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COMPARISON OF THE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES BETWEEN JAPAN, CHINA,

GERMANY, U.S.A AND BANGLADESH:-


Management practice around the globe has a lot diversities because of the presence of
different social, economic, political, and legal and tax systems. After independence the
industrial enterprises of this country were initially brought under the control of the
government. Very soon it was realized that the nationalized sector was not performing as
desired because of unsuccessful management practice. Since then the country has been going
through denationalization process. And then every type of concepts and theories of different
countries has been practicing in our country. But it is very difficult to say which type of
management practice should be applicable for our country. The main premises of management
include planning, organizing, leading and controlling function. So we will consider these
activities for comparing management practices in the said countries.
PLANNING
"Planning is the thinking process, the organized foresight, the vision based on fact and
experience that is required for intellectual action."
DECISION MAKING
"Decision making involves the entire process of establishing goals, defining tasks, searching for
alternatives and developing plans in order to find the best answer to the decision problems."
ORGANIZING
The term organization can be used in different senses, it may be used
As a group of persons working together
As structure of relationship, or
As a process of management.
LEADING
"Leadership is defined as influence, that is, the art of process of influencing people so that they
will strive willingly and enthusiastically toward achievement of group goals."
CONTROLLING
"Control is measurement of accomplishment against, the standard and the correction of
deviations to assume attainment of objectives according to plans"

1. MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN JAPAN:-
PLANNING AND DECISION MAKING:-
In Japanese management everyone in the organization has to think about a problem. If the
problem is very difficult then it comes from the top-level person lower level person. If the
problem is not so difficult than it goes from lower level to top level. By this way they solve a
problem and take a decision.
Long term orientation
Collective decision making with consensus involvement of many people in preparing and
making decision.
Flow of critical decision from top to bottom and back to top; flow of non critical decision
often from bottom to top.
Slow decision making and fast implementation of the decision.
There are great deals of communication before a decision is actually made.
Japanese managers make a decision only after long discussion of the issue.

ORGANIZING:-
In Japanese companies, largely owing to the search for consensus in decision-making, the
emphasis is on collective responsibility and accountability. Individual responsibilities, then, are
implied rather than explicitly defined. Although this may discourage placing the blame for the
incorrect decision on individuals, it also can create a great deal of uncertainty. In fact, the
organization structure is rather ambiguous, and the de-emphasis on formal authority promotes
informality and egalitarianism. Another characteristic found in Japanese firms is a common
organizational culture and philosophy, placing a high value on unity, harmony with the
organization. At the same time, there is a competitive spirit toward other enterprises.
Organizational change is accomplished by changing processes, with the aim of maintaining
harmony among those affected. Also, the change agent is virtually always an employee of the
organization.

Collective responsibility and accountability, ambiguous decision responsibility.
Informal organizational structure.
Well known common organization culture and philosophy competitive spirit toward
other enterprises lifetime employment.
Slow evaluation and promotion.
Holistic concern.
It is not common to employ organizational development consultants from outside the
firm.
Japanese firms have low employee turnover rate.
LEADING:-
Japanese managers are seen as social integrators who are a part of the work group. Using a
paternalistic leadership approach, managers show great concern for the welfare of their
subordinates. Common value and team spirit facilitate cooperation. The role of managers is to
create an environment of esprit de corps, and they are willing to help out in doing the same
work their subordinate do. In an attempt to maintain harmony at almost any cost, managers
avoid face-to-face confrontation. This means that things may be purposely left ambiguous.
Critical communication is top-down and bottom-up, while non-critical communication is often
take a great deal of time communicating with their subordinates, face-to-face contact rather
than memos.
Leader acting as a social facilitator and group member.
Follow paternalistic style.
Common value facilitating co-operation.
Avoidance of confrontation.
Some times leading to ambiguities; emphasis on harmony.
Critical communication is top-down and bottom-up.
Non critical communication is often bottom-up.
Evaluation and promotion very slow; big promotions may not come for the first 10
years.
Responsibility is shared collectively.
Leaders give more importance to interpersonal relationship than organizations goad-
attainment.
Leaders do care much to make the subordinates work to meet the time schedule or
deadline.
Leaders are very motivated to attain the objectives of the organization.

