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Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Technician Objectives 1. Name the steering gear designs

Technician Handbook

453 Suspension, Steering and Handling

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Technician Objectives 1. Name the steering gear designs used

Technician Objectives

1. Name the steering gear designs used on Toyota vehicles.

2. Describe the steering linkage components used on Toyota vehicles.

3. List the fundamental components of a power assist steering system. 4. Explain the basic operation of Toyota Engine RPM Sensing Power Steering System.

5. Explain the basic operation of Toyota Vehicle Speed Sensitive Power Steering System.

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Steering Systems Designs The driver controls the direction

Technician Handbook

453 Suspension, Steering and Handling

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Steering Systems Designs The driver controls the direction of

Steering Systems Designs

The driver controls the direction of the vehicle through the steering system. The steering system should provide:

Excellent maneuverability

Proper steering effort • Smooth recovery from a turn

Minimal transmission of road shock

Most Toyota vehicles achieve this with the rack and pinion steering system. Note that recirculating-ball parallelogram type steering systems can be found on older model trucks and SUV’s.

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Steering Gears Rack and Pinion SERVICE TIP The

Technician Handbook

453 Suspension, Steering and Handling

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Steering Gears Rack and Pinion SERVICE TIP The rotary

Steering Gears

Rack and Pinion

SERVICE TIP

The rotary motion of the steering wheel is transferred into lateral motion by the steering gear. The steering gear also provides a gear reduction, which reduces the effort required to turn the wheels.

This design is compact, lightweight, and more responsive than other steering gear designs. A pinion gear is splined to the steering column shaft. The pinion gear is meshed to the rack gear. The pinion gear and rack gear are forced tightly together by a rack guide. Turning the steering wheel rotates the steering shaft and the pinion gear, causing the rack gear to move left or right. This movement transfers directly through the steering linkage to the wheels. The spacing of the teeth on the rack gear is wider toward the center and closer together near the ends of the rack gear. This varies the effort needed to turn the wheels. The result is less steering effort at the extremes of rack travel.

Steering linkage alignment is achieved by centering the linkage and verifying that the steering geometry maintains correct toe.

The maintenance of correct toe is essential to a safe vehicle. Tie rod length tolerance (side to side) is 1.5 mm for rack-and-pinion type, and 3 mm for parallelogram type.

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Steering Linkage The lateral motion created by the

Technician Handbook

453 Suspension, Steering and Handling

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Steering Linkage The lateral motion created by the steering

Steering Linkage

The lateral motion created by the steering gear is transferred to the wheels by the steering linkage.

The rack and pinion steering linkage uses very few components. This results in a more responsive feel with less parts that can wear out. It consists of inner tie rods and outer tie rod ends. The inner tie rods are a ball and socket type joint. They are threaded onto the steering gear at one end and to an outer tie rod end at the other. The inner tie rods are located under the rack bellows. The outer tie rod end is threaded on one end and has a ball and socket joint, similar to a ball joint, on the other. This provides an adjustable connection to the steering knuckle.

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Power Assist Steering Systems Toyota vehicles are equipped

Technician Handbook

453 Suspension, Steering and Handling

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Power Assist Steering Systems Toyota vehicles are equipped with

Power Assist Steering Systems

Toyota vehicles are equipped with an integral power assist steering system that uses pressurized fluid to provide acceptable steering effort at low speed. The assist system consists of a:

Pump that delivers up to 1200 PSI of fluid pressure

Steering gear with an integral power cylinder • Control valve assembly

Reinforced hoses

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Fundamental Hydraulics Force is the capacity to do

Technician Handbook

453 Suspension, Steering and Handling

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Fundamental Hydraulics Force is the capacity to do work

Fundamental Hydraulics

Force is the capacity to do work or cause change. Hydraulic force is measured in pounds per square inch (PSI). 100 PSI applied to a one square inch piston results in 100 pounds of output force. Changing the piston size in a simple hydraulic system will multiply the force. If 100 PSI is applied to a two square inch piston, the outcome is 200 pounds of force.

