Sunteți pe pagina 1din 8

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine Juridice, Nr.

1/2012



Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Juridical Sciences Series, Issue 1/2012


21

CAZURI N CARE POATE FI STABILIT
RSPUNDEREA PATRIMONIAL A
ANGAJATORULUI


Constantin BELU
*

Adriana Elena BELU
**

Abstract: Rspunderea patrimonial a angajatorului
poate fi declanat dac salariatul a suferit un prejudiciu
material sau moral. Cel mai frecvent, paguba material
cauzat salariatului const n neacordarea unor drepturi
bneti cuvenite, caz n care angajatorul datoreaz i
dobnd. Prejudiciul moral reprezint o consecin
duntoare, cu coninut neeconomic determinat de
nclcrile drepturilor personale nepatrimoniale cum ar fi:
lezarea onoarei, cinstei, demnitii, prestigiului sau reputaiei.
n acest contest, ntre angajatorul culpabil i salariatul
prejudiciat se nate un raport obligaional.

Cuvinte cheie: salariat, angajator, prejudiciu,
rspundere patrimonial, cuantumul salarial


Preliminarii
Situaiile n care salariatul ar putea fi
prejudiciat n fapt, material sau moral, din culpa
angajatorului sunt numeroase, motiv pentru care
doar o parte dintre acestea beneficiaz de
prevederi exprese n normele proprii legislaiei
muncii. n multe cazuri, rspunderea patrimonial
a angajatorului este declanat n temeiul
interpretrii textelor existente n actele normative
care reglementeaz relaii sociale incluse
obiectului dreptului muncii, sau n izvoarele de
origine convenional (contractele colective de
munc, regulamentele interne, regulamentele de
organizare i funcionare etc.).
Indiferent de natura prevederii (expres sau
implicit) ce a fost nesocotit n fazele executrii
raportului juridic de munc, considerm c
prezint interes teoretic i practic urmtoarele
cazuri n care poate fi stabilit rspunderea
patrimonial a angajatorului:
CASES IN WHICH THE
PATRIMONIAL LIABILITY OF THE
EMPLOYER CAN BE ESTABLISHED


Constantin BELU
Adriana Elena BELU
Abstract: The employers patrimonial liability
can be triggered if the employee was subject to a
moral or material prejudice. Most often, the material
damage caused to the employee consists in the denial
of material rights, case in which the employer also
owes an interest. The moral prejudice represents a
harmful consequence, with a non-economic content
determined by the violation of the non-patrimonial
personal rights, such as: harming the honour, dignity,
prestige or reputation. In this context, between the
guilty employer and the prejudiced employee there
could be an obligational report.

Keywords: employee, employer, prejudice,
patrimonial liability, amount of wage


Preliminary
The situations in which the employee could
be prejudiced from the material or moral point of
view, from the employers fault are numerous
and this is why just a part of them have express
provisions under the norms of the labor
legislation. In many cases, the employers
patrimonial liability is triggered based on the
interpretation of the existing texts from the
normative acts which regulate the social
relationships included in the object of the labor
law or in the conventional sources (collective
labor contracts, internal regulations, organization
regulations, etc)
Irrespective of the nature of the provision
(express or implicit) which has been ignored in
the phases of the execution of the juridical labor
report, we believe that the following cases in

*
Prof. univ. dr., Universitatea din Craiova, Facultatea de Drept i tiine Administrative
**
Lector univ. dr., Universitatea Spiru Haret Bucureti, Facultatea de Drept i Administraie Public Craiova


Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine Juridice, Nr. 1/2012



Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Juridical Sciences Series, Issue 1/2012