CONTROLLING:-
As noted in the discussion of decision-making, the group-its dynamics and its pressures has a
profound impact on the managerial process. In an office without dividing walls, peers are well
aware of the performance of their colleagues. Moreover, managers are a part of the work
group rather than being separated from employees by an office door. The management of
individual performance is not against specific verifiable objectives; instead, emphasis is placed
on group performance. Also, the Japanese approach of letting subordinates 'save face' would
be incongruent with fixing the blame for deviations from plans on individuals. Control
emphasizes process, not member. The Japanese are well known for their concern for quality.
Good quality is one of the characteristics now associated with Japanese products. This is due, in
part, to the success of quality control, which requires grass roots involvement with very active
participation in quality control circles.
Control by peers.
Control focuses on group performance
Saving face fixing blame extensive use of quality control circles.
No chance of partiality.
Importance given to the skilled person.
Duration of work is fixed.

2. MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN CHINA:-
PLANNING AND DECISION MAKING:-
Long term and short term orientation.
Decision making by committees at the top.
Top- down participation at lower levels.
Top- down initiation at the top.
Slow decision making and slow implementation.
Actual decision only made after communication with the subordinates.
After group discussion decision is made in chain.

ORGANIZING:-
Chinese managerial practices are very much influenced by the fact that the enterprises are
owned by the State and guided by government officials. This results in a bureaucratic
organization structure that does not respond well to changes in the environment. Such a
structure may not have crucial in the past (although it is ineffective) because managers did not
have to respond to competing organization. Within the formal bureaucratic structure the
relationships among people are rather informal. The person heading the organization is not
always the one in power. Personal connections, family relationships, and seniority are
frequently more important than formal authority. Recently attempts have been made through
'Factory Responsibility System' to delegate more authority to lower level. In fact, factories are
allowed to make profits. However, these profits derived from specially taxed.
Collective and individual responsibility.
Attempts to introduce the factory responsibility system in formal bureaucratic
organizational structure.
Identification with the company but no competitive spirit.
Life time employment.
Slow evaluation and promotion.
Holistic concern.
It is not common to employ organization development consultant from out side the
firm.
Chinese firms have low employee turnover rate.

LEADING:-
The managerial function of leading in China has characteristics of Japanese and U.S. practices.
The leader is the head of the group and the leadership style is generally quite directive. The
relationship between the leaders and followers are as Parents-Child, in transactional analysis
terms. In other words, it is expected that the leaders' commands will be obeyed. Leaders in
turn, are responsible to higher authorities for performance and goals but not for meeting
customer's need and demands. Similar, to leading in China is aided by common values and as
emphasis on harmony rather than confrontation.
Leaders acting as the head of the group.
Directive style is used for leading
Avoidance of confrontation.
Communication is from top to down.
Promotion is very slow.
Responsibilities are assigned to individuals
Leaders give more importance to interpersonal relationship than organizations goal
attainment.
Leaders dont care much to make the subordinates work to meet the time schedule or
deadline.
Leaders are very motivated to attain the objectives of the organization.

CONTROLLING:-
In China, primarily group leader exercises control. The control focuses primarily on the group
but also on the individual. Factory managers, for example, are expected to meet their yearly
quota. Thus, Chinese control practices are a mixture of U.S. and Japanese managerial practice.
In identifying deviations from standard, there is a tendency to let the person responsible for
sub performance save face.
There is some use of quality circles, but it is not common practice.
Controlled by supervisor
Primary control focuses on groups but also focuses on individuals.
Limited use of quality control circles.
No chance of partiality.
Importance given to the skilled person.
Duration of work is not fixed.

