Sunteți pe pagina 1din 40

Lecia 1: Substantivul

Bun venit la cursul de Gramatica Limbii Engleze !


1.1 Felul substantivelor
Substantivele n limba engleza se pot mparti n patru categorii:
substantive comune: cat, girl, lamp
substantive proprii: England, London, Mr Smith, Mary
substantive abstracte: beauty, love, courage, fear, joy
substantive colective: crowd, group, team
1.2. Genul
Substantive de genul masculin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex masculin:
Ex.: man, boy, lion, dog
Substantivele de genul feminin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex feminin:
Ex.: woman, girl, cat, giraffe
Substantive de genul neutru sunt lucrurile, plantele, animale sau fiinte al caror
sex nu este cunoscut (pronume: it/they:
Ex.: world, peace, house, mouse, baby
Exceptii: tarile, navele, n ma!oritatea cazurilor si autovehiculele sau alte
vehicule sunt de genul feminin.
Substantivele de genul comun sunt o particularitate a limbii engleze.
Substantivele care intra n aceasta categorie au aceeasi forma pentru ambele
sexe:
Ex.: child (copil, copila, cook (bucatar, bucatareasa, teacher (profesor,
profesoara.
"nele substantive au forme diferite pentru genul masculin si cel feminin:
Ex.: boy - girl, husband - wife, brother - sister, father - mother, son - daughter,
uncle - aunt, dog - bitch, bull - cow, king - queen
1.3. Numarul
#umarul este forma pe care o ia un substantiv pentru a arata ca ne referim la
unul sau mai multe obiecte sau fiinte.
Singularul coincide cu forma de baza a unui substantiv: dog, girl, wife,
world, storm
$luralul substantivelor se formeaza prin adaugarea unui s la forma de
singular:
Ex.: cats!cats, days!days, worlds!worlds
$luralul substantivelor teminate n ch, o, sh, s, x se formeaza adaug%nd
es la singular.
Ex.: churches!churches, bushes!bushes, classes!classes,
potatoes!potatoes, bushes!bushes, bo"es!bo"es
1.3.1. Pluralul neregulat
Substantive terminate n consoana+y fac pluralul n ies:
Ex.: company - companies, factory - factories, baby - babies
"nele substantive terminate n o fac plural prin adaugarea unui s.
Ex.: soprano - sopranos, piano - pianos, photo - photos
"nele substantive terminate n f sau fe vor suferi la plural schimbarea n
ves.
Ex.: leaf - leaves, half - halves, wife - wives, life - lives, self - selves,
wolf - wolves
Exceptii: roof - roofs, handkerchief - handkerchiefs, gulf - gulfs, wharf -
wharfs# wharves
&%teva substantive formeaza pluralul prin schimbarea unei vocale interne
Ex.: foot - feet, man - men, tooth - teeth
$luralul substantivului child este children.
"nele substantive ram%n identice la plural Ex.: aircraft, deer, series,
sheep, species, fish
1.3.2 Pluralul substantivelor compuse
'n cazul substantivelor compuse numai ultimul cuv%nt va trece la plural.
Ex.: boy-friends, break-ins, travel agents
Exceptii: substantivele compuse al caror prim element este man sau
woman vor primi semnul pluralului pentru ambele substantive
componente.
Ex.: men drivers, women teachers, men servants
'n cazul substantivelor compuse formate din constructii de genul
substantiv ( prepozitie / adverb ( substantiv, substantivul de baza va
primi semnul pluralului.
Ex.: sisters-in-law, passers-by, men-of-war, hangers-on, lookers-on,
runners-up
)brevierile sau initialele vor forma pluralul prin adaugarea unui s
Ex.: M$s %Members of $arliament&, '($s %very important persons&
1.. !ubstantivele unice "uncountable nouns#
Sunt substantive care nu se pot numara (uncountable deoarece reprezinta fie
unicate, obiecte puternic individualizate, notiuni abstracte.
Nume $e substante: bread, coffee, gold, paper, cloth, glass, oil, stone,
wood
%bstractiuni: earth, paradise, nature, the present, advice, death, help,
information, news, beauty, e"perience, horror, knowledge, friendship,
theory, literature
%lte substantive: baggage, damage, shopping, reading, luggage,
parking, weather
Substantivele unice sunt ntotdeana la singular si vor lua un verb la singular:
Ex.: )his coffee is cold* )he weather was dreadful*
#u sunt precedate de a#an* pentru a exprima o unitate din aceste substantive
se foloseste: some, any, no, a little, bit, piece of, slice of, etc.
Ex.: ( do not want any help* ( need some information* )his slice of bread is
hard* )he piece of advice you gave me helped*
#ota: +ulte dintre substantivele unice pot avea si sensuri care se pot numara,
astfel devenind substantive comune si comport%ndu,se ca atare (primes a/an la
singular, pot avea plural.
!ens &nic ' !ens (omun
+er hair is black. ($arul ei este negru.
She found a hair in the milk. () gasit un fir de par n lapte.
)heir house was made of wood. (&asa lor este din lemn.
,e picnicked in the woods. ()m mers la picnic n padure.
1.). Forma posesiva
Se adauga *s la forma de singular a substantivelor care nu se termina n
s:
Ex.: a child-s voice, the people-s choice, a horse-s mouth, women-s
clothes
-om folosi doar apostroful (* cu formele de plural ale substantivelor care
se termina n s.
Ex.: a boys- school, the .ohnsons- residence
#umele proprii terminate n s vor primi fie doar apostrof (*, fie *s
Ex.: Mr .ones-s # Mr .ones- car, /eats-s # /eats- poems
'n cazul substantivelor compuse si a titlurilor ultimul cuv%nt va primi *s
Ex.: My father-in-law-s guitar, +enry the Eighth-s wives
*s se foloseste si dupa initiale sau abrevieri.
Ex.: )he 0E1-s assistant, the $M-s speech
.orma posesiva se foloseste n general c%nd vorbim de oameni, animale,
tari. Se foloseste de asemenea n urmatoarele cazuri:
o 'n expresii temporale
Ex.: yesterday-s newspaper, in five years- time, ten minutes-
break
o 'n expresii construite dupa modelul bani + +orth
Ex.: ten dollars- worth of bananas, a shilling-s worth of stamps
o 'n alte expresii uzuale:
Ex.: for heaven-s sake, a winter-s day, the water-s edge, the
plane-s wings, the train-s departure
'n cazul anumitor substantive folosite la posesiv, este uzuala omisiunea
substantivului urmator atunci c%nd sensul comunicarii este clar
(magazine, birouri, oficii, casa, locuinta.
Ex.: /ou can buy this at the baker-s %shop&* Mary bought her tickets at
the travel agent-s %office&* )he kids went to 2obby-s %house&*
0deea de posesie se poate exprima si cu a!utorul constructiei
of+substantiv. )ceasta constructie se foloseste mai ales pentru lucruri
sau fiinte umane sau animale atunci cand acestea sunt urmate de o
propozitie subordonata.
Ex.: the walls of the town, the roof of the church, the keys of the house
( took the advice of the girl ( met on the bus and went to buy the book*

1. Scrie femininul urmatoarelor substantive:
actor, driver, elephant, guide, son, bull, nephew, cousin,
dog, waiter, camel, manager, uncle, lion, bachelor %burlac, absolvent&,
widower, assistant, host, snake, player, bridegroom, doctor, teacher.
2. Scrie pluralul urmatoarelor substantive:
knife, baby, child, country, aircraft, foot, key, kilo, woman, leaf, loaf,
man, photo, piano, sheep, shelf, storey %palier, cat&, story, thief, tooth,
wife.
3. 1escrie urmatoarele constructii conform modelului:
)he luggage belonging to the travelers - The traveler's luggage
)he room belonging to the child -
)he clothes belonging to the children -
)he car belonging to Mr* Smith -
)he luggage belonging to the '($ -
)he flat belonging to her son-in-law -
)he canteen used by the workers -
,mportant -
V rog s citii cu atenie Ghidul studentului la adresa:
http3##www*academiaonline*ro#inde"*php#(nfo0entru#4hidul5Studentului,
special conceput pentru a r6spunde tuturor 7ntreb6rilor noilor cursan8i
legate de modul de func8ionare 9i de 7nv68are 7n cadrul :cademiei 1nline*
;iscut6 9i comentea<6 7mpreun6 cu colegii 9i tutorul e"erci8iile fiec6rei
lec8ii 9i probleme de gramatic6 7n spa8iul Seminariilor nline* =u uita
c6 po8i accesa doar lec8iile deschise s6pt6m>nal*
.ec/ia 20 %rticolul