22
1. Obligarea salariatului s presteze o
anumit munc sub ameninare
Potrivit art. 4 alin. 1 din Codul muncii
Munca forat este interzis. n cazul n care
angajatorul impune unui salariat prestarea
activitii pe un anumit loc de munc, folosind
ameninarea n situaia n care salariatul refuz
(spre exemplu, salariatul este ameninat cu
concedierea), instana de judecat poate stabili
rspunderea patrimonial a angajatorului,
obligndu-l s l despgubeasc pe salariat pentru
prejudiciul material i/sau moral suferit ca urmare
a prestrii acelei munci, pentru care nu i-a
exprimat acordul. Rspunderea patrimonial a
angajatorului este posibil dac se ntrunesc
cumulativ urmtoarele condiii:
a. ntre salariat i angajator s fi fost ncheiat
un contact individual de munc n form scris;
b. angajatorul s-i pretind salariatului s
presteze o alt munc, eventual, pe un alt loc de
munc, dect cele consemnate n contractul
individual de munc (corespunztor clauzelor
felul muncii i/sau locul muncii);
c. salariatul s refuze propunerea
angajatorului;
d. angajatorul s-l determine pe salariat,
folosind ameninarea, s presteze munca solicitat
chiar dac nu-i exprim consimmntul;
e. sub imperiul unei temeri produse de
consecinele punerii n aplicare a ameninrii,
salariatul s presteze munca impus de angajator;
f. exercitnd o alt activitate dect cea
precizat n fia postului, salariatul s fi suferit un
prejudiciu, fie material (spre exemplu, a ncasat
drepturi salariale sub nivelul celor negociate), fie
moral (spre exemplu, i s-a impus s presteze o
activitate de nivel inferior pregtirii sale
profesionale sau pe un loc de munc cu condiii
periculoase, penibile etc., aducndu-se atingere
demnitii sale profesionale sau chiar strii de
sntate), fie de ambele feluri;
2. Stabilirea cuantumului salarial n mod
discriminatoriu
Angajatorul are obligaia n cadrul relaiilor de
munc, s respecte principiul egalitii de
tratament fa de toi salariaii, adic s nu
svreasc nici o discriminare direct sau
indirect fa de un salariat, bazat pe criterii de
which the employers patrimonial liablility can
be established could present a theoretical and
practical interest:
1. Forcing the employee to perform a
certain work under threat
According to art. 4 align. 1 from the Labor
Code, The forced labor is forbidden. If the
employer imposes an employee to perform an
activity in a certain job by using the threat should
the employee refuse (for instance, the employee
is threatened that they will be fired), the instance
may establish the patrimonial liability of the
employer and oblige him to indemnify the
employee for the material and/or moral prejudice
suffered subsequent to the performance of that
labor, for which he had not given the agreement.
The employers patrimonial liability is possible if
all the below conditions are met:
g. the employee and the employer had
conclused a written individual labor contract;
h. the employer asked the employee to
perform another work, even in another job than
the ones provided in the individual labor contract
(according to the clauses kind of labor and
job/position);
i. the employee refused the employers
proposal;
j. the employer tried to determine the
employee to perfom the work using the threat,
even if the employee did not agree;
k. the employee performed a certain labor
imposed by the employee for fear that the threat
could be applied and have consequences;
l. the employee suffered a prejudice, either
material (for example, his payment was lower
than the one negotiated) or moral (for example,
he was obliged to perform an activity with an
inferior level than his professional training or on
a job with dangerous conditions which bring
harm to his professional dignity or state of
health) when performing a different activity than
the one provided in the job description.


2. Establishing the amount of wage in a
discriminating way
The employer is obliged, within the work
relations, to respect the principle of equal

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine Juridice, Nr. 1/2012



Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Juridical Sciences Series, Issue 1/2012


