 is engaged With
o ne o f a p lurality o f sp aced ap ertures 18 in the sup p o rt f ram e
base m em ber 19, and extends therethro ugh to engage With
o ne o f a p lurality o f like sp aced ap ertures 18 in the seco nd arm
15 o f the lever f ram e 11. By selecting dif f erent co m binatio ns
o f ap ertures 18 in the base m em ber 19 and the seco nd arm 15
resp ectively, the lo catio n o f the p ivo t 13 can be adj usted, so as
to p ro vide adj ustable resistance f o r the user 4 1 to exercise
against, Whilst still Wo rking against his o r her o Wnbo dy m ass.
The p ivo t 13 p o sitio n can also be adj usted in o rder to acco m
m o date users 4 1 o f dif f ering siZ es.
Ref erring no W to FIG. 8, this sho Ws the third em bo dim ent
o f exercise ap p aratus 4 0 being utilised f o r the p erf o rm ance o f
an alternative abdo m inal m uscle training exercise, the ap p a
ratus 4 0 being sho Wn in a p o sitio n to Wards the lim it o f its
dynam ic range, as in FIG. 7. To p erf o rm the exercise, the user
4 1 utilises his o r her right hand 4 5 o nly, With the lef t hand 4 6
rem aining f ree o f the ap p aratus 4 0. With the right hand 4 5, the
user 4 1 ho lds the handlebar 17 to Wards its lef t end 4 7 ( f ro m
the user s p ersp ective) . Op erating the ap p aratus 4 0 in this
p o sitio n subj ects the user s right side abdo m inal m uscles to
bo th a f o rWard co ntractio n and a ro tatio nal co ntractio n sim ul
taneo usly. Rep eating the exercise With the user s lef t hand 4 6
ho lding the handlebar to Wards its right end 4 8 ( f ro m the
user s p ersp ective) p ro vides the sam e exercise f o r the user s
lef t side abdo m inal m uscles.
Ref erring no W to FIGS. 9 and 10, there is sho Wn a f o urth
em bo dim ent o f exercise ap p aratus, generally indicated 50,
acco rding to the p resent inventio n. As abo ve, like ref erence
num erals are utilised Where co m p o nents o f the f o urth
em bo dim ent 50 do no t dif f er signi? cantly f ro m the co rre
sp o nding co m p o nents o f the ? rst, seco nd and third em bo di
m ents 10, 30, 4 0. The f o urth em bo dim ent 50 dif f ers f ro m the
? rst, seco nd and third em bo dim ents 10, 30, 4 0 in f o ur key
resp ects, as Will no W be described.
Firstly, the sup p o rt f ram e 52 is f o rm ed With a single tubular
co nstructio n, rather than the p arallel tubular co nstructio n o f
the sup p o rt f ram e 12 in earlier described em bo dim ents. This
enables the sup p o rt f ram e 52 to slo t in betWeen the p arallel
tubular m em bers o f the lever f ram e 51, f acilitating the inter
actio n o f the tWo f ram es 51, 52. As can also be seen f ro m
FIGS. 9 and 10, a single strut 53 interco nnects the base
m em ber 19 and the seat p o rtio n 21 o f the sup p o rt f ram e 52,
said single strut 53 being rather m o re study than the struts 4 3
o f the third em bo dim ent 4 0.
Seco ndly, the knee rest elem ents 56 are again sp lit into
sep arate units, o ne p ro vided either side o f the sup p o rt f ram e
52. H o Wever, the knee rest elem ents 56 dif f er f ro m tho se o f
the p revio us em bo dim ent in that they are each co nnected to
the sup p o rt f ram e 52 via a ? exible m o unting elem ent 57. The
? exible m o unting elem ents 57 p erm it m inim al m o vem ent o f
20
25
30
35
4 0
4 5
50
55
60
65
8
each knee rest elem ent 56 relative to the sup p o rt f ram e 52, so
as to acco m m o date m o vem ent during exercise Witho ut caus
ing undue stress to the knees o f the user 4 1.
Thirdly, the lever f ram e 51 is co nstructed such that its
central j unctio n 16 do es no t bear directly o n the Wo rking
surf ace 27 beneath the exercise ap p aratus 50, but instead acts
o n the surf ace 27 via an interm ediary m em ber in the f o rm o f
a ro cker bar 58 having a f o o t 59, at either end thereo f . The
ro cker bar 58 disp laces the f o rces im p arted by the user 4 1
during exercise o ut to the sides o f the ap p aratus 50 thus
enhancing stability, Whilst the ro cker bar f eet 59 f acilitate the
ro cking m o tio n o f the ap p aratus 50 during exercise.