$entru ca un substantiv sa capete nteles ntr,o propozitie oarecare, acesta trebuie sa
fie nsotit de un determinant substantival. &el mai des folosit determinant substantival
este articolul. )rticolele se pot clasifica dupa cum urmeaza:
)rticolul hotar%t , the
)rticolul nehotar%t , a ! an
)rticolul zero (forma implicita sau neexprimata
)rticolele sunt forme invariabile, adica nu se schimba n functie de numarul sau genul
substantivului si se aseaza n fata substantivului determinat.
2.1. %rticolul hotar1t "the#
)rticolul hotar%t se foloseste:
'naintea unui substantiv care a mai fost mentionat n contextul respectiv
Ex.: :n elephant and a mouse fell in love* )he mouse loved the elephant-s long
trunk, and the elephant loved the mouse-s tiny nose*
)tunci c%nd at%t vorbitorul c%t si ascultatorul cunosc notiunea exprimata de
substantiv, desi nu a mai fost mentionat n context.
Ex.: - ,here-s the bathroom? - (t-s on the first floor*
'n propozitii sau fraze n care definim sau identificam anumite persoane sau
obiecte:
Ex.: )he man we met yesterday at the bus station* )he girl in red is her
neighbor*
1eferitor la obiecte pe care le consideram unice:
Ex.: the earth, the sun, the moon, the stars
:nn is in the garden %the garden of this house&*
'naintea superlativului sau numeralelor ordinale first, second, thirds, etc si only:
Ex.: the best day, the first week, the last chapter, the only way
'naintea unor ad!ective pentru a te referi n general la un grup de oameni care
au n comun o anumita nsusire (sunt frumosi, tineri, batr%ni, !aponezi, etc:
Ex.: the young, the beautiful, the old, the best, the .apanese, the 2ritish
#ume de locuri geografice, oceane, r%uri, mari, deserturi, munti, regiuni:
Ex.: the 0aribbean, the Sahara, the :tlantic
Se foloseste naintea unor nume proprii (muzee, institutii celebre, hoteluri,
ziare, orchestre, grupuri muzicale, vapoare, nume de famili la plural,etc:
Ex.: the =ational 4allery, the @oyal Shakespeare, the Savoy, the 2eatles, the
Spice 4irls, the 4uardian, the )elegraph, the ;aily, the )itanic, the )ower of
London, the +ouse of $arliament, the Smiths
2ecade, secole, grupe de ani:
Ex.: My parents went to Aniversity in the seventies*
2.2. %rticolul nehotar1t "a ! an#
Se foloseste a naintea substantivelor care ncep cu o consoana si an naintea
substantivelor care ncep cu o vocala (a, e, i, o, u
Ex.: a boy, an apple, a car, an orange, a house, an opera
Exceptii:
%n nainte de un h mut , an hour, an honor.
% nainte de u sau eu atunci c%nd se pronunta ca you: a European, a university, a
unit
)rticolul nehotar%t se foloseste:
$entru a te referi la ceva pentru prima data:
Ex.: ,ould you like a drink? (-ve finally got a good job*
$entru a te referi la un anume membru al unui grup sau clase:
Exemple:
o cu nume de profesii: .ohn is an engineer* Mary is training to be a nurse*
o cu nationalitati si religii: .ohn is an Englishman* Bate is a 0atholic*
o cu instrumente muzicale: Sherlock +olmes was playing a violin when the
visitor arrived*
o cu numele zilelor: ( was born on a )hursday*
o pentru a desemna un fel de, sau un exemplu de: )he mouse had a tiny
nose* (t was a very strange car
o cu substantice la singular, dupa cuvinte cum ar fi what si such: ,hat a
bluffC +e is such a prodigious young man*
o atunci c%nd te referi la un singur obiect sau persoana, echivaleaza cu
one: (-d like an orange and two lemons please* )he burglar took a
diamond necklace and a valuable painting*
1etineti ca se spune a hundred, a thousand, a million.
2.3. a ! an si one
)tunci c%nd numeri sau masori timpul, distanta, greutatea, etc. se poate folosi
fie a'an fie one pentru singular:
Ex.: a # one pound, a # one million pounds
/ou can take an# one hour for lunch*
2ar a#an si one nu nseamna ntotdeauna acelasi lucru:
Ex.: : bo" is no good* %,e need a crate not a bo"&*
1ne bo" is no good, we need two bo"es*
2.. %rticolul 2ero
#u se foloseste articol n urmatoarele cazuri:
&u nume de tari (la singular
Ex.: 4ermany is an important economic power*
+e-s just returned from :rgentina*
('nsa: (-m visiting the Anited States ne"t week*
&u numele limbilor:
Ex.: Drench is spoken in )ahiti*
English uses many words of Latin origin*
&u numele meselor:
Ex.: Lunch is at midday*
;inner is in the evening*
2reakfast is the first meal of the day*
&u numele persoanelor (la singular:
Ex.: .ohn-s coming to the party*
4eorge Bing is my uncle*
('nsa: ,e-re having lunch with the Morgans tomorrow*
&u titluri si nume:
Ex.: $rince 0harles is Eueen Eli<abeth-s son*
$resident Bennedy was assassinated in ;allas*
;r* ,atson was Sherlock +olmes- friend*
('nsa: the Eueen of England, the $ope*
2upa cazul posesiv format cu *s:
Ex.: +is sister-s car*
Laura-s basket*
&u numele profesiilor:
E"*3 Engineering is a useful career*
+e-ll probably go into medicine*
&u nume de magazine:
Ex.: (-ll get the card at Smith-s*
0an you go to 2oots for me?
&u ani:
Ex.: FGHI was a wonderful year*
;o you remember FGGJ?
&u substantive unice (uncountable nouns:
Ex.: Milk is often added to tea in England*
,ar is destructive*
&u numele unor munti, lacuri si insule:
Ex.: Mount McBinley is the highest mountain in :laska*
She lives near Lake ,indermere*
+ave you visited Long (sland?
&u ma!oritatea numelor de strazi , orase, statii pentru mi!loacele de transport si
aeroporturi:
Ex.: 'ictoria Station is in the centre of London*
0an you direct me to 2ond Street?
She lives in Dlorence*
)hey-re flying from +eathrow*
'n unele expresii invariabile:
Ex.: by car, at school, at work, at Aniversity, in church, in prison, in bed, by
train, by air, on foot, on holiday, on air %in broadcasting&

1. &ompleteaza cu a sau an acolo unde este cazul:
2ill is 5555 author* +e writes 555 travel books* +e makes 5555
lot of money* ,e had 5555 lunch with him yesterday* (t was 5555 e"cellent
lunch* )he meal cost him 5555 hundred and 5555 fifty pounds* ,hat 5555
e"pensive restaurantC +e gave the waiter 5555 twenty pounds* )hat was 5555
good tip*
2. )lege a sau the:
1ne day we set out to climb %K& a#the highest hill in the area* )he campers in
%K& a#the ne"t tent lent us their map* )hey told us to follow one of %K& a#the
routes marked on %K& a#the map* 2ut )om said that he was sure that there was
%K& a#the better way* %K& :#the way that we chose was so steep that we had to
stop for %K& a#the long rest on the way up* 2ut we got to %K& a#the top in %K&
a#the end*
3. &ompleteaza cu the acolo unde este cazul:
,e have 5555 soup for 5555supper* :fter 5555 meal )om and ( play 5555
chess* 2ill prefers 5555 cards* 5555 game he likes best is bridge* +e says that
5555 chess requires 5555 patience and he is not patient* +e also says that
5555life is too short to waste in this way*
.ec/ia 30 %$3ectivul





3.4. .orma ad!ectivului
)d!ectivele sunt invariabile. Ele nu si schimba forma n functie de gen sau numar.
Ex.: ) hot potato, some hot potatoes.
$entru a sublinia sau accentua sensul unui ad!ectiv se pot folosi very, really:
Ex.: ) very hot potato, some really hot potatoes.
3.5. $ozitia ad!ectivului
2e obicei ad!ectivul se aseaza n fata substantivului determinat:
Ex.: ) good movie.
2upa verbe auxiliare ca to be, to become, to seem, to loo6, to taste, to appear,
to feel, to 6eep, to ma6e, to smell, to sound, to turn, etc:
Ex.: 7he movie is good.
/ou seem upset.
7his cheese tastes different.
2upa substantiv n expresii fixe:
Ex.: the $rincess 1oyal, the $resident elect, the court martial
&%teva ad!ective, ca de exemplu chief, main, poor (8unfortunate stau numai n
fata substantivului determinat:
Ex.: 7his is the main purpose of the meeting.
7hat poor 9oman 9as living in a garage.
)ltele pot sta numai dupa un verb auxiliar: asleep, upset, a9a6e, afraid, ali6e,
alive, alone, annoyed, ill, 9ell, sorry
Ex.: :e;s asleep.
0;m alone.
"nele ad!ective si schimba sensul n functie de pozitia pe care o ocupa.
)d!ectivele involved, present, concerned au sens diferit daca sunt plasate n fata
substantivului sau dupa acesta.
Ex.: 7hese are the people involved / concerned. (the people 9ho have
something to do 9ith the matter
7hey had an involved discussion on the matter. (detailed, complex
0 am a concerned mother. (9orried, anxious
7he list of the students present is outside, on the door. (students 9ho 9ere
there
7he present status of the matter re<uires urgent attention. (current
3.3. .unctiile ad!ectivului
)d!ectivul ne spune mai multe despre calitatile substantivul determinat. )d!ectivele pot
exprima:
Sentimente sau calitati:
Ex.: 7hey ma6e an original couple.
She is a single mother.
#ationalitatea sau originea:
Ex.: 1icardo is Spanish. :is mother is )rgentinean and his father is &anadian.
0 bought him a S9iss 9atch for &hristmas.
2iferite caracteristici ale unui obiect:
Ex.: 7he table is long.

7he steel tray 9as a gift.
-%rsta:
Ex.: +y hat is too old. 0 9ill buy another one.
:e is still very young, almost a boy.
2imensiuni, marime si masuri:
Ex.: =>one 9ith the ?ind= is a very long film.
7hat boy is too tall.
&uloarea:
Ex.: 0 have a red !ac6et to go 9ith my ne9 9hite s6irt.
+aterie / material:
Ex.: :e 9ore a cotton shirt.
0t 9as a silver tray, not a steel tray.
.orma:
Ex.: ) rectangular envelope.
) round table.
@udecati, pareri sau opinii:
Ex.: >rammar is fascinating.
7he sho9 9as entertaining.
3.A. Brdinea ad!ectivelor
)tunci c%nd se folosesc doua sau mai multe ad!ective pentru a descrie acelasi
substantiv, ordinea lor depinde de functiile acestora. Exista mai multe variante, dar cea
mai obisnuita ordine este: -alue/opinion, Size, )ge/7emperature, Shape, &olour,
Brigin, +aterial
-alue/opinion delicious, lovely, charming
Size small, huge, tiny
)ge/7emperature old, hot, young, little
Shape round, square, rectangular
&olour red, blonde, black
Brigin Swedish, 'ictorian, 0hinese
+aterial plastic, wooden, silver
Exemple:
a green round plastic buc6et
an elegant little .rench cloc6
a small round 9ooden table
3.C. >radele de comparatie ale ad!ectivelor
3.C.4. .ormarea comparativului si superlativului
Exista trei grade de comparatie ale ad!ectivelor: pozitiv (nalt, comparativ (mai nalt,
superlativ (cel mai nalt. 'n limba engleza, comparativul si superlativul se formeaza
astfel:
Numar $e silabe
"Po2itiv# (omparativ !uperlativ
o silaba + "er + "est
tall taller tallest
)d!ectivele formate dintr,o silaba Dconsoana ( o vocala (
consoanaE vor dubla consoana finala:
fat fatter fattest
big bigger biggest
sad sadder saddest
$oua silabe + "er !%& more +
a$3
+ "est !%& most +
a$3
( )d!ectivele terminate n: -y, -ly, -ow
( )d!ectivele terminate n: -le, -er sau -ure
( "rmatoarele ad!ective: handsome, polite, pleasant, common,
quiet
happy happier# more happy happiest# most happy
yellow yellower# more yellow yellowest# most yellow
simple simpler# more simple simplest# most simple
tender tenderer# more
tender
tenderest# most tender
2aca nu esti sigur, foloseste more ( ad! S)" most ( ad!.
#ota: )d!ectivele terminate n -y ca de exemplu happy, pretty,
busy, sunny, lucky etc. vor nlocui -y cu -ier sau -iest la forma
comparativa si superlativa:
busy busier busiest
trei sau mai multe
silabe
more + a$3 most + a$3
important more important most important
e"pensive more e"pensive most e"pensive
Exemple:
a. ) cat is fast, a tiger is faster but a cheetah is the fastest.
b. ) car is heavy, a truc6 is heavier, but a train is the heaviest.
c. ) par6 bench is comfortable, a restaurant chair is more comfortable, but a sofa is
the most comfortable.
3.C.5. .orme neregulate
"rmatoarele ad!ective au forme de comparativ si superlativ total neregulate:
Po2itiv (omparativ !uperlativ
good better best
bad worse worst
little less least
old older # elder oldest # eldest
much ! man# more most
$ar further # farther furthest # farthest
3.C.3. &omparatia ad!ectivelor
the ( superlative
Ex.: 7his is the oldest theater in Fondon.
comparative ( than , pentru a compara diferentele dintre doua obiecte,
evenimente sau fiinte:
Ex.: :e ma6es fe9er mista6es than you do.
7hailand is sunnier than #or9ay.
)lbert is more intelligent than )rthur.
as ( ad!ective ( as , constructie folosita pentru a compara oameni, locuri,
fiinte, evenimete sau obiecte, ntre care nu exista diferente:
Ex.: $eter is 5A years old. @ohn is 5A years old. $eter is as old as @ohn.
1amona is as happy as 1aphael.
) tiger is as dangerous as a lion.
not as ( ad!ective ( as , putem arata diferentele dintre doua substantive
folosind contructia not so/as ...as:
Ex.: +ont Glanc is not as high as +ount Everest.
#or9ay is not as sunny as 7hailand