23
sex, orientare sexual, caracteristici genetice,
vrsta, apartenena naional, ras, culoare, etnie,
religie, opiune politic, origine social, handicap,
situaie sau responsabilitate familial, apartenen
ori activitate sindical.
n acest sens, art. 6 alin. 3 din Codul muncii
stabilete imperativ: Pentru munca egal sau de
valoare egal este interzis orice discriminare
bazat pe criteriul de sex cu privire la toate
elementele i condiiile de remunerare. Aadar, n
cazul n care unui salariat i se stabilete o
remuneraie inferioar celei de care beneficiaz un
alt salariat din aceeai unitate, care presteaz
munc egal sau de valoare egal, svrindu-se
o discriminare bazat pe criteriul sex, angajatorul
va rspunde patrimonial, fiind obligat s l
despgubeasc pe salariatul cruia i-a nclcat
dreptul la egalitate de tratament, att pentru
prejudiciul material dovedit, ct i pentru
prejudiciul moral. n acest caz, prejudiciul
material va fi reparat prin obligarea angajatorului
la plata unei despgubiri egale cu diferena ntre
cele dou cuantumuri salariale comparabile n
situaia dat, pentru ntreaga perioad n care a
produs efecte discriminarea bazat pe criteriul de
sex.
3. Stabilirea cuantumului salarial sub
nivelul minim stabilit prin acte normative ori
prin contracte colective de munc
Angajatorul persoan juridic, persoan fizic
autorizat s desfoare o activitate independent,
precum i asociaia familial au obligaia de a
ncheia, n form scris, contractul individual de
munc anterior nceperii raporturilor de munc.
nainte de ncheierea contractului individual de
munc, angajatorului i revine obligaia de a
informa persoana selectat n vederea ncadrrii n
munc, cu privire la clauzele eseniale pe care
intenioneaz s le nscrie n contract, intre care
salariul de baz, alte elemente constitutive ale
veniturilor salariale....
Potrivit art. 11 din Codul muncii Clauzele
contractului individual de munc nu pot conine
prevederi contrare sau drepturi sub nivelul minim
stabilit prin acte normative ori prin contracte
colective de munc.
n concluzie, rspunde patrimonial angajatorul
n cazul n care stabilete angajatului su un
treatment to all the employees, namely not to
commit any direct or indirect discrimination in
regards to an emloyee, based on gender, sexual
orienation, genetical features, age, nationality,
race, colour, ethnicity, religion, political
opinions, social origin, handicap, familial
situation or responsibility, union membership or
activity.
In this case, art. 6 align 3 from the Labor
code establishes as a necessity: For equal labor
or of equal value it is forbidden any type of
discrimination based on gender regarding all the
elements and payment conditions. Thus, if an
employee received an inferior wage than the one
of another employee from the same unit, who
performs equal labor or of equal value based
on gender discrimination, the employee will be
patrimonially liable, being obliged to indemnify
the employee whose right to equal treatment has
been violated, both for the material prejudice and
for the moral one. In this case, the material
prejudice will be fixed by obliging the employer
to pay an indemification equal with the
difference between the two salary amounts
comparable in the given situation, for the entire
period in which the gender discrimination
produced effects.
3. Establishing the amount of wage under
the minimum level set by normative acts or
collective labor contracts
The employer who is a legal entity, natural
entity authorized to perform an independent
activity, as well as the familial association have
the obligation to conclude, in written, the
individual labor contract prior to the beginning of
the labor relationship. Before concluding the
individual labor contract, the employer is obliged
to inform the person he selected to hire about the
essential clauses which he intends to include in
the contract, among which the basic salary,
other elements that constitute the salary.
According to art 11 from the Labor Code,
the clauses of the individual labor contract
cannot contain contrary provisions or right under
the minimum level set by normative acts or
collective labor contracts.
In conclusion, the employer is patrimonially
liable if she sets for his employee a salary under

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine Juridice, Nr. 1/2012



Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Juridical Sciences Series, Issue 1/2012


