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Sacred-Texts Hinduism

Edwin Arnold translation SBE vol. 8 translation

Visit American/International Gita Society e!"a#e$ www.#itasociety.
'or Gita in Hindi wit& Sans(rit verses) and com"re&ensive study o* t&e Gita in
+et no!le t&ou#&ts come to us *rom everyw&ere
---- T&e Vedas
T&e Gita is a doctrine o* universal trut&. Its messa#e is universal) su!lime) and non-sectarian alt&ou#&
it is
a "art o* t&e scri"tural trinity o* Sanaatana /&arma) commonly (nown as Hinduism. T&e Gita is very
to understand in any lan#ua#e *or a mature mind. A re"eated readin# wit& *ait& will reveal all t&e
ideas contained in it. A *ew a!struse statements are inters"ersed &ere and t&ere !ut t&ey &ave no direct
!earin# on "ractical issues or t&e central t&eme o* Gita. T&e Gita deals wit& t&e most sacred
science. It im"arts t&e (nowled#e o* t&e Sel* and answers two universal 2uestions$ &o am I) and &ow
can I lead a &a""y and "eace*ul li*e in t&is world o* dualities. It is a !oo( o* yo#a) t&e moral and
#rowt&) *or man(ind !ased on t&e cardinal "rinci"les o* Hindu reli#ion.
T&e messa#e o* Gita came to &umanity !ecause o* Ar3una4s unwillin#ness to do &is duty as a warrior)
!ecause *i#&tin# involved destruction and (illin#. ,onviolence or A&imsa is one o* t&e most
tenets o* Hinduism. All lives) &uman or non-&uman) are sacred. T&is immortal discourse !etween t&e
Su"reme +ord) 5ris&na) and His devotee-*riend) Ar3una) occurs not in a tem"le) a secluded *orest) or on
mountain to" !ut on a !attle*ield on t&e eve o* a war and is recorded in t&e #reat e"ic) 6a&aa!&aarata.
Gita +ord 5ris&na advises Ar3una to #et u" and *i#&t. T&is may create a misunderstandin# o* t&e
"rinci"les o* A&imsa i* t&e !ac(#round o* t&e war o* 6a&aa!&aarata is not (e"t in mind. T&ere*ore) a
!rie* &istorical descri"tion is in order.
In ancient times t&ere was a (in# w&o &ad two sons) /&ritaraas&tra and 7aandu. T&e *ormer was !orn
!lind) t&ere*ore) 7aandu in&erited t&e (in#dom. 7aandu &ad *ive sons. T&ey were called t&e 7aandavs.
/&ritaraas&tra &ad one &undred sons. T&ey were called t&e 5auravs. /uryod&ana was t&e eldest o* t&e
A*ter t&e deat& o* (in# 7aandu t&e 7aandavs !ecame t&e law*ul (in#. /uryod&ana was a very 3ealous
"erson. He also wanted t&e (in#dom. T&e (in#dom was divided into two &alves !etween t&e 7aandavs
and t&e 5auravs . /uryod&ana was not satis*ied wit& &is s&are o* t&e (in#dom. He wanted t&e entire
(in#dom *or &imsel*. He unsuccess*ully "lanned several *oul "lays to (ill t&e 7aandavs and ta(e away
t&eir (in#dom. He unlaw*ully too( "ossession o* t&e entire (in#dom o* t&e 7aandavs and re*used to
!ac( even an acre o* land wit&out a war. All mediation !y +ord 5ris&na and ot&ers *ailed. T&e !i# war
6a&aa!&aarata was t&us inevita!le. T&e 7aandavs were unwillin# "artici"ants. T&ey &ad only two
c&oices$ 'i#&t *or t&eir ri#&t as a matter o* duty or run away *rom war and acce"t de*eat in t&e name o*
"eace and nonviolence. Ar3una) one o* t&e *ive 7aandava !rot&ers) *aced t&e dilemma in t&e !attle*ield
w&et&er to *i#&t or run away *rom war *or t&e sa(e o* "eace.
Ar3una4s dilemma is) in reality) t&e universal dilemma. Every &uman !ein# *aces dilemmas) !i# and
small) in t&eir everyday li*e w&en "er*ormin# t&eir duties. Ar3una4s dilemma was t&e !i##est o* all. He
&ad to ma(e a c&oice !etween *i#&tin# t&e war and (illin# &is most revered #uru) very dear *riends)
relatives) and many innocent warriors or runnin# away *rom t&e !attle*ield *or t&e sa(e o* "reservin#
"eace and nonviolence. T&e entire seven &undred verses o* t&e Gita is a discourse !etween +ord
and t&e con*used Ar3una on t&e !attle*ield o* 5uru(s&etra near ,ew /el&i) India) in a!out %)899 years
B1E. T&is discourse was narrated to t&e !lind (in#) /&ritaraas&tr) !y &is c&arioteer) San3aya) as an
eyewitness war re"ort.
T&e main o!3ective o* t&e Gita is to &el" "eo"le : stru##lin# in t&e dar(ness o* i#norance : cross t&e
ocean o* transmi#ration and reac& t&e s"iritual s&ore o* li!eration w&ile livin# and wor(in# in t&e
T&e central teac&in# o* t&e Gita is t&e attainment o* *reedom or &a""iness *rom t&e !onda#e o* li*e !y
doin# one4s duty. Always remem!er t&e #lory and #reatness o* t&e creator and do your duty e**iciently
wit&out !ein# attac&ed to or a**ected !y t&e results even i* t&at duty may at times demand unavoida!le
violence. Some "eo"le ne#lect or #ive u" t&eir duty in li*e *or t&e sa(e o* a s"iritual li*e w&ile ot&ers
excuse t&emselves *rom s"iritual "ractices !ecause t&ey !elieve t&at t&ey &ave no time. T&e +ord4s
messa#e is to sancti*y t&e entire livin# "rocess itsel*. &atever a "erson does or t&in(s ou#&t to !e
*or t&e #lory and satis*action o* t&e 6a(er. ,o e**ort or cost is necessary *or t&is "rocess. /o your duty
a service to t&e +ord and &umanity and see God alone in everyt&in# in a s"iritual *rame o* mind. In
to #ain suc& a s"iritual *rame o* mind) "ersonal disci"line) austerity) "enance) #ood conduct) sel*less
service) yo#ic "ractices) meditation) wors&i") "rayer) rituals) and study o* scri"tures) as well as t&e
com"any o* &oly "ersons) "il#rima#e) c&antin# o* t&e &oly names o* God) and Sel*-in2uiry are needed
"uri*y t&e !ody) mind) and intellect. .ne must learn to #ive u" lust) an#er) #reed) and esta!lis& mastery
over t&e six senses ;&earin#) touc&) si#&t) taste) smell) and mind< !y t&e "uri*ied intellect. .ne s&ould
always remem!er t&at all wor(s are done !y t&e ener#y o* nature and t&at &e or s&e is not t&e doer !ut
only an instrument. .ne must strive *or excellence in all underta(in#s !ut maintain e2uanimity in
and *ailure) #ain and loss) and "ain and "leasure.
T&e i#norance o* meta"&ysical (nowled#e is &umanity4s #reatest "redicament. A scri"ture) !ein# t&e
voice o* transcendence) cannot !e translated. +an#ua#e is inca"a!le and translations are de*ective to
clearly im"art t&e (nowled#e o* t&e A!solute. In t&is renderin#) an attem"t &as !een made to (ee" t&e
style as close as "ossi!le to t&e ori#inal Sans(rit "oetry and yet ma(e it easy to read and understand. An
attem"t &as !een made to im"rove t&e clarity !y addin# words or "&rases) wit&in "arent&esis) in t&e
En#lis& translation o* t&e verses. A #lossary and index &ave !een included. .ne &undred and t&irty-
;8%%< (ey verses are "rinted in red *or t&e convenience o* !e#inners. e su##est all our readers to
"onder) contem"late) and act u"on t&ese red (ey verses. T&e !e#inners and t&e !usy executives s&ould
*irst read and understand t&e meanin# o* t&ese (ey verses !e*ore delvin# dee" into t&e !ottomless ocean
o* transcendental (nowled#e o* t&e Gita.
Accordin# to t&e scri"tures no sin) &owever &einous) can a**ect t&e one w&o reads) "onders) and
t&e teac&in#s o* Gita any more t&an water a**ects t&e lotus lea*. T&e +ord Himsel* resides w&ere Gita is
(e"t) read) c&anted) or tau#&t. T&e Gita is t&e (nowled#e Su"reme and t&e sound em!odiment o* t&e
A!solute and t&e Eternal. T&e one w&o reads) "onders) and "ractices t&e teac&in#s o* Gita wit& *ait&
devotion will attain 6o(s&a ;or ,irvana< !y t&e #race o* God.
T&is !oo( is dedicated to my Sad#uru) His Holiness Swami 1&idanand3i ;6uni3i< 6a&ara3 and all ot&er
#urus w&ose !lessin#s) #race) and teac&in#s &ave !een invalua!le. It is o**ered to t&e #reatest #uru)
5ris&na) wit& love and devotion. 6ay t&e +ord acce"t it) and !less t&ose w&o re"eatedly read t&is wit&
"eace) &a""iness) and t&e true (nowled#e o* t&e Sel*.
1HA7TE- 8
A-=0,A4S /I+E66A
T&e war o* 6a&a!&arata &as !e#un a*ter all ne#otiations !y +ord 5ris&na and ot&ers to avoid it *ailed.
T&e !lind 5in# ;/&ritaras&tra< was never very sure a!out t&e victory o* &is sons ;5auravas< in s"ite o*
t&eir su"erior army. Sa#e Vyasa) t&e aut&or o* 6a&a!&arata) wanted to #ive t&e !lind (in# t&e !oon o*
eyesi#&t so t&at t&e (in# could see t&e &orrors o* t&e war *or w&ic& &e was "rimarily res"onsi!le. But
(in# re*used t&e o**er. He did not want to see t&e &orrors o* t&e war> !ut "re*erred to #et t&e war re"ort
t&rou#& &is c&arioteer) San3aya. Sa#e Vyasa #ranted t&e "ower o* clairvoyance to San3aya. it& t&is
"ower San3aya could see) &ear) and recall t&e events o* t&e "ast) "resent) and t&e *uture. He was a!le to
#ive an instant re"lay o* t&e eye witness war re"ort to t&e !lind 5in# sittin# in t&e "alace.
B&is&ma) t&e mi#&tiest man and t&e commander-in-c&ie* o* t&e 5aurava4s army) is disa!led !y Ar3una
and is lyin# on deat&!ed in t&e !attle#round on t&e tent& day o* t&e ei#&teen day war. 0"on &earin# t&is
!ad news *rom San3aya) t&e !lind 5in# looses all &o"es *or victory o* &is sons. ,ow t&e 5in# wants to
(now t&e details o* t&e war *rom t&e !e#innin#) includin# &ow t&e mi#&tiest man) and t&e commander-
o* &is su"erior army : w&o &ad a !oon o* dyin# at &is own will : was de*eated in t&e !attle*ield.
T&e teac&in# o* t&e Gita !e#ins wit& t&e in2uiry o* t&e !lind 5in#) a*ter San3aya descri!ed &ow
was de*eated) as *ollows$
T&e 5in# in2uired$ San3aya) "lease now tell me) in details) w&at did my "eo"le ;t&e 5auravas< and t&e
7andavas do in t&e !attle*ield !e*ore t&e war started? ;8.98<
San3aya said$ . 5in#) A*ter seein# t&e !attle *ormation o* t&e 7andava4s army) your son a""roac&ed &is
#uru and s"o(e t&ese words$ ;8.9@<
. 6aster) !e&old t&is mi#&ty army o* t&e 7andavas) arran#ed in !attle *ormation !y your ot&er talented
disci"leA T&ere are many #reat warriors) valiant men) &eroes) and mi#&ty arc&ers. ;8.9%-9B<
Introduction .* T&e Army 1ommanders
Also t&ere are many &eroes on my side w&o &ave ris(ed t&eir lives *or me. I s&all name *ew
commanders o* my army *or your in*ormation. He named all t&e o**icers o* &is army) and said$ T&ey
armed wit& various wea"ons) and are s(illed in war*are. ;8.9C-9D<
.ur army is invinci!le) w&ile t&eir army is easy to con2uer. T&ere*ore all o* you) occu"yin# your
res"ective "ositions) "rotect our commander-in-c&ie*. ;8.89-88<
ar Starts it& T&e Blowin# .* 1onc& S&ells
T&e mi#&ty commander-in-c&ie* and t&e eldest man o* t&e dynasty) roared as a lion and !lew &is conc&
loudly) !rin#in# 3oy to your son. ;8.8@<
Soon a*ter t&at> conc&es) (ettledrums) cym!als) drums) and trum"ets were sounded to#et&er. T&e
commotion was tremendous. ;8.8%<
A*ter t&at) +ord 5ris&na and Ar3una) seated in a #rand c&ariot yo(ed wit& w&ite &orses) !lew t&eir
celestial conc&es. ;8.8E<
5ris&na !lew His conc& *irst) and t&en Ar3una and all ot&er commanders o* various divisions o* t&e
o* 7andavas !lew t&eir res"ective conc&es. T&e tumultuous u"roar) resoundin# t&rou#& t&e eart& and
tore t&e &earts o* your sons. ;8.8F-8D<
Ar3una ants To Ins"ect T&e Army A#ainst &om He Is A!out To 'i#&t
Seein# your sons standin#) and t&e war a!out to !e#in wit& t&e &urlin# o* wea"ons> Ar3una) w&ose
!ore t&e em!lem o* +ord Hanumana) too( u" &is !ow and s"o(e t&ese words to +ord 5ris&na$ . +ord)
"lease sto" my c&ariot !etween t&e two armies until I !e&old t&ose w&o stand &ere ea#er *or t&e !attle
wit& w&om I must en#a#e in t&is act o* war. ;8.@9-@@<
I wis& to see t&ose w&o are willin# to serve and a""ease t&e evil-minded 5auravas !y assem!lin# &ere
*i#&t t&e !attle. ;8.@%<
San3aya said$ . 5in#> +ord 5ris&na) as re2uested !y Ar3una) "laced t&e !est o* all t&e c&ariots in t&e
midst o* t&e two armies *acin# Ar3unaGs #rand*at&er) &is #uru and all ot&er 5in#s> and said to Ar3una$
Be&old t&ese assem!led soldiersA ;8.@E-@F<
Ar3una saw &is uncles) #rand*at&ers) teac&ers) maternal uncles) !rot&ers) sons) #randsons) and ot&er
comrades in t&e army. ;8.@B<
A-=0,AGS /I+E66A
A*ter seein# *at&ers-in-law) com"anions) and all &is (insmen standin# in t&e ran(s o* t&e two armies)
Ar3una was overcome wit& #reat com"assion and sorrow*ully s"o(e t&ese words$ . 5ris&na) seein# my
(insmen standin# wit& a desire to *i#&t) my lim!s *ail and my mout& !ecomes dry. 6y !ody 2uivers
my &airs stand on end. ;8.@C-@D<
T&e !ow sli"s *rom my &and) and my s(in intensely !urns. 6y &ead turns) I am una!le to stand steady)
and . 5ris&na) I see !ad omens. I see no use o* (illin# my (insmen in !attle. ;8.%9-%8<
I desire neit&er victory) nor "leasure nor (in#dom) . 5ris&na. &at is t&e use o* t&e (in#dom) or
en3oyment) or even li*e) . 5ris&na? Because all t&ose : *or w&om we desire (in#dom) en3oyments)
"leasures : are standin# &ere *or t&e !attle) #ivin# u" t&eir lives. ;8.%@-%%<
I do not wis& to (ill my teac&ers) uncles) sons) #rand*at&ers) maternal uncles) *at&ers-in-law) #randsons)
!rot&ers-in-law) and ot&er relatives w&o are a!out to (ill us) even *or t&e soverei#nty o* t&e t&ree
let alone *or t&is eart&ly (in#dom) . 5ris&na. ;8.%E-%F<
. +ord 5ris&na) w&at "leasure s&all we *ind in (illin# our cousin !rot&ers? 0"on (illin# t&ese *elons
s&all incur sin only. ;8.%B<
T&ere*ore) we s&ould not (ill our cousin !rot&ers. How can we !e &a""y a*ter (illin# our relatives) .
5ris&na? ;8.%C<
T&ou#& t&ey are !linded !y #reed) and do not see evil in t&e destruction o* t&e *amily) or sin in !ein#
treac&erous to *riends. &y s&ould not we) w&o clearly see evil in t&e destruction o* t&e *amily) t&in(
a!out turnin# away *rom t&is sin) . 5ris&na? ;8.%8-%D<
A-=0,A /ES1-IBES THE EVI+S .' A-
Eternal *amily traditions and codes o* moral conduct are destroyed wit& t&e destruction o* t&e *amily.
And immorality "revails in t&e *amily due to t&e destruction o* *amily traditions. ;8.E9<
And w&en immorality "revails) . 5ris&na) t&e women o* t&e *amily !ecome corru"ted> w&en women
corru"ted) unwanted "ro#eny is !orn. ;8.E8<
T&is !rin#s t&e *amily and t&e slayers o* t&e *amily to &ell) !ecause t&e s"irits o* t&eir ancestors are
de#raded w&en de"rived o* ceremonial o**erin#s o* love and res"ect !y t&e unwanted "ro#eny. ;8.E@<
T&e everlastin# 2ualities o* social order and *amily traditions o* t&ose w&o destroy t&eir *amily are
!y t&e sin*ul act o* ille#itimacy. ;8.E%<
e &ave !een told) . 5ris&na) t&at "eo"le w&ose *amily traditions are destroyed necessarily dwell in
*or a lon# time. ;8.EE<
AlasA e are ready to commit a #reat sin !y strivin# to slay our relatives !ecause o* #reed *or t&e
"leasures o* t&e (in#dom. ;8.EF<
It would !e *ar !etter *or me i* my cousin !rot&ers (ill me wit& t&eir wea"ons in !attle w&ile I am
unarmed and unresistin#. ;8.EB<
HE, G.I,G GETS T.0GH) EVE, T.0GH .,ES 1A, GET /E+0/E/
San3aya said$ Havin# said t&is in t&e !attle*ield and castin# aside &is !ow and arrow) Ar3una sat down
t&e seat o* t&e c&ariot wit& &is mind overw&elmed wit& sorrow. ;8.EC<
1HA7TE- @
T-A,S1E,/E,TA+ 5,.+E/GE
San3aya said$ +ord 5ris&na s"o(e t&ese words to Ar3una w&ose eyes were tear*ul and downcast) and
was overw&elmed wit& com"assion and des"air. ;@.98<
+ord 5ris&na said$ How &as t&e de3ection come to you at t&is 3uncture? T&is is not *it *or a "erson o*
no!le mind and deeds. It is dis#race*ul) and it does not lead one to &eaven) . Ar3una. ;@.9@<
/o not !ecome a coward) . Ar3una) !ecause it does not !e*it you. S&a(e o** t&is trivial wea(ness o*
&eart and #et u" *or t&e !attle) . Ar3una. ;@.9%<
A-=0,A 1.,TI,0ES HIS -EAS.,I,G
Ar3una said$ How s&all I stri(e my #rand*at&er) my #uru) and all ot&er relatives) w&o are wort&y o* my
res"ect) wit& arrows in !attle) . 5ris&na? ;@.9E<
It would !e !etter) indeed) to live on alms in t&is world t&an to slay t&ese no!le "ersonalities) !ecause
(illin# t&em I would en3oy wealt& and "leasures stained wit& t&eir !lood. ;@.9F<
e do not (now w&ic& alternative : to *i#&t or to 2uit : is !etter *or us. 'urt&er) we do not (now
w&et&er we s&all con2uer t&em or t&ey will con2uer us. e s&ould not even wis& to live a*ter (illin#
cousin !rot&ers) w&o are standin# in *ront o* us. ;@.9B<
6y senses are overcome !y t&e wea(ness o* "ity) and my mind is con*used a!out duty ;/&arma<.
tell me w&at is !etter *or me. I am Hour disci"le) and I ta(e re*u#e in Hou. ;@.9C<
I do not "erceive t&at #ainin# an unrivaled and "ros"erous (in#dom on t&is eart&) or even lords&i" over
all t&e celestial controllers will remove t&e sorrow t&at is dryin# u" my senses. ;@.98<
San3aya said$ . 5in#) a*ter s"ea(in# li(e t&is to +ord 5ris&na) t&e mi#&ty Ar3una said to 5ris&na$ I
not *i#&t) and !ecame silent. ;@.9D<
. 5in#) +ord 5ris&na) as i* smilin#) s"o(e t&ese words to t&e distressed Ar3una in t&e midst o* t&e two
armies. ;@.89<
+ord 5ris&na said$ Hou #rieve *or t&ose w&o are not wort&y o* #rie*) and yet s"ea( words o*
wisdom. T&e wise #rieves neit&er *or t&e livin# nor *or t&e dead. ;@.88<
T&ere was never a time w&en t&ese monarc&s) you) or I did not exist> nor s&all we ever cease to exist in
t&e *uture. ;@.8@<
=ust as t&e soul ac2uires a c&ild&ood !ody) a yout& !ody) and an old a#e !ody durin# t&is li*e>
similarly) t&e soul ac2uires anot&er !ody a*ter deat&. T&is s&ould not delude t&e wise. ;See also
8F.98< ;@.8%<
T&e contacts o* t&e senses wit& t&e sense o!3ects #ive rise to t&e *eelin#s o* &eat and cold) and "ain and
"leasure. T&ey are transitory and im"ermanent. T&ere*ore) one s&ould learn to endure t&em. ;@.8E<
Because a calm "erson : w&o is not a**licted !y t&ese sense o!3ects) and is steady in "ain and "leasure
: !ecomes *it *or salvation. ;@.8F<
T&e invisi!le S"irit ;Atma) Atman< is eternal) and t&e visi!le "&ysical !ody) is transitory. T&e reality o*
t&ese two is indeed certainly seen !y t&e seers o* trut&. ;@.8B<
T&e S"irit !y w&om t&is entire universe is "ervaded is indestructi!le. ,o one can destroy t&e
S"irit. ;@.8C<
T&e "&ysical !odies o* t&e eternal) immuta!le) and incom"re&ensi!le S"irit are "eris&a!le. T&ere*ore
*i#&t) . Ar3una. ;@.88<
T&e one w&o t&in(s t&at t&e S"irit is a slayer) and t&e one w&o t&in(s t&e S"irit is slain) !ot& are
i#norant. Because t&e S"irit neit&er slays nor is slain. ;@.8D<
T&e S"irit is neit&er !orn nor does it die at any time. It does not come into !ein#) or cease to exist. It is
un!orn) eternal) "ermanent) and "rimeval. T&e S"irit is not destroyed w&en t&e !ody is destroyed.