1. !crie comparativul si superlativul urmatoarelor
a$3ective0 ha%%#& brave& bus#& clever& dr#& bad& $at&
man#& beauti$ul& di$$icult& e'citing& $ar& good.
2. (ompletea2a cu as& the sau than, $upa ca20
- ,hat about this one?
- (t-s better 5555 the one we saw in +arrods*
- (t-s bigger 5555 the one in our local shop*
- 2ut it-s more e"pensive 5555 the others*
- ;o we want one 5555 big 555 that?
- /es, 5555 bigger, 5555 better* Let-s buy it* (t-s 5555 best we-ve seen so far*
3. (ompletea2a spatiile libere cu forma $e comparativ sau superlativ a
a$3ectivelor $in parante2a "a$auga si than acolo un$e este ca2ul#0
)he I o-clock train is much (fast 5555 the L*MN one* 1f course it is (cro9ded
55555 the L*MN train and the tickets are (expensive 55555* /ou get (cheap
55555 fares before I o-clock* Still, it-s the (<uic6 55555 way of getting to 2ath,
unless you want to fly, and getting to the airport is much (difficult 5555 getting
to the station*


.ec/ia 0 %$verbul





)dverbele sunt cuvinte care ne spun mai multe despre cum , unde, c%nd, c%t de
frecvent sau n ce mHsura are loc o actiune.
A.4. .unctia adverbelor
)stfel, adverbele determina n general verbe:
Ex.: 7he bus moved slo9ly. (cumI
0 am going home tomorro9. (c%ndI
)dverbele pot determina si ad!ective: /ou loo6 absolutely fabulousJ
Sau alte adverbe: She played the violin extremely 9ell. /ou;re spea6ing too <uietly.
Sau chiar propozitii intregi: $erhaps 9e;ll see you again next year.
A.5. .orma adverbelor
A.5.4. )dverbele se formeaza de cele mai multe ori prin adaugarea unui ,ly la forma de
singular a ad!ectivului:
%$3ectiv %$verb
()d!ectiv (
ly
4xemple

careful carefully +e carefully picked up a tie*
quick quickly )ime goes quickly*
slow slowly +e walked slowly to the door*
+odificari ortografice:
2aca ad!ectivul se termina in ,y, acesta se va inlocui cu ,i ( ,ly.
Ex.: easy , easily, angry , angrily, luc6y , luc6ily
&%nd avem un ,le terminal (,able, ,ible, ,le, dispare ,e si este inlocuit cu ,y.
Ex.: probable , probably, terrible , terribly, gentle , gently
)d!ectivele terminate in ,ic adauga ,ally.
Ex.: basic , basically, economic , economically, tragic , tragically
Exceptie: public , publicly
.orme neregulate
Ex.: true , truly, due , duly, 9hole , 9holly
A.5.5. "nele adverbe au aceeasi forma ca si ad!ectivele:
Ex.: early, fast, hard, high, late, near, straight, 9rong
&ompara:
7his is a hard exercise. (ad!ectiv
:e 9or6s hard. (adverb
?e sa9 many high buildings. (ad!ectiv
7he bird fle9 high in the s6y. (adverb
A.5.3. "nor ad!ective le corespund doua forme adverbiale, care au sensuri diferite:
%$3ectiv Forme
a$verbiale
4xemple
deep F* deep
O* deeply
+e looked dee% into her eyes* (adanc
She is dee%l# in love* (profund, p%na
peste cap
direct F* direct
O* directly
/ou can dial =ew /ork direct* (n mod
direct
+e went there directl#* (direct, fara
nt%rziere
first F* first
O* firstly
My mother came in $irst, then my
brothers and sisters* (nt%i
(irstl#, ( would like to welcome you
here* (n primul r%nd
)lte exemple: hard, light, !ust, last, late, most, near, prett, right, round, short, 9rong.

5ell ' Goo$
,ell este adverbul care corespunde formei ad!ectivale good.
)hey are good swimmers*
)hey swim )ell*
She is a good pianist*
She plays the piano )ell*
A.3. >radele de comparatie ale adverbelor
)dverbele formeaza comparativul si superlativul la fel ca si ad!ectivele (vezi: 3.C.
>radele de comparatie ale ad!ectivelor:
)dauga ,er pentru comparativ si ,est pentru superlativ la adverbele dintr,o
singura silaba: hard , harder , hardest
)dauga more pentru comparativ si most pentru superlativ la adverbele formate
din doua sau mai multe silabe si la cele terminate in ,ly: seriously , more
seriously , most seriously
"nele adverbe au forme neregulate la comparativ si superlativ: badly , 9orse ,
9orst, little , less , least, 9ell , better , best, much , more , most
2e retinutJ "neori most poate avea sensul de very:
?e 9ere most grateful for your help.
0 am most impressed by this application.
A.A. &lasificarea adverbelor
4. )dverbe de mod
5. )dverbe de loc si directie
3. )dverbe de timp, durata si frecventa
A. )dverbe de probabilitate
C. )dverbe de grad
A.A.4. )dverbe de mod
)dverbele de mod ne arata cum, in ce mod are loc o actiune. Ele se aseaza in
propozitie dupa verb sau dupa complementul acestuia.
Exemple:
:e s9ims 9ell. (dupa verb
:e ran... rapidly, slo9ly, <uic6ly.
She spo6e... softly, loudly, aggressively.
@ames coughed loudly to attract her attention.
:e plays the flute beautifully. (dupa complement
:e ate the chocolate ca6e greedily.

1. )dverbul de mod nu se aseaza ntre verb si complement:
0ncorect: +e ate greedil# the chocolate cake*
&orect: +e ate the chocolate cake greedil#*
2. $ozitia adverbului n propozitie este foarte importanta mai ales atunci c%nd
exista mai multe verbe n propozitie. 2aca adverbul este asezat dupa o
propozitie, atunci acesta modifica ntregul sens exprimat n propozitie.
Bbserva diferentele de sens n functie de locul adverbului n propozitie:
+e *uietl# asked me to leave the house* (8 cererea lui a fost facuta n liniste
+e asked me to leave the house *uietl#* (8 plecarea a fost facuta n liniste
A.A.5. )dverbe de loc si directie
#e arata unde are loc actiunea verbului. Se aseaza in general dupa verbul principal sau
complementul sau.
Exemple:
2upa verb:
0 loo6ed every9here.
@ohn loo6ed ...a9ay, up, do9n, around...
0;m going ...home, out, bac6...
2upa complement:
7hey built a house nearby.
She too6 the child outside.
). :ere / there. &u verbe de miscare, here exprima ideea de nspre/ cu / mpreuna cu
vorbitorul, iar there contrariul, departe, fara participarea vorbitorului:
Ex.: &ome here (8 spre mine
0t;s in here (8 vino impreuna cu mine sa vezi
$ut it there (8 departe de mine
0t;s in there (8 du,te singur sa vezi
Expresii cu here/ there: do9n here, do9n there, over here, over there, under here,
under there, up here, up there.
G. )dverbele de loc terminate n ,9ards , exprima ideea de miscare ntr,o anumita
directie:
Ex.: bac69ards, for9ards, do9n9ards, up9ards, in9ards, out9ards, north9ards,
south9ards, east9ards, 9est9ards, home9ards, on9ards.
&ats don;t usually 9al6 bac69ards.
7he ship sailed 9est9ards.
2e retinutJ 7o9ards este prepozitie, nu adverb, astfel nc%t va fi ntotdeauna urmat de
un substantiv sau pronume:
Ex.: :e 9al6ed to9ards the car. She ran to9ards me.
&. )dverbe care exprima at%t locul c%t si directia: ahead, abroad, overseas, uphill,
do9nhill, side9ays, indoors, outdoors.
A.A.3. )dverbe de timp, durata si frecventa
)rata cand a avut loc o actiune dar si durata sau frecventa actiunii.
Ex.:
&%nd: today, yesterday, later, no9, last year
2urata, pentru c%t timp: all day, not long, for a 9hile, since last year
&%t de frecvent: sometimes, fre<uently, never, often, yearly
2e obicei, adverbele de timp se aseaza la sf%rsitul propozitiei sau emfatic, la nceputul
ei:
Ex.: Bne of my children 9rote to me yesterday.
Fater the boy understood the story.
)dverbele care indica durata se aseaza la sfarsitul propozitiei:
Ex.: She stayed in the house all day.
+y mother lived in .rance for a year.
2e retinutJ .or este intotdeauna urmat de o expresie de durata: for three days, for a
9ee6, for several years, for t9o centuries.
Since este intotdeauna urmat expresia unui moment punctual n timp: since +onday,
since 4KKL, since the last 9ar.
)dverbele de frecventa exprima frecventa unei actiuni si se aseaza de obicei in fata
verbului principal, dar dupa verbele auxiliare (cum ar fi be, have, may, must:
0 often eat vegetarian food. (in fata verbului principal
/ou must al9ays fasten your seat belt. (dupa verbul auxiliar must
0 have never forgotten my first 6iss. (dupa verbul auxiliar have si in fata verbului
principal forgotten
"nele adverbe de frecventa exprima regularitatea incidentei unei actiuni si se plaseaza
la sfarsitul prepozitiei:
7his magazine is published monthly.
:e visits his mother once a 9ee6.
)dverbe de fecventa: fre<uently, generally, normally, occasionally, often, regularly,
sometimes, usually.
2e retinutJ /et se foloseste in propozitii interogative sau negative:
:ave you finished your 9or6 yetI #o, not yet.
7hey haven;t met him yet.
Still exprima ideea de continuitate. Se foloseste in propozitii pozitive sau interogative.
0 am still hungry.
2o you still 9or6 for the GG&I
Brdinea adverbelor de timp
2aca este nevoie de mai multe adverbe de timp in aceeasi propozitie ordinea lor va fi:
6r$inea 4xemple
4: adverbe de
durata
5: adverbe de
frecventa
3: adverbe de timp
+ , - 3 ( work %F& for five hours %O& every day*
- , . 3 )he maga<ine was published %O& weekly
%M& last year*
+ , . 3 ( was abroad %F& for two months %M&
last year*
+ , - , . 3 She worked in a hospital %F& for
two days %O& every week %M& last year*
A.A.A. )dverbe de siguranta si probabilitate
)cestea exprima cat de sigur este vorbitorul de actiunea sau evenimentul pe care il
relateaza: certainly, definitely, probably, undoubtedly, surely, maybe, obviously,
perhaps, possibly, really. Se aseaza in propozitie intre verbul auxiliar si verbul principal.
Ex.: :e has certainly forgotten the meeting.
$entru o formulare emfatica sau o reliefare a afirmatiilor, se aseaza n debutul frazei:
Ex.: "ndoubtedly, ?inston &hurchill 9as a great politician.
2e retinutJ Surely asezat la inceputul propozitiei inseamna ca vorbitorul este convins de
adevarul unei afirmatii, dar incearca sa obtina o confirmare: Surely you;ve got a
bicycleI
A.A.C. )dverbe de grad
)ceastea exprima intensitatea sau gradul de indeplinire a actiunii unui verb, ad!ectiv
sau adverb: almost, nearly, <uite, !ust, too, enough, hardly, scarcely, completely, very,
extremely.
Focul lor in propozitie este fie in fata ad!ectivului sau adverbului pe care il determina,
fie in fata verbului principal:
Ex.: 7he 9ater 9as extremely cold.
:e 9as !ust leaving.
She has almost finished.
Enough, very, too
Enough inseamna =pana la punctul necesar pentru a...= si se plaseaza dupa ad!ectiv
sau adverb:
0s your coffee hot enoughI (ad!ectiv
:e didn;t 9or6 hard enough. (adverb
7oo 8 =mai mult decat este necesar pentru...= si se aseaza in fata ad!ectivului sau
adverbului:
7his coffee is too hot. (ad!ective
:e 9or6s too hard. (adverb
-ery intareste sensul unui ad!ectiv sau adverb si se aseaza in fata acestora:
7he girl 9as very beautiful. (ad!ectiv
:e 9or6ed very <uic6ly. (adverb
2e retinutJ Exista o diferenta importanta intre too si very:
-ery exprima un fapt: :e spea6s very <uic6ly.
7oo sugereaza existenta unei probleme: :e spea6s too <uic6ly (for me to understand.
)lte adverbe asemanatoare lui very: extremely, especially, particularly, pretty, rather,
<uite, fairly, rather, not especially, not particularly.