3. MANAGEMENT PRACTICE IN USA:-
PLANNING AND DECISION MAKING:-
In American system the top-level management takes decision and the lower level follows that
decision. Here every one has his own area of thinking. Top-level thinks how to take an effective
decision and lower level thinks how to follow that decision. Bangladeshi follows the American
way in this case. Here in Bangladesh the top-level always takes decision and the lower level
follows that. This is why decision is initiated only at the top-level, not from the bottom-top.
Primarily short term orientation.
Individual decision making.
Involvement of a few people in making the decision and selling it to persons with
divergent values
Decision initiated at the top, flowing down.
Fast decision making and slow implementation requiring compromise often resulting in
sub optimal decisions.
No communication with subordinates before decision making.
American managers are often accused of making decision before defining the problem.

ORGANIZING:-
Organizations in the United States emphasize individual responsibility, with efforts to clarify
and make explicit who is responsible for what. Often specific job descriptions clarify the nature
and extent of individual responsibilities. Indeed, many organizations, especially those operating
in a stable environment, have been rather successful in using the formal, bureaucratic
organizational structure. As far as the climate is concerned, not many managers make special
efforts to create a commonly shared organization structure. This may indeed be difficult
because professional - managers as well as technical people-often have closer identification
with their profession than with the particular company. Many American firms have high
employee turnover rate, which is partly due to the great mobility of the people in this country.
With a relatively short duration of employment with any one company, the loyalty toward the
company is at times rather low. United States it is quite common to employ organization
development consultants from outside the firm, which is almost never done in Japan.
Individual responsibility and accountability.
Clear and specific responsibility.
Formal bureaucratic organizational structure.
Lack of common organization culture; identification with profession rather than with
company.
Short term employment.
Rapid evaluation and promotion.
Segmented and holistic concern.
It is quite common to employ organization development consultants from outside the
firm.
Many American firms have high employee turnover rate.

LEADING:-
The managerial functions of leadership carried out are quite different in U.S. companies.
Leaders are seen as decision makers heading the group; they are expected to be strong, firm
and determined. Their task is to integrate diverse values, but the emphasis on individualism in
the society in general and in organizations in particular may hinder cooperation. It is expected
that managers will take decisive actions and clarify the direction of the group or the enterprise,
even if this face-to-face confrontation with those who may disagree. Although managers work
hard, they value their private life and separate it from their working life. Within the
organization, the communication pattern is to great extent from the top to down through the
hierarchy, with considerable emphasis given to written communication.
Leaders acting as the decision maker and head of the group.
Directive style
Often divergent values; individualism sometimes hindering co-operation.
Face to face confrontation common; emphasis on clarity.
Communication primarily top down.
Very fast; those not quickly promoted often seek employment elsewhere.
Responsibility assigned to individuals.
Leaders give less importance to interpersonal relationship than organizations goal-
attainment.
Leaders do care much to make the subordinates work to meet the time schedule or
deadline.
Leaders are not very motivated to attain the objectives of the organization.

CONTROLLING:-
Control in the United State often means measuring performance against pre-established
precise standards. Management by objectives, widely practiced in the U.S., requires setting of
verifiable objective against which individual performance is measured. Thus the superior can
trace deviations to specific individuals and this often results in fixing blame. In an attempt to
maximize individual results, group performance may suffer. The quality control program is
widely used in the U.S. Many of these programs were developed in this country and later used
by the Japanese for improvement of product quality and productivity.
Control by superior.
Control focuses on individual performance.
Trying to save face limited use of quality control circles.
Chance of partiality.
Importance is given to the skilled person.
Duration of work is not fixed.