24
cuantum salarial sub nivelul minim stabilit prin
acte normative sau, dup caz, prin contractele
colective de munc. Prejudiciul material suferit de
salariat const n diferena dintre salariul cuvenit
potrivit actului normativ sau contractului colectiv
de munc i salariului efectiv ncasat pentru
ntreaga perioad litigioas.
Termenul n care poate fi formulat cererea
de chemare n judecat a angajatorului pentru a fi
obligat la plata despgubirilor este de 3 ani de la
data naterii dreptului la aciune.
4. Neacordarea indemnizaiei de
neconcuren lunar
Prin aceast clauz specific salariatul se
oblig ca dup ncetarea contractului s nu
presteze, n interes propriu sau al unui ter, o
activitate care se afl n concuren cu cea prestat
la angajatorul su, n schimbul unei indemnizaii
de neconcuren lunare pe care angajatorul se
oblig s o plteasc pe toat perioada de
neconcuren.
Un specific al clauzei de neconcuren const
n faptul c se negociaz i se nscrie n contractul
individual de munc numai pe perioada executrii
raportului juridic de munc, ns efectele
respectivei clauze se produc ulterior momentului
ncetrii contractului individual de munc. Potrivit
legii, perioada pentru care clauza de neconcuren
i produce efectele este de maximum 2 ani de la
data ncetrii contractului individual de munc.
5. Neacordarea prestaiilor suplimentare
stabilite prin clauza de mobilitate
ntre clauzele specifice pe care prile le pot
negocia i nscrie n contractul individual de
munc se afl i clauza de mobilitate prin care,
potrivit art. 25 din Codul muncii prile stabilesc,
n considerarea specificului muncii, c executarea
obligaiilor de serviciu de ctre salariat nu se
realizeaz ntr-un loc stabil de munc. n acest caz
salariatul beneficiaz de prestaii suplimentare n
bani sau n natur.
n cazul n care, angajatorul nu acord
salariatului prestaiile suplimentare n bani sau n
natur, n cuantumul negociat i precizat n clauza
de mobilitate, rspunde patrimonial pentru
prejudiciul material cauzat, n temeiul prevederilor
art. 25 i art. 253 alin. 1 din Codul muncii.
6. Micorarea unilateral a cuantumului
the minimum level set by normative acts or, after
case, by the collective labor contracts. The
material prejudice suffered by the employee
consists in the difference between the due salary
according to the normative act or collective labor
contract and the effective salary paid for the
entire period.
The term in which the employee can lawsuit
the employer in order to oblige him to pay
indemnifications is 3 years from the date when
the right to action appeared.
4. The denial of the non-competition
monthly allowance
By this specific clause, the employee is
obliged that after ceasing the contract, he would
not perform, in his own interest or for a third
party, an activity that comes in competition with
the one performed by his employer, in exchange
of a non-competition monthly allowance paid by
the employer during the entire non-competition
period.
A specific of the non-competition clause is
the fact that it is negotiated and mentioned in the
individual labor contract only during the period
when the juridical labor report is executed, but
the effects of the respective clause take place
subsequent to the moment when the individual
labor contract ceased. According to the law, the
period during which the non-competition clause
takes place is of maximum 2 years from the date
when the individual labor contract ceased.
5. The denial of the additional benefits
established by the mobility clause
Among the specific clauses that the parties
can negotiate and mention in the individual labor
contract there is also the mobility clause, by
which according to art. 25 from the Labor
Code the parties establish, by taking into
account the specific of the labor, that performing
the job obligations is not done in a stable work
place by the employee. In this case, the employee
benefits from additional benefits cash or in kind.
In case that the employer does not grant the
employee the additional benefits cash or in kind,
in the negotiated amount and in the presence of
the mobility clase, he is patrimonially liable for
the material prejudice he caused, under the
provisions of art. 25 and art 253 align. 1 from the

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine Juridice, Nr. 1/2012



Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Juridical Sciences Series, Issue 1/2012


25
salarial
Micorarea unilateral a cuantumului salarial
nscris n contractul individual de munc
reprezint o msur ilegal care poate atrage
rspunderea patrimonial a angajatorului dac se
ndeplinesc cumulativ urmtoarele condiii:
a. angajatul a beneficiat de un salariu al crui
cuantum a fost stabilit prin negociere sau, dup
caz, prin lege (dac nu s-a ncheiat contract
individual de munc n form scris, prile pot
face dovada prevederilor contractuale i a
prestaiilor efectuate prin orice mijloc de prob);
b. angajatorul a decis micorarea
cuantumului salarial aflat n plat, fr ca, anterior
modificarea acestui element, s execute obligaia
de ncunotinare n scris a salariatului cu privire la
intenia de diminuare a drepturilor salariale;
c. nu a fost ncheiat un act adiional la
contractul individual de munc n termen de 15
zile de la data informrii n scris a salariatului;
d. micorarea cuantumului salarial nu rezult
a fi posibil, nici din prevederi legale i nici din
prevederile contractului colectiv de munc
aplicabil;
e. pentru munca prestat pe acelai loc de
munc sau pe un alt loc de munc (urmare a
deciziei angajatorului de modificare unilateral a
acestui element) salariatul a ncasat drepturile
salariale ntr-un cuantum diminuat.
Fiind ndeplinite cumulativ aceste condiii,
angajatorul va rspunde patrimonial pentru plata
despgubirilor echivalente cu diferena dintre
drepturile salariale stabilite prin negociere sau prin
lege i drepturile salariale diminuate, efectiv
ncasate.
7. Suspendarea netemeinic a contractului
individual de munc
Poate fi stabilit rspunderea patrimonial a
angajatorului dac acesta dispune suspendarea
contractului individual de munc al salariatului, iar
msura se dovedete lipsit de temeinicie.
Salariatul ar putea suferi de un prejudiciu material
n dou situaii de suspendare a contractului
individual de munc din iniiativa angajatorului:
a) pe durata cercetrii disciplinare prealabile;
b) n cazul n care:
- angajatorul a formulat plngere penal
mpotriva salariatului ori,
Labor Code.
6. The unilateral reduction of the salary
amount
The unilateral reduction of the salary
provided in the individual labor contract
represents an illegal measure which may bring
the patrimonially liability of the employer, if all
the below conditions are met:
f. the employee benefited from a salary
whose amount has been established through
negotiation or, as appropriate, by law (if a written
individual labor contract has not been concluded,
the parties can prove the contract provisions and
the labor performed by any way of proof);
g. the employer decided to reduce the
salary amount without executing the obligation
to inform the employee in written prior to the
modification, regarding the intention to reduce
the salary;
h. no additional act has been concluded to
the individual labor contract within 15 days
from the date of the employees information in
written;
i. the reduction of the salary amount does
not prove to be possible, from the legal
provisions or from the provisions of the
applicable labor contract.
j. for the labor he performed in the same
job or in another (subsequent to the employers
decision of unilateral modification of this
element), the employee received a reduced
salary.
If all these conditions are met, the employer
will be patrimonially liable to pay the
indemnifications equal to the difference between
the salary rights established by negotiation or law
and the reduced salary he received.
7. The unjustified suspension of the
individual labor contract
The employer can be patrimonially liable if
he decides the suspension of the employees
individual labor contract and the measure is
proven to be unjustified. The employee could
suffer a material prejudice in two situations of
suspension of the individual labor contract from
the employers initiative:
c) during the prior disciplinary research;
d) in case that