1. %lege a$3ectivul sau a$verbul $in parante2a pentru a completa corect
fiecare pereche $e propo2itii0
a. (t-s an 555 question* /ou should be able to answer it quite 555* (easy/ easily
b. ( can type a bit but (-m very 555 * (-m afraid ( can only type very 555* (slo9/
slo9ly
c. Mr @obbins shouted 555 at the children* )he children made Mr @obbins very
555* (angry/ angrily
$. Mary sang 555 at the concert last night* She sang a 5555 song at the concert
last night* (beautiful/ beautifully
e. ,hat was wrong with 2ill? +e looked very 555 * 2ill shook
his head 555* (sad/ sadly
2. (ompletea2a urmatoarele propo2itii cu ago& since, sau $or0
a. 0olumbus discovered :merica about si" hundred years 555*
b. 4hana has been an independent country 555 FGJL*
c. @ussia has been a republic 555 over seventy years*
$. 1"ford has been a center of learning 555 more than a thousand years*
e. Most 2ritish universities were founded less than fifty years 555*
3. (ompletea2a urmatoarele propo2itii cu0 still& #et& alread#& an# longer&
an# more.
a. .ohn doesn-t live in London 555 * +e-s moved to 2ristol*
b. )he children haven-t gone to bed 555 * )hey-re 555 watching television*
c. - (s :nne 555 here? - =o, she has 555 left*
$. 2ecky hasn-t gone to university 555* She-s 5555 at school*
e. +ave you started your new job 555 or are you 555 working in London?
f. )hanks for your help* ( won-t trouble you 555*


Lecia 5: Pronumele


).1. Functia pronumelui
$ronumele sunt cuvinte lipsite de inteles de sine statator. Ele nu denumesc si nu
caracterizeaza nimic, functia lor fiind aceea de a inlocui un substantiv, facand astfel
referire la o idee, obiect sau actiune mentionate anterior sau cunoscuta de catre
interlocutor.
Ex.: .ohn did all the work*
/e did all the work*
0ho did all the work?
).2. Forma pronumelui
$ronumele au forme specifice in functie de:
Numar: singular , this* plural , these
(a2: #ominativ , she* >enitiv , hers* 2ativ , to her* )cuzativ , her
Gen: masculin , he* .eminin , she* neutru , it
$ronumele pot fi simple (you, which, many sau compuse (everybody, whatever, no
one.
).3. (lasificarea pronumelor
2upa continut si functie pronumele pot fi:
4. $ersonale
5. 1eflexive
3. #ehotarate
A. 2emonstrative
C. 1elative
M. 2e ntarire
L. 0nterogative
N. 1eciproce
).3.1. Pronumele personale
Nominativ Genitiv 7ativ %cu2ativ
!ingular
0 mine (to me me
you yours (to you you
he his (to him him
she hers (to her her
it its (to it it
Plural
9e ours (to us us
you yours (to you you
they theirs (to them them

0 se scrie intotdeauna cu ma!uscula.
(ts (pronume nu are apostrof.
(t-s vine de la it is sau it hasJ
Forme arhaice si poetice0 pers. 00 sg. , thou, thine, %to& thee

1 gave him the book*
/e ran the London Marathon*
1t-s a pleasure to him*
1 only played against her once*
)hese books are ours*
(s this pen #ours or mine?
2ou ! The# impersonal , putem folosi aceste doua pronume pentru a vorbi despre
oameni in general.
Ex.: 2ou have to drive on the other side of the road in 4reat 2ritain*
The# say she-s very clever*
1t , poate indeplini o serie de functii de mare importanta:
1t impersonal (in expresii impersonale temporale, exprimand starea vremii, distante
sau in contructii pasive
Ex.: (t-s L o-clock*
(t was spring*
(s it Monday?
+ow hot it isC
+ow far is it to the station?
1t demostrativ
Ex.: ,ho is it? (t-s the postman*
(t-s the children*
).3.2. Pronumele reflexive
)cestea insotesc un verb si se refera la subiect. Se folosesc atunci cand subiectul si
complementul direct se refera la aceeasi persoana.
.orme:
!ingular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself
Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves
Ex.: ( wanted to do it myself but he insisted on helping me*
She fell off the ladder and injured herself*
/ou can do these tasks by yourself or with a partner*
:fter five minutes, it will automatically turn itself down*
Let-s buy ourselves a chair for the garden*
)hey built the house themselves*
).3.3. Pronumele nehotarate
Some, any, every se pot combina cu -one, -body, -thing pentru a obtine pronumele
nehotarate: anyone, anybody, anything, someone, somebody, something, everyone,
everybody, everything.
=o poate forma impreuna cu -body sau -one pronumele: nobody, no-one.

)tat in engleza britanica cat si in cea americana, pronumele
nehotarate anyone, anybody, someone, somebody, everyone,
everybody, no-one sunt din punct de vedere gramatical la singular si trebuie
folosite cu un verb la singular.
%lte pronume nehotarate0
enough, few, fewer, less, little, many, much, several, more, most, all, both, every,
each, any, either, neither, none, some.
2e retinutJ
2aca acestea forme preceda un substantiv nu mai sunt pronume, ci determinanti
substantivali.
Ex.: Dew will be chosenP fewer will finish*
Little is e"pected*
).3.. Pronumele $emonstrativ
$ronumele demostrative: this, these, that, those, such pot functiona atat ca pronume,
cat si ca determinanti substantivali.
Ex.: )hat is incredibleC (referring to something you !ust sa9
( will never forget this* (referring to a recent experience
Such is my belief* (referring to an explanation !ust made
)his si these sugereaza ideea de apropiere temporala sau spatiala, pe cand that si
those sugereaza ideea de departare.
Ex.: )hese %pancakes sitting here now on my plate& are delicious*
)hose %pancakes that ( had yesterday morning& were even better*
)his %book in my hand& is well writtenP that %book that (-m pointing to, over there, on
the table& is trash*
)ceasta idee de departare se poate transforma chiar in dispret sau instrainare afectiva:
Ex.: :re you going to wear these? %)hey are awful* ( do not like them at all*&
0an you belive ( would have bought that?
).3.). Pronumele relative
$ronumele relativ face referire la un substantiv sau inlocuitor substantival mentionat in
contextul aterior (antecedent si leaga propozitia sau grupul de cuvinte care explica sau
da mai multe detalii despre substantivul antecedent de propozitia continand
substantivul determinat.
$ronumele relative sunt : who, whoever, which, that.
Ex.: )he student )ho studies hardest usually does the best*
)legerea corecta dintre which si that se inscrie printre cele mai frecvente nelamuriri ale
studentilor la limba engleza. 0n general, which se foloseste pentru a introduce propozitii
care au natura de paranteze, explicatii suplimentare dar care pot fi inlaturate sau omise
fara a schimba intelesul frazei. 2in acest motiv propozitiile introduse prin which sunt in
general intre virgule. 2in contra propozitiile introduse de that sunt considerate
indispensabile sensului frazei si nu se vor pune intre virgule.
,ho si formele sale se refera la persoane, which se refera la lucruri, iar that poate face
referire la ambele.
Ex.: )he man )ho hijacked the plane wanted to get to 0uba*
)he couple )ho live ne"t door have the radio on all night*
)he team that won the championship received a great reception*
)his is the program )hich won the pri<e*
,e-ll plant new trees to replace those )hich fell*
).3.8. Pronumele $e intarire
0nsoteste substantive sau pronume personale pentru a le sublinia. &a forma sunt
identice cu pronumele reflexive:
!ingular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself
Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves
Ex.: ( m#sel$ don-t know the answer*
Mary did all this hersel$*
Mary hersel$ did all this*
4xpresii0 by myself 8 singur, de unul singur
Ex.: ( worked b# m#sel$*
Little .ane read the story b# hersel$*
).3.9. Pronumele interogativ
$ronumele interogative introduc intrebari, propozitii interogative directe sau indirecte.
Forme: who? what? which? whose? %to& whom?
Ex.: 0ho said that?
0hose are those books?
( do not remember to )hom ( gave my sweater*
0hat happened?
0hat-s the weather like?
).3.:. Pronumele reciproce
Forme: each other si one another. Se folosesc pentru a exprima relatii de reciprocitate
intre fiinte, idei, lucruri.
Ex.: (f 2ob gave :licia a book for 0hristmas and :licia gave 2ob a book for 0hristmas,
we can say that they gave each other books*
My mother and ( give each other a hard time*
)hey borrowed each other-s ideas*
2e retinutJ Each other se refera la doua obiecte, pe cand one another face referire la
mai mult de doua obiecte sau fiinte.
Ex.: )he scientists in this lab often use one another-s equipment*
+ockey players hit one another quite frequently*

1. (ompletea2a pronumele personale care lipsesc0
7he other day 9hen 0 9as shopping a 9oman stopped OmeO
and as6ed OOO the 9ay to the post office. OOO gave her directions and OOO
than6ed OOO politely, then ran off <uic6ly in the opposite direction. OOO put my
hand in my poc6et and found that my 9allet 9as missing. OOO must have ta6en
it 9hile OOO 9ere tal6ing. OOO shouted and ran after OOO but OOO 9as no good.
OOO had disapeared in the cro9d.
2. (ompletea2a urmatoarele propo2itii cu pronume0
0 did it OOO
She gave OOO to OOO
?e made the dinner OOO
7hey bought OOO in Singapore.
+y pen is blue* OOO is green. 7his pen is blue so it is OOO
0 can;t do this. &an OOO help meI
2on;t give your cats a bath. 7hey 9ash OOO
:e saved his money so that he could buy ... a bicycle.
OOO 6no9s some 9ords in English li6e o6ay, hi and bye.
OOO the students passed the exam.
&an you tell OOO the timeI
0t rained so OOO 9ent for a 9al6.
3. Pu22le0
7here are some boo6s on a shelf. 7here a three big ones and t9o small ones.
Bne of the big ones is red. 7here is a small green boo6. 7here are t9o green
ones altogether and t9o blue ones. Bnly one of the small boo6s is green.
%cum raspun$e la urmatoarele intrebari0
3.4. , :o9 many boo6s are there altogetherI
3.5. , ?hat colour are the big boo6sI
3.3. , ?hat colour are the small onesI
Lecia 6: Verbul. Notiuni introductive.