4. MANAGEMENT PRACTICE IN BANGLADESH:-
PLANNING AND DECISION MAKING:-
Bangladeshi managers follow 5-year plan. They make a 5-year plan to improve their
organizational condition. Government also takes 5-year plan. Sometimes these plans do not
come true when Government changes; the new Government takes new plans. Private
organizations are free from this problem; they take their own plans as they want. When they
need they can take short term plan what can make good to their organization. Bangladesh is
using a mixed management system of Japanese and American. In private section the American
system is very much popular for its fast working capacity. Govt. sections like the Japanese
system and sometimes the American system. When they don't want to do any work they form a
committee to make a decision and in the most cases the committee can't take any decision.
Long term orientation (5 years).
Decisions are always made individually.
Involvement of few people from top level in making decision.
Decision initiated at only the top level.
Fast decision making and slow implementation.
There is often communication with subordinates before making decision.
Bangladeshi managers make decision only for some small issues or non critical issues.

ORGANIZING:-
In Bangladesh employees are making informal relationship. The responsibilities are not divided
equally along with equal authority and they are overburdened with their responsibilities. For
this employees are not happy with their position. Employees are waiting for better
opportunities to go away. The organizations are unable to fulfill the requirements of the
employee's need. So the company is losing skilled employees. Personal connections, family
relationships, and seniority are frequently more important for promotion. Most of the
organizations have not well-defined rules and regulations to maintain discipline. As well as
organizations have no organogram.
Individual responsibility and accountability.
Motivational and predictive decision.
Mostly govt. firms use formal bureaucratic organizational structure.
But private organizations use informal organizational structure.
Well known common organization culture.
Fixed and long term employment in govt. organization
But short term employment in private organizations.
Evaluation and promotion depend on seniority as well as favoritisms.
Including family.
It is not common to employ organization development consultants from outside the
firm.
Bangladeshi firms have high employee turnover rate because of uncertainty of job.
Global perspective used for organizing in Bangladeshi organizations.

LEADING:-
Leadership research has also been conducted among managers in, developing countries such as
India, Peru, Chile and Argentina. Although their will always be important differences between
various parts of the world, as countries develop and become more economically advanced,
participation leadership styles may become more prevalent. The leading process of BD is almost
similar with that of India at present, new organization tries to follow U.S. leading style. And the
leading approaches are continuously changing. Leaders of Bangladesh are assigning two tasks at
a time to an employee. Dual subordination and overlapping authority is a conventional
phenomenon of our country. Every employee is working with over burden. Evaluations and
promotions are very slow; big promotions may not come for the first 10 years. Promotion
depends on group lobbying and bossing as well as internal organizational politics. Leaders are
not very motivated to attain the objectives of the organization. They like face-to-face
confrontation. They try to impose all liability for unsuccessful work to their subordinates and
success goes on the individual performance. But in our country the leader generally adapt an
autocratic view in taking decision. In our country the leaders gives supreme importance to their
personal benefit to gratify their own desires rather than the organization welfare.
Leaders acting as the decision maker and head of the group.
Mostly benevolent autocratic style.
Divergent values; grouping sometimes hindering co-operation.
Face-to-face confrontation.
Critical and non critical communication top down.
Often depends on group lobbying.
Responsibility is assigned to individual.
Leaders give not too more importance to the organizations goal attainment than
interpersonal relationship.
Leaders do care much to make the subordinates work to meet the time schedule or
deadline.
Leaders are not very motivated to attain the objectives of the organization.

CONTROLLING:-
In Bangladesh, primarily group Leaders exercise control. Japanese importance is given to the
unskilled person. U.S., China and Bangladeshi managers' importance is given to the skilled
person. There are Limited uses of quality control circles. In Bangladesh control focuses primarily
on the group but also on the individual performance. They try to increase the productivity
rather than quality. Bangladeshi managers look for maximization of profit. Most of the work
forces are not adequate. Skill persons are not treated in a fair way. The enterprise's wage
structure does not meet going level of the community. For the unexpected result managers try
to find out the human errors.
Control focuses on individual performance.
Limited use of quality control circles.
Importance is given to the skilled persons as well as political persons.
Duration of work is not always fixed.