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine Juridice, Nr. 1/2012



Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Juridical Sciences Series, Issue 1/2012


26
- salariatul a fost trimis n judecat pentru
fapte penale incompatibile cu funcia deinut,
pn la rmnerea definitiv a hotrrii
judectoreti.
n acest sens, art. 52 alin. 2 din Codul muncii
stabilete cu referire ambele situaii prezentate:
dac se constat nevinovia celui n cauz,
salariatul i reia activitatea anterioar, pltindu-i-
se n temeiul normelor i principiilor rspunderii
civile contractuale, o despgubire egal cu salariul
i celelalte drepturi de care a fost lipsit pe perioada
suspendrii contractului.
8. Neacordarea drepturilor n cazul
delegrii sau detarii salariailor
Delegarea este o msur dispus de angajator,
n temeiul creia, salariatul va executa lucrri sau
va ndeplini sarcini corespunztoare atribuiilor de
serviciu n afara locului de munc prevzut n
contractul individual de munc pe o perioad de
cel mult 60 de zile calendaristice n 12 luni.
Durata delegrii poate fi prelungit pentru
perioade succesive de cel mult 60 de zile, numai
dac salariatul este de acord cu o astfel de
propunere formulat i argumentat de angajator.
Detaarea este msura prin care angajatorul
dispune schimbarea locului de munc la un alt
angajator, la care salariatul va presta activitate n
interesul i n subordinea acestuia.
Durata detarii este de cel mult un an, putnd
fi prelungit pentru motive obiective i numai cu
acordul salariatului, din 6 n 6 luni.
Potrivit art. 44 alin. 2 i art. 46 alin. 4 din
Codul muncii, salariaii unitilor trimii n
delegaie (n ar sau n strintate) ori n detaare,
beneficiaz de urmtoarele drepturi:
a) decontarea cheltuielilor de transport,
precum i a costului cazrii, potrivit condiiilor
stabilite prin contractele colective de munc
aplicabile;
b) indemnizaie de delegare sau detaare, al
crei cuantum se stabilete prin negociere, nivelul
minim fiind cel stabilit prin actele normative
aplicabile instituiilor publice.
Aadar, angajatorul are obligaia s deconteze
cheltuielile ocazionate de transport, cazare sau
diurn, potrivit actului de delegare sau detaare a
salariatului, iar refuzul executrii acestei obligaii
atrage rspunderea patrimonial.
- the employer has filed a criminal
complaint against the employee or,
- the employee was sent to the court for
criminal deeds incompatible with the position he
held, until the juridical court decision.
In this view, art. 52 align 2 from the Labor
Code established, by referring to the two
situations we presented: if the one in cause
proves to be not guilty, the employee takes back
the position and will be payed under the norms
and the principle of the contractual civil liability
an indemnification equal to the salary and the
other rights from which he was restrained during
the suspension of the contract.
8. The denial of the rights in case the
employee is delegated or detached.
The delegation is a measure disposed by the
employer, based on which the employee will
execute labors or fulfill labor tasks outside the
work place provided in the individual labor
contract during at most 60 days in 12 months.
The duration of the delegation can be prolonged
for successive periods of at most 60 days only if
the employee agrees with this proposal
formulated and argumented by the employer.
The detachment is the measure by which the
employer disposes the change of the work place
to another employer, for which the employee
will perform activities in his interest and
suborder.
The duration of the detachment is of at most
one year, and it can be prolonged only for
objective reasons and only with the agreement of
the employee, every 6 months.
According to art 44 align 2 and art. 46 align.
4 from the Labor Code, the employees of the
units who were sent in delegation (inside the
country or abroad) or in detachment, benefit
from the following rights:
a) the reimbursment of the transportation
and accomodation expenses, according to the
conditions established by the applicable
collective labor contracts;
b) delegation or detachment allowance,
whose amount is established by negotiation, the
minimum level being the one established by the
applicable normative acts from the public
institutions.