. Ar3una) &ow can a "erson w&o (nows t&at t&e S"irit is indestructi!le) eternal) un!orn) and
(ill anyone or causes anyone to !e (illed? ;@.@8<
/EATH A,/ T-A,S6IG-ATI., .' S.0+
=ust as a "erson "uts on new #arments a*ter discardin# t&e old ones> similarly) t&e livin# entity or
t&e individual soul ac2uires new !odies a*ter castin# away t&e old !odies. ;@.@@<
ea"ons do not cut t&is S"irit) *ire does not !urn it) water does not ma(e it wet) and t&e wind does not
ma(e it dry. T&e S"irit cannot !e cut) !urned) wetted) or dried. It is eternal) all "ervadin#) unc&an#in#)
immova!le) and "rimeval. ;@.@%-@E<
T&e S"irit is said to !e unex"laina!le) incom"re&ensi!le) and unc&an#in#. 5nowin# t&e S"irit as suc&
s&ould not #rieve. ;@.@F<
Even i* you t&in( t&at t&e "&ysical !ody ta(es !irt& and dies "er"etually) even t&en) . Ar3una) you
not #rieve li(e t&is. Because deat& is certain *or t&e one w&o is !orn) and !irt& is certain *or t&e one
dies. T&ere*ore) you s&ould not lament over t&e inevita!le. ;@.@B-@C<
All !ein#s are unmani*est) or invisi!le to our "&ysical eyes !e*ore !irt& and a*ter deat&. T&ey
mani*est !etween t&e !irt& and t&e deat& only. &at is t&ere to #rieve a!out? ;@.@8<
THE I,/EST-01TIB+E S7I-IT T-A,S1E,/S 6I,/ A,/ S7EE1H
Some loo( u"on t&is S"irit as a wonder) anot&er descri!es it as wonder*ul) and ot&ers &ear o* it as a
wonder. Even a*ter &earin# a!out it very *ew "eo"le (now w&at t&e S"irit is. ;See also 5a0 @.9C<
. Ar3una) t&e S"irit t&at dwells in t&e !ody o* all !ein#s is eternally indestructi!le. T&ere*ore) you
not mourn *or any!ody. ;@.%9<
+.-/ 5-ISH,A -E6I,/S A-=0,A .' HIS /0TH AS A A--I.-
1onsiderin# also your duty as a warrior you s&ould not waver li(e t&is. Because t&ere is not&in# more
aus"icious *or a warrior t&an a ri#&teous war. ;@.%8<
.nly t&e *ortunate warriors) . Ar3una) #et suc& an o""ortunity *or an unsou#&t war t&at is li(e an o"en
door to &eaven. ;@.%@<
I* you will not *i#&t t&is ri#&teous war) t&en you will *ail in your duty) lose your re"utation) and incur
7eo"le will tal( a!out your dis#race *orever. To t&e &onored) dis&onor is worse t&an deat&. ;@.%E<
T&e #reat warriors will t&in( t&at you &ave retreated *rom t&e !attle out o* *ear. T&ose w&o &ave #reatly
esteemed you will lose res"ect *or you. ;@.%F<
Hour enemies will s"ea( many unmentiona!le words and scorn your a!ility. &at could !e more
to you t&an t&is? ;@.%B<
Hou will #o to &eaven i* (illed on t&e line o* duty) or you will en3oy t&e (in#dom on t&e eart& i*
victorious. T&ere*ore) #et u" wit& a determination to *i#&t) . Ar3una. ;@.%C<
Treatin# "leasure and "ain) #ain and loss) and victory and de*eat ali(e) en#a#e yoursel* in your
duty. By doin# your duty t&is way you will not incur sin. ;@.%8<
I67.-TA,1E .' 5A-6A-H.GA) THE SE+'+ESS SE-VI1E
T&e science o* transcendental (nowled#e &as !een im"arted to you) . Ar3una. ,ow listen to t&e science
o* sel*less service ;Seva<) endowed wit& w&ic& you will *ree yoursel* *rom all 5armic !onda#e) or sin.
,o e**ort is ever lost in sel*less service) and t&ere is no adverse e**ect. Even a little "ractice o* t&e
disci"line o* sel*less service "rotects one *rom t&e #reat *ear o* re"eated !irt& and deat&. ;@.E9<
A sel*less wor(er &as resolute determination *or God-realiIation) !ut t&e desires o* t&e one w&o wor(s
en3oy t&e *ruits o* wor( are endless. ;@.E8<
T&e mis#uided ones w&o deli#&t in t&e melodious c&antin# o* t&e Veda : wit&out understandin# t&e
"ur"ose o* t&e Vedas : t&in() . Ar3una) as i* t&ere is not&in# else in t&e Vedas exce"t t&e rituals *or t&e
sole "ur"ose o* o!tainin# &eavenly en3oyment. ;@.E@<
T&ey are dominated !y material desires) and consider t&e attainment o* &eaven as t&e &i#&est #oal o*
T&ey en#a#e in s"eci*ic rites *or t&e sa(e o* "ros"erity and en3oyment. -e!irt& is t&e result o* t&eir
T&e resolute determination o* Sel*-realiIation is not *ormed in t&e minds o* t&ose w&o are attac&ed to
"leasure and "ower) and w&ose 3ud#ment is o!scured !y ritualistic activities. ;@.EE<
A "ortion o* t&e Vedas deals wit& t&ree modes J #oodness) "assion) and i#norance J o* material
,ature. Become *ree *rom "airs o* o""osites) !e ever !alanced and unconcerned wit& t&e t&ou#&ts o*
ac2uisition and "reservation. -ise a!ove t&ese t&ree modes) and !e Sel*-conscious) . Ar3una. ;@.EF<
To a Sel*-realiIed "erson t&e Vedas are as use*ul as a small reservoir o* water w&en t&e water o* a &u#e
la(e !ecomes availa!le. ;@.EB<
THE.-H A,/ 7-A1TI1E .' 5A-6A-H.GA
Hou &ave control over doin# your res"ective duty only) !ut no control or claim over t&e results. T&e
*ruits o* wor( s&ould not !e your motive) and you s&ould never !e inactive. ;@.EC<
/o your duty to t&e !est o* your a!ility) . Ar3una) wit& your mind attac&ed to t&e +ord)
a!andonin# worry and sel*is& attac&ment to t&e results) and remainin# calm in !ot& success and
*ailure. T&e sel*less service is a yo#ic "ractice t&at !rin#s "eace and e2uanimity o* mind. ;@.E8<
or( done wit& sel*is& motives is in*erior !y *ar to t&e sel*less service. T&ere*ore !e a sel*less wor(er)
Ar3una. T&ose w&o wor( only to en3oy t&e *ruits o* t&eir la!or are verily un&a""y) !ecause one &as no
control over t&e results. ;@.ED<
A 5arma-yo#i or t&e sel*less "erson !ecomes *ree *rom !ot& vice and virtue in t&is li*e itsel*.
T&ere*ore) strive *or sel*less service. or(in# to t&e !est o* one4s a!ilities wit&out !ecomin#
sel*is&ly attac&ed to t&e *ruits o* wor( is called 5arma-yo#a or Seva. ;@.F9<
5arma-yo#is are *reed *rom t&e !onda#e o* re!irt& due to renouncin# t&e sel*is& attac&ment to t&e
o* all wor() and attain !liss*ul divine state o* salvation or ,irvana. ;@.F8<
&en your intellect will com"letely "ierce t&e veil o* con*usion) t&en you will !ecome indi**erent to
&as !een &eard and w&at is to !e &eard *rom t&e scri"tures. ;@.F@<
&en your intellect) t&at is con*used !y t&e con*lictin# o"inions and t&e ritualistic doctrine o* t&e
s&all stay steady and *irm on concentration o* t&e Su"reme Bein#) t&en you s&all attain union wit& t&e
Su"reme in trance. ;@.F%<
Ar3una said$ . 5ris&na) w&at are t&e mar(s o* an enli#&tened "erson w&ose intellect is steady? &at
a "erson o* steady intellect t&in( and tal( a!out? How does suc& a "erson !e&ave wit& ot&ers) and live
t&is world? ;@.FE<
6A-5S .' A SE+'--EA+IKE/ 7E-S.,
+ord 5ris&na said$ &en one is com"letely *ree *rom all desires o* t&e mind and is satis*ied wit& t&e
Su"reme Bein# !y t&e 3oy o* Su"reme Bein#) t&en one is called an enli#&tened "erson) . Ar3una.
A "erson w&ose mind is un"ertur!ed !y sorrow) w&o does not crave "leasures) and w&o is
com"letely *ree *rom attac&ment) *ear) and an#er) is called an enli#&tened sa#e o* steady intellect.
T&e mind and intellect o* a "erson !ecome steady w&o is not attac&ed to anyt&in#) w&o is neit&er elated
!y #ettin# desired results) nor "ertur!ed !y undesired results. ;@.FC<
&en one can com"letely wit&draw t&e senses *rom t&e sense o!3ects as a tortoise wit&draws its lim!s
into t&e s&ell *or "rotection *rom calamity) t&en t&e intellect o* suc& a "erson is considered steady.
T&e desire *or sensual "leasures *ades away i* one a!stains *rom sense en3oyment) !ut t&e cravin# *or
sense en3oyment remains in a very su!tle *orm. T&is su!tle cravin# also com"letely disa""ears *rom t&e
one w&o (nows t&e Su"reme Bein#. ;@.FD<
/A,GE-S .' 0,-EST-AI,E/ SE,SES
-estless senses) . Ar3una) *orci!ly carry away t&e mind o* even a wise "erson strivin# *or
"er*ection. ;@.B9<
.ne s&ould *ix one4s mind on God wit& lovin# contem"lation a*ter !rin#in# t&e senses under
control. .ne4s intellect !ecomes steady w&en one4s senses are under com"lete control. ;@.B8<
.ne develo"s attac&ment to sense o!3ects !y t&in(in# a!out sense o!3ects. /esire *or sense o!3ects
comes *rom attac&ment to sense o!3ects) and an#er comes *rom un*ul*illed desires. ;@.B@<
/elusion or wild idea arises *rom an#er. T&e mind is !ewildered !y delusion. -easonin# is destroyed
w&en t&e mind is !ewildered. .ne *alls down *rom t&e ri#&t "at& w&en reasonin# is destroyed. ;@.B%<
ATTAI,6E,T .' 7EA1E A,/ HA77I,ESS TH-.0GH SE,SE 1.,T-.+ A,/
A disci"lined "erson) en3oyin# sense o!3ects wit& senses t&at are under control and *ree *rom
and aversions) attains tran2uillity. ;@.BE<
All sorrows are destroyed u"on attainment o* tran2uillity. T&e intellect o* suc& a tran2uil "erson soon
!ecomes com"letely steady and united wit& t&e Su"reme. ;@.BF<
T&ere is neit&er Sel*-(nowled#e) nor Sel*-"erce"tion to t&ose w&o are not united wit& t&e Su"reme.
it&out Sel*-"erce"tion t&ere is no "eace) and wit&out "eace t&ere can !e no &a""iness. ;@.BB<
Because t&e mind) w&en controlled !y t&e rovin# senses) steals away t&e intellect as a storm ta(es
away a !oat on t&e sea *rom its destination : t&e s"iritual s&ore o* "eace and &a""iness. ;@.BC<
T&ere*ore) . Ar3una) one4s intellect !ecomes steady w&ose senses are com"letely wit&drawn *rom t&e
sense o!3ects. ;@.B8<
A yo#i) t&e "erson o* sel*-restraint) remains wa(e*ul w&en it is ni#&t *or all ot&ers. It is ni#&t *or t&e
w&o sees w&en all ot&ers are wa(e*ul. ;@.BD<
.ne attains "eace) wit&in w&ose mind all desires dissi"ate wit&out creatin# any mental distur!ance)
as river waters enter t&e *ull ocean wit&out creatin# any distur!ance. .ne w&o desires material
o!3ects is never "eace*ul. ;@.C9<
.ne w&o a!andons all desires) and !ecomes *ree *rom lon#in# and t&e *eelin# o* GIG and GmyG) attains
"eace. ;@.C8<
. Ar3una) t&is is t&e su"erconscious state o* mind. Attainin# t&is state) one is no lon#er deluded.
t&is state) even at t&e end o* one4s li*e) a "erson !ecomes one wit& t&e A!solute. ;@.C@<.
1HA7TE- %
Ar3una as(ed$ I* Hou consider t&at ac2uirin# transcendental (nowled#e is !etter t&an wor(in#) t&en
do Hou want me to en#a#e in t&is &orri!le war) . 5ris&na? Hou seem to con*use my mind !y
con*lictin# words. Tell me) decisively) one t&in# !y w&ic& I may attain t&e Su"reme. ;%.98-9@<
+ord 5ris&na said$ In t&is world I &ave stated a two*old "at& o* s"iritual disci"line in t&e "ast. T&e
"at& o* Sel*-(nowled#e *or t&e contem"lative ones) and t&e "at& o* unsel*is& wor( ;Seva) 5armayo#a<
*or all ot&ers. ;%.9%<
.ne does not attain *reedom *rom t&e !onda#e o* 5arma !y merely a!stainin# *rom wor(. ,o one
"er*ection !y merely #ivin# u" wor() !ecause no one can remain actionless even *or a moment.
is driven to action : &el"lessly indeed : !y t&e *orces o* ,ature. ;%.9E-9F<
Anyone) w&o restrains t&e senses !ut mentally dwells u"on t&e sense o!3ects) is called a "retender.
HH .,E SH.0+/ SE-VE .THE-S?
T&e one w&o controls t&e senses !y t&e trained and "uri*ied mind and intellect) and en#a#es t&e
or#ans o* action to sel*less service is considered su"erior. ;%.9C<
7er*orm your o!li#atory duty) !ecause wor(in# is indeed !etter t&an sittin# idle. Even t&e maintenance
your !ody would not !e "ossi!le wit&out wor(. ;%.98<
or( ot&er t&an t&ose done as a sel*less service ;Seva< !inds &uman !ein#s. T&ere*ore) !ecomin#
*ree *rom sel*is& attac&ment to t&e *ruits o* wor() do your duty e**iciently as a service to 6e. ;%.9D<
T. HE+7 EA1H .THE- IS THE 'I-ST 1.66A,/6E,T .' THE 1-EAT.-
In t&e !e#innin# t&e creator created &uman !ein#s to#et&er wit& sel*less service ;Seva) sacri*ice< and
By servin# eac& ot&er you s&all "ros"er and t&e sacri*icial service s&all *ul*ill all your desires. ;%.89<
,ouris& t&e celestial controllers wit& sel*less service) and t&ey will nouris& you. T&us nouris&in# one
anot&er you s&all attain t&e Su"reme #oal. ;%.88<
T&e celestial controllers) served !y sel*less service) will #ive you all desired o!3ects. .ne w&o en3oys
#i*t o* celestial controllers wit&out s&arin# wit& ot&ers is) indeed) a t&ie*. ;%.8@<
T&e ri#&teous w&o eat a*ter *eedin# ot&ers are *reed *rom all sins) !ut t&e im"ious w&o coo( *ood only
t&emselves : wit&out *irst o**erin# to God) or s&arin# wit& ot&ers : verily eat sin. ;%.8%<
T&e livin# !ein#s are !orn *rom *ood #rains) #rains are "roduced !y sacri*icial wor( or duty "er*ormed
*armers and ot&er *ield wor(ers. /uty is "rescri!ed in t&e scri"tures. Scri"tures ;suc& as t&e Vedas) t&e
Holy Bi!le) t&e Holy 5oran< come *rom t&e Su"reme Bein#. T&us t&e all-"ervadin# Su"reme Bein# or
God is ever "resent in sel*less service. ;%.8E-8F<
T&e one w&o does not &el" to (ee" t&e w&eel o* creation in motion !y sacri*icial duty ;Seva<) and
re3oices sense "leasures) t&at sin*ul "erson lives in vain. ;%.8B<
T&e one w&o re3oices t&e Su"reme Bein#) w&o is deli#&ted wit& t&e Su"reme Bein#) and w&o is
wit& t&e Su"reme Bein# alone) *or suc& a Sel*-realiIed "erson t&ere is no duty. Suc& a "erson &as no
interest) w&atsoever) in w&at is done or w&at is not done. A Sel*-realiIed "erson does not de"end on
any!ody) exce"t God) *or anyt&in#. ;%.8C-88<
+EA/E-S SH.0+/ SET A, ELA67+E
Always "er*orm your duty e**iciently and wit&out any sel*is& attac&ment to t&e results) !ecause !y
doin# wor( wit&out attac&ment one attains Su"reme. ;%.8D<
5in# =ana(a and ot&ers attained "er*ection o* Sel*-realiIation !y sel*less service ;5arma-yo#a<
alone. Hou s&ould also "er*orm your duty wit& a view to #uide "eo"le) and *or t&e wel*are o* t&e
society. ;%.@9<
Because w&atever no!le "ersons do) ot&ers *ollow. &atever standard t&ey set u") t&e world *ollows.
. Ar3una) t&ere is not&in# in t&e t&ree worlds J &eaven) eart&) and t&e lower re#ions J t&at s&ould !e
done !y 6e) nor t&ere is anyt&in# uno!tained t&at I s&ould o!tain) yet I en#a#e in action. ;%.@@<
Because) i* I do not en#a#e in action relentlessly) . Ar3una) "eo"le would *ollow 6y "at& in everyway.
T&ese worlds would "eris& i* I do not wor() and I s&all !e t&e cause o* con*usion and destruction o* all
t&ese "eo"le. ;%.@%-@E<
HAT SH.0+/ THE ISE /. T.
As t&e i#norant wor( wit& attac&ment to t&e *ruits o* wor() so t&e wise s&ould wor( wit&out
*or t&e wel*are o* t&e society. ;%.@F<
T&e wise s&ould not unsettle t&e mind o* t&e i#norant ones w&o are attac&ed to t&e *ruits o* wor()
!ut t&e enli#&tened one s&ould ins"ire ot&ers !y "er*ormin# all wor(s e**iciently wit&out sel*is&
attac&ment. ;See also %.@D< ;%.@B<
A++ .-5S A-E THE .-5S .' ,AT0-E
T&e *orces o* ,ature do all wor(s. But due to delusion o* i#norance "eo"le assume t&emselves to !e
t&e doer. ;See also F.9D) 8%.@D) and 8E.8D< ;%.@C<
T&e one w&o (nows t&e trut& a!out t&e role o* t&e *orces o* ,ature in #ettin# wor( done does not
attac&ed to t&e wor(. Suc& a "erson (nows t&at it is t&e *orces o* ,ature t&at #et t&eir wor( done !y
our or#ans as t&eir instruments. ;%.@8<
But t&ose w&o are deluded !y t&e illusive "ower ;6aya< o* ,ature !ecome attac&ed to t&e wor(s done
t&e *orces o* ,ature. T&e wise s&ould not distur! t&e mind o* t&e i#norant w&ose (nowled#e is
;See also %.@B< ;%.@D<
/o your duty dedicatin# all wor(s to God in a s"iritual *rame o* mind *ree *rom desire) attac&ment)
and mental #rie*. ;%.%9<
T&ose w&o always "ractice t&is teac&in# o* 6ine : wit& *ait& and are *ree *rom cavil : !ecome *ree
*rom t&e !onda#e o* 5arma. But t&ose w&o car" at t&is teac&in# and do not "ractice it) consider t&em
i#norant) senseless) and lost. ;%.%8-%@<
All !ein#s *ollow t&eir nature. Even t&e wise act accordin# to t&eir own nature. &at) t&en) is t&e value
sense restraint? ;%.%%<
T. 6A=.- ST06B+I,G B+.15S ., THE 7ATH .' 7E-'E1TI.,
Attac&ments and aversions *or t&e sense o!3ects remain in t&e senses. .ne s&ould not come under
t&e control o* t&ese two) !ecause t&ey are two ma3or stum!lin# !loc(s) indeed) on one4s "at& o*
.ne4s in*erior natural wor( is !etter t&an su"erior unnatural wor(. /eat& in carryin# out one4s natural
wor( is use*ul. 0nnatural wor( "roduces too muc& stress. ;See also 88.EC< ;%.%F<
+0ST IS THE .-IGI, .' SI,
Ar3una said$ . 5ris&na) w&at im"els one to commit sin as i* unwillin#ly and *orced a#ainst one4s will?