Fluid, unlike a gas, cannot be compressed and will remain constant, even under pressure. For a hydraulic system to contain pressure it must be closed. Without confinement no pressure can exist. Pascal’s law states the pressure in a closed system is applied equally to all points within that system, no matter the volume of fluid. In a closed hydraulic system, a piston will move if a difference of pressure exists on its external surface. If equal pressure exists on all surfaces of the piston, it will not move.

Power assist steering systems are based on controlling the pressure, flow volume, and location of pressure differential.

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Generic Power Steering System Straight Ahead The main

Technician Handbook

453 Suspension, Steering and Handling

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Generic Power Steering System Straight Ahead The main components

Generic Power

Steering System

Straight Ahead

The main components of a basic power steering system are:

Fluid pump

Control valve • Power cylinder

Piston

Pressurized fluid is directed to one side of a piston in the power cylinder to assist the movement of the steering rack gear. During straight-ahead driving no assist is needed, so the control valve routes pressurized fluid back to the fluid reservoir, maintaining equal pressure on both sides of the piston.

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Turning As the steering wheel is turned, the

Technician Handbook

453 Suspension, Steering and Handling

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Turning As the steering wheel is turned, the control

Turning

As the steering wheel is turned, the control valve routes pressurized fluid to the appropriate side of the piston. This creates a pressure difference on the surface of the piston, resulting in steering assist.

Different driving conditions require different amounts of steering assist. When the vehicle is stationary or operating at slow speed, more assist is required. Toyota vehicles use two types of power steering systems that vary assist based on either engine speed or vehicle speed.

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Engine RPM Sensing Power Steering The Engine RPM

Technician Handbook

453 Suspension, Steering and Handling

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Engine RPM Sensing Power Steering The Engine RPM Sensing

Engine RPM Sensing Power Steering

The Engine RPM Sensing Power Steering design uses a positive displacement vane pump that is driven by the engine. A positive power steering displacement pump moves the same volume of fluid with each rotation. It is necessary to regulate the output pressure of this type of pump to keep steering assist from increasing as engine speed increases.

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Flow Control To regulate pressure, a flow control

Technician Handbook

453 Suspension, Steering and Handling

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Flow Control To regulate pressure, a flow control valve

Flow Control

To regulate pressure, a flow control valve is located in the high

Valve Operation

pressure outlet of the pump. The flow control valve uses tension springs and valves to reduce pressure when fluid flow increases with engine speed.

Pump output volume is reduced when the flow control valve opens a passage to the pump’s suction side. The flow control valve is moved to the left when fluid pressure (P1) overcomes the tension of spring A and pilot pressure (P2). The control spool moves to the right and reduces P2 pressure as pump speed and fluid volume increases; this allows P1 pressure to easily move the flow control valve to the left. P2 pressure will unseat the relief valve and reduce overall system pressure when system pressures become excessive.

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Progressive Power Steering (speed sensitive) PPS Solenoid The

Technician Handbook

453 Suspension, Steering and Handling

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Progressive Power Steering (speed sensitive) PPS Solenoid The

Progressive Power Steering (speed sensitive)

PPS Solenoid

The Progressive Power Steering System varies the steering assist according to vehicle speed. In this system a computer processes vehicle speed inputs and adjusts power steering assist by controlling a power steering solenoid. This solenoid regulates the amount of pressurized fluid in the hydraulic reaction chamber. When the pressure in the hydraulic reaction chamber is high, more effort is required to offset the control valve and shaft. The control valve meters the fluid flow to the power cylinder on the steering rack. This results in reduced assist.

The progressive power steering solenoid (or PPS solenoid) is a normally closed solenoid that regulates fluid pressure in the hydraulic reaction chamber. Steering assist increases as the computer increases current to the PPS solenoid. If the solenoid is unplugged, the driver will still be able to turn the wheels, although it will require additional steering effort.