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine Juridice, Nr. 1/2012



Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Juridical Sciences Series, Issue 1/2012


27
9. Efectuarea concedierii n mod
netemeinic sau nelegal
Potrivit definiiei legale Concedierea
reprezint ncetarea contractului individual de
munc din iniiativa angajatorului.
Dac angajatorul i exercit dreptul de a-l
concedia pe salariat i procedeaz n mod
netemeinic sau nelegal devin aplicabile
prevederile art. 78 alin. 1 din Codul muncii,
potrivit crora, instana va dispune anularea
concedierii i va obliga angajatorul la plata unei
despgubiri egale cu salariile indexate, majorate i
reactualizate i cu celelalte drepturi de care ar fi
beneficiat salariatul.
10. Neacordarea drepturilor pentru orele
suplimentare i pentru orele lucrate n zilele
libere i n zilele de srbtori legale
Dac salariatul a prestat munc suplimentar,
angajatorului i revine:
- obligaia principal, de a compensa durata
muncii respective cu ore libere pltite n
urmtoarele 60 de zile calendaristice dup
efectuarea acesteia (art. 122 alin. 1 din Codul
muncii);
obligaia subsecvent, n cazul n care
compensarea prin ore libere pltite nu este posibil
n termenul de 60 de zile menionat, caz n care va
plti salariatului munca suplimentar prestat, prin
adugarea unui spor la salariu, care se stabilete
prin negociere, neputnd fi mai mic de 75% din
salariul de baz (art. 123 alin. 2 din Codul
muncii).
Totodat, beneficiaz de compensare salariaii
care presteaz activitate n zilele de srbtoare
legal n care nu se lucreaz: 1 i 2 ianuarie; prima
i a doua zi de Pati; 1 mai; prima i a doua zi de
Rusalii; Adormirea Maicii Domnului; 1
decembrie; Prima i a doua zi de Crciun; 2 zile
pentru fiecare dintre cele trei srbtori religioase
anuale, declarate astfel de cultele religioase legale,
altele dect cele cretine, pentru persoanele
aparinnd acestora.
n cazul n care, din motive justificate, nu se
poate acorda compensare cu timp liber
corespunztor n urmtoarele 60 de zile
calendaristice, salariaii vor beneficia pentru
munca prestat n zilele de srbtoare legal, de un
spor de 100% din salariul de baz (art. 142 alin. 2
Thus, the employer is obliged to reimburse
the transportation and accomodation expenses,
according to the employees act of delegation or
detachment, and the denial to execute this
obligation triggers patrimonially liability.
9. The unjustified and unlawful dismissal
According to the legal definition, The
dismissal is the ceasment of the individual labor
contract from the employers initiative.
If the employer exerts his right to fire the
employee and proceeds in an unjustified or
unlawful way, the provisions of art. 78 align 1
from the Labor Code become applicable,
according to which the instance will dispose the
cancellation of the dismissal and will oblige the
employer to pay an indemnification equal to the
salaries, raised and updated and with all other
rights from which the employee would have
benefited.
10. The denial of the rights for the over
time and for the hours worked during
holidays and free days.
If the employee performed over time, the
employer has the following obligations:
- the main obligation, to compensate the
duration of that respecive labor with free hours,
paid in the next 60 days from its occurence (art
122 align 1 from the Labor Code)
- the subsequent obligation, in case that the
compensation by free paid hours is not possible
within the next 60 days, case in which he will
pay the employee the over time he performed, by
adding an increase to the salary, which is
established by negotiation, and it cannot be lower
than 75% of the basic salary (art 123 align 2 from
the Labor Code)
At the same time, the employees who
perform an activity during holidays benefit from
compensations: 1st and 2nd of January, the first
and second day of Easter, 1st of May, the first
and second day of Pentecost, the Assumption, 1st
of December, the first and second day of
Christmas; 2 days for each of the three annual
religious holidays, declared by the legal religions,
other than the Christian ones, for the people
belonging to them.
In case that, from justified reasons, the
employer cannot give the corresponding free