-erbul exprima ideea existentei sau a actiunii intr,o propozitie.
Ex.: ( am a student*
)he students %assed all their courses*
8.1. (ele forme verbale
7erminatiile formelor din limba engleza sunt foarte usor de tinut minte. Exista A forme
verbale de baza. Fimba engleza formeaza timpurile verbale cu a!utorul verbelor
auxiliare, spre deosebire de limba romana, unde timpurile verbale se formeaza cu
a!utorul $esinentelor. 2e remarcat ca in limba engleza nu exista o forma verbala
speciala pentru viitor.
&ele A forme verbale de baza sunt importante deoarece cu aceste forme si cu a!utorul
verbelor auxiliare se formeaza timpurile in limba engleza:
Numele
verbului
Forma $e
ba2a
Forma $e
trecut
Participiul
pre2ent
Participiul
trecut
to )or3
0 can +or;.
0 +or;.
0 +or;e$.
0 am
+or;ing.
0 have
+or;e$.
to )rite
0 can +rite.
0 +rite.
0 +rote$.
0 am
+riting.
0 have
+ritten.
(ele mai frecvent folosite verbe neregulate
"rmatorul tabel reproducele cele mai frecvente verbe neregulate in patru forme
verbale reprezentative:
.orma de baza, adica infinitivul: to fly
$ersoana 000 singular a timpului prezent: he flies
$ersoana 000 singular a trecutului: he flew
$articipiul trecut: he has flown
<ase Form
Present
=hir$ Person
Past =hir$
Person
Past Participle
arise
be
bear
begin
bite
blo9
brea6
bring
buy
catch
choose
come
creep
dive
do
drag
dra9
dream
drin6
drive
dro9n
eat
fall
fight
fly
forget
forgive
freeze
get
give
go
gro9
hang
hide
6no9
lay
lead
lie
light
arises
is
bears
begins
bites
blo9s
brea6s
brings
buys
catches
chooses
comes
creeps
dives
does
drags
dra9s
dreams
drin6s
drives
dro9ns
eats
falls
fights
flies
forgets
forgives
freezes
gets
gives
goes
gro9s
hangs
hides
6no9s
lays
leads
lies
lights
arose
9as/9ere
bore
began
bit
ble9
bro6e
brought
bought
caught
chose
came
crept
dived/dove
did
dragged
dre9
dreamed/dreamt
dran6
drove
dro9ned
ate
fell
fought
fle9
forgot
forgave
froze
got
gave
9ent
gre9
hung
hid
6ne9
laid
led
lay
lit
arisen
been
borne
begun
bitten/bit
blo9n
bro6en
brought
bought
caught
chosen
come
crept
dived
done
dragged
dra9n
dreamt
drun6
driven
dro9ned
eaten
fallen
fought
flo9n
forgotten
forgiven
frozen
got/gotten
given
gone
gro9n
hung
hidden
6no9n
laid
led
lain
lit
lose
prove
ride
ring
rise
run
see
see6
set
sha6e
sing
sin6
sit
spea6
spring
steal
sting
stri6e
s9ear
s9im
s9ing
ta6e
tear
thro9
uses
9a6e
9ear
9rite
loses
proves
rides
rings
rises
runs
sees
see6s
sets
sha6es
sings
sin6s
sits
spea6s
springs
steals
stings
stri6es
s9ears
s9ims
s9ings
ta6es
tears
thro9s
used
9a6es
9ears
9rites
lost
proved
rode
rang
rose
ran
sa9
sought
set
shoo6
sang
san6
sat
spo6e
sprang
stole
stung
struc6
s9ore
s9am
s9ung
too6
tore
thre9
used
9o6e/9a6ed
9ore
9rote
lost
proved/proven
ridden
rung
risen
run
seen
sought
set
sha6en
sung
sun6
sat
spo6en
sprung
stolen
stung
struc6
s9orn
s9um
s9ung
ta6en
torn
thro9n
used
9o6en/9a6ed/9o6e
9orn
9ritten
8.2. >erbele auxiliare ? be& have& do
-erbele auxiliare be, have, do se utilizeaza in formarea timpurilor verbale, a formelor
negative si interogative.
Ex.: +e is planning to get married soon*
( haven-t seen $eter since last night*
Be, ca auxiliar, este folosit pentru a forma aspectul continuu, in combinatie cu
participiul prezent.
Ex.: +e is living in 4ermany*
Be, mpreuna cu participiul trecut formeaza diateza pasiva
Ex.: )hese cars are made in .apan*
/ave in combinatie cu participiul trecut formeaza timpurile perfecte.
Ex.: ( have changed my mind*
( wish you had met 4uy*
$rezentul perfect continuu, trecutul perfect continuu sunt formate cu ambele auxiliare
be si have:
Ex.: +e has been working very hard recently*
She did not know how long she had been lying there*
Be si have se folosesc de asemenea ca auxiliare pentru a forma propozitii negative si
interogative cu timpurile continue si perfecte.
Ex.: +e isn-t going*
+asn-t she seen it yet?
)uxiliarul do se foloseste pentru a forma negativul si interogativul prezentului sau
trecutului simplu.
Ex.: +e doesn-t think he can come to the party*
;o you like her new haircut?
)uxiliarul do se poate folosi cu verbe principale: do, have.
Ex.: +e didn-t do his homework*
+e doesn-t have any money*
0n propozitii afirmative, do se foloseste doar pentru evidentiere sau contrast.
Ex.: 0 do feel sorry for 1oger.

#u se foloseste niciodata auxiliarul do cu verbul to be.
Singura exceptie este imperativul:
;on-t be stupidC
;o be a god boy and sit stillC
8.3. @o$ul
@o$ul verbal se refera la una dintre cele trei atitudini pe care le poate avea un
vorbitor fata de continutul mesa!ului exprimat.
@o$ul in$icativ, prezent in ma!oritatea frazelor de pe aceasta pagina, se foloseste
pentru a face o afirmatie sau a pune o intrebare.
@o$ul imperativ se foloseste pentru a da instructiuni, ordine, directive, sugestii cu
caracter pronuntat.
Ex.: 4et your homework done before you watch television tonight*
$lease include cash payment with your order form* 4et out of townC
Se observa ca nu exista nici un subiect in aceste propozitii. $ronumele you (singular
sau plural este subiectul implicit al propozitiilor imperative. +a!oritatea propozitiilor
imperative vor avea deci subiectul la persoana 00.
Exceptie: constructie imperativa care include un subiect la persoana 0
Ex.: Let-s %or Let us& work on these things together*
@o$ul sub3onctiv se foloseste in propozitiile subordonate in urmatoarele scopuri:
4. expresia unei dorinte*
5. fraze conditionale care incep cu if si exprima o conditie ireala
3. fraze introduse prin as if sau as though si descriu speculatii sau conditii ireale
A. fraze introduse prin that si care exprima cereri, sugestii, solicitari.
Ex.: She wishes her boyfriend were here*
(f .uan were more aggressive, he-d be a better hockey player*
,e would have passed if we had studied harder*
+e acted as if he were guilty*
( requested that he be present at the hearing*
Sub!onctivul nu este un mod important in limba engleza cum este in alte limbi, de
exemplu in franceza sau spaniola. 0n multe situatii care in alte limbi cer sub!onctivul,
in limba engleza sunt folosite formele numeroaselor verbe auxiliarele.
8.. >erbele fra2ale
B alta particularitate a limbii engleze o reprezinta verbele frazale. -erbele frazale sunt
formate dintr,un verb si un alt cuvant, de obicei o prepozitie. Ele au luat nastere in
vorbirea de zi cu zi.
-erbele frazale au sensuri mai greu de ghicit la prima vedere si pot avea mai multe
astfel de intelesuri, de multe ori diferite. 7e exemplu, to come out are 4N intelesuri
diferiteJ
-erbele pot fi combinate cu propozitii sau alte cuvinte pentru a obtine noi entitati.
Ex.: stand out, stand up, stand in, stand off, stand by, stand fast, stand pat, stand
down, stand against, stand for.
+ai mult, verbul si prepozitia sa par a nu avea nici o legatura in contextul respectiv
Ex.: Dill this outC Dill out this form* (a completa un formular
)hree masked gunmen held up the Security 2ank this afternoon* (a !efui
/ou left out the part about the police chase down :sylum :venue* (a omite
)he lawyers looked over the papers carefully before questioning the witness* (a
examina
B lista sumara a celor mai folosite verbe frazale, insotite de o scurta explicatie si un
exemplu, poate fi gasita la: http://9ebster.commnet.edu/grammar/phrasals.htm.

1. (ompletea2a cu be sau have la formele verbale
potrivite0
Swans 555 large birds - almost H feet tall* )hey 555 log necks* Some swans
555 very tame* )hey often come near people for food* Demales usually 5555
about si" babies which are called cygnets* 0ygnets 555 grey in colour and 555
very small wings but when they are fully grown they 555 large and strong
wings and 555 white in colour* Swans can live to be HN*
2. (ompletea2a verbele fra2ale in propo2itiile $e mai 3os0
hung up, came to, catch on, eat out, put on, talk over, get by, turned down,
find out, show up
+e tried to 5555 his jacket before his tie was tied*
My family was able to 5555on very little money when ( was young*
)he detective vowed to 5555 who the murderer was before the case went to
trial*
,henever we get tired of cooking, we 555 at our favorite (talian restaurant*
0arlos 5555 on his sister because he was so tired of listening to her whining on
the phone*
)ashonda was astonished that she was 555 for the counselor-s position*
)he committee promised that the celebrity would 555555 at the big event*
,hen he 555, his wallet and bike were nowhere to be found*
$rofessor Darbman promised to 555 the e"am after she returned the results*
)erri was able to 555 to the most comple" problems in calculus before anyone
else*


Lecia 7: Timpurile verbale: prezentul
simplu si continuu


Este foarte important sa intelegem utilizarea si sensul timpurilor in limba engleza.
+ulte dintre aceste forme verbale nu au corespondent in limba romana. +ai mult,
sensul exprimat de formele verbale in limba engleza nu corespunde intotdeauna cu
cel utilizat in limba romana.
9.1. (lasificarea timpurilor verbale
9.1.1. in functie $e timp0
Pre2entul0
4. $rezentul simplu
5. $rezentul continuu
3. $rezent perfect
A. $rezent perfect continuu
=recutul0
C. 7recut simplu
M. 7recut continuu
L. 7recut perfect
N. 7recut perfect continuu
>iitorul0
K. -iitorul simplu
4P. -iitorul continuu
44. -iitorul perfect
45. -iitorul perfect continuu
1. PA4B4N=&. !,@P.&
1.1. Forma
$rezentul simplu are forma de baza a verbului (write, work.
Fa persoana a 000,a sg., forma de baza , "s (he writes, she works.
Ex.: ( play, you play, we play, they play
+e plays, she plays, it plays
.orma negativa se formeaza cu auxiliarul do:
Ex.: ( do not drink tea*
She#he does not play football*
.orma interogativa:
Ex.: ;o you work here?
4oes she#he sing beautifully?