+ord 5ris&na said$ It is t&e lust !orn out o* "assion t&at !ecomes an#er w&en un*ul*illed. +ust is
insatia!le and is a #reat devil. 5now t&is as t&e enemy. ;%.%C<
As t&e *ire is covered !y smo(e) as a mirror !y dust) and as an em!ryo !y t&e amnion> similarly)
Sel*-(nowled#e #ets covered !y di**erent de#rees o* t&is insatia!le lust) t&e eternal enemy o* t&e
wise. ;%.%8-%D<
T&e senses) t&e mind) and t&e intellect are said to !e t&e a!ode o* lust> wit& t&ese it deludes a
"erson !y veilin# t&e Sel*-(nowled#e. ;%.E9<
T&ere*ore) . Ar3una) !y controllin# t&e senses *irst) (ill t&is devil o* material desire t&at destroys
and Sel*-realiIation. ;%.E8<
H. T. 1.,T-.+ +0ST
T&e senses are said to !e su"erior to t&e !ody) t&e mind is su"erior to t&e senses) t&e intellect is su"erior
to t&e mind) transcendental (nowled#e is su"erior to t&e intellect) and t&e Sel* is su"erior to
transcendental (nowled#e. ;%.E@<
T&us) (nowin# t&e Sel* to !e su"erior to t&e intellect) and controllin# t&e mind !y t&e intellect t&at
is "uri*ied !y s"iritual "ractices) one must (ill t&is mi#&ty enemy) lust) . Ar3una. ;%.E%<
7ATH .' -E,0,1IATI., ITH
5A-6A-H.GA IS A, A,1IE,T '.-G.TTE, 1.66A,/6E,T
+ord 5ris&na said$ I tau#&t t&is 5arma-yo#a) t&e eternal science o* ri#&t action) to 5in# Vivasvan.
Vivasvan tau#&t it to 6anu. 6anu tau#&t it to I(s&va(u. T&us &anded down in succession t&e saintly
5in#s (new t&is science o* "ro"er action ;5arma-yo#a<. A*ter a lon# time t&is science was lost *rom
eart&. Today I &ave descri!ed t&e same ancient science to you) !ecause you are my sincere devotee and
*riend. T&is science is a su"reme secret indeed. ;E.98-9%<
Ar3una said$ Hou were !orn later) !ut Vivasvan was !orn in ancient time. How am I to understand t&at
Hou tau#&t t&is science in t&e !e#innin# o* t&e creation? ;E.9E<
THE 70-7.SE .' I,1A-,ATI., .' G./
+ord 5ris&na said$ Bot& you and I &ave ta(en many !irt&s. I remem!er t&em all) . Ar3una) !ut you do
remem!er. ;E.9F<
T&ou#& I am eternal) immuta!le) and t&e +ord o* all !ein#s) yet I mani*est 6ysel* !y controllin# t&e
material ,ature usin# 6y own divine "otential ener#y ;6aya<. ;See also 89.8E< ;E.9B<
&enever t&ere is a decline o* /&arma ;-i#&teousness< and a "redominance o* Ad&arma
;0nri#&teousness<) . Ar3una) t&en I mani*est 6ysel*. I a""ear *rom time to time *or "rotectin# t&e
#ood) *or trans*ormin# t&e wic(ed) and *or esta!lis&in# world order ;/&arma<. ;E.9C-98<
T&e one w&o truly understands 6y transcendental a""earance) and activities o* creation) maintenance)
and dissolution attains 6y Su"reme A!ode and is not !orn a#ain a*ter leavin# t&is !ody) . Ar3una.
6any &ave !ecome *ree *rom attac&ment) *ear) an#er) and attained salvation !y ta(in# re*u#e in 6e) !y
!ecomin# *ully a!sor!ed in 6y t&ou#&ts) and !y #ettin# "uri*ied !y t&e *ire o* Sel*-(nowled#e. ;E.89<
7ATH .' .-SHI7 A,/ 7-AHE-
it& w&atever motive "eo"le wors&i" 6e) I *ul*ill t&eir desires accordin#ly. 7eo"le wors&i" 6e wit&
di**erent motives. ;E.88<
T&ose w&o lon# *or success in t&eir wor( &ere on t&e eart& wors&i" t&e celestial controllers. Success in
wor( comes 2uic(ly in t&is &uman world. ;E.8@<
/IVISI., .' +AB.- IS BASE/ ., THE A7TIT0/E .' 7E.7+E
I created t&e *our divisions o* &uman society !ased on a"titude and vocation. T&ou#& I am t&e
aut&or o* t&is system o* t&e division o* la!or) one s&ould (now t&at I do not&in# directly and I am
eternal. ;See also 88.E8< ;E.8%<
or(s do not !ind 6e) !ecause I &ave no desire *or t&e *ruits o* wor(. T&e one w&o *ully understands
and "ractices t&is trut& is also not !ound !y 5arma. ;E.8E<
T&e ancient see(ers o* salvation also "er*ormed t&eir duties wit& t&is understandin#. T&ere*ore) you
s&ould do your duty as t&e ancients did. ;E.8F<
ATTA1HE/) /ETA1HE/) A,/ '.-BI//E, A1TI.,
Even t&e wise ones are con*used a!out w&at is action and w&at is inaction. T&ere*ore) I s&all clearly
ex"lain w&at is action) (nowin# t&at one s&all !e li!erated *rom t&e evil o* !irt& and deat&. ;E.8B<
T&e true nature o* action is very di**icult to understand. T&ere*ore) one s&ould (now t&e nature o*
attac&ed action) t&e nature o* detac&ed action) and also t&e nature o* *or!idden action. ;E.8C<
A 5A-6A-H.GI IS ,.T S0B=E1T T. THE 5A-6I1 +AS
T&e one w&o sees inaction in action) and action in inaction) is a wise "erson. Suc& a "erson is a yo#i
and &as accom"lis&ed everyt&in#. ;See also %.9F) %.@C) F.98 and 8%.@D< ;E.88<
A "erson) w&ose desires &ave !ecome sel*less !y !ein# roasted in t&e *ire o* Sel*-(nowled#e) is called a
sa#e !y t&e wise. ;E.8D<
T&e one w&o &as a!andoned sel*is& attac&ment to t&e *ruits o* wor() and remains ever content and
de"endent on no one !ut God) suc& a "erson : t&ou#& en#a#ed in activity : does not&in# at all)
and incurs no 5armic reaction. ;E.@9<
T&e one w&o is *ree *rom desires) w&ose mind and senses are under control) and w&o &as renounced all
"ro"rietors&i") does not incur sin : t&e 5armic reaction : !y doin# !odily action. ;E.@8<
A 5arma-yo#i : w&o is content wit& w&atever #ain comes naturally !y His will) w&o is una**ected !y
"airs o* o""osites) and *ree *rom envy) e2uanimous in success and *ailure : is not !ound !y 5arma.
All 5armic !onds o* a 5arma-yo#i : w&o is *ree *rom attac&ment) w&ose mind is *ixed in
and w&o does wor( as a service to t&e +ord : dissolves away ;E.@%<
T&e S"irit s&all !e realiIed !y t&e one w&o considers everyt&in# as a mani*estation) or an act) o* t&e
S"irit. ;Also see D.8B< ;E.@E<
/I''E-E,T TH7ES .' S7I-IT0A+ 7-A1TI1ES .- SA1-I'I1ES
Some yo#is "er*orm t&e service o* wors&i" to celestial controllers) w&ile ot&ers study scri"tures *or
Some restrain t&eir senses and #ive u" t&eir sensual "leasures. .t&ers "er*orm !reat&in# and
ot&er yo#ic exercises. Some #ive c&arity and o**er t&eir wealt& as a sacri*ice. ;E.@F-@8<
T&ose w&o are en#a#ed in yo#ic "ractices) reac& t&e !reat&less state o* trance !y o**erin# in&alation
ex&alation and ex&alation into in&alation as a sacri*ice ;!y usin# s&ort !reat&in# 5riya tec&ni2ues<.
.t&ers restrict t&eir diet and o**er t&eir in&alations as sacri*ice into t&eir in&alations. All t&ese "eo"le
t&e (nowers o* sacri*ice) and are "uri*ied !y t&eir sacri*ice. ;E.%9<
T&ose w&o "er*orm sel*less service o!tain t&e nectar o* Sel*-(nowled#e as a result o* t&eir sacri*ice
and attain t&e Su"reme Bein#. . Ar3una) even t&is world is not a &a""y "lace *or t&e nonsacri*icer)
&ow can t&e ot&er world !e? ;See also E.%8) and F.9B<. ;E.%8<
6any ty"es o* s"iritual disci"lines are descri!ed in t&e Vedas. 5now t&at all o* t&em are t&e action o*
!ody) mind) and senses "rom"ted !y t&e *orces o* ,ature. 0nderstandin# t&is) one s&all attain ,irvana
salvation. ;See also %.8E< ;E.%@<
A1M0I-I,G T-A,S1E,/E,TA+ 5,.+E/GE IS A S07E-I.-
S7I-IT0A+ 7-A1TI1E
Ac2uirin# transcendental (nowled#e is su"erior to any material sacri*ice : suc& as #ivin# c&arity.
Because) "uri*ication o* mind and intellect t&at eventually leads to t&e dawn o* transcendental
(nowled#e and Sel*-realiIation is t&e sole "ur"ose o* any s"iritual action. ;E.%%<
Ac2uire t&is transcendental (nowled#e *rom a Sel*-realiIed master !y &um!le reverence) !y
sincere in2uiry) and !y service. T&e em"owered ones) w&o &ave realiIed t&e Trut&) will teac& you.
A*ter (nowin# t&e transcendental science) . Ar3una) you s&all not a#ain !ecome deluded li(e t&is. it&
t&is (nowled#e you s&all see t&e entire creation wit&in your own &i#&er Sel*) and t&us wit&in 6e. ;See
also B.@D) B.%9) 88.9C) 88.8%< ;E.%F<
Even i* one is t&e most sin*ul o* all sinners) one s&all yet cross over t&e ocean o* sin !y t&e ra*t o*
alone. ;E.%B<
As t&e !laIin# *ire reduces wood to as&es> similarly) t&e *ire o* Sel*-(nowled#e reduces all !onds o*
5arma to as&es) . Ar3una. ;E.%C<
T-A,S1E,/E,TA+ 5,.+E/GE IS A0T.6ATI1A++H -EVEA+E/ T.
A 5A-6A-H.GI
Verily) t&ere is no "uri*ier in t&is world li(e t&e true (nowled#e o* t&e Su"reme Bein#. .ne
discovers t&is (nowled#e wit&in) naturally) in course o* time w&en oneGs mind is cleansed o*
sel*is&ness !y 5arma-yo#a. ;See also E.%8) and F.9B) 88.C8<. ;E.%8<
T&e one w&o &as *ait& in God) is sincere in yo#ic "ractices) and &as control over t&e mind and senses
#ains t&is transcendental (nowled#e. Havin# #ained t&is (nowled#e) one 2uic(ly attains su"reme "eace
li!eration. ;E.%D<
T&e irrational) t&e *ait&less) and t&e dis!eliever ;at&eist< "eris&es. T&ere is neit&er t&is world) nor t&e
world !eyond) nor &a""iness *or t&e dis!eliever. ;E.E9<
B.TH T-A,S1E,/E,TA+ 5,.+E/GE A,/ 5A-6A-H.GA A-E ,EE/E/
'.- ,I-VA,A
or( does not !ind a "erson w&o &as renounced wor( : !y renouncin# t&e *ruits o* wor( : t&rou#&
5arma-yo#a) and w&ose con*usion wit& re#ard to !ody and S"irit is com"letely destroyed !y t&e
a""lication o* Sel*-(nowled#e) . Ar3una. ;E.E8<
T&ere*ore) cut t&e i#norance-!orn con*usion wit& re#ard to !ody and S"irit !y t&e sword o*
resort to 5arma-yo#a) and #et u" *or t&e war) . Ar3una. ;E.E@<
7ATH .' -E,0,1IATI.,
Ar3una as(ed$ . 5ris&na) Hou "raise t&e "at& o* transcendental (nowled#e) and also t&e "at& o*
"er*ormance o* sel*less service ;5arma-yo#a<. Tell me) de*initely) w&ic& one is t&e !etter o* t&e two
"at&s. ;See also F.9F< ;F.98<
+ord 5ris&na said$ T&e "at& o* Sel*-(nowled#e and t&e "at& o* sel*less service !ot& lead to t&e su"reme
#oal. But) o* t&e two) t&e "at& o* sel*less service is su"erior to "at& o* Sel*-(nowled#e) !ecause it is
to "ractice. ;F.9@<
A "erson s&ould !e considered a true renunciant w&o &as neit&er attac&ment nor aversion *or anyt&in#.
.ne is easily li!erated *rom 5armic !onda#e !y !ecomin# *ree *rom attac&ment and aversion. ;F.9%<
B.TH 7ATHS +EA/ T. S07-E6E
T&e i#norant J not t&e wise J consider t&e "at& o* Sel*-(nowled#e and t&e "at& o* sel*less service
;5arma-yo#a< as di**erent *rom eac& ot&er. T&e "erson) w&o &as truly mastered one) #ets t&e
!ene*its o* !ot&. ;F.9E<
&atever #oal a renunciant reac&es) a 5arma-yo#i also reac&es t&e same #oal. T&ere*ore) t&e one
w&o sees t&e "at& o* renunciation and t&e "at& o* unsel*is& wor( as t&e same really sees. ;See also
B.98 and B.9@< ;F.9F<
But) true renunciation) . Ar3una) is di**icult to attain wit&out 5arma-yo#a. A sa#e e2ui""ed wit&
5arma-yo#a 2uic(ly attains ,irvana. ;See also E.%8) and E.%8< ;F.9B<
A 5arma-yo#i) w&ose mind is "ure) w&ose mind and senses are under control) and w&o sees one and
same S"irit in all !ein#s) is not !ound !y 5arma t&ou#& en#a#ed in wor(. ;F.9C<
A T-A,S1E,/E,TA+IST /.ES ,.T 1.,SI/E- .,ESE+' AS THE /.E-
T&e wise w&o (nows t&e trut& t&in(s$ NI do not&in# at all.N In seein#) &earin#) touc&in#) smellin#)
wal(in#) slee"in#) !reat&in#> and s"ea(in#) #ivin#) ta(in#) as well as o"enin# and closin# t&e eyes) t&e
wise !elieves t&at only t&e senses are o"eratin# u"on t&eir o!3ects. ;See also %.@C) 8%.@D) and 8E.8D<
A 5A-6A-H.GI .-5S '.- G./
.ne w&o does all wor( as an o**erin# to God J a!andonin# sel*is& attac&ment to results J
remains untouc&ed !y 5armic reaction or sin as a lotus lea* never #ets wet !y water. ;F.89<
T&e 5arma-yo#is "er*orm action : wit&out sel*is& attac&ment : wit& t&eir !ody) mind) intellect) and
senses only *or t&e "uri*ication o* t&eir mind and intellect. ;F.88<
A 5arma-yo#i attains Su"reme Bliss !y a!andonin# attac&ment to t&e *ruits o* wor(> w&ile ot&ers)
w&o are attac&ed to t&e *ruits o* wor() !ecome !ound !y sel*is& wor(. ;F.8@<
THE 7ATH .' 5,.+E/GE
A "erson) w&o &as com"letely renounced t&e *ruits o* all wor(s) dwells &a""ily in t&e 1ity o* ,ine
neit&er "er*ormin# nor directin# action. ;F.8%<
T&e +ord neit&er creates t&e ur#e *or action) nor t&e *eelin# o* doers&i") nor t&e attac&ment to t&e
o* action in "eo"le. T&e "owers o* material ,ature do all t&ese. ;F.8E<
T&e +ord does not ta(e t&e res"onsi!ility *or t&e #ood or evil deeds o* any!ody. T&e veil o* i#norance
covers t&e Sel*-(nowled#e> t&ere!y "eo"le !ecome deluded and do evil deeds. ;F.8F<
Transcendental (nowled#e destroys t&e i#norance o* t&e S"irit and reveals t&e Su"reme Bein# 3ust as
sun reveals t&e !eauty o* o!3ects o* t&e world. ;F.8B<
7ersons) w&ose mind and intellect are totally mer#ed in t&e Su"reme Bein#) w&o are *irmly devoted
to t&e Su"reme) w&o &ave God as t&eir su"reme #oal and sole re*u#e) and w&ose im"urities are
destroyed !y t&e (nowled#e o* t&e sel*) do not ta(e !irt& a#ain. ;F.8C<
A//ITI.,A+ 6A-5S .' A, E,+IGHTE,E/ 7E-S.,
An enli#&tened "erson J !y "erceivin# God in all J loo(s at a learned "erson) an outcast) even a
cow) an ele"&ant) or a do# wit& an e2ual eye. ;See also B.@D< ;F.88<
Everyt&in# &as !een accom"lis&ed in t&is very li*e !y t&e one w&ose mind is set in e2uality. Suc& a
"erson &as realiIed t&e Su"reme Bein#) !ecause t&e Su"reme Bein# is *lawless and im"artial. ;See also
88.FF< ;F.8D<
.ne w&o neit&er re3oices on o!tainin# w&at is "leasant) nor #rieves on o!tainin# t&e un"leasant) w&o
a steady mind) w&o is undeluded) and w&o is a (nower o* t&e Su"reme Bein#) suc& a "erson eternally
a!ides wit& t&e Su"reme Bein#. ;F.@9<
Suc& a "erson w&o is in union wit& t&e Su"reme Bein# !ecomes unattac&ed to external sensual
"leasures !y discoverin# t&e 3oy o* t&e Sel* t&rou#& contem"lation) and en3oys transcendental !liss.
Sensual "leasures are verily t&e source o* misery) and &ave a !e#innin# and an end. T&ere*ore t&e wise)
Ar3una) does not re3oice in sensual "leasures. ;See also 88.%8< ;F.@@<
.ne w&o is a!le to wit&stand t&e im"ulse o* lust and an#er !e*ore deat& is a yo#i) and a &a""y "erson.
.ne w&o *inds &a""iness wit& t&e Su"reme Bein#) w&o re3oices Su"reme Bein# wit&in) and w&o is
illuminated !y Sel*-(nowled#e> suc& a yo#i attains ,irvana) and #oes to t&e Su"reme Bein#. ;F.@E<
Seers) w&ose sins ;or im"er*ections< are destroyed) w&ose dou!ts &ave !een dis"elled !y Sel*-
w&ose minds are disci"lined) and w&o are en#a#ed in t&e wel*are o* all !ein#s) attain t&e Su"reme
T&ose w&o are *ree *rom lust and an#er) w&o &ave su!dued t&e mind and senses) and w&o &ave (nown
Sel*) easily attain ,irvana. ;F.@B<
THE THI-/ 7ATH : THE 7ATH .' /EV.TI.,A+ 6E/ITATI., A,/ 1.,TE67+ATI.,
A sa#e is verily li!erated !y renouncin# all sense en3oyments) *ixin# t&e eyes and t&e mind at an
ima#inary !lac( dot !etween t&e eye !rows) e2ualiIin# t&e !reat& movin# t&rou#& t&e nostrils !y usin#
yo#ic tec&ni2ues) (ee"in# t&e senses) mind) and intellect under control) &avin# salvation as t&e "rime
#oal) and !y !ecomin# *ree *rom lust) an#er) and *ear. ;F.@C-@8<
6y devotee attains "eace !y (nowin# t&e Su"reme Bein# as t&e en3oyer o* sacri*ices and austerities) as
t&e #reat +ord o* t&e entire universe) and as t&e *riend o* all !ein#s. ;F.@D<
7ATH .' 6E/ITATI.,
A 5A-6A-H.GI IS A -E,0,1IA,T
+ord 5ris&na said$ .ne w&o "er*orms t&e "rescri!ed duty wit&out see(in# its *ruit *or "ersonal
is a renunciant and a 5arma-yo#i. .ne does not !ecome a renunciant merely !y not li#&tin# t&e *ire)
one does not !ecome a yo#i merely !y a!stainin# *rom wor(. ;B.98<
. Ar3una) renunciation ;Samnyasa< is same as 5arma-yo#a. Because) no one !ecomes a 5arma-yo#i
&as not renounced t&e sel*is& motive !e&ind an action. ;See also F.98) F.9F) B.98) and 88.9@< ;B.9@<
A /E'I,ITI., .' H.GA
'or t&e wise) w&o see(s to attain yo#a o* meditation) or t&e e2uanimity o* mind) 5arma-yo#a is said
to !e t&e means. 'or t&e one w&o &as attained yo#a) t&e e2uanimity !ecomes t&e means o*
A "erson is said to &ave attained yo#ic "er*ection w&en &e or s&e &as no desire *or
sensual "leasures) or attac&ment to t&e *ruits o* wor() and &as renounced all "ersonal sel*is&
motives. ;B.9%-9E<
.ne must elevate : and not de#rade : onesel* !y one4s own mind. T&e mind alone is one4s *riend
as well as one4s enemy. T&e mind is t&e *riend o* t&ose w&o &ave control over it) and t&e mind acts
li(e an enemy *or t&ose w&o do not control it. ;B.9F-9B<
.ne w&o &as control over t&e lower sel* : t&e mind and senses : is tran2uil in &eat and cold) in
"leasure and "ain) and in &onor and dis&onor) and remains ever stead*ast wit& t&e su"reme Sel*. ;B.9C<
A "erson is called yo#i w&o &as !ot& Sel*-(nowled#e and Sel*-realiIation) w&o is e2uanimous) w&o &as
control over t&e mind and senses) and to w&om a clod) a stone) and #old are t&e same. ;B.98<
A "erson is considered su"erior w&o is im"artial towards com"anions) *riends) enemies) neutrals)
ar!iters) &aters) relatives) saints) and sinners. ;B.9D<
A yo#i) seated in solitude and alone) s&ould constantly try to contem"late on a mental "icture or 3ust t&e
ma3esty o* t&e Su"reme Bein# a*ter !rin#in# t&e mind and senses under control) and !ecomin# *ree
desires and "ro"rietors&i". ;B.89<
.ne s&ould sit on &is or &er own *irm seat t&at is neit&er too &i#& nor too low) covered wit& #rass) a
deers(in) and a clot&) one over t&e ot&er) in a clean s"ot. Sittin# t&ere in a com*orta!le "osition and
concentratin# t&e mind on God) controllin# t&e t&ou#&ts and t&e activities o* t&e senses) one s&ould
"ractice meditation *or sel*-"uri*ication. ;B.88-8@<
.ne s&ould sit !y &oldin# t&e waist) s"ine) c&est) nec() and &ead erect) motionless and steady> *ix t&e
and t&e mind steadily on t&e *ront o* t&e nose) wit&out loo(in# around> ma(e your mind serene and
*earless) "ractice celi!acy> &ave t&e mind under control) t&in( o* 6e) and &ave 6e as t&e su"reme #oal.