Fo urthly, the exercise ap p aratus 50 is p ro vided With elastic
resistance elem ents 61 interco nnecting the f ree end 62 o f the
lever f ram e 51 With ? xing p o ints 63 p ro vided o n the f o o t end
23 o f the sup p o rt f ram e 52, as Will no W be discussed in m o re
detail With ref erence to FIG. 11.
The elastic resistance elem ents 61 extend f ro m the f ree
ends 62 o f the lever f ram e 51, and m ay be reco iled Within the
p arallel tubular m em bers co nstituting the seco nd arm 15,
When the user 4 1 Wishes to exercise Witho ut added resistance.
When it is desired to exercise against additio nal resistance,
the user 4 1 sim p ly p ulls the elastic resistance elem ents 61 o ut
o f the f ree ends 62 o f the lever f ram e 51 With his o r her hand
4 5. As can be seen f ro m FIG. 11, each elastic resistance
elem ent 61 term inates in a lo o p 64 , Which is adap ted to
engage With a co m p lem entary ho o k 65 p ro vided o n the ? xing
p o ints 63.
Ref erring no W to FIG. 12, this sho Ws a user 4 1 exercising
o n abdo m inal m uscle training ap p aratus acco rding to a f o urth
em bo dim ent 50 o f the p resent inventio n, utilising the elastic
resistance elem ents 61. As can be seen, the user 4 1 exercises
by p ushing the handlebar 17 aWay f ro m his o r her bo dy,
causing the lever f ram e 51 to ro tate, and the sup p o rt f ram e 52
to ro tate and lif t. As this m o tio n o ccurs, the f o o t Wheels 24 o f
the sup p o rt f ram e 52 m o ve to Wards the ro cker f eet 59 o f the
lever f ram e 51, Whilst the f ree end 62 o f the lever f ram e 62 is
sim ultaneo usly lif ted aWay f ro m the Wo rking surf ace 27. This
increases the distance betWeen the f ree ends 62 and the ? xing
p o ints 63, thus tensing the elastic resistance elem ents 61, and
p ro viding an additio nal resistive f o rce f o r the user 4 1 to
exercise against.
The inventio n claim ed is:
1. Exercise ap p aratus co m p rising:
a sup p o rt f ram e including a p air o f cro ss linked p arallel
tubular m em bers and having a base m em ber;
a seat p o rtio n asso ciated With said base m em ber, said seat
p o rtio n co m p rising a butto ck sup p o rt elem ent and a knee
rest elem ent and being thereby adap ted to sup p o rt a user
in a half - kneeling p o sitio n; and
a lever f ram e including a p air o f cro ss linked p arallel tubu
lar m em bers and having
a ? rst arm p o rtio n having a handlebar p ro xim ate o ne end
and adap ted f o r m anual o p eratio n by said user, and
a seco nd arm p o rtio n arranged generally p erp endicular
to said ? rst arm thereby to f o rm a generally L- shap ed
lever f ram e, said seco nd arm term inating at a ? ee end
and being linked to the base m em ber via a p ivo t; said
seco nd arm inserted betWeen said p arallel tubular
m em bers o f said sup p o rt f ram e base,
and Wherein said ? rst and seco nd arm s are j o ined at a
ro unded j unctio n at o r adj acent a f ulcrum f o r the lever
? am e, such that co unterclo ckWise ro tatio n o f the lever
f ram e abo ut the f ulcrum causes clo ckWise ro tatio n o f
the sup p o rt f ram e abo ut the p ivo t, and vice versa;
and Wherein said j unctio n is arranged to bear directly o r
indirectly against a Wo rking surf ace beneath the exer
US 7, 591, 773 B2
9
cise ap p aratus; whereby in use, the exercise ap p aratus
is o p erable by said user m anually p ushing rep eating a
cycle o f ap p lying m anual f o rce to said ? rst arm so as
to p ush said ? rst arm aWay f ro m said user s bo dy, and
subseq uently releasing said ap p lied f o rce thereby to
ro tate the lever f ram e abo ut said f ulcrum , thus lif ting
said seco nd arm , Which in turn causes the seat p o rtio n
asso ciated With the base m em ber to lif t and tilt, the
user s abdo m inal m uscles thereby being exercised in
lif ting the user s o Wn bo dy m ass.
