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October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 0

October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 1


Cuprins
Linia de instrumente SKF Baker SKF
De ce trebuie efectuata o analiza statica si dinamica a
motoarelor electrice
Discutie asupra izolatiei unui motor electric si
caracteristicile dielectricului
Evidentierea modului in care motoarele electrice se
defecteaza
Solutii tehnice statice (in atelier) pentru determinarea
stariid e functionare a izolatiei si circuti motorului electric
Solutii tehnice dinamice (in functionare) pentru
determinarea calitatii alimentarii, sarcina si problemele
mecanice
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 2
Exemple de echipamente SKF pentru managementul motoarelor
electrice in scopuri predictive si asigurarea calitatii in exploatare
SKF Portable Dynamic Motor Analyzer
Exp 4000
Static Motor Analyzer
AWAIV
SKF On-line Motor
Analysis
System
NetEP
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 3
De ce ar trebui facuta analiza statica si
dinamica la motoare electrice
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 4
Salvari de costuri
Reducerea opririlor accidentale
Indicarea cauzei defectului
Salvari de costuri cu energia
Analiza: Volt Frequency Detection:
Asigurarea calitatii motoarelor
Reducerea timpului de evaluare a starii de
functionare
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 5
Motor
MCC
Load
Analiza completa a sistemului
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 6
Motor
MCC
Load
1. frequency
2. speed
3. Torque
4. Power
5. Voltage
6. Current
Lantul de evenimente
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 7
Caracteristica de izolatie a motoarelor
electrice
Cum se defecteaza motoarele electrice si
de ce ?
Intrebarea nu este DACA motorul se va
defecta ci CAND se va defecta!
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 8
Incidenta modurilor de defectare la motoarele
electrice:
Bearing
44%
Rotor
8%
Other
22%
Stator
26%
Bearing
41%
Other
14%
Rotor
9%
Stator
36%
IEEE Study
EPRI Study
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 9
Cauzele defectarii motoarelor electrice:
Studiu IEEE
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Bearing Winding
Electrical Fault
Mechanical Breakage
Insulation Breakdown
Overheating
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 10
Etapele tipice defectarii unui motor electric datorate
scurtcircuitului electric
(1) Izolatia electrica a unui motor
nou este foarte bune
(2) Motorul este supus unei
imbatraniri naturale
Termic
Chimic
Mecanic
(3) Capacitatea de izolatie Spira-
Spira scade sub nivelul rezistentei la
tensiunea si curentul de functionare
Arcuri electrice de strapungere apar la
pornire
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 11
(4) Insulatia incepe sa se strapunga
din ce in ce mai des
(5) Rezistenta de izolatie Spira-
Spira scade sub tensiunea de
functionare
Motorul intrerupe la supracurent
(6) Spirele strapunse cauzeaza o
incarcare mai mare cu curent a
infasuratorii temperatura ridicata ,
curent absorbit de circa 16-20 ori
mai mare decat sarcina nominala
(7) Defectare rapida (deobicei de
ordinul minutelor)
Etapele tipice defectarii unui motor electric
datorate scurtcircuitului electric
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 12
Modul de defectare: scurtcircuit Spira-Spira
80% dintre defectele motoarelor electrice incep datorita
scurtcircuitului inspre spire
Majoritatea se vor defecta prin scurtcircuit la carcasa insa
originea defectului ramane scurtcircuitul Spira-Spira
Sursa: General Electric Paper
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 13
Cauzele pentru care cele mai dese defecte sutn
datorate scurtcircuitului Spira-Spira
Spira este cea mai slaba izolatie din circuitul electric al
motorului
Depunerile si coroziunea chimica distrug in timp izolatia
Miscarile dintre spire (la pornire) distrug izolatia (o crapa)
D.E. Crawford\General Electric
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 14
Solutii tehnice pentru determinarea starii de
functionare a izolatiei circuitului motoarelor
electrice
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 15
Teste complete de sarcina electrica
Echipamentul BAKER Surge Test este unica metoda de
efectuare a unui set complet de teste electrice, in
conformitate cu standardele IEEE ce permit tehnicianului sa
prevada starea de functionare a motorului electric.