;See also E.@D) F.@C) 8.89) and 8.8@< ;B.8%-8E<
T&us) !y always "racticin# to (ee" t&e mind *ixed on 6e) t&e yo#i w&ose mind is su!dued attains
o* ,irvana and comes to 6e. ;B.8F<
T&is yo#a is not "ossi!le) . Ar3una) *or t&e one w&o eats too muc&) or w&o does not eat at all> w&o
too muc& or too little. ;B.8B<
T&e yo#a o* meditation destroys all sorrow *or t&e one w&o is moderate in eatin#) recreation) wor(in#)
slee"in#) and wa(in#. ;B.8C<
A "erson is said to &ave ac&ieved yo#a) t&e union wit& t&e S"irit) w&en t&e "er*ectly disci"lined mind
!ecomes *ree *rom all desires) and #ets com"letely united wit& t&e S"irit in trance. ;B.88<
A lam" in a s"ot s&eltered !y t&e S"irit *rom t&e wind o* desires does not *lic(er. T&is simile is used *or
t&e su!dued mind o* a yo#i "racticin# meditation on t&e S"irit. ;B.8D<
&en t&e mind disci"lined !y t&e "ractice o* meditation !ecomes steady) one !ecomes content wit& t&e
S"irit !y !e&oldin# t&e S"irit o* God wit& "uri*ied intellect. ;B.@9<
.ne *eels in*inite !liss t&at is "erceiva!le only t&rou#& t&e intellect) and is !eyond t&e reac& o* t&e
A*ter realiIin# t&e A!solute -eality) one is never se"arated *rom it. ;B.@8<
A*ter Sel*-realiIation ;S-<) one does not re#ard any ot&er #ain su"erior to S-. Esta!lis&ed in S-) one is
not moved even !y t&e #reatest calamity. ;B.@@<
T&e state o* severance o* union wit& sorrow is called yo#a. T&is yo#a s&ould !e "racticed wit& *irm
determination) and wit&out any mental reservation. ;B.@%<
.ne #radually attains tran2uillity o* mind !y totally a!andonin# all sel*is& desires) com"letely
t&e senses *rom t&e sense o!3ects !y t&e intellect) and (ee"in# t&e mind *ully a!sor!ed in t&e S"irit !y
means o* a well-trained and "uri*ied intellect and t&in(in# o* not&in# else. ;B.@E-@F<
&eresoever t&is restless and unsteady mind wanders away) one s&ould #ently !rin# it !ac( to t&e
re*lection o* God. ;B.@B<
Su"reme !liss comes to a Sel*-realiIed yo#i w&ose mind is tran2uil) w&ose desires are under control)
w&o is *ree *rom *aults. ;B.@C<
Suc& a sinless yo#i) w&o constantly en#a#es &is or &er mind and intellect wit& t&e S"irit) easily en3oys
in*inite !liss o* contact wit& T&e S"irit. ;B.@8<
A yo#i) w&o is in union wit& t&e Su"reme Bein#) sees every !ein# wit& an e2ual eye !ecause o*
"erceivin# t&e omni"resent S"irit a!idin# in all !ein#s) and all !ein#s a!idin# in t&e Su"reme
Bein#. ;See also E.%F) F.88< ;B.@D<
T&ose w&o "erceive 6e in everyt&in#) and !e&old everyt&in# in 6e) are not se"arated *rom 6e)
and I am not se"arated *rom t&em. ;B.%9<
T&e non-dualists) w&o adore 6e as a!idin# in all !ein#s) a!ide in 6e irres"ective o* t&eir mode o*
.ne is considered t&e !est yo#i w&o re#ards every !ein# li(e onesel*) and w&o can *eel t&e "ain and
"leasures o* ot&ers as one4s own) . Ar3una. ;B.%@<
T. 6ETH./S T. S0B/0E THE
Ar3una said$ . 5ris&na) Hou &ave said t&at t&e yo#a o* meditation is c&aracteriIed !y t&e e2uanimity o*
mind) !ut due to restlessness o* mind I do not "erceive t&e steady state o* mind. Because t&e mind)
indeed) is very unsteady) tur!ulent) "ower*ul) and o!stinate) . 5ris&na. I t&in( restrainin# t&e mind is
di**icult as restrainin# t&e wind. ;B.%%-%E<
+ord 5ris&na said$ 0ndou!tedly) . Ar3una) t&e mind is restless and di**icult to restrain) !ut it is
su!dued !y any constant vi#orous s"iritual "ractice : suc& as meditation : wit& "erseverance)
and !y detac&ment) . Ar3una. ;B.%F<
In 6y o"inion) yo#a is di**icult *or t&e one w&ose mind is not su!dued. However) yo#a is attaina!le !y
t&e "erson o* su!dued mind !y strivin# t&rou#& "ro"er means. ;B.%B<
/ESTI,ATI., .' 0,S011ESS'0+ H.GI
Ar3una said$ T&e *ait&*ul w&o deviates *rom t&e "at& o* meditation and *ails to attain yo#ic "er*ection
to unsu!dued mind J w&at is t&e destination o* suc& a "erson) . 5ris&na? ;B.%C<
/o t&ey not "eris& li(e a dis"ersin# cloud) . 5ris&na) &avin# lost !ot& t&e &eavenly and t&e worldly
"leasures) su""ortless and !ewildered on t&e "at& o* Sel*-realiIation? ;B.%8<
. 5ris&na) only Hou are a!le to com"letely dis"el t&is dou!t o* mine. Because t&ere is none) ot&er t&an
Hou) w&o can dis"el t&is dou!t. ;See also 8F.8F< ;B.%D<
+ord 5ris&na said$ T&ere is no destruction) . Ar3una) *or a yo#i eit&er &ere or &erea*ter. A
transcendentalist is never "ut to #rie*) 6y dear *riend. ;B.E9<
T&e less evolved unsuccess*ul yo#i is re!orn in t&e &ouse o* t&e "ious and "ros"erous a*ter attainin#
&eaven and livin# t&ere *or many years. T&e &i#&ly evolved unsuccess*ul yo#i does not #o to &eaven)
is !orn in a s"iritually advanced *amily. A !irt& li(e t&is is very di**icult) indeed) to o!tain in t&is world.
T&ere &e or s&e re#ains t&e (nowled#e ac2uired in t&e "revious li*e) and strives a#ain to ac&ieve
"er*ection) . Ar3una. ;B.E%<
T&e unsuccess*ul yo#i is instinctively carried towards God !y virtue o* t&e im"ressions o* yo#ic
"ractices o* "revious lives. Even t&e in2uirer o* yo#a : t&e union wit& God : sur"asses t&ose w&o
"er*orm Vedic rituals. ;B.EE<
T&e yo#i) w&o dili#ently strives) !ecomes com"letely *ree *rom all im"er*ections a*ter #radually
"er*ectin# t&rou#& many incarnations) and reac&es t&e Su"reme A!ode. ;B.EF<
T&e yo#i) w&o is devoted to meditation) is su"erior to t&e ascetics. T&e yo#i is su"erior to t&e Vedic
sc&olars. T&e yo#i is su"erior to t&e ritualists. T&ere*ore) . Ar3una) !e a yo#i. ;B.EB<
And I consider t&e yo#i-devotee : w&o lovin#ly contem"lates on 6e wit& su"reme *ait&) and
w&ose mind is ever a!sor!ed in 6e : to !e t&e !est o* all t&e yo#is. ;See also 8@.9@ and 88.BB<
SE+'-5,.+E/GE A,/ E,+IGHTE,6E,T
+ord 5ris&na said$ . Ar3una) listen &ow you s&all (now 6e *ully wit&out any dou!t) wit& your mind
a!sor!ed in 6e) ta(in# re*u#e in 6e) and "er*ormin# yo#ic "ractices. ;C.98<
I s&all im"art you Sel*-(nowled#e to#et&er wit& enli#&tenment) a*ter com"re&endin# t&at not&in# more
remains to !e (nown in t&is world. ;C.9@<
Scarcely one out o* t&ousands o* "ersons strives *or "er*ection o* Sel*-realiIation. Scarcely one amon#
t&ose success*ul strivers truly understands 6e. ;C.9%<
/E'I,ITI.,S .' 6ATTE-) 1.,S1I.0S,ESS) A,/ S7I-IT
T&e mind) intellect) e#o) et&er) air) *ire) water) and eart& are t&e ei#&t*old division o* 6y material
;See also 8%.9F< ;C.9E<
T&e material ,ature or matter is 6y lower ,ature. 6y ot&er &i#&er ,ature is t&e S"irit !y w&ic&
t&is entire universe is sustained) . Ar3una. ;C.9F<
S07-E6E S7I-IT IS THE BASIS .' 6ATTE-) 1.,S1I.0S,ESS) A,/ S7I-IT
5now t&at all creatures &ave evolved *rom t&is two*old ener#y> and t&e Su"reme S"irit is t&e
source o* ori#in as well as dissolution o* t&e entire universe. ;See also 8%.@B< ;C.9B<
T&ere is not&in# &i#&er t&an t&e Su"reme Bein#) . Ar3una. Everyt&in# in t&e universe is strun# on
t&e Su"reme Bein#) li(e 3ewels are strun# on t&e t&read o* a nec(lace. ;C.9C<
. Ar3una) I am t&e sa"idity in t&e water) I am t&e radiance in t&e sun and t&e moon) t&e sacred sylla!le
.6 in all t&e Vedas) t&e sound in t&e et&er) and "otency in &uman !ein#s. I am t&e sweet *ra#rance in
eart&. I am t&e &eat in t&e *ire) t&e li*e in all livin# !ein#s) and t&e austerity in t&e ascetics. ;C.98-9D<
. Ar3una) (now 6e to !e t&e eternal seed o* all creatures. I am t&e intelli#ence o* t&e intelli#ent) and
!rilliance o* t&e !rilliant. ;See also D.88 and 89.%D<. I am t&e stren#t& o* t&e stron# w&o is devoid o*
sel*is& attac&ment. I am t&e lust in &uman !ein#s t&at is devoid o* sense #rati*ication) and is in accord
wit& /&arma ;*or t&e sacred "ur"ose o* "rocreation a*ter marria#e<) . Ar3una. ;C.89-88<
5now t&at t&ree modes o* material ,ature : #oodness) "assion) and i#norance : also emanate *rom
I am not de"endent on) or a**ected !y) t&e modes o* material ,ature> !ut t&e modes o* material ,ature
de"endent on 6e. ;See also D.9E and D.9F< ;C.8@<
Human !ein#s are deluded !y various as"ects o* t&ese t&ree modes o* material ,ature> t&ere*ore) t&ey
not (now 6e) w&o is eternal and a!ove t&ese modes. ;C.8%<
H. T. .VE-1.6E THE /E+0SIVE /IVI,E 7.E- ;6AHA<
T&is divine "ower ;6aya< o* 6ine) consistin# o* t&ree states o* matter or mind) is very di**icult to
overcome. .nly t&ose w&o surrender unto 6e easily cross over t&is 6aya. ;See also 8E.@B) 8F.8D)
and 88.BB< ;C.8E<
H. SEE5S G./?
T&e evil doers) t&e i#norant) t&e lowest "ersons w&o are attac&ed to demonic nature) and w&ose "ower
discrimination &as !een ta(en away !y divine illusive "ower ;6aya< do not wors&i" or see( 6e. ;C.8F<
'our ty"es o* virtuous ones wors&i" or see( 6e) . Ar3una. T&ey are$ T&e distressed) t&e see(er o*
Sel*-(nowled#e) t&e see(er o* wealt&) and t&e enli#&tened one w&o &as ex"erienced t&e Su"reme
Bein#. ;C.8B<
Amon# t&em t&e enli#&tened devotee) w&o is ever united wit& 6e and w&ose devotion is sin#le-
is t&e !est. Because I am very dear to t&e enli#&tened) and t&e enli#&tened is very dear to 6e. ;C.8C<
All t&ese see(ers are indeed no!le. But) I re#ard t&e enli#&tened devotee as 6y very Sel*) !ecause t&e
w&o is stead*ast a!ides in 6y Su"reme A!ode. ;See also D.@D< ;C.88<
A*ter many !irt&s t&e enli#&tened one resorts to 6e !y realiIin# t&at everyt&in# is) indeed) 6y ;or
Su"reme Bein#4s< mani*estation. Suc& a #reat soul is very rare. ;C.8D<
7ersons) w&ose discernment &as !een carried away !y various desires im"elled !y t&eir 5armic
im"ression) resort to celestial controllers and "ractice various reli#ious rites. ;C.@9<
.-SHI7 .' /EITH IS A+S. A
.-SHI7 .' G./
&osoever desires to wors&i" w&atever deity J usin# any name) *orm) and met&od J wit& *ait&) I
ma(e t&eir *ait& steady in t&at very deity. Endowed wit& steady *ait& t&ey wors&i" t&at deity) and
o!tain t&eir wis&es t&rou#& t&at deity. T&ose wis&es are) indeed) #ranted only !y 6e. ;C.@8-@@<
Suc& material #ains o* t&ese less intelli#ent &uman !ein#s are tem"orary. T&e wors&i"ers o* celestial
controllers #o to celestial controllers) !ut 6y devotees certainly come to 6e. ;C.@%<
G./ 1A, BE SEE, I, A, I6AGE .' A,H /ESI-E/ '.-6 .' .-SHI7
T&e i#norant ones J una!le to understand 6y immuta!le) incom"ara!le) incom"re&ensi!le) and
transcendental *orm J assume t&at I) t&e Su"reme Bein#) am *ormless and ta(e *orms or
incarnate. 1oncealed !y 6y divine "ower ;6aya<) I do not reveal 6ysel* to suc& i#norants w&o do
not (now and understand 6y un!orn) eternal) and transcendental *orm and "ersonality. ;C.@E-@F<
I (now) . Ar3una) t&e !ein#s o* t&e "ast) o* t&e "resent) and t&ose o* t&e *uture) !ut no one really (nows
6e. ;C.@B<
All !ein#s in t&is world are in utter i#norance due to delusion o* "airs o* o""osites !orn o* li(es and
disli(es) . Ar3una. But "ersons o* unsel*is& deeds) w&ose 5arma or sin &as come to an end) !ecome
*rom t&e delusion o* "airs o* o""osites and wors&i" 6e wit& *irm resolve. ;C.@C-@8<
T&ose w&o strive *or *reedom *rom t&e cycles o* !irt&) old a#e) and deat& J !y ta(in# re*u#e in God
*ully com"re&end t&e true nature and "owers o* t&e Su"reme. ;C.@D<
T&e stead*ast "ersons) w&o (now 6e alone as t&e !asis o* all : t&e mortal !ein#s) Tem"oral Bein#s)
t&e Eternal Bein# : even at t&e time o* deat&) attain 6e. ;See also 8.9E< ;C.%9<
1HA7TE- 8
Ar3una said$ . 5ris&na) w&o is t&e Eternal Bein# or t&e S"irit? &at is t&e nature o* t&e Eternal Bein#?
&at is 5arma? &o are t&e mortal !ein#s? And w&o are Tem"oral Bein#s? &o is t&e Su"reme
and &ow does He dwell in t&e !ody? How can Hou) t&e Su"reme Bein#) !e remem!ered at t&e time o*
deat& !y t&ose w&o &ave control over t&eir minds) . 5ris&na? ;8.98-9@<
/E'I,ITI., .' S07-E6E S7I-IT) S7I-IT) I,/IVI/0A+ S.0+) A,/ 5A-6A
+ord 5ris&na said$ T&e eternal and immuta!le S"irit o* t&e Su"reme Bein# is also called Eternal
Bein# or t&e S"irit. T&e in&erent "ower o* co#nition and desire o* Eternal Bein# ;S"irit< is called
t&e nature o* Eternal Bein#. T&e creative "ower o* Eternal Bein# ;or S"irit< t&at causes
mani*estation o* t&e livin# entity is called 5arma. ;8.9%<
Various ex"ansions o* t&e Su"reme Bein# are also called Tem"oral Bein#s or /ivine Bein#s. T&e
Su"reme Bein# also resides inside t&e "&ysical !odies as t&e divine 1ontroller. ;8.9E<
THE.-H .' -EI,1A-,ATI., A,/ 5A-6A
T&e one w&o remem!ers t&e Su"reme Bein# exclusively even w&ile leavin# t&e !ody at t&e time o*
attains t&e Su"reme A!ode> t&ere is no dou!t a!out it. ;8.9F<
-emem!erin# w&atever o!3ect one leaves t&e !ody at t&e end o* li*e) one attains t&at o!3ect.
T&ou#&t o* w&atever o!3ect "revails durin# oneGs li*etime) one remem!ers only t&at o!3ect at t&e
end o* li*e and ac&ieves it. ;8.9B<
A SI67+E 6ETH./ .' G./--EA+IKATI.,
T&ere*ore) always remem!er 6e and do your duty. Hou s&all certainly attain 6e i* your mind and
intellect are ever *ocused on 6e. ;8.9C<
By contem"latin# on 6e wit& an unwaverin# mind t&at is disci"lined !y t&e "ractice o* meditation) one
attains t&e Su"reme Bein#) . Ar3una. ;8.98<
.ne w&o meditates on t&e Su"reme Bein# : as t&e omniscient) t&e oldest) t&e controller) smaller t&an
smallest and !i##er t&an t&e !i##est) t&e sustainer o* everyt&in#) t&e inconceiva!le) t&e sel*-luminous
t&e sun) and transcendental ;or !eyond t&e material reality< : at t&e time o* deat& wit& stead*ast mind
and devotion !y ma(in# t&e *low o* !ioim"ulses rise u" to t&e middle o* t&e eye !rows !y t&e "ower o*
yo#ic "ractices> one attains t&e Su"reme Bein#. ;See also verses E.@D) F.@C) B.8%< ;8.9D-89<
,ow I s&all !rie*ly ex"lain t&e "rocess to attain t&e Su"reme A!ode t&at t&e (nowers o* t&e Veda call
immuta!le> into w&ic& t&e ascetics) *reed *rom attac&ment) enter> and desirin# w&ic& "eo"le lead a li*e
celi!acy. ;8.88<
&en one leaves t&e "&ysical !ody !y controllin# all t&e senses> *ocusin# t&e mind on God) and t&e
!ioim"ulses ;7ranas< in t&e cere!rum> en#a#ed in yo#ic "ractice> meditatin# on 6e and utterin#
.6 : t&e sacred monosylla!le sound "ower o* S"irit : one attains t&e Su"reme A!ode. ;8.8@-8%<
I am easily attaina!le) . Ar3una) !y t&at ever stead*ast devotee w&o always t&in(s o* 6e and w&ose
mind does not #o elsew&ere. ;8.8E<
A*ter attainin# 6e) t&e #reat souls do not incur re!irt& in t&is misera!le transitory world) !ecause t&ey
&ave attained t&e &i#&est "er*ection. ;8.8F<
T&e dwellers o* all t&e worlds : u" to and includin# t&e world o* t&e creator : are su!3ect to t&e
miseries o* re"eated !irt& and deat&. But) a*ter attainin# 6e) . Ar3una) one does not ta(e !irt& a#ain.
also D.@F< ;8.8B<
T&ose w&o (now t&at t&e duration o* creation lasts E.%@ !illion years and t&at t&e duration o*
also lasts E.%@ !illion years) t&ey are t&e (nowers o* t&e cycles o* creation and destruction. ;8.8C<
All mani*estations come out o* t&e "rimary material ,ature durin# t&e creative cycle) and t&ey mer#e
t&e "rimary material ,ature durin# t&e destructive cycle. ;8.88<
T&e same multitude o* !ein#s comes into existence a#ain and a#ain at t&e arrival o* t&e creative
cycle> and is anni&ilated) inevita!ly) at t&e arrival o* t&e destructive cycle. ;8.8D<
T&ere is anot&er eternal transcendental existence : &i#&er t&an t&e c&an#ea!le material ,ature :
Eternal Bein# or S"irit t&at does not "eris& w&en all created !ein#s "eris&. T&is is also called t&e
A!ode. T&ose w&o attain t&e Su"reme A!ode do not ta(e !irt& a#ain. ;8.@9-@8<
T. BASI1 7ATHS .' /E7A-T0-E
'-.6 THE .-+/
T&is Su"reme A!ode) . Ar3una) is attaina!le !y unswervin# devotion to 6e wit&in w&ic& all !ein#s
exist) and !y w&ic& t&e entire universe is "ervaded. ;See also D.9E and 88.FF< ;8.@@<
. Ar3una) now I s&all descri!e di**erent "at&s de"artin# !y w&ic&) durin# deat&) t&e yo#is do or do not
come !ac(. ;8.@%<
'ire) li#&t) daytime) t&e !ri#&t lunar *ortni#&t) and t&e six mont&s o* t&e nort&ern solstice o* t&e sun J
de"artin# !y t&e "at& o* t&ese celestial controllers) yo#is w&o (now t&e S"irit attain t&e Su"reme.