.orma prezentului simplu pentru you, persoana a 00,a singular
si plural, este identica.
$ersoana a 000,a singular a prezentului simplu adauga "s la sfarsitJ
1.2. Functii0
)ctiuni obisnuite, care se intampla in prezent sau in mod regulat, dar nu neaparat in
momentul exact al vorbirii:
Ex.: Mina plays tennis every weekend*
)he $ost office opens at G3HJ*
)devaruri sau realitati general acceptate:
Ex.: Some vegetarians eat fish but they do not eat meat*
,inds carry weather balloons around the earth at the height of OH kilometers*
Expresia opiniilor:
Ex.: ( think Spain is beautiful*
)hey believe everything they read*
Expresie a preferintelor:
Ex.: Lisette likes cats and dogs, but she prefers cats*
.im prefers maths to languages*
Se foloseste pentru a exprima asa numitul prezent istoric, facand astfel referire la
actiuni care s,au intamplat de fapt in trecut.
Ex.: ,e were watching the back door when, all of a sudden, in walks ;ierdre*
;ierdre tells me that she took her brother to the dentist*
$rezentul simplu poate avea valenta de viitor mai ales cu verbe ca: arrive, come,
leave care sugereaza evenimente planuite sau programate:
Ex.: )he train from 2oston arrives this afternoon at two o-clock*
+igh tide is at M3FJ p*m* )he Super 2owl starts at Q3FJ p*m*
Expresii care semnaleaza frecvent actiunile obisnuite exprimate prin prezentul simplu:
all the time, always, every classe, every day, every holiday, every hour, every month,
every semester, every week, every year, most of the time, never, often, rarely,
sometimes, usually
1.3. (on3ugare
singular 0 9al6 you 9al6 he/she/it 9al6s
plural 9e 9al6 you 9al6 they 9al6
singular 0 sleep you sleep he/she/it sleeps
plural 9e sleep you sleep they sleep
singular 0 am you are he/she/it is
plural 9e are you are they are
Exemple:
( )al3 to work every day*
)he 0hicago 2ulls sometimes %ractice in this gymnasium*
;r* Espino<a o%erates according to her own schedule*
0oach 0alhoun recruits from countries outside the A*S*:*
2. PA4B4N=&. (6N=,N&&
2.1. Forma
)cest timp se formeaza cu a!utorul verbului auxiliar to be la prezent ( forma de baza
a verbului ( -ing (participiu prezent.
Ex.: ( am bu#ing all my family-s 0hristmas gifts early this year*
She is )or3ing through the holiday break*
.orma negativa , se adauga not dupa forma de prezent simplu a auxiliarului to be.
Ex.: (t is not raining*
.orma interogativa se obtine prin inversiunea auxiliarului to be cu subiectul:
Ex.: )re they playingI
0s he eatingI
2.2. Functii
$rezentul continuu indica: o actiune care se afla in plina desfasurare in momentul
vorbirii.
Ex.: )he phone is ringing* ( can-t answer it* (-m washing my hair*
(t-s raining so they have to stop the game*
B actiune care se afla in desfasurare in perioada prezenta, dar care poate nu se
intampla concomitent cu momentul vorbirii.
Ex.: )hey are writing a new book*
She-s studying English at the Language 0enter*
2escrie o tendinta sau actiune care a debutat recent:
Ex.: More and more people are starting to play golf in Malaysia*
$entru a desemna o actiune care este planificata pentru viitor:
Ex.: )o meet the demand for English language courses, they are planning to e"pand*
Mohan is leaving for London ne"t week*
2.3. >erbele $inamice si statice
0n general, numai anumite verbe pot fi folosite la aspectul continuu si acestea se
numesc verbe dinamice.
)spectul continuu al unui verb arata ca o actiune este, era sau va fi in desfasurare.
.ormele verbale progresive (aspectul continuu se folosesc numai in cazul verbelor
dinamice, de miscare, care exprima calitati capabile de schimbare.
#u se spune =+e is being tall= sau =+e is resembling his mother= sau =( am wanting
spaghetti for dinner=,
ci vom spune: =+e is tall=, =+e resembles his mother=, =( want spaghetti=.
7abelul urmator descrie in detaliu diferentele dintre verbele statice si cele dinamice:
VE5BE 4167819E
>erbe care exprima o activitate0
abandon, ask, beg, call, drink, eat, help, learn, listen, look at, play, rain, read, say,
slice, throw, whisper, work, write
Ex.: ( am begging you* ( was learning Drench* )hey will be playing upstairs*
Sensul este identic cu cel al formelor simple:
Ex.: ( beg you* ( learned Drench* )hey will play upstairs*
>erbe care exprima procese0
change, deteriorate, growmature, slow down, widen
Ex.: )he corn is growing rapidly* )raffic is slowing down*
Sensul este identic cu cel al formelor simple:
Ex.: )he corn grows rapidly* )raffic slows down*
>erbe $e perceptii sen2oriale0
ache, feel, hurt, itch
Ex.: =( feel bad= si =( am feeling bad= au acelasi sens in acest caz.
>erbe care exprima actiuni tran2itive0
arrive, die, fall, land, leave, lose
.ormele continue indica inceputul actiunii pe cand formele temporale simple, din
contra.
Ex.: She was falling out of bed %when ( caught her&*
She falls out of bed every night*
>erbe expriman$ actiuni momentane0
hit, jump, kick, knock, nod, tap
.ormele continue indica durata scurta si sugereaza repetitia.
Ex.: She is hitting her brother*
+e is jumping around the house*
VE5BE ST7T19E
Verbe de %erce%tie& senzatie& activitate mentala:
abhor, adore, astonish, believe, desire, detest, dislike, doubt, feel, forgive, guess,
hate, hear, imagine, impress, intend, know, like, love, mean, mind, perceive, please,
prefer, presuppose, reali<e, recall, recogni<e, regard, remember, satisfy, see, smell,
suppose, taste, think, understand, want, wish
Ex.: ( detest rudabaga, si nu ( am detesting rudabaga.
( prefer cinnamon toast, si nu ( am preferring cinnamon toast.
>erbe $e relatie si posesie0
be, belong to, concern, consist of, contain, cost, depend on, deserve, equal, fit, have,
include, involve, lack, matter, need, owe, own, possess, require, resemble, seem,
sound
Ex.: ( am sick, si nu ( am being sick*
( own ten acres of land, si nu ( am owning ten acres.
My brother owes me ten dollars si nu My brother is owing me ten dollars.

0maginati,va diferenta de inteles dintre verbele statice si cele dinamice prin
prisma intentiei, cele statice exprimand calitati neintentionate, pe cand cele
dinamice calitati intentionate:
)wo plus two e*uals four*
.ane is leaving for 2ucharest*
Equals este un verb static si nu poate lua o forma continua* nu exista optiune
sau intentie in acest caz. 2oi plus doi a fost si va fi intotdeauna egal cu patru.
(s leaving exprima optiunea si intentia subiectului de a efectua actiunea
respectiva.

-erbul to have nu se foloseste niciodata in aspectul continuu
atunci cand are sensul de =a suferi de=:
( have flu* +e has a fever*
Se foloseste la aspectul continuu atunci cand are intelesul de =a anga!a pe
cineva pentru o actiune=:
('m having my hair done on ,ednesday*
)hey're having the house painted*
:ave se foloseste la aspectul continuu atunci cand are sensul de =experienta=:
('m having a lot of problems with this task*
)hey're having trouble selling their house*
2.. (on3ugare
singular
0 am 9al6ing you are 9al6ing he/she/it is
9al6ing
plural 9e are 9al6ing you are 9al6ing they are 9al6ing
singular
0 am sleeping you are sleeping he/she/it is
sleeping
plural
9e are sleeping you are sleeping they are
sleeping
singular
0 am being you are being he/she/it is
being
plural 9e are being you are being they are being
Exemple:
)he summer is passing too quickly*
@aoul is acting like his father*
Some football players are not being good role models for youngsters*
(s he being good to you?

Scrie 4P propozitii cu lucruri iti plac si inca zece cu cele
care iti displac.
Exemplu: ( like tea* (n the morning ( prefer coffee*
Lecia : Timpurile trecutului si
viitorului


3. =recutul simplu
3.1. Forma
-erbele regulate formeaza trecutul simplu prin adaugarea la forma de baza a
verbului ,"ed.
Ex.: scream R screamed, work R worked
-erbele neregulate au forme proprii de trecut.
Ex.: sleep R slept, drink R drank
.orma negativa se compune cu a!utorul auxiliarului to do, con!ugat la trecut (did
, not in fata verbului principal. ;id not se folosesc des in forma contrasa
didn-t.
Ex.: ( did not jump over*
She didn't finish the work*
.orma interogativa se formeaza prin inversiunea dintre auxiliarul did si subiect:
Ex.: 4id #ou want it?
4id it rain there?
3.2. Functii
7recutul simplu se foloseste pentru a exprima fapte si realitati din trecut:
Ex.: (n the past people believed that the earth was flat*
2escrie un eveniment sau actiune incheiata petrecuta in trecut:
Ex.: .ohn Loud invented the ballpoint pen in FIII*
$entru a descrie starea, conditia sau obiceiuri din trecut:
Ex.: ( went to school by bus when ( was a child*
3.3. (on3ugare
singular
0 9al6ed you 9al6ed he/she/it
9al6ed
plural 9e 9al6ed you 9al6ed they 9al6ed
singular 0 slept you slept he/she/it slept
plural 9e slept you slept they slept
singular 0 9as you 9ere he/she/it 9as
plural 9e 9ere you 9ere they 9ere
Exemple: ,hen ( was a girl, ( )al3ed five miles to school every day*
0armelita sle%t through the entire class*
,e )or3ed really hard to make this a success, but then 0huck ruined it with
his carelessness*
Every time ( $inished a sandcastle, the waves came in and )ashed it away*
)ar<an dove into the swamp and s)am toward the alligator*
. =recutul continuu
.1. Forma
7recutul continuu se formeaza cu a!utorul formei de trecut simplu a auxiliarului to
be, )as!)ere ( forma participiului prezent (-ing a verbului principal.
Ex.: ( )as singing*
/ou )ere talking*
#egativul:
Ex.: /ou )ere not ! )eren't singing*
She )as not ! )asn't reading*
0nterogativul:
Ex.: 0as ( speaking clearly?
0ere they playing the flute?
.2. Functii
7recutul continuu ca si prezentul continuu sunt forme verbale apartinand
registrului oral, limbii vorbite cu precadere si sunt rar folosite in registrul scris.
7recutul continuu este folosit pentru a exprima actiuni in desfasurare intr,un
moment din trecut. 2eoarece indica o limita a duratei actiunii este foarte folosit
pentru a indica actiuni care au avut loc (trecut simplu in timp ce o alta actiune
era in desfasurare, sau pentru a indica o actiune in desfasurare care este
intrerupta de o alta.
Ex.: 0arlos lost his watch while he was running*
( was watching 1prah when .ohn came in screaming*
Exprima activitati din trecut:
Ex.: 1nce ( was driving through Benya with a friend*
$entru a vorbi despre obiceiuri din trecut. 7recutul continuu este insotit in acest
caz de always.
Ex.: 4race was always handing in late papers*
My father was always lecturing my brother*
0n general, numai anumite verbe pot fi folosite la aspectul continuu si acestea se
numesc verbe dinamice. (ve<i: 5.3. -erbe dinamice si verbe statice.
.3. (on3ugare
singular
0 9as 9al6ing you 9ere
9al6ing
he/she/it 9as
9al6ing
plural
9e 9ere
9al6ing
you 9ere
9al6ing
they 9ere
9al6ing
singular
0 9as sleeping you 9ere
sleeping
he/she/it 9as
sleeping
plural 9e 9ere you 9ere they 9ere
sleeping sleeping sleeping
singular
0 9as being you 9ere being he/she/it 9as
being
plural
9e 9ere being you 9ere being they 9ere
being
Exemple: ;ad )as )or3ing in his garden all morning*
;uring the mid-JNs, real estate speculators )ere bu#ing all the swampland in
0entral Dlorida, and innocent people )ere investing all their money in bogus
development projects*
0as he being good to you?
). >iitorul
0n mod paradoxal, limba engleza nu are o forma ca atare a viitorului, dar idee de
viitor se poate exprima in nenumarate moduri.
5ill' shall + infinitiv : +e will be here at J o-clock*
<e going to + infinitiv : She-s going to buy a new computer*
Pre2entul continuu : )he 2ritish 0ouncil is moving to a new building ne"t
year*
Pre2entul simplu : )he train leaves at L3FJ*
).1. Forma
&ea mai frecvent folosita modalitate de a exprima o actiune viitoare este cu
a!utorul lui )ill! shall sau a formei contractate a acestora 'll.
Ex.: She )ill leave soon*
,e shall overcome*