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 16
1. Surge Test
Testarea permite descoperirea
Izolatiei slabite (PPM, QA, TS)
Spira-Spira
Faza-Faza
Bobina - Bobina
In atelier:
Lista de defecte posibile
Izolatie slabita Spira-Spira, Faza-Faza,
Bobina Bobina (QA, TS, PPM)
Bobine inversate (QA)
Scurtcircuit intre spire (QA,)
Numar diferit de spire in bobine (QA)
Dimensiune diferita a litei de bobinare a
bobinelor (QA)
Izolatie defecta infasuratoare - carcasa
(QA)
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 17
Surge ring
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 18
Izolatie defecta Spira-Spira
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 19
432-1992 IEEE guide for insulation maintenance for rotating electric machinery (5 hp to less than
10 000 hp)
IEEE Guide for Insulation Maintenance for Rotating Electric Machinery (5 hp to less than 10,000 hp)
Scope
This insulation maintenance guide is applicable to industrial air-cooled rotating electric machines rated from 5
hp to 10 000 hp. The procedures detailed herein may also be useful for other types of machines.
7.4 Interturn Insulation Tests
Film insulation usually provides high dielectric strength but, in many cases, the interturn insulation on motor
coils is porous in nature. Fibrous insulation effectively provides a physical separation of the turns of the order
of 0.010 to 0.025 in (0.250.635 mm) for motors, and the electric strength between the turns is essentially
provided by the insulating value of the gas (air, hydrogen, etc.) contained between these bers. Micaceous
insulations are commonly used in high-voltage machines.
To provide a useful service in checking the adequacy of the insulation between turns, the test level selected
must be greater than the minimum sparking potential of the air at the minimum permissible spacing. The test
potential will often, therefore, be several times normal operating volts per turn. A test of about 500 V rms per
turn is considered average for a new machine, while for maintenance tests potentials of one-half to two-thirds
of the new coil turn test, eight to ten times normal operating volts per turn, are usually considered adequate
to provide insurance from the possibilities of marginal insulation and contains allowance for switching
transients and for surges likely to be encountered in service.
The normal operating volts per turn are often up to about 30 V for motors, while turbine and water-wheel
generators are substantially above that value. The test methods used include forms of surge comparison tests.
A steep-front surge is applied to all or part of a winding, or by induction to individual coils within a winding.
The resultant waveforms are viewed on an oscilloscope screen and interpretation of the patterns or
amplitudes permits detection of short-circuited turns. The surge comparison test applied directly to the
winding terminals is limited, in the case of windings consisting of many coils in series, by the magnitude of the
voltage that can be applied to the ground insulation without exceeding its specified test voltage. This limitation
can be overcome by placing a surge coil in the bore over the coil to be tested and by applying directly into it a
voltage appropriate to the induced volts per turn required in the stator coil. For additional
information on procedures and requirements for interturn insulation tests, see IEEE Std 522-1992 [10]. See
[B14] for detailed information on surge comparison testing.
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 20
IEEE Standard for Petroleum and Chemical Industry Severe Duty Totally Enclosed Fan-Cooled
(TEFC)
Squirrel Cage Induction Motors Up to and Including 370 kW (500 hp)

d) The 2300 V and 4000 V designs shall use vacuum-pressure-


impregnated form windings, capable of withstanding a voltage surge of
3.5 per unit at a rise time of 0.1 s to 0.2 s and of 5 per unit at a rise
time of 1.2 s or longer. (One per unit equals 0.8165 V L-L .)The test
method and instrumentation used shall be per IEEE Std 522-1992.
When specified by the purchaser, this requirement shall also apply to
form windings supplied for voltages 575 V and below on motors rated
above 150 kW (200 hp).
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 21
2. Teste electrice generale
2.1 Rezistenta infasuratorii (PPM, QA, TS)
2.2 Masurarea rezistentei cu Mega-Ohm (PPM, TS)
2.3 Testul de polarizare a dielectricului (PPM, QA)
2.4 Teste la niveluri crescute de tensiune (PPM, QA, TS)
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 22
2.1 Probleme legate de masurarea rezistentei
infasuratorii
Echilibrul intre infasuratorile fazelor (PPM, QA, TS)
Dezechilibru intre faze (QA)
Diametrul litei de bobinare (QA)
Conexiuni cu rezistenta electrica marita (PPM, TS, QA)
Scurtcircuit bobine (TS, QA, PPM)
Bobine cu defecte de conectare (TS, QA,)
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 23
2.2 Meg-Ohm Test
Meg-Ohm-Meter
Permite:
Determinarea faptului ca motorul da la masa. (TS)
Motor murdar (mecanic, chimc) scurgeri de curent (PPM)
Evolutia in timp (PPM)
Meg-Ohm-Meter
Determina:
Daca motorul este buna de functionare
Defecte de bobinare
Infasuratori slabite eletric
Defecte intre faze
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 24
2.3 Index de polarizare, Teste de absorbtie a
dielectricului
Poate detecta-
Izolatie deteriorata intre spira si carcasa (PPM, QA)
Uscata / casanta, dura, sau exfoliata la carcasa (PPM, QA)
Umezeala si contaminare
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 25
2.4 Teste la niveluri crescute de tensiune
Poate descopri
Izolatie slabita la carcasa (PPM, QA, TS)
Probleme de slabire a conexiunilor (PPM, QA, TS)
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 26
Case Study: Weak Insulation
Turn - Turn
Low Voltage Tests Show all good
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 27
Case Study: Weak Insulation
Turn - Turn
Low Voltage Tests Show all good
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 28
Case Study: Weak Insulation
Turn - Turn
Surge test is the only test capable of finding weak
insulation turn to turn
Phase 1 & 2 are good
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 29
Case Study: Weak Insulation
Turn - Turn
Phase 3 shows weak insulation Turn Turn at about 1,000 volts.
Now this is not a Turn Turn Short but this will be within weeks !
If it was the winding resistance would be unbalanced and it is not
No other technology can find this fault
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 30
Case Study:
Contamination in J-Box
Motor
7200 volt
1000 Hp
3600 RPM Motor
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 31
Case Study:
Contamination of J-Box
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 32
Case Study:
Contamination of J-Box
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 33
Case Study:
Contamination of J-Box
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 34
Case Study:
Contamination of J-Box
Results after the J-Box was cleaned
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 35
Summary of Contamination Case Study
Only by elevating the voltage above operating voltage did
we see a problem
Voltage spikes could track and cause a failure
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 36
Case Study: Step Voltage Test at Higher Voltage
Found Unstable Ground Wall Insulation
4160 Volt Motor
300 HP
1770 speed
Tested 4 identical motors at a power plant
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 37
Case Study: Step Voltage Test at Higher Voltage Found Unstable Ground
Wall Insulation
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 38
Case Study: Step Voltage Test at Higher Voltage Found Unstable Ground
Wall Insulation
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 39
Case Study: Step Voltage Test at Higher Voltage Found Unstable Ground
Wall Insulation
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 40
Case Study: Step Voltage Test at Higher Voltage Found Unstable Ground
Wall Insulation
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 41
Case Study: Step Voltage Test at Higher Voltage
Found Unstable Ground Wall Insulation
Last step at 8,960 Volts shows unstable ground wall
insulation
The step test allows the operator to see and trend the
current leakage
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 42
Solutie dinamica pentru determinarea
puterii, sarcinii si a problemelor mecanice
ale motoarelor electrice
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 43
EXP3000 and EXP3000R
Echipamente mobile
Echipamente permanente
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 44
Safety and Connecting:
Low Voltage (Less than 600V)
Motor
MCC
Load
Breaker
Step one: Running motor
Step two: STOP motor
Step three: Connect MPM
Step four: Run and test
Step five: STOP motor
Step six: Disconnect MPM
Exp
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 45
Safety and Connecting: Medium and High Voltage (More
than 600V) Connect into Secondary Pts and Cts
Motor
Load
CTs
Breaker
Step one: Motor is running
Step two: Connect Explorer CTs
Step three: Connect Explorer PTs
Explorer
PTs
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 46
Motor
CTs
Breaker
PTs
EP
Explorer
First Energy
RC Pump
1 of 700+ EPs at one customer
Acquire Data:
Safe, Fast & Easy W/ EP-1
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 47
SKF Online Motor Monitoring NetEP - Overview
NetEP is a fully automated, network connected,
electrical motor monitoring system. It continuously
collects data on the health and performance of
electric motors.
The NetEP is a permanently installed system.
Permanent voltage and current sense connections
are required for each motor.
The NetEP monitors over 40 electrical parameters
of electric motors and compares the results to limits,
displaying alerts if limits have been exceeded.
The NetEP can be configured, monitored and
operated from any network connection.
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 48
SKF Online Motor Monitoring NetEP - Overview
NetEP Networked Electrical Processor
Up to 32 motors (96 CTs)
5A to 2000A
Calibrated, from Baker
Up to 150 CT signal runs on CAT 5 cable
25 KHz signal acquisition
Up to 7 different voltage busses
Up to 1000V direct input, or PTs.
Line to line, line to neutral, External Disconnect Required
MCC mounted box
20 x 30 x 8, ~ 65 lbs
CAT III, NEMA 12 Enclosure
LAN and AC power (110V 240V) required
Computers for data storage and Network based monitoring
Provided by customer (IT compatibility)
Test all 32 motors every 10 sec (Basic Motor Monitoring)
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 49
Power Quality Analysis
PQ Capabilities
Voltage and Current level, unbalance distortions
Kvars, KVA, KWs, Power factor, Crest factor, Harmonic bar chart ect.