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Hydraulic Reaction Chamber The hydraulic reaction chamber is

Technician Handbook

453 Suspension, Steering and Handling

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Hydraulic Reaction Chamber The hydraulic reaction chamber is

Hydraulic Reaction Chamber

The hydraulic reaction chamber is located in the steering rack below the rotary valve. Based on fluid pressure inside the chamber, four plungers vary the amount of resistance required to move the control valve shaft.

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Variable Gear Ratio Steering For the purpose of

Technician Handbook

453 Suspension, Steering and Handling

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Variable Gear Ratio Steering For the purpose of weight

Variable Gear Ratio Steering

For the purpose of weight reduction, Some models use an aluminum housing for the rack in which the bracket and cylinder are integrated. Additionally this rack has a variable gear ratio that makes gear ratio changes gradually by gear teeth shape. The gear ratio is set larger around the steering center and smaller around the end position. Thus, rack stroke around the end position is larger to reduce the steering operation while ensuring a moderate response on center.

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Electric Power Steering (EPS) Electric Power Steering (EPS)

Technician Handbook

453 Suspension, Steering and Handling

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Electric Power Steering (EPS) Electric Power Steering (EPS)

Electric Power Steering (EPS)

Electric Power Steering (EPS) provides power assist even when the engine is stopped. It also improves fuel economy because it is lightweight and the DC motor consumes energy only when power assist is required. Because EPS does not depend on the engine for its power, steering feel is not affected when the hybrid vehicle is driven with the engine off.

EPS torque sensors measure driver input (steering wheel rotation). The EPS ECU uses torque sensor signals (and information from the Skid Control ECU, if equipped) to determine the direction and force of the power assist required. It then sends power to the DC motor.

Depending on model, the EPS motor may be mounted:

On the rack and pinion assembly, assisting the pinion shaft

On the rack and pinion assembly, assisting the rack shaft • On the steering column, assisting the column.

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling EPS – Torque Sensor The EPS ECU uses

Technician Handbook

453 Suspension, Steering and Handling

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling EPS – Torque Sensor The EPS ECU uses torque

EPS – Torque Sensor

The EPS ECU uses torque sensor output along with information from the Skid Control ECU about vehicle speed and torque assist demand to determine the direction and force of the power assist. It then actuates the DC motor accordingly.

’01 to ’03 Prius

These models use a reduction mechanism to transmit power assist from the motor to the pinion shaft. The reduction mechanism consists of a pinion gear integrated with the motor shaft and a ring gear that is secured to the pinion shaft.

’04 to ’09 Prius

In later models, detection ring 1 and 2 are mounted on the input shaft and detection ring 3 is mounted on the output shaft. When torque is applied to the torsion bar the detection rings move in relationship to each other. The detection coil senses a change in inductance that is proportional to the amount of torque applied.

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Steering Rack Motor Torque Sensor The brushless motor

Technician Handbook

453 Suspension, Steering and Handling

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Steering Rack Motor Torque Sensor The brushless motor is

Steering Rack Motor

Torque Sensor

The brushless motor is mounted on a common axis with the rack shaft and consists of a rotation angle sensor, stator and rotor. The ball screw reduction gear consists of a reduction mechanism and is installed on the rotor. The ball screw reduction gear transmits the rotational torque of the motor to the rack shaft through a series of precision balls that circulate endlessly within four ball directors causing it to move axially.

The torque sensor consists of two resolver sensors , a torsion bar, main shaft and pinion shaft. The resolver sensor 1 rotor is mounted to the main shaft while resolver sensor 2 rotor is mounted to the pinion shaft. The torsion bar is attached to the main shaft at one end and to the pinion shaft at the other end.

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Steering Column Motor The steering column motor is

Technician Handbook

453 Suspension, Steering and Handling

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Steering Column Motor The steering column motor is mounted

Steering Column Motor

The steering column motor is mounted perpendicular to the steering shaft and drives a worm gear that transfers torque to the wheel gear that is attached to the column shaft. A rotation angle sensor detects the rotation direction of the motor and provides input to the power steering ECU. The motor is not serviceable separately from the steering column.