Smo(e) ni#&t) t&e dar( lunar *ortni#&t) and t&e six mont&s o* sout&ern solstice o* t&e sun J de"artin#
t&ese "at&s) t&e ri#&teous "erson attains &eaven and comes !ac( to eart&. ;8.@F<
T&e "at& o* li#&t o* s"iritual "ractice and Sel*-(nowled#e and t&e "at& o* dar(ness o* materialism
and i#norance are t&ou#&t to !e t&e world4s two eternal "at&s. T&e *ormer leads to salvation and
t&e latter leads to re!irt& as &uman !ein#s. ;8.@B<
T-A,S1E,/E,TA+ 5,.+E/GE
5nowin# t&ese two "at&s) . Ar3una) a yo#i is not !ewildered at all. T&ere*ore) one s&ould !e resolute
attainin# salvation J t&e #oal o* &uman !irt& J at all times. ;8.@C<
T&e one w&o (nows all t&is (nowled#e #oes !eyond #ettin# t&e !ene*its o* t&e study o* t&e Vedas)
"er*ormance o* sacri*ices) austerities) and c&arities> and attains salvation. ;8.@8<
S07-E6E 5,.+E/GE A,/
+ord 5ris&na said$ I s&all reveal to you) w&o do not dis!elieve) t&e most "ro*ound secret transcendental
(nowled#e to#et&er wit& transcendental ex"erience. Havin# (nown t&is you will !e *reed *rom t&e
miseries o* worldly existence. ;D.98<
T&is Sel*-(nowled#e is t&e (in# o* all (nowled#e) is t&e most secret) is very sacred) it can !e "erceived
instinct) con*orms to ri#&teousness ;/&arma<) is very easy to "ractice) and is timeless. ;D.9@<
. Ar3una) t&ose w&o &ave no *ait& in t&is (nowled#e do not attain 6e) and *ollow t&e cycles o* !irt&
deat&. ;D.9%<
T&is entire universe is an ex"ansion o* 6ine. All !ein#s de"end on 6e ;li(e a c&ain de"ends on
#old) and t&e mil( "roducts de"end on mil(<. I do not de"end on : or a**ected !y : t&em> !ecause
I am t&e &i#&est o* all. ;See also C.8@< ;D.9E<
+oo( at t&e "ower o* 6y divine mystery> in reality) I : t&e sustainer and creator o* all !ein#s :
do not de"end on t&em) and t&ey also do not de"end on 6e. ;In *act) t&e #old-c&ain does not
de"end on #old> t&e #old-c&ain is not&in# !ut #old. Also) matter and ener#y are di**erent as well as
non-di**erent<. ;D.9F<
7erceive t&at all !ein#s remain in 6e J wit&out any contact or wit&out "roducin# any e**ect J as
t&e mi#&ty wind) movin# everyw&ere) eternally remains in s"ace. ;D.9B<
THE.-H .' EV.+0TI., A,/ I,V.+0TI.,
All !ein#s mer#e into 6y "rimary material ,ature at t&e end o* a cycle o* 3ust over %88 trillion solar
years) . Ar3una) and I create t&em a#ain at t&e !e#innin# o* t&e next cycle. ;See also 8.8C< ;D.9C<
I create t&e entire multitude o* !ein#s a#ain and a#ain wit& t&e &el" o* 6y material ,ature. T&ese
are under control o* t&e modes o* material ,ature. ;D.98<
T&ese acts o* creation do not !ind 6e) . Ar3una) !ecause I remain indi**erent and unattac&ed to t&ose
acts. ;D.9D<
T&e divine (inetic ener#y ;6aya< : wit& t&e &el" o* material ,ature : creates all animate and
inanimate o!3ects under 6y su"ervision) and t&us t&e creation (ee"s on #oin#) . Ar3una. ;See also
AHS .' THE ISE) A,/ .' THE IG,.-A,T A-E /I''E-E,T
T&e i#norant "ersons des"ise 6e w&en I a""ear in &uman *orm) !ecause t&ey do not (now 6y
transcendental nature as t&e #reat +ord o* all !ein#s) and ta(e 6e *or an ordinary &uman !ein#. T&ey
una!le to reco#niIe 6e) !ecause t&ey &ave *alse &o"es) *alse actions) and *alse (nowled#e> and "ossess
delusive 2ualities o* *iends and demons. ;D.88-8@<
But #reat souls) . Ar3una) w&o "ossess divine 2ualities ;See 8B.98-9%< (now 6e as immuta!le> as t&e
material and e**icient cause o* creation) and wors&i" 6e sin#le-mindedly wit& lovin# devotion. ;D.8%<
7ersons o* *irm resolve wors&i" 6e wit& ever-stead*ast devotion !y always sin#in# 6y #lories)
to attain 6e) and "rostratin# !e*ore 6e wit& devotion. ;D.8E<
Some wors&i" 6e !y ac2uirin# t&e (nowled#e o* God. .t&ers wors&i" t&e in*inite as t&e .ne in all ;or
non-dual<) as t&e master o* all ;or dual<) and in various ot&er ways. ;D.8F<
I am t&e ritual) I am t&e sacri*ice) I am t&e o**erin#) I am t&e &er!) I am t&e mantra) I am t&e clari*ied
!utter) I am t&e *ire) and I am t&e o!lation. ;See also E.@E<. I am t&e su""orter o* t&e universe) t&e
t&e mot&er) and t&e #rand*at&er. I am t&e o!3ect o* (nowled#e) t&e sacred sylla!le .6) and t&e Vedas. I
am t&e #oal) t&e su""orter) t&e +ord) t&e witness) t&e a!ode) t&e re*u#e) t&e *riend) t&e ori#in) t&e
dissolution) t&e *oundation) t&e su!stratum) and t&e immuta!le seed. ;See also C.89 and 89.%D< ;D.8B-
I #ive &eat) I send as well as wit&&old t&e rain. I am immortality as well as deat&) I am also !ot& t&e
eternal A!solute and t&e tem"oral) . Ar3una. ;T&e Su"reme Bein# &as !ecome everyt&in#) See also
8%.8@< ;D.8D<
/EV.TI.,A+ +.VE
T&e doers o* t&e rituals "rescri!ed in t&e Vedas) t&e drin(ers o* t&e nectar o* devotion) and w&ose sins
cleansed) wors&i" 6e !y doin# #ood deeds *or #ainin# &eaven. As a result o* t&eir meritorious deeds
#o to &eaven and en3oy celestial sense "leasures. ;D.@9<
T&ey return to t&e mortal world : a*ter en3oyin# t&e wide world o* &eavenly "leasures : u"on
ex&austion o* t&e *ruits o* t&eir #ood 5arma. T&us *ollowin# t&e in3unctions o* t&e Vedas) "ersons
wor(in# *or t&e *ruit o* t&eir actions ta(e re"eated !irt& and deat&. ;See also 8.@F< ;D.@8<
I "ersonally ta(e care o* !ot& s"iritual and material wel*are o* t&ose ever-stead*ast devotees w&o
always remem!er and adore 6e wit& sin#le-minded contem"lation. ;D.@@<
. Ar3una) even t&ose devotees w&o wors&i" t&e deities wit& *ait&) t&ey also wors&i" 6e) !ut in an
im"ro"er way. ;D.@%<
Because I) t&e Su"reme Bein#) alone am t&e en3oyer o* all sacri*icial services) and +ord o* t&e universe.
But "eo"le do not (now 6y true transcendental nature. T&ere*ore) t&ey *all into t&e re"eated cycles o*
!irt& and deat&. ;D.@E<
ors&i""ers o* t&e celestial controllers #o to t&e celestial controllers) t&e wors&i""ers o* t&e ancestors
to t&e ancestors) and t&e wors&i""ers o* t&e #&osts #o to t&e #&osts) !ut 6y devotees come to 6e) and
not !orn a#ain. ;See also 8.8B< ;D.@F<
+.-/ A11E7TS A,/ EATS THE .''E-I,G .' +.VE A,/ /EV.TI.,
&osoever o**ers 6e a lea*) a *lower) a *ruit) or water wit& devotion> I acce"t and eat t&e o**erin#
o* devotion !y t&e "ure-&earted. ;D.@B<
. Ar3una) w&atever you do) w&atever you eat) w&atever you o**er as o!lation to t&e sacred *ire)
w&atever c&arity you #ive) w&atever austerity you "er*orm) do all t&at as an o**erin# unto 6e. ;See
also 8@.89) 88.EB< ;D.@C<
Hou s&all !ecome *ree *rom t&e !onda#e : #ood and !ad : o* 5arma and come to 6e !y t&is attitude
o* com"lete renunciation. ;D.@8<
T&e Sel* is "resent e2ually in all !ein#s. T&ere is no one &ate*ul or dear to 6e. But) t&ose w&o
wors&i" 6e wit& love and devotion are very close to 6e) and I am also very close to t&em. ;See also
C.88< ;D.@D<
THE-E IS ,. 0,'.-GIVAB+E SI,,E-
Even i* t&e most sin*ul "erson resolves to wors&i" 6e wit& sin#le-minded lovin# devotion) suc& a
"erson must !e re#arded as a saint !ecause o* ma(in# t&e ri#&t resolution. ;D.%9<
Suc& a "erson soon !ecomes ri#&teous and attains everlastin# "eace. Be aware) . Ar3una) t&at 6y
devotee s&all never "eris& or *all down. ;D.%8<
Any!ody can attain t&e Su"reme A!ode !y 3ust surrenderin# unto 6y will wit& lovin# devotion) .
Ar3una. ;See also 88.BB< ;D.%@<
T&en) it s&ould !e very easy *or t&e wise and devout sa#es to attain t&e Su"reme Bein#. T&ere*ore)
o!tained t&is 3oyless and transitory &uman li*e) one s&ould always wors&i" 6e wit& lovin# devotion.
Always t&in( o* 6e) !e devoted to 6e) wors&i" 6e) and !ow down to 6e. T&us unitin# yoursel*
wit& 6e !y settin# 6e as t&e su"reme #oal and t&e sole re*u#e) you s&all certainly come to 6e.
1HA7TE- 89
+ord 5ris&na said$ . Ar3una) listen once a#ain to 6y su"reme word t&at I s&all s"ea( to you) w&o is
dear to 6e) *or your wel*are. ;89.98<
,eit&er t&e celestial controllers) nor t&e #reat sa#es (now 6y ori#in) !ecause I am t&e ori#in o*
controllers and #reat sa#es also. ;89.9@<
.ne w&o (nows 6e as t&e un!orn) t&e !e#innin#less) and t&e Su"reme +ord o* t&e universe) is
considered wise amon# t&e mortals) and !ecomes li!erated *rom t&e !onda#e o* 5arma. ;89.9%<
/iscrimination) Sel*-(nowled#e) non-delusion) *or#iveness) trut&*ulness) control over t&e mind and
senses) tran2uillity) "leasure) "ain) !irt&) deat&) *ear) *earlessness> nonviolence) e2uanimity)
austerity) c&arity) *ame) ill *ame : t&ese diverse 2ualities in &uman !ein#s arise *rom 6e alone. ;89.9E-
T&e #reat saints) sa#es) and all t&e creatures o* t&e world were !orn *rom 6y "otential ener#y. ;89.9B<
.ne w&o truly understands 6y mani*estations and yo#ic "owers is united wit& 6e !y unswervin#
devotion. T&ere is no dou!t a!out it. ;89.9C<
I am t&e ori#in o* all. Everyt&in# emanates *rom 6e. T&e wise ones w&o understand t&is adore 6e
wit& love and devotion. ;89.98<
6y devotees remain ever content and deli#&ted. T&eir minds remain a!sor!ed in 6e) and t&eir lives
surrendered unto 6e. T&ey always enli#&ten eac& ot&er !y tal(in# a!out 6e. ;89.9D<
+.-/ GIVES 5,.+E/GE T.
I #ive t&e (nowled#e and understandin# o* t&e meta"&ysical science : to t&ose w&o are ever united
6e and lovin#ly adore 6e : !y w&ic& t&ey come to 6e. ;89.89<
I) w&o dwell wit&in t&eir inner "syc&e as consciousness) destroy t&e dar(ness !orn o* i#norance !y t&e
s&inin# lam" o* transcendental (nowled#e as an act o* com"assion *or t&em. ;89.88<
Ar3una said$ Hou are t&e Su"reme Bein#) t&e Su"reme A!ode) t&e Su"reme 7uri*ier) t&e Eternal Bein#)
t&e "rimal God) t&e un!orn) and t&e omni"resent. All saints and sa#es &ave t&us acclaimed Hou) and
Hou Hoursel* are tellin# me. ;89.8@-8%<
,.B./H 1A, 5,. THE -EA+
,AT0-E .' -EA+ITH
. 5ris&na) I !elieve all t&at Hou &ave told me to !e true. . +ord) neit&er t&e celestial controllers nor
demons *ully understand Hour real nature. ;See also E.9B< ;89.8E<
. 1reator and +ord o* all !ein#s) God o* all celestial rulers) t&e Su"reme "erson) and +ord o* t&e
universe) Hou alone (now Hoursel* !y Hoursel*. ;89.8F<
T&ere*ore) Hou alone are a!le to *ully descri!e Hour own divine #lories : t&e mani*estations : !y
w&ic& Hou exist "ervadin# all t&e universes. ;89.8B<
How may I (now Hou) . +ord) !y constant contem"lation? In w&at *orm o* mani*estation are Hou to !e
t&ou#&t o* !y me) . +ord? ;89.8C<
. +ord) ex"lain to me a#ain in detail) Hour yo#ic "ower and #lory> !ecause I am not satiated !y &earin#
Hour nectar-li(e words. ;89.88<
+ord 5ris&na said$ . Ar3una) now I s&all ex"lain to you 6y "rominent divine mani*estations) !ecause
6y mani*estations are endless. ;89.8D<
. Ar3una) I am t&e Su"reme S"irit ;or Su"ersoul< a!idin# in t&e inner "syc&e o* all !ein#s. I am also
creator) maintainer) and destroyer : or t&e !e#innin#) t&e middle) and t&e end : o* all !ein#s. ;89.@9<
I am t&e sustainer) I am t&e radiant sun amon# t&e luminaries) I am t&e controller o* wind) I am t&e
amon# t&e stars. ;89.@8<
I am t&e Vedas) I am t&e celestial rulers) I am t&e mind amon# t&e senses) I am t&e consciousness in
!ein#s. ;89.@@<
I am +ord S&iva) I am t&e #od o* wealt&) I am t&e *ire #od) and t&e mountains. ;89.@%<
I am t&e "riest) and t&e army #eneral o* t&e celestial controllers) . Ar3una. I am t&e ocean amon# t&e
!odies o* water. ;89.@E<
I am t&e monosylla!le cosmic sound) .6) amon# t&e words> I am t&e c&antin# o* mantra amon# t&e
s"iritual disci"lines> and I am t&e Himalaya amon# t&e mountains. ;89.@F<
A B-IE' /ES1-I7TI., .' /IVI,E 6A,I'ESTATI.,S
I am t&e &oly *i# tree amon# t&e trees) ,arada amon# t&e sa#es) and I am all ot&er celestial rulers.
5now 6e as t&e celestial animals amon# t&e animals) and t&e 5in# amon# men. I am t&under!olt
t&e wea"ons) and I am t&e cu"id *or "rocreation. ;89.@C-@8<
I am t&e water-#od) and t&e manes. I am t&e controller o* deat&. I am t&e time or deat& amon# t&e
lion amon# t&e !easts) and t&e (in# o* !irds amon# !irds. ;89.@D-%9<
I am t&e wind amon# t&e "uri*iers) and +ord -ama amon# t&e warriors. I am t&e crocodile amon# t&e
*is&es) and t&e &oly Gan#es river amon# t&e rivers. ;89.%8<
I am t&e !e#innin#) t&e middle) and t&e end o* all creation) . Ar3una. Amon# t&e (nowled#e I am
(nowled#e o* t&e su"reme Sel*. I am lo#ic o* t&e lo#ician. ;89.%@<
I am t&e letter NAN amon# t&e al"&a!ets. I am t&e dual com"ound amon# t&e com"ound words. I am t&e
endless time. I am t&e sustainer) and I am omniscient. ;89.%%<
I am t&e all devourin# deat&) and also t&e ori#in o* *uture !ein#s. I am t&e seven #oddesses or #uardian
an#els "residin# over t&e seven 2ualities : *ame) "ros"erity) s"eec&) memory) intellect) resolve) and
*or#iveness. ;89.%E<
I am t&e Vedic and ot&er &ymns. I am t&e mantras) I am ,ovem!er-/ecem!er amon# t&e mont&s) I am
t&e s"rin# amon# t&e seasons. ;89.%F<
I am #am!lin# o* t&e c&eats> s"lendor o* t&e s"lendid> victory o* t&e victorious> resolution o* t&e
resolute> and #oodness o* t&e #ood. ;89.%B<
I am 5ris&na) Vyasa) Ar3una) and t&e "ower o* rulers) t&e statesmans&i" o* t&e see(ers o* victory. I am
silence amon# t&e secrets) and t&e Sel*-(nowled#e o* t&e (nowled#ea!le. ;89.%C-%8<
I am t&e ori#in o* all !ein#s) . Ar3una. T&ere is not&in#) animate or inanimate) t&at can exist wit&out
;See also C.89 and D.88< ;89.%D<
6A,I'EST 1-EATI., IS A VE-H S6A++ '-A1TI., .' THE ABS.+0TE
T&ere is no end o* 6y divine mani*estations) . Ar3una. T&is is only a !rie* descri"tion !y 6e o* t&e
extent o* 6y divine mani*estations. ;89.E9<
&atever is endowed wit& #lory) !rilliance) and "ower> (now t&at to !e a mani*estation o* a very small
*raction o* 6y s"lendor. ;89.E8<
&at is t&e need *or t&is detailed (nowled#e) . Ar3una? I continually su""ort t&e entire universe !y a
very small *raction o* 6y divine "ower. ;89.E@<
1HA7TE- 88
VISI., .' THE 1.S6I1 '.-6
Ar3una said$ 6y illusion is dis"elled !y t&e "ro*ound words o* wisdom Hou s"o(e : out o* com"assion
towards me : a!out t&e su"reme secret o* S"irit. ;88.98<
. 5ris&na) I &ave &eard *rom Hou in detail a!out t&e ori#in and dissolution o* !ein#s) and Hour
immuta!le #lory. ;88.9@<
AI6 .' A SEE5E-
. +ord) Hou are as Hou &ave said> yet I wis& to see Hour divine cosmic *orm) . Su"reme Bein#.
. +ord) i* Hou t&in( it is "ossi!le *or me to see Hour universal *orm) t&en) . +ord o* t&e yo#is) s&ow
Hour transcendental *orm. ;88.9E<
+ord 5ris&na said$ . Ar3una) !e&old 6y &undreds and t&ousands o* multi*arious divine *orms o*
di**erent colors and s&a"es. Be&old all t&e celestial !ein#s) and many wonders never seen !e*ore. Also
!e&old t&e entire creation : animate) inanimate) and w&atever else you li(e to see : all at one "lace in
6y !ody. ;88.9F-9C<
But) you are not a!le to see 6e wit& your "&ysical eye> t&ere*ore) I #ive you t&e divine eye to see
6y ma3estic "ower and #lory. ;88.98<
+.-/ SH.S HIS 1.S6I1
'.-6 T. A-=0,A
San3aya said$ . 5in#) &avin# said t&is> +ord 5ris&na) t&e #reat +ord o* t&e mystic "ower o* yo#a)
revealed His su"reme ma3estic *orm to Ar3una. ;88.9D<
Ar3una saw t&e 0niversal 'orm o* t&e +ord wit& many mout&s and eyes) and many visions o* marvel)
wit& numerous divine ornaments) and &oldin# many divine wea"ons. earin# divine #arlands and
a""arel) anointed wit& celestial "er*umes and ointments) *ull o* all wonders) t&e limitless God wit&
on all sides. ;88.89-88<
I* t&e s"lendor o* t&ousands o* suns were to !laIe *ort& all at once in t&e s(y) even t&at would not
resem!le t&e s"lendor o* t&at exalted !ein#. ;88.8@<
Ar3una saw t&e entire universe) divided in many ways) !ut standin# as all in .ne) and .ne in all in t&e
transcendental !ody o* 5ris&na) t&e +ord o* celestial rulers. ;See also 8%.8B) and 88.@9< ;88.8%<
.,E 6AH ,.T BE 7-E7A-E/) .- M0A+I'IE/) T. SEE THE +.-/
Havin# seen t&e cosmic *orm o* t&e +ord) Ar3una was *illed wit& wonder> and &is &airs standin# on end)
!owed &is &ead to t&e +ord and "rayed wit& *olded &ands. ;88.8E<
Ar3una said$ . +ord) I see in Hour !ody all su"ernatural controllers) and multitude o* !ein#s) sa#es) and
celestials. ;88.8F<
. +ord o* t&e universe) I see Hou everyw&ere wit& in*inite *orm) wit& many arms) stomac&s) *aces)
and eyes. . 0niversal 'orm) I see neit&er your !e#innin# nor t&e middle nor t&e end. ;88.8B<
I see Hou wit& Hour crown) clu!) discus> and a mass o* radiance) di**icult to !e&old) s&inin# all around
li(e t&e immeasura!le !rilliance o* t&e sun and t&e !laIin# *ire. ;88.8C<
I !elieve Hou are t&e Su"reme Bein# to !e realiIed. Hou are t&e ultimate resort o* t&e universe. Hou are
t&e S"irit) and "rotector o* t&e eternal order ;/&arma<. ;88.88<
I see Hou wit& in*inite "ower) wit&out !e#innin#) middle) or end> wit& many arms) wit& t&e sun and t&e
moon as Hour eyes) wit& Hour mout& as a !laIin# *ire scorc&in# all t&e universe wit& Hour radiance.
