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CalculiX CrunchiX USER’S MANUAL version

2.7

Guido Dhondt March 2, 2014

Contents

 1 Introduction. 15 2 How to perform CalculiX calculations in parallel 16 3 Units 17 4 Golden rules 19 5 Simple example problems 20 5.1 Cantilever beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 5.2 Frequency calculation of a beam loaded by compressive fo rces 27 5.3 Frequency calculation of a rotating disk on a slender sha ft 29 5.4 Thermal calculation of a furnace 35 5.5 Seepage under a dam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 5.6 Capacitance of a cylindrical capacitor 42 5.7 Hydraulic pipe system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 5.8 Lid-driven cavity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 5.9 Transient laminar incompressible Couette problem 56 5.10 Stationary laminar inviscid compressible airfoil ﬂow 56 5.11 Laminar viscous compressible compression corner ﬂow 60 5.12 Laminar viscous compressible airfoil ﬂow 63 5.13 Channel with hydraulic jump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 5.14 Cantilever beam using beam elements 6 8 5.15 Reinforced concrete cantilever beam 74 5.16 Wrinkling of a thin sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 6 Theory 79 6.1 Node Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 6.2 Element Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 6.2.1 Eight-node brick element (C3D8 and F3D8) 80 6.2.2 C3D8R and F3D8R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 1

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CONTENTS

 6.2.3 Incompatible mode eight-node brick element (C3D8I) 83 6.2.4 Twenty-node brick element (C3D20 and F3D20) 83 6.2.5 C3D20R and F3D20R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 6.2.6 C3D20RI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 6.2.7 Four-node tetrahedral element (C3D4 and F3D4) 8 6 6.2.8 Ten-node tetrahedral element (C3D10 and F3D10) 8 6 6.2.9 Six-node wedge element (C3D6 and F3D6) 86 6.2.10 Fifteen-node wedge element (C3D15 and F3D15) 9 0 6.2.11 Three-node shell element (S3) 90 6.2.12 Four-node shell element (S4 and S4R) 91 6.2.13 Six-node shell element (S6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 6.2.14 Eight-node shell element (S8 and S8R) 91 6.2.15 Three-node plane stress element (CPS3) 9 8 6.2.16 Four-node plane stress element (CPS4 and CPS4R) 9 8 6.2.17 Six-node plane stress element (CPS6) 98 6.2.18 Eight-node plane stress element (CPS8 and CPS8R) 98 6.2.19 Three-node plane strain element (CPE3) 1 00 6.2.20 Four-node plane strain element (CPE4 and CPE4R) 1 00 6.2.21 Six-node plane strain element (CPE6) 10 0 6.2.22 Eight-node plane strain element (CPE8 and CPE8R) 100 6.2.23 Three-node axisymmetric element (CAX3) . . . . . . . . 10 0 6.2.24 Four-node axisymmetric element (CAX4 and CAX4R) 1 01 6.2.25 Six-node axisymmetric element (CAX6) 10 1

6.2.26 Eight-node axisymmetric element (CAX8 and CAX8R) . 1 01

 6.2.27 Two-node beam element (B31 and B31R) 103 6.2.28 Three-node beam element (B32 and B32R) 103 6.2.29 Three-node network element (D) 110 6.2.30 Two-node unidirectional gap element (GAPUNI) 111 6.2.31 Two-node 3-dimensional dashpot (DASHPOTA) 11 1 6.2.32 Two-node 3-dimensional spring (SPRINGA) 1 12 6.2.33 One-node coupling element (DCOUP3D) 112 6.3 Fluid Section Types: Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 6.3.1 Oriﬁce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 6.3.2 Bleed Tapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 6.3.3 Preswirl Nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 6.3.4 Straight and Stepped Labyrinth 117 6.3.5 Characteristic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 6.3.6 Carbon Seal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 6.3.7 Gas Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 6.3.8 Gas Pipe (Fanno) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 6.3.9 Restrictor, Long Oriﬁce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 6.3.10 Restrictor, Enlargement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 6.3.11 Restrictor, Contraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 6.3.12 Restrictor, Bend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 6.3.13 Restrictor, Wall Oriﬁce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 6.3.14 Restrictor, Entrance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
 CONTENTS 3 6.3.15 Restrictor, Exit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 6.3.16 Restrictor, User . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 6.3.17 Branch, Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 6.3.18 Branch, Split . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 6.3.19 Cross, Split . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 6.3.20 Vortex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 6.3.21 M¨ohring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 6.3.22 Change absolute/relative system 14 3 6.3.23 In/Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 6.4 Fluid Section Types: Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 6.4.1 Pipe, Manning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 6.4.2 Pipe, White-Colebrook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 6.4.3 Pipe, Sudden Enlargement 147 6.4.4 Pipe, Sudden Contraction 148 6.4.5 Pipe, Entrance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 6.4.6 Pipe, Diaphragm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 6.4.7 Pipe, Bend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 6.4.8 Pipe, Gate Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 6.4.9 Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 6.4.10 In/Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 6.5 Fluid Section Types: Open Channels 154 6.5.1 Straight Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 6.5.2 Sluice Gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 6.5.3 Sluice Opening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 6.5.4 Weir Crest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 6.5.5 Weir slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 6.5.6 Discontinuous Slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 6.5.7 Discontinuous Opening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 6.5.8 Reservoir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 6.5.9 Contraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 6.5.10 Enlargement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 6.5.11 Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 6.5.12 Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 6.5.13 In/Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 6.6 Boundary conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 6.6.1 Single point constraints (SPC) 164 6.6.2 Multiple point constraints (MPC) 164 6.6.3 Node-to-Face Penalty Contact 164 6.6.4 Face-to-Face Penalty Contact 170 6.7 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 6.7.1 Linear elastic materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 6.7.2 Ideal gas for quasi-static calculations 173 6.7.3 Hyperelastic and hyperfoam materials 17 4 6.7.4 Deformation plasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 6.7.5 Incremental (visco)plasticity 1 75
 4 CONTENTS 6.7.7 Fiber reinforced 178 6.7.8 The Cailletaud single crystal 17 9 6.7.9 Elastic anisotropy with isotropic 183 6.7.10 User materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 6.8 Types of analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 6.8.1 Static analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 6.8.2 Frequency analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 6.8.3 Complex frequency analysis 191 6.8.4 Buckling analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 6.8.5 Modal dynamic analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 6.8.6 Steady state dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 6.8.7 Direct integration dynamic analysis 19 7 6.8.8 Heat transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 6.8.9 Acoustics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 6.8.10 Shallow water motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 6.8.11 Hydrodynamic lubrication 201 6.8.12 Irrotational incompressible inviscid ﬂow 202 6.8.13 Electrostatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 6.8.14 Stationary groundwater ﬂow 204 6.8.15 Diﬀusion mass transfer in a stationary medium 206 6.8.16 Aerodynamic Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 6.8.17 Hydraulic Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .