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Conven iile de la Haga din 1899 i 1907 erau dou tratate negociate la conferin ele de pace din

Haga n Olanda. Prima conferin de la Haga a fost semnat n 1899, iar A doua conferin de la
Haga n 1907. Alturi de Conen iile de la !enea, Conen iile de la Haga erau primele
reglementri despre legile despre purtarea r"#oaielor i crime de r"#oi. O a treia conferin era
planificat pentru 191$, reprogramat pentru a se ine n 191%, dar nu a fost inut niciodat din
cau"a nceperii Primului &"#oi 'ondial.
(forturile principale ale celor dou conferin e se ndreptau spre crearea unui tri#unal interna ional
care s ar#itre"e i s re"ole disputele interna ionale, considerate necesare pentru a nlocui
institu ia r"#oiului. Aceste eforturi au e uat at)t n 1899 c)t i n 1907.
Prima Conferin a fost n general un succes i a*a concentrat pe eforturile de de"armare.
Cea de*a doua Conferin a e uat n crearea unui tri#unal interna ional pentru ar#itra+ o#ligatoriu,
dar a lrgit mecanismul ar#itra+ului oluntar i a sta#ilit reguli de recuperare a datoriilor, legi ale
r"#oiului i drepturile i o#liga iile rilor neutre.
Alturi de de"armare i ar#itra+ o#ligatoriu, am#ele conferin e includeau negocieri cu priire la
legile r"#oiului i crimele de r"#oi. 'ulte dintre regulile sta#ilite la Conen iile de la Haga au
fost iolate n Primul &"#oi 'ondial. ,e e-emplu una dintre acestea a fost .na"ia german a
/elgiei prin care a fost nclcat ol. ... sta#ilit la Conferin a din 1907 conform cruia niciun stat nu
poate ncepe ostilit ile fr o preenire e-plicit a celeilalte.
Conven ia de la Haga din 1899
Conferin a de pace a fost propus n 09 august 1898 de arul 1icolae al ..*lea i contele 'i2ail
1i3olaeici 'uraio, ministrul de e-terne de atunci al &usiei.
Conferin a a nceput 18 mai 1899, n data "ilei de na tere al arului. Conen ia a fost semnat n 09
iunie al aceluia i an, intr)nd n igoare la data de $ septem#rie 1900. Conen ia de la Haga din
1899 are format din patru sec iuni principale i trei declara ii adi ionale, care erau
4ec . .. &e"olarea pa nic a disputelor interna ionale. Aceast sec iune includea crearea unei
Cur i permanente de ar#itra+.
4ec . ... 5egi i o#iceiuri de purtarea r"#oaielor terestre
4ec . .... Adaptarea Principiilor Conferin ei de la !enea din 186$ pentru r"#oiul maritim.
4ec . .7. .nter"icerea aruncrii proiectilelor i e-plo"i#ililor din #aloane.
,eclara ia .. ,espre aruncarea proiectilelor i e-plo"i#ililor din #aloane.
,eclara ia ... ,espre folosirea ga"elor de lupt
,eclara ia .... ,espre folosirea gloan elor care se deformea" u or sau se e-tind n corpul uman.
Conven ia de la Haga din 1907
Cea de*a doua conferin s*a reunit la ini iatia pre edintelui american 82eodore &ooseelt din
190$, dar a fost am)nat datorit r"#oiului care a i"#ucnit ntre &usia i 9aponia. Cea de*a doua
conferin s*a inut ntre 1% iunie * 18 octom#rie 1907 pentru a e-tinde cele sta#ilite la prima
conferin , s modifice unele pr i i s adauge altele, cu ndreptarea eforturilor n principal asupra
r"#oiului maritim.
/ritanicii au ncercat s asigure limitarea armamentului, dar au nt)mpinat re"isten din partea
altor puteri conduse de !ermania, care se temea c 'area /ritanie ncearc s mpiedice cre terea
flotei germane.
82e Hague Conentions of 1899 and 1907 :ere t2e first multilateral treaties t2at addressed t2e
conducts of :arfare and :ere largel; #ased on t2e 5ie#er Code, :2ic2 :as signed and issued #;
<.4. President A#ra2am 5incoln to t2e <nion =orces of t2e <nited 4tates in April 0$, 186>, during
t2e American Ciil ?ar. 82e 5ie#er Code :as t2e first official compre2ensie codified la: t2at set
out regulations for #e2aior in times of martial la:@ protection of ciilians and ciilian propert; and
punis2ment of transgression@ deserters, prisoners of :ar, 2ostages, and pillaging@ partisans@ spies@
truces and prisoner e-c2ange@ parole of former re#el troops@ t2e conditions of an; armistice, and
respect for 2uman life@ assassination and murder of soldiers or citi"ens in 2ostile territor;@ and t2e
status of indiiduals engaged in a state of ciil :ar against t2e goernment. As suc2, t2e codes :ere
:idel; regarded as t2e #est summar; of t2e first customar; la:s and customs of :ar in t2e 19t2
centur; and :ere :elcomed and adopted #; militar; esta#lis2ments of ot2er nations. 82e 187$
/russels ,eclaration A:2ic2 :as neer adopted #; all ma+or nationsB listed %6 articles t2at dre:
inspiration from t2e 5ie#er Code. 'uc2 of t2e regulations in t2e Hague Conentions :ere
#orro:ed 2eail; from t2e 5ie#er Code.
/ot2 conferences included negotiations concerning disarmament, t2e la:s of :ar and :ar crimes. A
ma+or effort in #ot2 conferences :as t2e creation of a #inding international court for compulsor;
ar#itration to settle international disputes, :2ic2 :as considered necessar; to replace t2e institution
of :ar. 82is effort, 2o:eer, failed at #ot2 conferences@ instead a oluntar; forum for ar#itration,
t2e Permanent Court of Ar#itration, :as esta#lis2ed. 'ost of t2e countries present, including t2e
<nited 4tates, /ritain, &ussia, =rance, C2ina, and Persia, faored a process for #inding international
ar#itration, #ut t2e proision :as etoed #; a fe: countries, led #; !erman;.
Hague Convention of 1899
82e peace conference :as proposed on 0$ August 1898 #; &ussian 8sar 1ic2olas ...C8D 1ic2olas
and Count 'i32ail 1i3ola;eic2 'ura;o, 2is foreign minister, :ere instrumental in initiating t2e
conference. 82e conference opened on 18 'a; 1899, t2e 8sarEs #irt2da;. 82e treaties, declarations,
and final act of t2e conference :ere signed on 09 9ul; of t2at ;ear, and t2e; entered into force on $
4eptem#er 1900. ?2at is referred to as t2e Hague Conention of 1899 consisted of t2ree main
treaties and t2ree additional declarationsF
A.BF Conention for t2e Pacific 4ettlement of .nternational ,isputes
82is conention included t2e creation of t2e Permanent Court of Ar#itration, :2ic2 e-ists to t2is
da;. 82e section :as ratified #; all ma+or po:ers, including <nited 4tates, !reat /ritain, Austria*
Hungar;, !erman;, =rance, .tal;, 4pain, &ussia, 9apan, and C2ina.
A..BF Conention :it2 respect to t2e 5a:s and Customs of ?ar on 5and
82is oluminous conention contains t2e la:s to #e used in all :ars on land #et:een signatories. .t
specifies t2e treatment of prisoners of :ar, includes t2e proisions of t2e !enea Conention of
186$ for t2e treatment of t2e :ounded, and for#ids t2e use of poisons, t2e 3illing of enem;
com#atants :2o 2ae surrendered, looting of a to:n or place, and t2e attac3 or #om#ardment of
undefended to:ns or 2a#itations. .n2a#itants of occupied territories ma; not #e forced into militar;
serice against t2eir o:n countr; and collectie punis2ment is for#idden. 82e section :as ratified
#; all ma+or po:ers mentioned a#oe.
A...BF Conention for t2e Adaptation to 'aritime ?arfare of t2e Principles of t2e !enea
Conention of 00 August 186$
82is conention proides for t2e protection of mar3ed 2ospital s2ips and reGuires t2em to treat t2e
:ounded and s2ip:rec3ed sailors of all #elligerent parties. .t too :as ratified #; all ma+or po:ers.
A.7,1BF ,eclaration concerning t2e Pro2i#ition of t2e ,isc2arge of Pro+ectiles and (-plosies from
/alloons or #; Ot2er 1e: Analogous 'et2ods
82is declaration proides t2at, for a period of fie ;ears, in an; :ar #et:een signator; po:ers, no
pro+ectiles or e-plosies :ould #e launc2ed from #alloons, Hor #; ot2er ne: met2ods of a similar
nature.H 82e declaration :as ratified #; all t2e ma+or po:ers mentioned a#oe, e-cept !reat /ritain
and t2e <nited 4tates.
A.7,0BF ,eclaration concerning t2e Pro2i#ition of t2e <se of Pro+ectiles :it2 t2e 4ole O#+ect to
4pread Asp2;-iating Poisonous !ases
82is declaration states t2at, in an; :ar #et:een signator; po:ers, t2e parties :ill a#stain from
using pro+ectiles Ht2e sole o#+ect of :2ic2 is t2e diffusion of asp2;-iating or deleterious gases.H
&atified #; all ma+or po:ers, e-cept t2e <nited 4tates.
A.7,>BF ,eclaration concerning t2e Pro2i#ition of t2e <se of /ullets :2ic2 can (asil; (-pand or
C2ange t2eir =orm inside t2e Human /od; suc2 as /ullets :it2 a Hard Coering :2ic2 does not
Completel; Coer t2e Core, or containing .ndentations
82is declaration states t2at, in an; :ar #et:een signator; po:ers, t2e parties :ill a#stain from
using H#ullets :2ic2 e-pand or flatten easil; in t2e 2uman #od;.H &atified #; all ma+or po:ers,
e-cept t2e <nited 4tates.
The second conference, in 1907, :as generall; a failure, :it2 fe: ma+or adancements from t2e
1899 Conention. Ho:eer, t2e meeting of ma+or po:ers did prefigure later 00t2*centur; attempts
at international cooperation.
82e second conference :as called at t2e suggestion of <.4. President 82eodore &ooseelt in 190$,
#ut it :as postponed #ecause of t2e :ar #et:een &ussia and 9apan. 82e 4econd Peace Conference
:as 2eld from 1% 9une to 18 Octo#er 1907. 82e intent of t2e conference :as to e-pand upon t2e
1899 Hague Conention #; modif;ing some parts and adding ne: topics@ in particular, t2e 1907
conference 2ad an increased focus on naal :arfare. 82e /ritis2 attempted to secure limitation of
armaments, #ut t2ese efforts :ere defeated #; t2e ot2er po:ers, led #; !erman;, :2ic2 feared a
/ritis2 attempt to stop t2e gro:t2 of t2e !erman fleet. !erman; also re+ected proposals for
compulsor; ar#itration. Ho:eer, t2e conference did enlarge t2e mac2iner; for oluntar;
ar#itration and esta#lis2ed conentions regulating t2e collection of de#ts, rules of :ar, and t2e
rig2ts and o#ligations of neutrals.
82e treaties, declarations, and final act of t2e 4econd Conference :ere signed on 18 Octo#er 1907@
t2e; entered into force on 06 9anuar; 1910. 82e 1907 Conention consists of t2irteen treatiesIof
:2ic2 t:ele :ere ratified and entered into forceIand one declarationF
A.BF Conention for t2e Pacific 4ettlement of .nternational ,isputesC16D
82is conention confirms and e-pands on Conention A.B of 1899. As of 001>, t2is conention is in
force for 10% states,C17D and 11% states 2ae ratified one or #ot2 of t2e 1907 Conention A.B and t2e
1899 Conention A.B, :2ic2 toget2er are t2e founding documents of t2e Permanent Court of
A..BF Conention respecting t2e 5imitation of t2e (mplo;ment of =orce for &ecoer; of Contract
A...BF Conention relatie to t2e Opening of HostilitiesC00D
82is conention sets out t2e accepted procedure for a state ma3ing a declaration of :ar.