Steering Column

The power steering torque sensor is built into the steering column

Torque Sensor

assembly. It consists of a multipole magnet, a yoke, two Hall ICs, a torsion bar, input shaft and output shaft.

The input shaft and output shaft are connected by the torsion bar. The multipole magnet is mounted to the input shaft and the yoke is mounted to the output shaft. Any flexing of the torsion bar causes the magnet and yoke to change the position of the yoke relative to the magnet. The Hall ICs face opposite to one other. As the magnetic field changes, one Hall IC voltage goes high while the other goes low. The Power Steering ECU can determine the direction and the amount of flex in the torsion bar to determine the steering assist required.

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling EPS Components The DC/DC converter supplies 42 volts

Technician Handbook

453 Suspension, Steering and Handling

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling EPS Components The DC/DC converter supplies 42 volts to

EPS Components

The DC/DC converter supplies 42 volts to the P/S ECU. The P/S ECU then varies the voltage from the ECU to the P/S rack from 2 to 51 volts on phases U, V and W depending on demand. These are the values you see on the Techstream.

Note that the DC/DC converter for EPS is referred in the Repair Manual as the Power Steering Converter.

EPS DC-DC Converter – Converts voltage for EPS motor (up to 42V)

EPS ECU – Calculates power steering assist, inverts voltage for EPS motor, protects EPS system and provides diagnosis

Fail-safe is unassisted steering

Skid Control ECU - coordinates cooperative control with VDIM

Steering Gear - Incorporates DC motor, reduction mechanism and torque sensor

The EPS must be initialized if:

The power steering ECU is replaced

The steering column assembly is replaced

Steering effort differs from left to right

Initialize Steps are:

Confirm that IG voltage is 10 – 14 V

Put vehicle in READY mode

Follow instructions per the EMPS menu – TRQ SENSOR ADJ screen to initialize the rotation angle sensor and calibrate the torque sensor zero point

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling EPS Steering System 1. THS ECU : sends

Technician Handbook

453 Suspension, Steering and Handling

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling EPS Steering System 1. THS ECU : sends READY

EPS Steering System

1. THS ECU: sends READY signal

2. Skid Control ECU: sends vehicle speed signal

3.

When VSC is actuated, the Skid Control ECU provides an assist torque demand signal.

EPS ECU: Based on signals from various sensors, the EPS ECU judges immediate vehicle condition, and determines assist current to be applied to motor.

The EPS ECU operates on 12V from auxiliary battery, however, source voltage for the motor is the HV battery. First the DC-DC converter converts voltage of the HV battery from 288V to 42V which is provided to the EPS ECU. The EPS ECU then converts 42V DC to 42V AC to power the steering rack motor.

The EPS ECU also houses a temperature sensor to restrict power to protect the system if overheated.

Failsafe is manual steering

Three ECUs (EPS, Skid Control and THS) communicate via CAN to provide high speed processing for the vehicle stability systems (VSC and VDIM).

Communication through the Gateway ECU to the Meter ECU is made via the Body Electronics Area Network (BEAN).

The Meter ECU controls the power steering (P/S) warning light, which illuminates if a system malfunction is detected by the EPS ECU.

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Spiral Cable CAUTION SERVICE TIP The spiral cable

Technician Handbook

453 Suspension, Steering and Handling

Technician Handbook 453 Suspension, Steering and Handling Spiral Cable CAUTION SERVICE TIP The spiral cable with

Spiral Cable

CAUTION

SERVICE TIP

The spiral cable with steering angle sensor is a complete assembly and should not be separated.

Do not remove the steering angle sensor from the spiral cable

Do not replace or rotate the spiral cable with the battery connected and engine switch ON

Ensure that the steering wheel is installed and aligned straight when inspecting or replacing the steering sensor.

Visually check the spiral cable assembly after removing it from the vehicle. If any of the following are found, replace the spiral cable with a new one:

Steering angle sensor has been separated from the spiral cable

Scratches, small cracks, dents or chips on the spiral cable

Cracks or other damage to the connector