. +ord) Hou "ervade t&e entire s"ace !etween &eaven and eart& in all directions. Seein# Hour
and terri!le *orm) t&e t&ree worlds are trem!lin# wit& *ear. ;88.@9<
Hosts o* su"ernatural rulers enter into Hou. Some wit& *olded &ands sin# Hour names and #lories in
A multitude o* "er*ected !ein#s &ail and adores Hou wit& a!undant "raises. ;88.@8<
All t&e celestial !ein#s amaIin#ly #aIe at Hou. Seein# your in*inite *orm wit& many mout&s) eyes)
t&i#&s) *eet) stomac&s) and many *ear*ul tus(s> t&e worlds are trem!lin# wit& *ear and so do I) . mi#&ty
+ord. ;88.@@-@%<
A-=0,A IS '-IGHTE,E/ T.
SEE THE 1.S6I1 '.-6
I am *ri#&tened and *ind neit&er "eace nor coura#e) . 5ris&na) a*ter seein# Hour e**ul#ent and color*ul
*orm touc&in# t&e s(y) and Hour wide o"en mout& wit& lar#e s&inin# eyes. ;88.@E<
I lose my sense o* direction and *ind no com*ort a*ter seein# Hour mout&s wit& *ear*ul tus(s #lowin#
t&e *ires o* cosmic dissolution. Have mercy on meA . +ord o* celestial rulers) and re*u#e o* t&e
All my cousin !rot&ers) alon# wit& t&e &osts o* ot&er (in#s and warriors o* t&e ot&er side) to#et&er wit&
c&ie* warriors on our side) are also 2uic(ly enterin# into Hour *ear*ul mout&s wit& terri!le tus(s. Some
are seen cau#&t in !etween t&e tus(s wit& t&eir &eads crus&ed. ;88.@B-@C<
T&ese warriors o* t&e mortal world are enterin# Hour !laIin# mout&s as many torrents o* t&e rivers
into t&e ocean. ;88.@8<
All t&ese "eo"le are ra"idly rus&in# into Hour mout&s *or destruction as mot&s rus& wit& #reat s"eed
t&e !laIin# *lame *or destruction. ;88.@D<
Hou are lic(in# u" all t&e worlds wit& Hour *lamin# mout&s) swallowin# t&em *rom all sides. Hour
"ower*ul radiance is *illin# t&e entire universe wit& e**ul#ence and !urnin# it) . 5ris&na. ;88.%9<
Tell me) w&o are Hou in suc& a *ierce *orm? 6y salutations to Hou) . !est o* all celestial rulers) !e
merci*ulA I wis& to understand Hou) . "rimal Bein#) !ecause I do not (now Hour mission. ;88.%8<
+.-/ /ES1-IBES HIS 7.E-S
+ord 5ris&na said$ I am deat&) t&e mi#&ty destroyer o* t&e world. I &ave come &ere to destroy all t&ese
"eo"le. Even wit&out your "artici"ation in t&e war) all t&e warriors standin# arrayed in t&e o""osin#
armies s&all cease to exist. ;88.%@<
T&ere*ore) you #et u" and attain #lory. 1on2uer your enemies) and en3oy a "ros"erous (in#dom. I &ave
already destroyed all t&ese warriors. Hou are only an instrument) . Ar3una. ;88.%%<
5ill all t&ese #reat warriors w&o are already (illed !y 6e. /o not *ear. Hou will certainly con2uer t&e
enemies in t&e !attle> t&ere*ore) *i#&tA ;88.%E<
A-=0,A4S 7-AHE-S T. THE 1.S6I1 '.-6
San3aya said$ Havin# &eard t&ese words o* 5ris&na> t&e crowned Ar3una) trem!lin# wit& *olded &ands)
"rostrated wit& *ear and s"o(e to 5ris&na in a c&o(ed voice. ;88.%F<
Ar3una said$ -i#&tly) . 5ris&na) t&e world deli#&ts and re3oices in #lori*yin# Hou. Terri*ied demons
in all directions. T&e &osts o* sa#es !ow to Hou in adoration. ;88.%B<
&y s&ould t&ey not : . #reat soul : !ow to Hou) t&e ori#inal creator w&o is even #reater t&an t&e
creator o* material worlds? . in*inite +ord) . God o* all celestial rulers) . a!ode o* t&e universe) Hou
!ot& Eternal and Tem"oral) and t&e Su"reme Bein# t&at is !eyond Eternal and Tem"oral. ;See also
and 8%.8@ *or a commentary< ;88.%C<
Hou are t&e "rimal God) t&e most ancient 7erson. Hou are t&e ultimate resort o* t&e entire universe. Hou
are t&e (nower) t&e o!3ect o* (nowled#e) and t&e Su"reme A!ode. Hou) . +ord o* t&e in*inite *orm)
"ervade t&e entire universe. ;88.%8<
Hou are t&e controller o* deat&) t&e *ire) t&e wind) t&e water #od) t&e moon #od) and t&e creator) as well
t&e *at&er o* t&e creator. Salutations to Hou a t&ousand times) and a#ain and a#ain salutations to Hou.
6y salutations to Hou *rom *ront) and *rom !e&ind. . +ord) my o!eisance to Hou *rom all sides. Hou
in*inite valor and t&e !oundless mi#&t. Hou "ervade everyt&in#) and t&ere*ore Hou are everyw&ere and
everyt&in#. ;88.E9<
1onsiderin# Hou merely as a *riend) and not (nowin# Hour #reatness) I &ave inadvertently addressed
as . 5ris&na) . Hadava) and . *riend merely out o* a**ection or carelessness. ;88.E8<
In w&atever way I may &ave insulted Hou in 3o(es> w&ile "layin#) re"osin# in !ed) sittin#) or at meals>
w&en alone) or in *ront o* ot&ers> . 5ris&na) t&e immeasura!le .ne) I im"lore Hou *or *or#iveness.
Hou are t&e *at&er o* t&is animate and inanimate world) and t&e #reatest #uru to !e wors&i""ed. ,o one
even e2ual to Hou in t&e t&ree worlds> &ow can t&ere !e one #reater t&an Hou? . Bein# o*
#lory. ;88.E%<
T&ere*ore) . adora!le +ord) I see( Hour mercy !y !owin# down and "rostratin# my !ody !e*ore Hou.
Bear wit& me as a *at&er to &is son) as a *riend to a *riend) and as a &us!and to &is wi*e) . +ord. ;88.EE<
Be&oldin# t&at w&ic& &as never !een seen !e*ore deli#&ts me) and yet my mind is tormented wit& *ear.
T&ere*ore) . God o* celestial rulers) t&e re*u#e o* t&e universe) &ave mercy on me> and s&ow me your
*our-armed *orm. ;88.EF<
.,E 6AH SEE G./ I, A,H '.-6
.' .,EGS 1H.I1E
I wis& to see Hou wit& a crown) &oldin# mace and discus in Hour &and. T&ere*ore) . +ord wit&
arms and universal *orm) "lease a""ear in t&e *our-armed *orm. ;88.EB<
+ord 5ris&na said$ . Ar3una) !ein# "leased wit& you I &ave s&own you) t&rou#& 6y own yo#ic
t&is "articular su"reme) s&inin#) universal) in*inite) and "rimal *orm o* 6ine t&at &as never !een seen
!e*ore !y anyone ot&er t&an you. ;88.EC<
. Ar3una) neit&er !y study o* t&e Vedas) nor !y sacri*ice) nor !y c&arity) nor !y rituals) nor !y severe
austerities) can I !e seen in t&is cosmic *orm !y any one ot&er t&an you in t&is &uman world. ;88.E8<
+.-/ SH.S A-=0,A HIS '.0--A-6E/ A,/ THE H06A, '.-6
/o not !e "ertur!ed and con*used !y seein# suc& a terri!le *orm o* 6ine as t&is. it& *earless and
c&eer*ul mind) now !e&old 6y *our-armed *orm. ;88.ED<
San3aya said$ A*ter s"ea(in# li(e t&is to Ar3una) 5ris&na revealed His *our-armed *orm. And t&en
assumin# His "leasant &uman *orm) +ord 5ris&na) t&e Great .ne) consoled Ar3una w&o was terri*ied.
Ar3una said$ . 5ris&na) seein# t&is lovely &uman *orm o* Hours) I &ave now !ecome tran2uil and I am
normal a#ain. ;88.F8<
+.-/ 1A, BE SEE, BH /EV.TI.,A+ +.VE
+ord 5ris&na said$ T&is *our-armed *orm o* 6ine t&at you &ave seen is very di**icult) indeed) to see.
Even celestial controllers are ever lon#in# to see t&is *orm. ;88.F@<
T&is *our-armed *orm o* 6ine t&at you &ave 3ust seen cannot !e seen even !y study o* t&e Vedas) or
!y austerity) or !y acts o* c&arity) or !y t&e "er*ormance o* rituals. ;88.F%<
However) t&rou#& sin#le-minded devotion alone) I can !e seen in t&is *orm) can !e (nown in
essence) and also can !e reac&ed) . Ar3una. ;88.FE<
T&e one w&o does all wor(s *or 6e) and to w&om I am t&e su"reme #oal> w&o is my devotee) w&o
&as no attac&ment) and is *ree *rom enmity towards any !ein#> attains 6e) . Ar3una. ;See also
8.@@< ;88.FF<
1HA7TE- 8@
7ATH .' /EV.TI.,
SH.0+/ .,E .-SHI7 A 7E-S.,A+
.- A, I67E-S.,A+ G./?
Ar3una as(ed$ T&ose ever stead*ast devotees w&o wors&i" t&e "ersonal as"ect o* God wit& *orm;s<)
and ot&ers w&o wors&i" t&e im"ersonal as"ect) or t&e *ormless A!solute> w&ic& o* t&ese &as t&e
!est (nowled#e o* yo#a? ;8@.98<
+ord 5ris&na said$ T&ose ever stead*ast devotees w&o wors&i" wit& su"reme *ait& !y *ixin# t&eir
mind on a "ersonal *orm o* God) I consider t&em to !e t&e !est yo#is. ;See also B.EC< ;8@.9@<
But t&ose w&o wors&i" t&e unc&an#ea!le) t&e inex"lica!le) t&e invisi!le) t&e omni"resent) t&e
inconceiva!le) t&e unc&an#in#) t&e immova!le) and t&e *ormless im"ersonal as"ect o* God> restrainin#
t&e senses) even-minded under all circumstances) en#a#ed in t&e wel*are o* all creatures) also attain
-EAS.,S '.- .-SHI77I,G A
7E-S.,A+ '.-6 .' G./
Sel*-realiIation is more di**icult *or t&ose w&o *ix t&eir mind on t&e im"ersonal) unmani*est) and
*ormless A!solute> !ecause) com"re&ension o* t&e unmani*est !y em!odied !ein#s is attained wit&
di**iculty. ;8@.9F<
'or t&ose w&o wors&i" t&e Su"reme wit& unswervin# devotion as a "ersonal deity o* t&eir c&oice) o**er
all actions to 6e) intent on 6e as t&e Su"reme) and meditate on 6e> I swi*tly !ecome t&eir savior :
*rom t&e world t&at is t&e ocean o* deat& and transmi#ration : w&ose t&ou#&ts are set on 6y "ersonal
*orm) . Ar3una. ;8@.9B-9C<
'.0- 7ATHS T. G./
T&ere*ore) *ocus your mind on 6e) and let your intellect dwell u"on 6e alone t&rou#& meditation
and contem"lation. T&erea*ter you s&all certainly attain 6e. ;8@.98<
I* you are una!le to *ocus your mind steadily on 6e) t&en lon# to attain 6e !y "ractice o* any ot&er
s"iritual disci"line> suc& as a ritual) or deity wors&i" t&at suits you. ;8@.9D<
I* you are una!le even to do any s"iritual disci"line) t&en !e intent on "er*ormin# your duty 3ust *or
Hou s&all attain "er*ection !y doin# your "rescri!ed duty *or 6e J wit&out any sel*is& motive J 3ust
an instrument to serve and "lease 6e. ;8@.89<
I* you are una!le to do your duty *or 6e) t&en 3ust surrender unto 6y will) and renounce t&e
to) and t&e anxiety *or) t&e *ruits o* all wor( J !y learnin# to acce"t all results as GodGs #race J wit&
e2uanimity. ;8@.88<
T&e transcendental (nowled#e o* scri"tures is !etter t&an mere ritualistic "ractice> meditation is
!etter t&an scri"tural (nowled#e> renunciation o* sel*is& attac&ment to t&e *ruits o* wor( ;5armayo#a<
is !etter t&an meditation> "eace immediately *ollows renunciation o* sel*is& motives. ;See
more on renunciation in 88.9@) 88.9D< ;8@.8@<
.ne w&o does not &ate any creature) w&o is *riendly and com"assionate) *ree *rom t&e notion o* NIN and
NmyN) even-minded in "ain and "leasure) *or#ivin#> and w&o is ever content) w&o &as su!dued t&e
w&ose resolve is *irm) w&ose mind and intellect are en#a#ed in dwellin# u"on 6e) w&o is devoted to
is dear to 6e. ;8@.8%-8E<
T&e one !y w&om ot&ers are not a#itated and w&o is not a#itated !y ot&ers) w&o is *ree *rom 3oy) envy)
*ear) and anxiety) is also dear to 6e. ;8@.8F<
.ne w&o is desireless) "ure) wise) im"artial) and *ree *rom anxiety> w&o &as renounced t&e doers&i" in
underta(in#s> suc& a devotee is dear to 6e. ;8@.8B<
.ne w&o neit&er re3oices nor #rieves) neit&er li(es nor disli(es) w&o &as renounced !ot& t&e #ood
and t&e evil) and is *ull o* devotion> is dear to 6e. ;8@.8C<
T&e one w&o remains t&e same towards *riend or *oe) in &onor or dis#race) in &eat or cold) in "leasure
"ain> w&o is *ree *rom attac&ment> w&o is indi**erent to censure or "raise> w&o is 2uiet) and content
w&atever &e or s&e &as> unattac&ed to a "lace) a country) or a &ouse> e2uanimous) and *ull o* devotion
t&at "erson is dear to 6e. ;8@.88-8D<
.,E SH.0+/ SI,1E-E+H T-H T.
But t&ose *ait&*ul devotees) w&o set 6e as t&eir su"reme #oal and *ollow J or 3ust sincerely try to
develo" J t&e a!ove mentioned nectar o* moral values are very dear to 6e. ;8@.@9<
1HA7TE- 8%
1-EATI., A,/ THE 1-EAT.-
THE.-H .' 1-EATI.,
+ord 5ris&na said$ . Ar3una) t&is "&ysical !ody) t&e miniature universe) may !e called t&e *ield or
creation. .ne w&o (nows t&e creation is called t&e creator ;or S"irit< !y t&e seers o* trut&. ;8%.98<
. Ar3una) (now 6e to !e t&e creator o* all t&e creation. T&e true understandin# o* !ot& t&e creator
and t&e creation is considered !y 6e to !e t&e transcendental (nowled#e. ;8%.9@<
&at t&e creation is) w&at it is li(e) w&at its trans*ormations are) w&ere its source is) w&o t&at creator
and w&at His "owers are) &ear all t&ese *rom 6e in !rie*. ;8%.9%<
T&e seers &ave se"arately descri!ed t&e creation and t&e creator in di**erent ways in t&e Vedic &ymns)
also in t&e conclusive and convincin# verses o* ot&er scri"tures. ;8%.9E<
T&e "rimary material ,ature) t&e cosmic intellect) NIN consciousness or e#o) *ive !asic elements) ten
or#ans) mind) *ive sense o!3ects> and desire) &atred) "leasure) "ain) t&e "&ysical !ody) consciousness)
resolve : t&us t&e entire *ield &as !een !rie*ly descri!ed wit& its trans*ormations. ;See also C.9E<
THE '.0-'.+/ ,.B+E T-0TH
AS 6EA,S .' ,I-VA,A
Humility) modesty) nonviolence) *or#iveness) &onesty) service to #uru) "urity o* t&ou#&t) word) and
stead*astness) sel*-control> and aversion towards sense o!3ects) a!sence o* e#o) constant re*lection on
and su**erin# in&erent in !irt&) old a#e) disease) and deat&> ;8%.9C-98<
/etac&ment) non-*ondness wit& son) wi*e) and &ome> un*ailin# e2uanimity u"on attainment o* t&e
desira!le and t&e undesira!le> and unswervin# devotion to 6e t&rou#& sin#le-minded contem"lation)
taste *or solitude) distaste *or social #at&erin#s and #ossi"s> stead*astness in ac2uirin# t&e (nowled#e o*
S"irit) and seein# t&e omni"resent Su"reme Bein# everyw&ere : t&is is said to !e (nowled#e. T&at
w&ic& is contrary to t&is is i#norance. ;8%.9D-88<
G./ 1A, BE /ES1-IBE/ BH 7A-AB+ES) A,/ ,.T I, A,H .THE- AH
I s&all *ully descri!e t&e o!3ect o* (nowled#e. By (nowin# t&is one attains immortality. T&e
!e#innin#less Su"reme Bein# is said to !e neit&er eternal) nor tem"oral. ;See also D.8D) 88.%C) and
T&e S"irit &as His &ands) *eet) eyes) &ead) mout&) and ears everyw&ere) !ecause He is all-"ervadin# and
omni"resent. ;8%.8%<
He is t&e "erceiver o* all sense o!3ects wit&out t&e "&ysical sense or#ans> unattac&ed) and yet t&e
sustainer o* all> devoid o* t&e t&ree modes o* material ,ature) and yet t&e en3oyer o* t&e modes o*
material ,ature !y !ecomin# a livin# entity. ;8%.8E<
He is inside as well as outside all !ein#s) animate and inanimate. He is incom"re&ensi!le !ecause o*
su!tlety. And !ecause o* His omni"resence) He is very near : residin# in one4s inner "syc&e> as well as
*ar away : in t&e Su"reme A!ode. ;8%.8F<
He is undivided) and yet a""ears to exist as i* divided in !ein#s. He is t&e o!3ect o* (nowled#e) and
a""ears as t&e creator) sustainer) and destroyer o* all !ein#s. ;See also 88.8%) and 88.@9< ;8%.8B<
T&e Su"reme Bein# is t&e source o* all li#&ts. He is said to !e !eyond dar(ness o* i#norance. He is t&e
Sel*-(nowled#e) t&e o!3ect o* Sel*-(nowled#e) and seated in t&e inner "syc&e as consciousness ;See
88.B8< o* all !ein#s) He is to !e realiIed !y Sel*-(nowled#e. ;8%.8C<
T&us t&e creation as well as t&e (nowled#e and t&e o!3ect o* (nowled#e &ave !een !rie*ly descri!ed !y
6e. Havin# understood t&is) 6y devotee attains 6y Su"reme A!ode. ;8%.88<
A /ES1-I7TI., .' THE S07-E6E S7I-IT) S7I-IT) 6ATE-IA+ ,AT0-E) A,/ THE
I,/IVI/0A+ S.0+S
5now t&at !ot& t&e material ,ature and t&e S"iritual Bein# are !e#innin#less. All mani*estations and
t&ree dis"ositions o* mind and matter) called modes) are !orn o* material ,ature. 6aterial ,ature is
to !e t&e cause o* "roduction o* "&ysical !ody and or#ans o* "erce"tion and action. S"irit ;or
1onsciousness< is said to !e t&e cause o* ex"eriencin# "leasures and "ains. ;8%.8D-@9<
S"iritual Bein# en3oys t&ree modes o* material ,ature !y associatin# wit& t&e material ,ature.