A.7BF Conention respecting t2e 5a:s and Customs of ?ar on 5and
82is conention confirms, :it2 minor modifications, t2e proisions of Conention A..B of 1899. All
ma+or po:ers ratified it.C01D
A7BF Conention relatie to t2e &ig2ts and ,uties of 1eutral Po:ers and Persons in case of ?ar on
A7.BF Conention relatie to t2e 5egal Position of (nem; 'erc2ant 42ips at t2e 4tart of
A7..BF Conention relatie to t2e Conersion of 'erc2ant 42ips into ?ar*s2ipsC0$D
A7...BF Conention relatie to t2e 5a;ing of Automatic 4u#marine Contact 'inesC0%D
A.JBF Conention concerning /om#ardment #; 1aal =orces in 8ime of ?arC06D
AJBF Conention for t2e Adaptation to 'aritime ?arfare of t2e Principles of t2e !enea
Conention Aof 6 9ul; 1906B
82is conention updated Conention A...B of 1899 to reflect t2e amendments t2at 2ad #een made to
t2e 186$ !enea Conention. Conention AJB :as ratified #; all ma+or states e-cept t2e <nited
AJ.BF Conention relatie to Certain &estrictions :it2 regard to t2e (-ercise of t2e &ig2t of Capture
in 1aal ?arC08D
AJ..BF Conention relatie to t2e (sta#lis2ment of an .nternational Pri"e Court
82is conention :ould 2ae esta#lis2ed t2e .nternational Pri"e Court for t2e resolution of
conflicting claims relating to captured s2ips during :artime. .t is t2e one conention t2at neer
came into force. .t :as ratified onl; #; 1icaragua.C09D
AJ...BF Conention concerning t2e &ig2ts and ,uties of 1eutral Po:ers in 1aal ?arC>0D
AJ.7BF ,eclaration Pro2i#iting t2e ,isc2arge of Pro+ectiles and (-plosies from /alloons
82is declaration e-tended t2e proisions of ,eclaration A.7,1B of 1899 to t2e close of t2e planned
82ird Peace Conference A:2ic2 neer too3 placeB. Among t2e ma+or po:ers, t2is :as ratified onl;
#; C2ina, <nited Kingdom, and t2e <nited 4tates.
Geneva Protocol to Hague Conventions
82oug2 not negotiated in 82e Hague, t2e !enea Protocol to t2e Hague Conentions is considered
an addition to t2e Conentions. 4igned on 17 9une 190% and entering into force on 8 =e#ruar; 1908,
its single article permanentl; #ans t2e use of all forms of c2emical and #iological :arfare. 82e
protocol gre: out of t2e increasing pu#lic outcr; against c2emical :arfare follo:ing t2e use of
mustard gas and similar agents in ?orld ?ar ., and fears t2at c2emical and #iological :arfare
could lead to 2orrific conseGuences in an; future :ar. 82e protocol 2as since #een augmented #;
t2e /iological ?eapons Conention A1970B and t2e C2emical ?eapons Conention A199>B.
'an; of t2e rules laid do:n at t2e Hague Conentions :ere iolated in ?orld ?ar .. 82e !erman
inasion of /elgium, for instance, :as a iolation of Conention A...B of 1907, :2ic2 states t2at
2ostilities must not commence :it2out e-plicit :arning.C>$D Poison gas :as introduced #;
!erman; and :as su#seGuentl; used against enem; soldiers #; all ma+or #elligerents t2roug2out
t2e :ar, in iolation of t2e ,eclaration A.7, 0B of 1899 and Conention A.7B of 1907, :2ic2
e-plicitl; for#ade t2e use of Hpoison or poisoned :eaponsH.C>%D
?riting in 1918, t2e !erman international la: sc2olar and neo*Kantian pacifist ?alt2er 4c2Lc3ing
called t2e assem#lies t2e Hinternational union of Hague conferencesH. 4c2Lc3ing sa: t2e Hague
conferences as a nucleus of a future international federation t2at :as to meet at regular interals to
administer +ustice and deelop international la: procedures for t2e peaceful settlement of disputes,
asserting t2at Ha definite political union of t2e states of t2e :orld 2as #een created :it2 t2e =irst and
4econd Conferences.HC>6D
After ?orld ?ar .., t2e +udges of t2e militar; tri#unal of t2e 8rial of !erman 'a+or ?ar Criminals
at 1urem#erg 8rials found t2at #; 19>9, t2e rules laid do:n in t2e 1907 Hague Conention :ere
recognised #; all ciilised nations and :ere regarded as declarator; of t2e la:s and customs of :ar.
<nder t2is post*:ar decision, a countr; did not 2ae to 2ae ratified t2e 1907 Hague Conention in
order to #e #ound #; t2em.C>7D
Alt2oug2 t2eir contents 2ae largel; #een superseded #; ot2er treaties,Ccitation neededD t2e Hague
Conentions of 1899 and 1907 continue to stand as s;m#ols of t2e need for restrictions on :ar and
t2e desira#ilit; of aoiding it altoget2er. 4ince 0000, Conention A.B of 1907 on t2e Pacific
4ettlement of .nternational ,isputes 2as #een ratified #; 00 additional states.