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine Juridice, Nr. 1/2012



Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Juridical Sciences Series, Issue 1/2012


28
C. muncii).
11. Neacordarea sporului pentru munca de
noapte
n Codul muncii se folosete expresia
salariatul de noapte pentru a desemna (art. 125
alin. 2
1
):
a) salariatul care efectueaz munca de
noapte cel puin 3 ore din timpul su zilnic de
lucru, sau, dup caz,
b) salariatul care efectueaz munca de
noapte n proporie de cel puin 30% din timpul
su lunar de lucru.
Salariatul de noapte beneficiaz:
a) fie de program de lucru redus cu o or fa
de durata normal a zilei de munc, pentru zilele
n care efectueaz cel puin 3 ore de munc de
noapte, fr ca aceasta s duc la scderea
salariului de baz;
b) fie de un spor la salariu 25% din salariul
de baz pentru fiecare or de munc de noapte
prestat.
12. Neacordarea drepturilor salariale n
cuantumul stabilit prin lege sau prin negociere
Potrivit art. 166 alin. 4 din Codul muncii:
ntrzierea nejustificat a plii salariului sau
neplata acestuia poate determina obligarea
angajatorului la plata de daune interese pentru
repararea prejudiciului produs salariatului.
Aceast prevedere legal stabilete o constrngere
a angajatorului n sensul executrii obligaiei de
plat a salariilor la timp i n ntregime.

BIBLIOGRAFIE SELECTIV:

1. Belu, C., Dreptul muncii, Editura
Universitaria, Craiova, 2011;
2. Belu, A., Introducere n studiul
personalitii juridice, Editura
Reprograph, Craiova, 2007;
3. iclea, Al., Tratat de dreptul muncii,
Editura Universul Juridic , Bucureti,
2008;
4. tefnescu, I. T., Tratat de dreptul
muncii, vol. II, Editura Lumina Lex,
Bucureti, 2004.

time in the next 60 days, the employees will
benefit for the work they performed during the
holidays, from an increase of 100% from the
basic salary (art 142 align 2 from the Labor
Code)
11. The denial of the benefit for the night
shift
In the Labor Code, we use the wording
night employee to name (art 125 align 2):
a) the employee who performs the night
shift for at least 3 hours from his daily work time
or, as appropriate,
b) the employee who performs the night
shift for at least 30% of his monthly work time.
The night employee benefits from:
c) either a work schedule reduced with 1h
compared to the normal duration of the work
day, for the days when he performs at least 3
hours of night shift, without leading to the
reduction of the basic salary;
d) or a 25% increase to the basic salary for
each night hour he worked.
12. The denial of the salary rights in the
amount established by law or by negotiation
According to art 166 align 4 from the
Labor Code: The unjustified delay in paying the
salary or the unpaid salary can oblige the
employer to pay indemnifications interests to
repair the prejudice produced to the employee.
This legal provision establishes a constraint to
the employee, with a view to have the salaries
paid on time and fully.

SELECTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Belu, C., Labor Law, Editura
Universitaria, Craiova, 2011;
2. Belu, A., Introduction in the Study of the
Juridical Personality, Editura Reprograph,
Craiova, 2007;
3. iclea, Al., Treaty of Labor Law, Editura
Universul Juridic , Bucureti, 2008;
4. tefnescu, I. T., Treaty of Labor Law,
vol. II, Editura Lumina Lex, Bucureti,
2004.