Attac&ment to t&e t&ree modes o* material ,ature due to i#norance caused !y "revious 5arma is
t&e cause o* !irt& o* livin# entity in #ood and evil wom!s. ;8%.@8<
T&e S"irit in t&e !ody is t&e witness) t&e #uide) t&e su""orter) t&e en3oyer) and t&e controller. ;8%.@@<
T&ey w&o truly understand S"irit and t&e material ,ature wit& its t&ree modes are not !orn a#ain
re#ardless o* t&eir way o* li*e. ;8%.@%<
Some "erceive t&e Su"ersoul in t&eir inner "syc&e t&rou#& mind and intellect t&at &ave !een "uri*ied
eit&er !y meditation) or !y meta"&ysical (nowled#e) or !y sel*less service. ;8%.@E<
'AITH A+.,E 1A, +EA/ T. ,I-VA,A
.t&ers) &owever) do not (now t&e yo#as o* meditation) (nowled#e) devotion) and wor(> !ut t&ey
deity wors&i" wit& *ait& as mentioned in t&e scri"tures !y t&e saints and sa#es. T&ey also transcend
!y virtue o* t&eir *irm *ait& to w&at t&ey &ave &eard. ;8%.@F<
&atever is !orn : animate or inanimate : (now t&em to !e !orn *rom t&e union o* S"irit and matter)
. Ar3una. ;See also C.9B< ;8%.@B<
T&e one w&o sees t&e same eternal Su"reme +ord dwellin# as S"irit e2ually wit&in all mortal
!ein#s truly sees. ;8%.@C<
&en one !e&olds one and t&e same +ord existin# e2ually in every!ein#) one does not in3ure any!ody>
!ecause one considers everyt&in# as one4s own sel*. And t&ereu"on attains t&e Su"reme A!ode. ;8%.@8<
T&e one w&o "erceives t&at all wor(s are done !y t&e "owers o* material ,ature truly understands) and
t&us does not consider onesel* as t&e doer. ;See also %.@C) F.9D) and 8E.8D< ;8%.@D<
T&e moment one discovers diverse variety o* !ein#s and t&eir di**erent ideas a!idin# in .ne) and
out *rom OT&at4 alone) one attains t&e Su"reme Bein#. ;8%.%9<
Because o* !ein# !e#innin#less and una**ecta!le !y t&ree modes o* material ,ature) t&e eternal
: even t&ou#& dwellin# in t&e !ody as a livin# entity : neit&er does anyt&in# nor !ecomes tainted) .
Ar3una. ;8%.%8<
=ust as t&e all-"ervadin# s"ace is not tainted !ecause o* its su!tlety> similarly) t&e S"irit a!idin# in all
!odies is not tainted. ;8%.%@<
=ust as one sun illuminates t&e entire world> similarly) S"irit #ives li*e to t&e entire creation) . Ar3una.
T&ey w&o "erceive J wit& t&e eye o* Sel*-(nowled#e J t&e di**erence !etween t&e creation ;or t&e
!ody< and t&e creator ;or t&e S"irit< as well as (now t&e tec&ni2ue o* li!eration o* t&e livin# entity
*rom t&e tra" o* divine illusory ener#y ;6aya<) attain t&e Su"reme. ;8%.%E<
1HA7TE- 8E
TH-EE 6./ES .' 6ATE-IA+ ,AT0-E
+ord 5ris&na said$ I s&all *urt&er ex"lain to you t&at su"reme (nowled#e) t&e !est o* all (nowled#e)
(nowin# t&at all t&e sa#es &ave attained su"reme "er*ection a*ter t&is li*e. ;8E.98<
T&ey w&o &ave ta(en re*u#e in t&is transcendental (nowled#e attain unity wit& 6e> and are neit&er
at t&e time o* creation) nor a**licted at t&e time o* dissolution. ;8E.9@<
A++ BEI,GS A-E B.-, '-.6 THE 0,I., .' S7I-IT A,/ 6ATTE-
6y material ,ature is t&e wom! o* creation w&erein I "lace t&e seed o* 1onsciousness *rom w&ic&
all !ein#s are !orn) . Ar3una. ;See also D.89< ;8E.9%<
&atever *orms are "roduced in all di**erent wom!s) . Ar3una) t&e material ,ature is t&eir !ody-
mot&er> and t&e S"irit or 1onsciousness is t&e li*e-#ivin# *at&er. ;8E.9E<
H. TH-EE 6./ES .' 6ATE-IA+ ,AT0-E BI,/ THE S7I-IT S.0+ T. THE B./H
Goodness) activity) and inertia J t&ese t&ree modes or ro"es material ,ature *etter t&e eternal
individual soul to t&e !ody) . Ar3una. ;8E.9F<
.* t&ese) t&e mode o* #oodness is illuminatin# and #ood) !ecause it is "ure. T&e mode o* #oodness
t&e livin# entity !y attac&ment to &a""iness and (nowled#e) . sinless Ar3una. ;8E.9B<
Ar3una) (now t&at t&e mode o* "assion is c&aracteriIed !y intense cravin# *or sense #rati*ication) and is
t&e source o* material desire and attac&ment. T&e mode o* "assion !inds t&e livin# entity !y attac&ment
t&e *ruits o* wor(. ;8E.9C<
5now) . Ar3una) t&at t&e mode o* i#norance : t&e deluder o* livin# entity : is !orn o* inertia. T&e
mode o* i#norance !inds livin# entity !y carelessness) laIiness) and excessive slee". ;8E.98<
. Ar3una) t&e mode o* #oodness attac&es one to &a""iness o* learnin# and (nowin# t&e S"irit) t&e mode
o* "assion attac&es to action) and t&e mode o* i#norance attac&es to ne#li#ence !y coverin# t&e
6./ES .' ,AT0-E
Goodness "revails !y su""ressin# "assion and i#norance> "assion "revails !y su""ressin# #oodness and
i#norance> and i#norance "revails !y su""ressin# #oodness and "assion) . Ar3una. ;8E.89<
&en t&e li#&t o* Sel*-(nowled#e #litters all t&e senses in t&e !ody) t&en it s&ould !e (nown t&at
#oodness is "redominant. ;8E.88<
. Ar3una) w&en "assion is "redominant> #reed) activity) underta(in# o* sel*is& wor(s) restlessness) and
excitement arise. ;8E.8@<
. Ar3una) w&en inertia is "redominant> i#norance) inactivity) carelessness) and delusion arise. ;8E.8%<
TH-EE 6./ES A-E A+S. THE VEHI1+ES .' T-A,S6IG-ATI., '.- THE I,/IVI/0A+
.ne w&o dies durin# t&e dominance o* #oodness #oes to &eaven : t&e "ure world o* (nowers o* t&e
Su"reme. ;8E.8E<
&en one dies durin# t&e dominance o* "assion) one is re!orn as attac&ed to action ;or t&e utilitarian
ty"e<> and dyin# in i#norance) one is re!orn as lower creatures. ;8E.8F<
T&e *ruit o* #ood action is said to !e !ene*icial and "ure) t&e *ruit o* "assionate action is "ain) and t&e
*ruit o* i#norant action is laIiness. ;8E.8B<
Sel*-(nowled#e arises *rom mode o* #oodness> #reed arises *rom mode o* "assion> and ne#li#ence)
delusion) and slowness o* mind arise *rom t&e mode o* i#norance. ;8E.8C<
T&ey w&o are esta!lis&ed in #oodness #o to &eaven> "assionate "ersons are re!orn in t&e mortal world>
and t&e insi"id ones) a!idin# in t&e mode o* i#norance) #o to lower "lanets o* &ell) or ta(e !irt& as
creatures de"endin# on t&e de#ree o* t&eir i#norance. ;8E.88<
ATTAI, ,I-VA,A A'TE- T-A,S1E,/I,G TH-EE 6./ES .' 6ATE-IA+ ,AT0-E
&en visionaries "erceive no doer ot&er t&an t&e "owers o* t&e Su"reme Bein# : t&e modes o*
,ature> and (now T&at w&ic& is a!ove and !eyond t&ese modes> t&en t&ey attain ,irvana or salvation.
;See also %.@C) F.9D) and 8%.@D< ;8E.8D<
&en one rises a!ove t&e t&ree modes o* material ,ature t&at ori#inate in t&e !ody) one attains
immortality or salvation) and is *reed *rom t&e "ains o* !irt&) old a#e) and deat&. ;8E.@9<
Ar3una said$ &at are t&e mar(s o* t&ose w&o &ave transcended t&e t&ree modes o* material ,ature)
w&at is t&eir conduct? How does one transcend t&ese t&ree modes o* material ,ature) . +ord 5ris&na?
+ord 5ris&na said$ .ne w&o neit&er &ates t&e "resence o* enli#&tenment) activity) and delusion> nor
desires *or t&em w&en t&ey are a!sent> w&o remains li(e a witness wit&out !ein# a**ected !y t&e modes
material ,ature> and stays *irmly attac&ed to t&e +ord wit&out waverin# : t&in(in# t&at t&e modes o*
material ,ature only are o"eratin#. ;8E.@@-@%<
T&e one w&o de"ends on t&e +ord and is indi**erent to "ain and "leasure> to w&om a clod) a stone) and
#old are ali(e> to w&om t&e dear and t&e un*riendly are ali(e> w&o is o* *irm mind) w&o is calm in
and in "raise) and t&e one w&o is indi**erent to &onor and dis#race) w&o is im"artial to *riend and *oe)
w&o &as renounced t&e sense o* doers&i" : is said to &ave transcended t&e modes o* material ,ature.
B.,/S .' TH-EE 6./ES 1A, BE
10T BH /EV.TI.,A+ +.VE
T&e one w&o o**ers service to 6e wit& love and unswervin# devotion transcends t&ree modes o*
material ,ature) and !ecomes *it *or ,irvana) or salvation. ;See also C.8E and 8F.8D< ;8E.@B<
Because) I am t&e !asis ;or source< o* t&e immortal S"irit) o* everlastin# cosmic order ;/&arma<) and o*
t&e a!solute !liss. ;8E.@C<
1HA7TE- 8F
1-EATI., IS +I5E A T-EE 1-EATE/ BH THE 7.E-S .' 6AHA
+ord 5ris&na said$ T&e universe ;or &uman !ody< may !e com"ared to an eternal tree t&at &as its ori#in
;or root< in t&e Su"reme Bein# and its !ranc&es !elow in t&e cosmos. T&e Vedic &ymns are t&e leaves
t&is tree. .ne w&o understands t&is tree is a (nower o* t&e Vedas. ;8F.98<
T&e !ranc&es o* t&is eternal tree are s"read all over t&e cosmos. T&e tree is nouris&ed !y t&e ener#y o*
material ,ature> sense "leasures are its s"routs> and its roots o* e#o and desires stretc& !elow in t&e
&uman world causin# 5armic !onda#e. ;8F.9@<
I, G./
T&e !e#innin#) t&e end) or t&e real *orm o* t&is tree is not "erce"ti!le on t&e eart&. Havin# cut t&e *irm
roots : t&e desires : o* t&is tree !y t&e mi#&ty ax o* Sel*-(nowled#e and detac&ment) one s&ould see(
t&at Su"reme A!ode reac&in# w&ere one does not come !ac( to t&e mortal world a#ain. .ne s&ould !e
always t&in(in#$ NIn t&at very "rimal "erson I ta(e re*u#e *rom w&ic& t&is "rimal mani*estation comes
*ort&.N ;8F.9%-9E<
T&ose w&o are *ree *rom "ride and delusion) w&o &ave con2uered t&e evil o* attac&ment) w&o are
constantly dwellin# in t&e Su"reme Bein# wit& all lust com"letely stilled) w&o are *ree *rom
dualities o* "leasure and "ain> suc& wise ones reac& 6y Su"reme A!ode. ;8F.9F<
T&e sun does not illumine 6y Su"reme A!ode) nor t&e moon) nor t&e *ire. Havin# reac&ed t&ere "eo"le
attain "ermanent li!eration ;6u(ti<) and do not come !ac( to t&is tem"oral world. ;8F.9B<
THE E6B./IE/ S.0+ IS THE E,=.HE-
T&e individual soul ;=iva) =ivatma< in t&e !ody o* livin# !ein#s is t&e inte#ral "art o* t&e universal
S"irit) or consciousness. T&e individual soul associates wit& t&e six sensory *aculties : includin#
t&e mind : o* "erce"tion and activates t&em. ;8F.9C<
=ust as t&e air ta(es aroma away *rom t&e *lower> similarly) t&e individual soul ta(es t&e six
sensory *aculties *rom t&e "&ysical !ody it casts o** durin# deat& to t&e new "&ysical !ody it
ac2uires in reincarnation. ;See also @.8%< ;8F.98<
T&e livin# entity en3oys sense "leasures usin# six sensory *aculties o* &earin#) touc&) si#&t) taste) smell)
and mind. T&e i#norant cannot "erceive livin# entity de"artin# *rom t&e !ody) or stayin# in t&e !ody
en3oyin# sense "leasures !y associatin# wit& t&e material !ody. But t&ose w&o &ave t&e eye o*
can see it. ;8F.9D-89<
T&e yo#is) strivin# *or "er*ection) !e&old t&e livin# entity a!idin# in t&eir inner "syc&e as
!ut t&e i#norant w&ose inner "syc&e is not "ure) cannot "erceive Him even t&ou#& strivin#. ;8F.88<
T&e li#&t ener#y t&at comin# *rom t&e sun illumines t&e w&ole world> and t&at in t&e moon) and in t&e
*ire> (now t&at li#&t to !e 6ine. ;See also 8%.8C and 8F.9B< ;8F.8@<.
Enterin# t&e eart&) I su""ort all !ein#s wit& 6y ener#y> !ecomin# t&e sa"-#ivin# moon) I nouris& all
"lants. ;8F.8%<
Becomin# t&e di#estive *ire) I remain in t&e !ody o* all livin# !ein#s> unitin# wit& vital !reat&s or
!ioim"ulses) I di#est all ty"es o* *ood> and ;8F.8E<
I am seated in t&e inner "syc&e o* all !ein#s. T&e memory) Sel*-(nowled#e) and t&e removal o*
dou!ts and wron# notions a!out God come *rom 6e. I am verily t&at w&ic& is to !e (nown !y t&e
study o* all t&e Vedas. I am) indeed) t&e aut&or as well as t&e student o* t&e Vedas. ;See also B.%D<
A,/ THE I,/IVI/0A+ S.0+?
T&ere are two entities in t&e cosmos$ T&e c&an#ea!le Tem"oral Bein#s) and t&e unc&an#ea!le Eternal
Bein# ;S"irit<. All created !ein#s are su!3ect to c&an#e) !ut t&e S"irit does not c&an#e. ;8F.8B<
T&e Su"reme Bein# is !eyond !ot& : t&e Tem"oral Bein#s and t&e Eternal Bein#. He is also called t&e
A!solute -eality t&at sustains !ot& t&e Tem"oral and t&e Eternal !y "ervadin# everyt&in#. ;8F.8C<
Because t&e Su"reme Bein# is !eyond !ot& Tem"oral and Eternal> t&ere*ore) He is (nown in t&is
world and in t&e scri"tures as t&e Su"reme Bein# ;A!solute -eality) Trut&) Su"ersoul< ;8F.88<
T&e wise one w&o truly understands t&e Su"reme Bein#) (nows everyt&in# and wors&i"s Him
w&ole&eartedly. ;See also C.8E) 8E.@B) and 88.BB< ;8F.8D<
T&us t&is most secret transcendental science o* t&e A!solute &as !een ex"lained !y 6e. Havin#
understood t&is) one !ecomes enli#&tened) and one4s all duties are accom"lis&ed) . Ar3una. ;8F.@9<
1HA7TE- 8B
A +IST .' 6A=.- /IVI,E M0A+ITIES THAT SH.0+/ BE 10+TIVATE/ '.- SA+VATI.,
+ord 5ris&na said$ 'earlessness) "urity o* inner "syc&e) "erseverance in t&e yo#a o* Sel*-(nowled#e)
c&arity) sense restraint) sacri*ice) study o* t&e scri"tures) austerity) &onesty> nonviolence) trut&*ulness)
a!sence o* an#er) renunciation) e2uanimity) a!stainin# *rom malicious tal() com"assion *or all
*reedom *rom #reed) #entleness) modesty) a!sence o* *ic(leness) s"lendor) *or#iveness) *ortitude)
cleanliness) a!sence o* malice) and a!sence o* "ride : t&ese are some o* t&e 2ualities o* t&ose endowed
wit& divine virtues) . Ar3una. ;8B.98-9%<
A +IST .' /E6.,I1 M0A+ITIES THAT SH.0+/ BE GIVE, 07 BE'.-E S7I-IT0A+
=.0-,EH 1A, BEGI,
. Ar3una) t&e mar(s o* t&ose w&o are !orn wit& demonic 2ualities are$ Hy"ocrisy) arro#ance) "ride)
an#er) &ars&ness) and i#norance. ;8B.9E<
/ivine 2ualities lead to salvation) t&e demonic 2ualities are said to !e *or !onda#e. /o not #rieve) .
Ar3una) you are !orn wit& divine 2ualities. ;8B.9F<
THE-E A-E .,+H T. TH7ES .' H06A, BEI,GS : THE ISE A,/ THE IG,.-A,T
T&ere are only two ty"es ;or castes< o* &uman !ein#s in t&is world$ T&e divine) or t&e wise> and t&e
demonic) or t&e i#norant. T&e divine &as !een descri!ed at len#t&) now &ear *rom 6e a!out t&e
. Ar3una. ;8B.9B<
7ersons o* demonic nature do not (now w&at to do and w&at not to do. T&ey neit&er &ave "urity nor
conduct nor trut&*ulness. ;8B.9C<
T&ey say$ T&e world is unreal) wit&out a su!stratum) wit&out a God) and wit&out an order. Sexual
o* man and woman alone and not&in# else causes t&e world. ;8B.98<
Ad&erin# to t&is wron# at&eist view) t&ese de#raded souls J wit& small intellect and cruel deeds : are
!orn as enemies *or t&e destruction o* t&e world. ;8B.9D<
'illed wit& insatia!le desires) &y"ocrisy) "ride) and arro#ance> &oldin# wron# views due to delusion>
act wit& im"ure motives. ;8B.89<
.!sessed wit& endless anxiety lastin# until deat&) considerin# sense #rati*ication t&eir &i#&est aim)
convinced t&at sense "leasure is everyt&in#> ;8B.88<
Bound !y &undreds o* ties o* desire and enslaved !y lust and an#er> t&ey strive to o!tain wealt& !y
unlaw*ul means *or t&e *ul*illment o* sensual "leasures. T&ey t&in($ ;8B.8@<
T&is &as !een #ained !y me today) I s&all *ul*ill t&is desire) I &ave t&is muc& wealt&) and will &ave
wealt& in t&e *uture> ;8B.8%<
T&at enemy &as !een slain !y me) and I s&all slay ot&ers also. I am t&e +ord. I am t&e en3oyer. I am
success*ul) "ower*ul) and &a""y> ;8B.8E<
I am ric& and !orn in a no!le *amily. &o is e2ual to me? I s&all "er*orm sacri*ice) I s&all #ive c&arity)
and I s&all re3oice. T&us deluded !y i#norance> ;8B.8F<
Bewildered !y many *ancies> entan#led in t&e net o* delusion> addicted to t&e en3oyment o* sensual
"leasures> t&ey *all into a *oul &ell. ;8B.8B<
Sel*-conceited) stu!!orn) *illed wit& "ride and intoxication o* wealt&> t&ey "er*orm service only in
*or s&ow) and not accordin# to scri"tural in3unction. ;8B.8C<
T&ese malicious "eo"le clin# to e#oism) "ower) arro#ance) lust) and an#er> and &ate 6e w&o dwells in
t&eir own !odies and t&ose o* ot&ers. ;8B.88<
I &url t&ese &aters) cruel) sin*ul) and mean "eo"le into t&e cycles o* re!irt& in t&e wom! o* demons
and a#ain. ;8B.8D<
. Ar3una) enterin# t&e wom!s o* demons !irt& a*ter !irt&) t&e deluded ones sin( to t&e lowest &ell
ever attainin# 6e ;until t&eir minds c&an#e *or t&e !etter !y t&e causeless mercy o* t&e +ord<. ;8B.@9<
+0ST) A,GE-) A,/ G-EE/ A-E THE
+ust) an#er) and #reed are t&e t&ree #ates o* &ell leadin# to t&e down*all ;or !onda#e< o* t&e
individual. T&ere*ore) one must learn to #ive u" t&ese t&ree. ;8B.@8<
.ne w&o is li!erated *rom t&ese t&ree #ates o* &ell) . Ar3una) does w&at is !est *or &im or &er) and
conse2uently attains t&e Su"reme A!ode. ;8B.@@<
.,E 60ST '.++. THE
S1-I7T0-A+ I,=0,1TI.,S
.ne) w&o acts under t&e in*luence o* &is or &er desires) diso!eyin# scri"tural in3unctions) neit&er attains
"er*ection nor &a""iness) nor t&e Su"reme A!ode. ;8B.@%<
T&ere*ore) let t&e scri"ture !e your aut&ority in determinin# w&at s&ould !e done and w&at s&ould
not !e done. Hou s&ould "er*orm your duty *ollowin# t&e scri"tural in3unction. ;8B.@E<
1HA7TE- 8C
Ar3una said$ &at is t&e mode o* devotion o* t&ose w&o "er*orm s"iritual "ractices wit& *ait& !ut
*ollowin# t&e scri"tural in3unctions) . 5ris&na? Is it in t&e mode o* #oodness) "assion) or i#norance?