2. Exercise ap p aratus as claim ed in claim 1, Wherein the
j unctio n f o rm s a f ulcrum f o r the lever f ram e and is arranged
to bear directly against the Wo rking surf ace.
3. Exercise ap p aratus as claim ed in claim 1, Wherein the
j unctio n is arranged to bear indirectly against the Wo rking
surf ace via an interm ediary m em ber f o rm ing a f ulcrum f o r the
lever f ram e.
4 . Exercise ap p aratus as claim ed in claim 3, Wherein the
interm ediary m em ber is a ro cker bar having ro unded f eet at
either end thereo f .
5. Exercise ap p aratus as claim ed in claim 1, Wherein the
base m em ber extends f ro m the p ivo t to a f o o t adap ted to bear
against a Wo rking surf ace beneath the exercise ap p aratus, said
f o o t being adap ted f o r translatio nal m o vem ent alo ng said
Wo rking surf ace.
6. Exercise ap p aratus as claim ed in claim 5, Wherein the
f o o t is p ro vided With a ro tatio nal m em ber to f acilitate said
translatio nal m o vem ent.
7. Exercise ap p aratus as claim ed in claim 5, Wherein the
base m em ber extends beyo nd the p ivo t, distal f ro m the f o o t.
8. Exercise ap p aratus as claim ed in claim 7, Wherein the
seat p o rtio n is j o ined to the base m em ber at a co nnectio np o int
lo cated distal f ro m the f o o t, such that the p ivo t is lo cated
betWeen said f o o t and said co nnectio n p o int.
9. Exercise ap p aratus as claim ed in claim 8, Wherein the
seat p o rtio n is j o ined to the base m em ber at an acutely angled
j unctio n, thereby f o rm ing a generally V- shap ed sup p o rt
f ram e.
10. Exercise ap p aratus as claim ed in claim 9, Wherein the
generally L- shap ed lever f ram e and the generally V- shap ed
20
25
30
35
10
sup p o rt f ram e are arranged such that the resp ective j unctio ns
o f said f ram es are generally co - incident When the ap p aratus is
at rest.
11. Exercise ap p aratus as claim ed in claim 10, Wherein the
resp ective j unctio ns o f the generally L- shap ed lever f ram e
and the generally V- shap ed sup p o rt f ram e are linked by at
least o ne elastic resistance elem ent.
12. Exercise ap p aratus as claim ed in claim 5, Wherein the
f ree end o f the lever f ram e and the f o o t o f the sup p o rt f ram e
are linked by at least o ne elastic resistance elem ent.
13. Exercise ap p aratus as claim ed in claim 12, Wherein the
f o o t o f the sup p o rt f ram e is p ro vided With at least o ne ? xing
p o int adap ted to receive said elastic resistance elem ent, and
Wherein said elastic resistance elem ent is p ro vided With
co m p lem entary engagem ent m eans adap ted to co nnect to
said ? xing p o int.
14 . Exercise ap p aratus as claim ed in claim 12, Wherein the
lever f ram e is f o rm ed With a ho llo W, tubular co nstructio n, and
Wherein said at least o ne elastic resistance elem ent is adap ted
to extend f ro m the f ree end o f the lever f ram e When in use, but
to be reco iled thereWithin f o r sto rage When no t in use.
15. Exercise ap p aratus as claim ed in claim 1, Wherein the
p ivo t co m p rises a lo ckable p in engageable With a co m p le
m entary ap erture f o rm ed in each o f the seco nd arm o f the
lever f ram e and the base m em ber o f the sup p o rt f ram e, and
Wherein each o f the seco nd arm o f the lever f ram e and the
base m em ber o f the sup p o rt f ram e co m p rise a p lurality o f
sp aced like ap ertures, to enable the lo catio n o f the p ivo t to be
adj usted.
16. Exercise ap p aratus as claim ed in claim 1, Wherein the
seat p o rtio n co m p rises a butto ck sup p o rt elem ent and tWo
sep arate knee rest elem ents, each being m o unted indep en
dently o f the o ther via a ? exible m o unting elem ent adap ted to
p erm it m inim al m o vem ent o f each knee rest elem ent relative
to the sup p o rt f ram e.
17. Exercise ap p aratus as claim ed in claim 1, Wherein the
? rst arm co m p rises a handlebar to f acilitate m anual o p eratio n
by the user.