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 50
Faults Explorer & AWA will Identify
Power Quality
Poorly performing Transformers
Short, medium, long, range trip settings
Connection issues (Junction Box, In motor)
Lead Line Insulation deterioration
Turn-Turn, Phase-Phase, Coil-Coil insulation
weakness
Ground Wall Insulation
Weakness
Dirt
Moisture
Dry Rotted, Brittle
Cracks
Motor Circuit
TurnTurn Shorts, Opens
Reversed Coils
Phase Unbalanced (turn count)
Phase Unbalanced (wire size)
Rotor
Cracked Bars
Poor Welds
Broken Bars
Eccentricity (Dynamic, Static)
Loading Issues
Over load
Process
Mechanical
Bearing faults
Miss Alignment
Fan Unbalances
Belt frequencies
Worn Impellers
Gear Mesh Frequencies
VFD
Power Quality
Shorted IGBTs
Feed Back loop
Process Information
Tuning / Set up
Soft Start
Tuning / Set up
Trouble shooting
Ect.
STATIC
DINAMIC
DINAMIC
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 51
Motor Overheating
I
2
R Losses Motor Currents
100% rated Current 100% rated Temperature
110% rated Current 121% rated Temperature
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 52
Voltage quality
NEMA derating
Voltage Unbalance & Harmonic Distortions
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 53
Test station 300 hp 3570 rpm
Eff. s.f. =
% NEMA derating
% Load
Effective s.f.
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 54
Temperature (C)
Full Load 1.15 SF 1.25 SF
49 64 77
56 75 91
75 102 128
64 80 94
69 89 106
Horsepower
10
20
50
100
200
* Courtesy U S Motors
Motor Performance:
Service Factor and Temperature
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 55
Effective s.f.
Pulp & Paper Industry:
Operating RMS values
Voltage Level 658.2 V 99.7%
Current Level 378.4 A 91.4%
Load Level 312.6 kW 78.1%
All OK?
Voltage Unbalance 3.66%
Voltage Distortion 9.80%
NEMA derating % 0.6
Eff. s.f. 1.28
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 56
Power Quality Analysis
Importance
Poor power quality causes increase heat
For every ten degrees rise in temperature the life of
the motor is reduced in half.
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 57
Fan 1 hp 1740 rpm
Motor Condition:
Broken Rotorbar
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 58
Torque Analysis
Great tool for Separating between electrical and mechanical
issues (solve fighting between mechanics and Electricians)
Reason the load is what causes more or less torque from the motor
If a torque signature looks out of the ordinary the problem
is most likely in the load
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 59
4160V submersible pump
Torque Signature:
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 60
Mechanical FFT Analysis
Diagnose mechanical issues from
the MCC
Bearing
Outer Race
Inner Race
Cage fr.
Fan Unbalance
Ect.
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 61
VFD: Variable Frequency Drive Analysis
Benefits
Tune in drive
Load analysis
Faulty IGBTS
Feed back loop issues
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 62
Transient Analysis
Set up short medium and long
range trip settings
Set up Soft Starts
Diagnose Pump and Fan issues
Worn impellers
Binding pumps
Power Issues
Rotor Issues
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 63
Continuous Monitoring Software
Excellent Trouble Shooting Tool
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 64
Organizations Backing Testing
IEEE 522
IEC 34-15
NEMA MG1
NFPA 70B
EASA
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 65
Easy Automatic Analysis of Results
October 30, 2007 SKF Group Slide 66
Sumarul prezentarii
Analiza dinamica a motoarelor electrice asigura informatii
despre calitatea puterii, sarcinii, defectelor electrice la motorul
electric / MCC / masina antrenata.
Analiza statica a motoarelor electrice asigura masurarea
integritatii sistemului de izolatie a motorului si a circuitului sau
electric.
Impreuna cele doua metode asigura metode complementare de
indentificare a satrii de functionare a motoarelor electrice ,
diagnoza precisa a defectelor si prevad / prezic eliminarea
defectelor.
Cresterea calitatii inspectiei motoarelor electrice concura la
eliminarea defectelor si la predictia lor. Eliminarea defetelor:
pentru a nu trimite in camp motoare defecte. Predictia
defectelor: masuri pentru evaluarea starii de functionare si
eliminarea opririor accidentale.
Questions?