0n engleza moderna forma shall este foarte putin utilizata.
&ea mai des folosita in Engleza vorbita si scrisa in registrul informal este
forma -ll.
#egativul:
Ex.: ( will not # won-t finish*
0nterogativul:
Ex.: ,ill you catch the ball?
).2. Functii
-iitorul exprima preziceri ale actiunilo viitoare sau interogatii despre viitor.
Ex.: 0omputer technology will influence our future*
2ecizii care tocmai s,au luat si care nu au fost planuite.
Ex.: (-ll finish this report tomorrow*
.ace promisiuni
Ex.: (-ll phone you tomorrow*
0nvita pe cineva la un eveniment, actiune
Ex.: ,ill you come to my house on Sunday?
4xpresii0
)o be about to 8 a fi pe punctul sa
Ex.: +e is about to die*
)o be infinitiv 8 exprima ideea unor planuri pentru viitor, ordine sau conditii.
Ex.: )here is to be an investigation into the mayor-s business affairs*
/ou are to be back on the base by midnight*
).3. (on3ugare
singular
0 9ill 9al6 you 9ill 9al6 he/she/it 9ill
9al6
plural 9e 9ill 9al6 you 9ill 9al6 they 9ill 9al6
singular
0 9ill sleep you 9ill sleep he/she/it 9ill
sleep
plural 9e 9ill sleep you 9ill sleep they 9ill sleep
singular
0 9ill be you 9ill be he/she/it 9ill
be
plural 9e 9ill be you 9ill be they 9ill be
Exemple: ,e will be victoriousC
,e shall overcome*
,e are going to win this race*
)he bus arrives at three this afternoon*
)he boss is announcing his retirement at today-s meeting*
8. >iitorul continuu
5ill + be + participiul pre2ent "?ing# al verbului
-iitorul continuu indica o actiune continua, care va avea loc si se va desfasura la
un moment dat din viitor.
Ex.: ( )ill be running in ne"t year-s 2oston Marathon*
1ur campaign plans suggest that the $resident )ill be )inning the southern
vote by =ovember*
2y this time tomorrow night, 1 )ill be slee%ing in my own bed*
=e"t fall, )e )ill be en:o#ing all the vegetables we planted last spring*
0ill we be s%ending too much money if we buy that big-screen )'?

1. &ompleteaza cu forma corecta de trecut a verbelor din
paranteze:
(n FGOG the :merican astronomer Edwin +ubble 55555 %make& a
surprising discovery* +e 55555 %find& that all the gala"ies were moving
away from us and from each other very fast* )his 55555 %mean& that the
whole universe was e"panding like a balloon being blown up* +e 5555555
%demonstrate& this with a balloon* +e 55555 %paint& spots on the balloon
to represent the gala"ies and then 55555 %blow& it up* )he spots 55555
%grow& farther and farther apart*
2. &ompleteaza cu forma corecta a verbului din paranteze:
: fourteen-year-old boy 55555 %leave& his home in :frica last month and
5555 %go& to 2ritain* +e 55555 %leave& his family behind* +is mother
55555 %put& him on the plane* ,hen he 55555 %arrive& in London, he
55555 %go& to a church hall in hackney, north London* :fter ten days he
55555 %find& a relative and he 55555 %move&* +e 55555 %enter& a school
and 555555%start& English lessons*
Lecia !: Timpurile cu aspect per"ect


9. Pre2entul perfect
9.1. Forma
$rezentul auxiliarului have (have# has ( participiul trecut al verbului (regulat sau
neregulat.
Ex.: /ou have worked hard*
She has taken her medicine*
#egativul:
Ex.: ( haven-t been to Spain*
(-ve %have& not seen this movie*
0nterogativul:
Ex.: +ave ( met you before?
+ave they built the house?
9.2. Functii
$rezentul perfect este una dintre particularitatile limbii engleze, acest timp neavand
corespondent in limba romana.

$rezentul perfect este un timp apartinand prezentului. )
fost asemanat cu un pod care face legatura dintre trecut si
prezent. 2ar accentul se pune pe momentul vorbirii, pe acum.
$rezentul perfect exprima o actiune incheiata sau =perfectata= in trecut si care se
extinde pana in momentul prezent:
Ex.: ( have walked two miles already (dar continui sa merg.
( have run the 2oston Marathon (dar acest lucru s,a intamplat demult.
)he critics have praised the film Saving $rivate @yan since it came out (si continua
sa il laude.
)ctiuni sau evenimente din trecut care conduc pana in momentul prezent. 0n acest
caz, folosirea timpului prezent perfect arata ca rezultatul evenimetului sau actiunii
care apartine momentului prezent este cel care conteaza si nu momentul in care a
avut loc actiunea.
Ex.: +e has bought a new car (si acum au o masina noua.
)hey have been to Me"ico but they have not been to South :frica (in consecinta,
au cunostinte despre +exic dar nu stiu prea multe despre )frica de Sud.
Bbiceiuri sau evenimente si actiuni frecvente in decursul unei perioade de timp care
conduc la momentul prezentului.
Ex.: She has studied English for four years (si inca mai studiaza engleza.
2ra<il has won the ,orld 0up four times.
9.3. %$verbe
)legerea intre prezentul perfect si trecutul simplu este de multe ori influentata si de
adverbele care insotesc verbul. 2aca adverbele respective se refera la o perioada
trecuta, vom folosi trecutul simplu.
Ex.: ( studied all night#yesterday#on ,ednesday*
&u adverbe care marcheaza un inceput in trecut si conduct pana la momentul
prezentului, vom folosi prezentul perfect.
Ex.: ( have studied up to now#lately#already*
Expresii adverbiale cum ar fi: today, this month, for an hour se pot folosi atat cu
prezentul perfect cat si cu trecutul simplu.
Ex.: ( worked#have worked hard today*
Exista tendinta de a folosi prezentul perfect pentru a anunta un eveniment din
trecutul recent.
Ex.: )he company-s current 0E1 has lied repeatedly to her employees*
2ar vom folosi trecutul simplu pentru a relata sau anunta evenimente care au luat
sfarsit si apartin trecutului indepartat.
Ex.: ,ashington encouraged his troops*
9.. (on3ugare
singular
0 have 9al6ed you have
9al6ed
he/she/it has
9al6ed
plural
9e have 9al6ed you have
9al6ed
they have
9al6ed
singular
0 have slept you have slept he/she/it have
slept
plural 9e have slept you have slept they have slept
singular
0 have been you have been he/she/it has
been
plural 9e have been you have been they have been
Exemple:
Dor five generations, members of my family have been doctors*
'aughan has batted clean-up since he came to the @edso"*
She has swum the English 0hannel every summer*
+ow long has it been since the last time we met?
:. Pre2ent perfect continuu
:.1. Forma
/ave!has , been + participiul pre2ent ""ing#
Ex.: ( have been waiting for an hour*
#egativul:
Ex.: /ou haven-t been talking too much*
0nterogativul:
Ex.: +ave they been feeling unwell?
:.2. Functii
Si aceasta forma verbala apartine timpului prezent si se raporteaza la momentul
prezent.
Se foloseste pentru a descrie stari sau sentimente care au debutat in trecut si au
continuat de,a lungul unei perioade de timp si sunt inca prezente pana in momentul
vorbirii.
Ex.: (t has been raining for two days %and it-s still raining&.

2iferenta dintre forma prezentului perfect si cea a
prezentului perfect continuu este ca forma continua
accentueaza durata actiunii sau a starii.
:.3. (on3ugare
singular
0 have been
9al6ing
you have been
9al6ing
he/she/it has
been 9al6ing
plural
9e have been
9al6ing
you have been
9al6ing
they have been
9al6ing
singular
0 have been
sleeping
you have been
sleeping
he/she/it has
been sleeping
plural
9e have been
sleeping
you have been
sleeping
they have been
sleeping
singular 7here is no present perfect progressive for the
=to be= verb. =+ave been being= is expressed
simply as =have been=: =,e have been being
successful in the past*=
plural
Exemple:
Maria has been writing her dissertation for the last si" yearsS, but she finished
yesterdayT*
)he @edso" have been losing games since the :ll-Star break Sand they continue
to do soT*
+ave we been telling the truth to consumers about tobacco?
+aven-t we been lying to teenagers about smoking?
:.. Folosirea a$verbelor cu pre2entul perfect
Exista cateva expresii adverbiale care se folosesc in mod frecvent cu formele
prezentului perfect. )ceastea sunt: since, so far, ever, never, for, since, etc.
Ex.: )here have been GO accidents since the beginning of the year*
+ave you ever been to @omania?
( have never seen a purple cow*
.ohn has been working on his thesis for two years*
)hey haven-t seen him since FGIG*

(or
, poate fi folosit atat cu trecutul simplu cat si cu formele
perfecte (prezent, trecut, viitor perfect.
, are sensul de: in timpul, pe durata, pentru o perioada de timp.
Since
, se foloseste doar cu formele perfecte.
, are sensul de incepand de la un moment dat.
C. =recutul perfect
C.1. Forma
/ad + participiu trecut al verbului
7recutul perfect indica faptul ca o actiune s,a incheiat, =perfectat= la un moment din
trecut inainte ca un alt eveniment sa se produca.
Ex.: ( had walked two miles by lunchtime*
( had run three other marathons before entering the 2oston Marathon*
C.2. (on3ugare
singular
0 had 9al6ed you had 9al6ed he/she/it had
9al6ed
plural
9e had 9al6ed you had 9al6ed they had
9al6ed
singular
0 had slept you had slept he/she/it had
slept
plural 9e had slept you had slept they had slept
singular
0 had been you had been he/she/it had
been
plural 9e had been you had been they had been
Exemple:
$rior to the @evolutionary ,ar, ,ashington had been a surveyor and land
speculator*
:unt 4lad had invested heavily in the air-conditioning industry before the 4reat
0rash of FGII*
She had swum the English 0hannel every summer until FGGL*
+ow long had it been since you saw each other?
1D. =recutul perfect continuu
.orma: /ad + been + participiu pre2ent ""ing#
)cest timp indica o actiune continua care s,a incheiat la un moment dat din trecut.
Exemple:
+emingway had been losing his self-confidence for years before the publication of
1ld Man and the Sea*
+ad they been cheating on the e"ams before the school put monitors in the
classroom?
11. >iitorul perfect
.orma: 0ill + have + participiul trecut al verbului
-iitorul perfect indica o actiune care va fi fost incheiata la un moment dat din viitor.
Ex.: ( will have spent all my money by this time ne"t year*
( will have run successfully in three marathons if ( can finish this one*
2y this time ne"t week, ( will have worked on this project for twenty days*
2efore he sees his publisher, 0harles will have finished four chapters in his new
novel*
: ;emocratic president will have been in the ,hite +ouse for nearly half of the
twentieth century*
+ow long will it have been since we were together?
12. >iitorul perfect continuu
.orma: 0ill + have + been + participiul pre2ent ""ing# al verbului
)cest timp indica a actiune continua care va fi incheiata la un moment dat din
viitor.
Ex.: 2y the time he finishes this semester, 4esualdo will have been studying
nothing but parasites for four years*
,ill they have been testing these materials in the lab before we even get there?

6essie sur$aces again
)he =essie-spotting season has started again*
:n :merican team yesterday claimed to have made two sightings of the Loch
=ess monster and got them on video film*
,ildlife photographer Erik 2eckjord, of the =ational 0rypto Uoological Society of
the AS, said3 V,e got film of an object FJ to ONft* long and about OJNft* out from
the shore* )he second sighting was two days later on Saturday at F pm when
something stuck out of the water and went down again,V Mr* 2eckjord said*
(ilm"ma3ers claim 6essie sightings
: team from the Anited States, which has been monitoring the surface of the
Loch =ess with a video camera for the past week, believes it may have seen the
monster on two occasions*
)he first claimed sighting was towards the eastern end of the loch* )he team
says it saw an object obout FJft* to ONft* long crossing the waves and raising its
VheadV out of the water* )he second, from a point over Arquhart 2ay, much
farther along the loch, was of an object about MNft* long moving about three feet
below the surface*
)he team of two, from the =ational 0rypto Uoological Society and led by Erik
2eckjord, a wildlife photographer, has been scanning the surface from points
along the shore with a camera capable of filming for OHN hours without a break*
)lege unul dintre urmHtoarele trei roluri:
, fotograful Eri6 Gec6!ord, care ncearcH sH Qi apere punctul de vedere invoc%nd
dovezile adunate n spri!inul existenRei +onstrului din Foc6 #ess,
, un localnic, sHtul de toatH tevatura pe marginea acestui monstru Qi care
considerH cH discuRia este o pierdere de vreme,
, un ziarist independent, care este deschis ambelor puncte de vedere Qi le
ncura!eazH prin ntrebHri iscoditoare n vederea elaborHrii unui reporta!.
&onstruieQte individual sau mpreunH cu echipa din care faci parte, o scurtH
argumentaRie de aproximativ 4CP de cuvinte pornind de la persona!ul Qi punctul
de vedere ales.7rimite tema obligatorie tutorului cel mai t%rziu pana la data limita
a testHrii online, afiQata n contul fiecHruia. #u uita sH incluzi n mesa!ul tHu
numele Qi prenumele complet Qi numHrul echipei din care faci parte. &alificativul
primit la tema obligatorie mpreunH cu puncta!ul obRinut la testul online vor
constitui absolvirea cursului de >ramatica limbii engleze.
%ten/ie -
Nu trimite/i ataEamente. E recomandabil sH compuneRi textul n ?ord
pentru a,l putea corecta cu a!utorul corectorului ortografic, dar vH rog sH l
copiaRi Fn corpul mesa3ului vostru.
Este obligatorie menRionarea: numelui Ei prenumelui Ei a numGrului
corect al echipei Fn subiectul mesa3ului.
Hn lipsa acestor $ate temele voastre nu pot fi Fnregistrate Fn cataloage.
+ulta baftHJ
Lecia 1#: Prepozitia


1D.1. ,ntro$ucere
$repozitia descrie legatura dintre doua cuvinte din aceeasi propozitie. $repozitiile nu
au un inteles de sine statator, ele capata diferie sensuri puse in legatura cu alte
cuvinte.
Sa observam catedra profesorului si multitudinea de prepozitii pe care le putem
folosi pentru a o descrie:
/ou can sit be$ore the desk %or in $ront o$ the desk&* )he professor can sit on the
desk %when he-s being informal& or behind the desk, and then his feet are under
the desk or beneath the desk* +e can stand beside the desk %meaning ne't to
the desk&, be$ore the desk, bet)een the desk and you, or even on the desk %if
he-s really strange&* (f he-s clumsy, he can bump into the desk or try to walk
through the desk %and stuff would fall o$$ the desk&* $assing his hands over the
desk or resting his elbows u%on the desk, he often looks across the desk and
speaks o$ the desk or concerning the desk as if there were nothing else li3e the
desk* 2ecause he thinks of nothing e'ce%t the desk, sometimes you wonder about
the desk, what-s in the desk, what he paid $or the desk, and if he could live
)ithout the desk* /ou can walk to)ard the desk, to the desk, around the desk,
b# the desk, and even %ast the desk while he sits at the desk or leans against the
desk*
&uvintele evidentiate sunt toate prepozitii.

0n limba engleza nu se va termina niciodata o propozitie cu
o prepozitie.
1D.2. Prepo2itii $e timp0 at& on& in
7t se foloseste pentru a desemna ora exacta
Ex.: )he train is due at FO3FJ p*m*
n indica zilele si datele calendaristice
Ex.: My brother is coming on Monday*
,e-re having a party on the Dourth of .uly*
1n se foloseste pentru a desemna ore imprecise din timpul zilei, cat si luna,
anotimpul, anul.
Ex.: She likes to jog in the morning*
(t-s too cold in winter to run outside*
+e started the job in FGLF*
+e-s going to quit in :ugust*
1D.2. Prepo2itii $e loc0 at& on& in
7t se foloseste cu adrese exacte.
Ex.: 4rammar English lives at JJ 2oret< @oad in ;urham*
n desemneaza numele de strazi, sosele, bulevarde, alei, etc.
Ex.: +er house is on 2oret< @oad*
1n se foloseste cu numele regiunilor (orase, !udete, tari, state, continente.
Ex.: She lives in ;urham*
;urham is in ,indham 0ounty*
,indham 0ounty is in 0onnecticut*
Prepo2itii $e loc0 in& at& on si lipsa prepo2itiei
16 7T 6 lipsa prepozitiei
(the bedS
the bed
room
the car
(the classS
the libraryS
schoolS
classS
home
the libraryS
the office
schoolS
9or6
the bedS
the ceiling
the floor
the horse
the plane
the train
do9nstairs
do9nto9n
inside
outside
upstairs
upto9n
S 0n diverse circumstante se pot folosi prepozitii diferite pentru
aceste locuri.
1D.3. Prepo2itii $e miscare0 to si lipsa prepo2itiei
To se foloseste pentru a exprima deplasarea, miscarea catre un loc.
Ex.: )hey were driving to work together*
She-s going to the dentist-s office this morning*
To)ard si to)ards exprima de asemenea miscarea.
)cestea doua sunt doar variantele ortografice ale aceluiasi cuvant si se pot folosi
indiferent.
Ex.: ,e-re moving toward the light*
)his is a big step towards the project-s completion*
&u urmatoarele cuvinte: home, downtown, uptown, inside, outside, downstairs,
upstairs, nu se folosesc prepo2itii.
Ex.: 4randma went upstairs 4randpa went home*
)hey both went outside*
1D.. Prepo2itii $e timp0 for si since
(or se foloseste atunci cand se masoara timpul (secunde, minute, ore, zile, luni,
ani.
Ex.: +e held his breath for seven minutes*
She-s lived there for seven years*
)he 2ritish and (rish have been quarreling for seven centuries*
Since se foloseste cu data sau ora exacta.
Ex.: +e-s worked here since FGLN*
She-s been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty*
1D.). Prepo2itii cu substantive, a$3ective si verbe
#umeroase substantive, ad!ective si mai ales verbe se folosesc corect numai
insotite de prepozitiile care le intregesc sensul.
!&<!=%N=,>4.4 si PA4P6B,=,,.4
approval of
a9areness of
belief in
concern for
confusion about
desire for
fondness for
grasp of
hatred of
hope for
interest in
love of
need for
participation in
reason for
respect for
success in
understanding of
%7I4(=,>4.4 si PA4P6B,=,,.4
afraid of
angry at
a9are of
capable of
careless about
familiar 9ith
fond of
happy about
interested in
!ealous of
made of
married to
proud of
similar to
sorry for
sure of
tired of
9orried about
>4A<4.4 si PA4P6B,=,,.4
apologize for
as6 about
as6 for
belong to
bring up
care for
find out
give up
gro9 up
loo6 for
loo6 for9ard to
loo6 up
ma6e up
pay for
prepare for
study for
tal6 about
thin6 about
trust in
9or6 for
9orry about
&ombinatia dintre verbe si prepozitii se numeste verb frazal (ve<i M.A.-erbe
frazale.
1D.8. 4xpresii i$iomatice cu prepo2itii
agree to a proposal, )ith a person, on a price, in principle
argue about a matter, )ith a person, $or or against a proposition
compare to to show likenesses, )ith to show differences %sometimes
similarities&
correspond to a thing, )ith a person
differ $rom an unlike thing, )ith a person
live at an address, in a house or city, on a street, )ith other people
1D.9. Prepo2itii inutile
0n vorbirea de zi cu zi se folosesc incorect prepozitii acolo unde ele nu isi au rostul.
Bbserva urmatoarele exemple:
Ex.: She met up with the new coach in the hallway*
)he book fell off of the desk*
+e threw the book out of the window*
She wouldn-t let the cat inside of the house* %sau folositi VinV&
,here did they go to?
$ut the lamp in back of the couch* %se va folosi VbehindV&
,here is your college at?

1. &ompleteaza urmatoarele propozitii cu at, in sau on:
)hey live 555 in 0oronation Street 555 number MO*
.ack works 555 1"ford 555 the Aniversity*
(-ve left my briefcase 555 the office* ( think ( left it 555 the chair 555the
corner*
Meet me 555 the bus-stop 555 the end of 2ristol @oad*
)hey live 555 Seal, a small village 555 the road to Dolkestone*
2. &ompleteaza urmatorul text cu prepozitiile care lipsesc:
(t was 555 the evening 5555 Driday OGth March 555 )ribeca, =ew /ork*
$olice patrolman Swaine and assistant patrolman 2radley were driving 555
Mrd :venue* Swaine stopped the patrol car, which was new and shinning,
555 an electrical store* +e needed some batteries* +e got 555 and went 555
the storeP but he left the keys 555 the car because 2radley stayed 555 the
car* Swaine looked 555 the street* (t was crowded 555 early evening
shoppers* (t was brightly lit and lively*
3. 7radu pasa!ul de mai sus in limba romana.