+ord 5ris&na said$ T&e natural *ait& o* em!odied !ein#s is o* t&ree (inds$ Goodness) "assion) and
i#norance. ,ow &ear a!out t&ese *rom 6e. ;8C.9@<
. Ar3una) t&e *ait& o* eac& is in accordance wit& one4s own natural dis"osition t&at is #overned !y
5armic im"ressions. A "erson is (nown !y t&e *ait&. .ne can !ecome w&atever one wants to !e) i*
one constantly contem"lates on t&e o!3ect o* desire wit& *ait&. ;8C.9%<
7ersons in t&e mode o* #oodness wors&i" celestial controllers> t&ose in t&e mode o* "assion wors&i"
su"ernatural rulers and demons> and t&ose in t&e mode o* i#norance wors&i" #&osts and s"irits. ;8C.9E<
T&ey w&o "ractice severe austerities wit&out *ollowin# t&e "rescri"tion o* t&e scri"tures> w&o are *ull
&y"ocrisy and e#otism> w&o are im"elled !y t&e *orce o* desire and attac&ment> w&o senselessly torture
t&e elements in t&eir !ody and also 6e w&o dwells wit&in t&e !ody) (now t&ese i#norant "ersons to !e
demonic nature. ;8C.9F-9B<
TH-EE TH7ES .' '../
T&e *ood "re*erred !y all o* us is also o* t&ree ty"es. So are t&e sacri*ice) austerity) and c&arity. ,ow
t&e distinction !etween t&em. ;8C.9C<
T&e *oods t&at "romote lon#evity) virtue) stren#t&) &ealt&) &a""iness) and 3oy are 3uicy) smoot&)
su!stantial) and nutritious. 7ersons in t&e mode o* #oodness li(e suc& *oods. ;8C.98<
'oods t&at are very !itter) sour) salty) &ot) "un#ent) dry) and !urnin#> and cause "ain) #rie*) and disease>
are li(ed !y "ersons in t&e mode o* "assion. ;8C.9D<
T&e *oods li(ed !y "eo"le in t&e mode o* i#norance are stale) tasteless) "utrid) rotten) re*uses) and
;suc& as meat and alco&ol<. ;8C.89<
Sel*less service en3oined !y t&e scri"tures) and "er*ormed wit&out t&e desire *or t&e *ruit) wit& a *irm
!elie* and conviction t&at it is a duty) is in t&e mode o* #oodness. ;8C.88<
Sel*less service t&at is "er*ormed only *or s&ow) and aimin# *or *ruit) (now t&at to !e in t&e mode o*
"assion) . Ar3una. ;8C.8@<
Sel*less service t&at is "er*ormed wit&out *ollowin# t&e scri"ture) in w&ic& no *ood is distri!uted)
is devoid o* mantra) *ait&) and #i*t) is said to !e in t&e mode o* i#norance. ;8C.8%<
.-/) A,/ /EE/
T&e wors&i" o* celestial controllers) t&e "riest) #uru) and t&e wise> "urity) &onesty) celi!acy) and
nonviolence> t&ese are said to !e t&e austerity o* deed. ;8C.8E<
S"eec& t&at is non-o**ensive) trut&*ul) "leasant) !ene*icial) and is used *or t&e re#ular study o*
scri"tures is called t&e austerity o* word. ;8C.8F<
T&e serenity o* mind) #entleness) e2uanimity) sel*-control) and t&e "urity o* t&ou#&t : t&ese are called
t&e austerity o* t&ou#&t. ;8C.8B<
T&e a!ove mentioned t&ree*old austerity ;o* t&ou#&t) word) and deed< "racticed !y yo#is wit& su"reme
*ait&) wit&out a desire *or t&e *ruit) is said to !e in t&e mode o* #oodness. ;8C.8C<
Austerity t&at is "er*ormed *or #ainin# res"ect) &onor) reverence) and *or t&e sa(e o* s&ow t&at yields
uncertain and tem"orary result is said to !e in t&e mode o* "assion. ;8C.88<
Austerity "er*ormed wit& *oolis& stu!!ornness) or wit& sel*-torture) or *or &armin# ot&ers) is declared
!e in t&e node o* i#norance. ;8C.8D<
1&arity t&at is #iven as a matter o* duty) to a deservin# candidate w&o does not&in# in return) at t&e
"lace and time) is considered to !e c&arity in t&e mode o* #oodness. ;8C.@9<
1&arity t&at is #iven unwillin#ly) or to #et somet&in# in return) or loo(in# *or some *ruit) is said to
!e in t&e mode o* "assion. ;8C.@8<
1&arity t&at is #iven at a wron# "lace and time) and to unwort&y "ersons> or wit&out "ayin# res"ect to
receiver or wit& ridicule) is said to !e in t&e mode o* i#norance. ;8C.@@<
TH-EE'.+/ ,A6E .' G./
T&e S"irit is all "ervadin#. T&e "ersons wit& divine 2ualities) t&e Vedas) and t&e sel*less service were
created !y and *rom t&e S"irit. ;8C.@%<
T&ere*ore) acts o* sacri*ice) c&arity) and austerity "rescri!ed in t&e scri"tures are always commenced !y
utterin# any one o* t&e many names o* God suc& as .6) Amen) or Alla& !y t&e (nowers o* t&e
T&e see(ers o* salvation "er*orm various ty"es o* sacri*ice) c&arity) and austerity !y utterin# NHe is allN
wit&out see(in# a reward. ;8C.@F<
T&e word NTrut&N is used in t&e sense o* -eality and #oodness. T&e word Trut& is also used *or an
aus"icious act) . Ar3una. ;8C.@B<
'ait& in sacri*ice) c&arity) and austerity is also called Trut&. T&e sel*less service *or t&e sa(e o* t&e
Su"reme is verily termed as Trut&. ;8C.@C<
&atever is done wit&out *ait& : w&et&er it is sacri*ice) c&arity) austerity) or any ot&er act : is
useless. It &as no value &ere or &erea*ter) . Ar3una. ;8C.@8<
1HA7TE- 88
SA+VATI., TH-.0GH -E,0,1IATI.,
Ar3una said$ I wis& to (now t&e nature o* renunciation and sacri*ice) and t&e di**erence !etween t&e
. +ord 5ris&na. ;88.98<
/E'I,ITI., .' -E,0,1IATI.,
A,/ SA1-I'I1E
+ord 5ris&na said$ T&e sa#es de*ine renunciation as a!stainin# *rom all wor( *or "ersonal "ro*it.
T&e wise de*ine sacri*ice as t&e sacri*ice o*) and t&e *reedom *rom) t&e sel*is& attac&ment to t&e
*ruits o* all wor(. ;See also F.98) F.9F) and B.98< ;88.9@<
Some "&iloso"&ers say t&at all wor( is *ull o* *aults and s&ould !e #iven u") w&ile ot&ers say t&at acts
sacri*ice) c&arity) and austerity s&ould not !e a!andoned. ;88.9%<
. Ar3una) listen to 6y conclusion a!out sacri*ice. Sacri*ice is said to !e o* t&ree ty"es. ;88.9E<
Acts o* service) c&arity) and austerity s&ould not !e a!andoned) !ut s&ould !e "er*ormed) !ecause
c&arity) and austerity are t&e "uri*iers o* t&e wise. ;88.9F<
Even t&ese o!li#atory wor(s s&ould !e "er*ormed wit&out attac&ment to t&e *ruits. T&is is 6y de*inite
su"reme advice) . Ar3una. ;88.9B<
Givin# u" oneGs duty is not "ro"er. T&e a!andonment o* o!li#atory wor( is due to delusion) and is
declared to !e in t&e mode o* i#norance. ;88.9C<
.ne w&o a!andons duty merely !ecause it is di**icult) or !ecause o* *ear o* !odily trou!le) does not #et
t&e !ene*its o* sacri*ice !y "er*ormin# suc& a sacri*ice in t&e mode o* "assion. ;88.98<
.!li#atory wor( "er*ormed as duty) renouncin# sel*is& attac&ment to t&e *ruit) is alone re#arded to !e
sacri*ice in t&e mode o* #oodness) . Ar3una. ;88.9D<
T&e one w&o neit&er &ates a disa#reea!le wor() nor is attac&ed to an a#reea!le wor() is considered a
renunciant ;Tya#i<) im!ued wit& t&e mode o* #oodness) intelli#ent) and *ree *rom all dou!ts a!out t&e
Su"reme Bein#. ;88.89<
Human !ein#s cannot com"letely a!stain *rom wor(. T&ere*ore) t&e one w&o com"letely renounces
t&e sel*is& attac&ment to t&e *ruits o* all wor(s is considered a renunciant. ;88.88<
T&e t&ree*old *ruit o* wor(s J desira!le) undesira!le) and mixed : accrues a*ter deat& to t&e one w&o
not a renunciant ;Tya#i<) !ut never to a Tya#i. ;88.8@<
'IVE 1A0SES .' A,H A1TI.,
+earn *rom 6e) . Ar3una) t&e *ive causes) as descri!ed in t&e San(&ya doctrine) *or t&e
o* all actions. T&ey are$ T&e "&ysical !ody) t&e seat o* 5arma> t&e modes o* material ,ature) t&e doer>
eleven or#ans o* "erce"tion and action) t&e instruments> various !ioim"ulses> and t&e *i*t& is t&e
deities o* t&e eleven or#ans. ;88.8%-8E<
&atever action) w&et&er ri#&t or wron#) one "er*orms !y t&ou#&t) word) and deed> t&ese are its *ive
causes. ;88.8F<
T&ere*ore) t&e i#norant one w&o considers one4s !ody or t&e soul as t&e sole a#ent due to im"er*ect
(nowled#e does not understand. ;88.8B<
T&e one w&o is *ree *rom t&e notion o* doers&i") and w&ose intellect is not "olluted !y t&e desire to
t&e *ruit> even a*ter slayin# t&ese "eo"le) &e or s&e neit&er slays nor is !ound !y t&e act o* (illin#.
T&e su!3ect) t&e o!3ect) and t&e (nowled#e o* t&e o!3ect are t&e t&ree*old drivin# *orce to an action. T&e
eleven or#ans> t&e act) and t&e a#ent or t&e modes o* material ,ature are t&e t&ree com"onents o*
TH-EE TH7ES .' 5,.+E/GE
Sel*-(nowled#e) action<) and a#ent are said to !e o* t&ree ty"es accordin# to San(&ya doctrine. Hear
a!out t&ese also. ;88.8D<
T&e (nowled#e !y w&ic& one sees a sin#le immuta!le -eality in all !ein#s as undivided in t&e divided>
suc& (nowled#e is in t&e mode o* #oodness. ;See also 88.8%) and 8%.8B< ;88.@9<
T&e (nowled#e !y w&ic& one sees di**erent realities o* various ty"es amon# all !ein#s as se"arate *rom
one anot&er> consider t&at (nowled#e to !e in t&e mode o* "assion. ;88.@8<
T&e irrational) !aseless) and wort&less (nowled#e !y w&ic& one clin#s to one sin#le e**ect ;suc& as t&e
!ody< as i* it is everyt&in#> suc& (nowled#e is declared to !e in t&e mode o* dar(ness o* i#norance
T&e o!li#atory duty "er*ormed wit&out li(es and disli(es) and wit&out sel*is& motives and attac&ment
en3oy t&e *ruit) is said to !e in t&e mode o* #oodness. ;88.@%<
Action "er*ormed wit& e#o) wit& sel*is& motives) and wit& too muc& e**ort> is declared to !e in t&e
o* "assion. ;88.@E<
Action t&at is underta(en !ecause o* delusion> disre#ardin# conse2uences) loss) in3ury to ot&ers) as well
as one4s own a!ility is said to !e in t&e mode o* i#norance. ;88.@F<
T&e a#ent w&o is *ree *rom attac&ment) is non-e#otistic) endowed wit& resolve and ent&usiasm) and
un"ertur!ed in success or *ailure is called #ood. ;88.@B<
T&e a#ent w&o is im"assioned) attac&ed to t&e *ruits o* t&eir wor() #reedy) violent) im"ure) and is
!y 3oy and sorrow is called "assionate. ;88.@C<
T&e undisci"lined) vul#ar) stu!!orn) wic(ed) malicious) laIy) de"ressed) and "rocrastinatin# a#ent is
called i#norant. ;88.@8<
,ow &ear t&e t&ree*old division o* intellect and resolve) !ased on modes o* material ,ature) as
!y 6e *ully and se"arately) . Ar3una. ;88.@D<
. Ar3una) t&e intellect !y w&ic& one understands t&e "at& o* wor( and t&e "at& o* renunciation) ri#&t
wron# action) *ear and *earlessness) !onda#e and li!eration) t&at intellect is in t&e mode o* #oodness.
T&e intellect !y w&ic& one cannot distin#uis& !etween ri#&teousness ;/&arma< and unri#&teousness
;Ad&arma<) and ri#&t and wron# action> t&at intellect is in t&e mode o* "assion) . Ar3una. ;88.%8<
T&e intellect : w&en covered !y i#norance : acce"ts unri#&teousness ;Ad&arma< as ri#&teousness
;/&arma<) and t&in(s everyt&in# to !e t&at w&ic& it is not) is in t&e mode o* i#norance) . Ar3una.
TH-EE TH7ES .' -ES.+VE) A,/ THE '.0- G.A+S .' H06A, +I'E
T&e resolve !y w&ic& one mani"ulates t&e *unctions o* t&e mind) 7rana ;!ioim"ulses<) and senses *or
only> t&at resolve is in t&e mode o* #oodness) . Ar3una. ;88.%%<
T&e resolve !y w&ic& a "erson) cravin# *or t&e *ruits o* wor() clin#s to duty) accumulatin# wealt&) and
en3oyment wit& #reat attac&ment> t&at resolve) . Ar3una) is in t&e mode o* "assion. ;88.%E<
T&e resolve !y w&ic& a dull "erson does not #ive u" slee") *ear) #rie*) des"air) and carelessness> t&at
resolve is in t&e mode o* i#norance) . Ar3una. ;88.%F<
And now &ear *rom 6e) . Ar3una) a!out t&e t&ree*old "leasure. T&e "leasure one en3oys *rom s"iritual
"ractice results in cessation o* all sorrows. ;88.%B<
T&e "leasure t&at a""ears as "oison in t&e !e#innin#) !ut is li(e nectar in t&e end) comes !y t&e #race o*
Sel*-(nowled#e) and is in t&e mode o* #oodness. ;88.%C<
Sensual "leasures a""ear as nectar in t&e !e#innin#) !ut !ecome "oison in t&e end> suc& "leasures
are in t&e mode o* "assion. ;See also F.@@< ;88.%8<
7leasure t&at con*uses a "erson in t&e !e#innin# and in t&e end> w&ic& comes *rom slee") laIiness) and
carelessness> suc& "leasure is said to !e in t&e mode o* i#norance. ;88.%D<
T&ere is no !ein#) eit&er on t&e eart& or amon# t&e celestial controllers in t&e &eaven) w&o can remain
*ree *rom t&ese t&ree modes o* material ,ature. ;88.E9<
/IVISI., .' +AB.- IS BASE/
., .,E4S ABI+ITH
T&e division o* &uman la!or is also !ased on t&e 2ualities in&erent in "eo"les4 nature or t&eir ma(e u".
;See also E.8%< ;88.E8<
T&ose w&o &ave serenity) sel* control) austerity) "urity) "atience) &onesty) transcendental (nowled#e)
transcendental ex"erience) and !elie* in God are la!eled as intellectuals ;Braa&mans<. ;88.E@<
T&ose &avin# t&e 2ualities o* &eroism) vi#or) *irmness) dexterity) not *leein# *rom !attle) c&arity) and
administrative s(ills are called leaders or "rotectors ;5s&atriyas<. ;88.E%<
T&ose w&o are #ood in cultivation) cattle rearin#) !usiness) trade) *inance) and industry are (nown as
!usiness men ;Vais&yas<. T&ose w&o are very #ood in service and la!or ty"e wor( only are classed as
wor(ers ;S&udras<. ;88.EE<
ATTAI,6E,T .' SA+VATI., TH-.0GH /0TH) /IS1I7+I,E) A,/ /EV.TI.,
.ne can attain t&e &i#&est "er*ection !y devotion to one4s natural wor(. +isten to 6e &ow one attains
"er*ection w&ile en#a#ed in one4s natural wor(. ;88.EF<
.ne attains "er*ection !y wors&i""in# t&e Su"reme Bein# : *rom w&om all !ein#s ori#inate) and
!y w&om all t&is universe is "ervaded : t&rou#& "er*ormance o* one4s natural duty *or Him. ;See
also D.@C) 8@.89< ;88.EB<
.ne4s in*erior natural wor( is !etter t&an su"erior unnatural wor( even t&ou#& well "er*ormed. .ne
does t&e wor( ordained !y one4s in&erent nature) wit&out any sel*is& motive) incurs no sin ;or 5armic
reaction<. ;See also %.%F< ;88.EC<
.ne4s natural wor() even t&ou#& de*ective) s&ould not !e a!andoned> !ecause all underta(in#s are
envelo"ed !y de*ects as *ire is covered !y smo(e) . Ar3una. ;88.E8<
T&e "erson w&ose mind is always *ree *rom sel*is& attac&ment) w&o &as su!dued t&e mind and senses)
and w&o is *ree *rom desires attains t&e su"reme "er*ection o* *reedom *rom t&e !onda#e o* 5arma !y
renouncin# sel*is& attac&ment to t&e *ruits o* wor(. ;88.ED<
+earn *rom 6e !rie*ly) . Ar3una) &ow one w&o &as attained suc& "er*ection) or t&e *reedom *rom t&e
!onda#e o* 5arma) attains Su"reme Bein#) t&e #oal o* transcendental (nowled#e. ;88.F9<
Endowed wit& "uri*ied intellect) su!duin# t&e mind wit& *irm resolve) turnin# away *rom sound and
o!3ects o* t&e senses) #ivin# u" li(es and disli(es> livin# in solitude) eatin# li#&tly) controllin# t&e
s"eec&) and or#ans o* action) ever a!sor!ed in yo#a o* meditation) ta(in# re*u#e in detac&ment> and
relin2uis&in# e#otism) violence) "ride) lust) an#er) and "ro"rietors&i"> one !ecomes "eace*ul) *ree *rom
t&e notion o* NI) me) and myN) and *it *or attainin# oneness wit& t&e Su"reme Bein#. ;88.F8-F%<
A!sor!ed in t&e Su"reme Bein#) t&e serene one neit&er #rieves nor desires> !ecomin# im"artial to all
!ein#s) one o!tains t&e &i#&est devotional love *or God. ;88.FE<
By devotion one truly understands w&at and w&o I am in essence. Havin# (nown 6e in essence) one
immediately mer#es wit& 6e. ;See also F.8D< ;88.FF<
A 5arma-yo#i devotee attains t&e eternal immuta!le a!ode !y 6y #race : even w&ile doin# all duties
3ust !y ta(in# re*u#e in 6e ;!y surrenderin# all action to 6e wit& lovin# devotion<. ;88.FB<
Sincerely o**er all actions to 6e) set 6e as your su"reme #oal) and com"letely de"end on 6e.
Always *ix your mind on 6e) and resort to 5arma-yo#a. ;88.FC<
Hou s&all overcome all di**iculties !y 6y #race w&en your mind !ecomes *ixed on 6e. But) i* you do
listen to 6e due to e#o) you s&all "eris&. ;88.F8<
THE 5A-6I1 B.,/AGE
I* due to e#o you t&in($ I s&all not *i#&t> t&is resolve o* yours is vain. Because your own nature will
com"el you to *i#&t. ;88.FD<
. Ar3una) you are controlled !y your own nature-!orn 5armic im"ressions. T&ere*ore) you s&all do :
even a#ainst your will : w&at you do not wis& to do out o* delusion. ;88.B9<
E BE1.6E THE 7077ETS .'
.0- ., '-EEI++
T&e Su"reme +ord J as t&e controller a!idin# in t&e inner "syc&e o* all !ein#s J causes t&em to
wor( out t&eir 5arma li(e a "u""et ;o* 5arma created !y t&e *ree will< mounted on a mac&ine.
See( re*u#e in t&e Su"reme +ord alone wit& lovin# devotion) . Ar3una. By His #race you s&all attain
su"reme "eace and t&e Eternal A!ode. ;88.B@<
T&us t&e (nowled#e t&at is more secret t&an t&e secret &as !een ex"lained to you !y 6e. A*ter *ully
re*lectin# on t&is) do as you wis&. ;88.B%<
7ATH .' S0--E,/E- IS THE
0+TI6ATE 7ATH T. G./
Hear once a#ain 6y most secret) su"reme word. Hou are very dear to 6e) t&ere*ore) I s&all tell t&is *or
your !ene*it. ;88.BE<
'ix your mind on 6e) !e devoted to 6e) o**er service to 6e) !ow down to 6e) and you s&all certainly
reac& 6e. I "romise you !ecause you are 6y very dear *riend. ;88.BF<
Set aside all meritorious deeds and reli#ious rituals) and 3ust surrender com"letely to 6y will wit&
*irm *ait& and lovin# devotion. I s&all li!erate you *rom all sins) t&e !onds o* 5arma. /o not #rieve.
T&is (nowled#e s&ould never !e s"o(en !y you to one w&o is devoid o* austerity) w&o is wit&out
devotion) w&o does not desire to listen) or w&o s"ea(s ill o* 6e. ;88.BC<
T&e one w&o s&all "ro"a#ate t&is su"reme secret "&iloso"&y : t&e transcendental (nowled#e o*
t&e Gita : amon#st 6y devotees) s&all !e "er*ormin# t&e &i#&est devotional service to 6e) and
s&all certainly come to 6e. ,o ot&er "erson s&all do a more "leasin# service to 6e) and no one on
t&e eart& s&all !e more dear to 6e. ;88.B8-BD<
I "romise t&e study o* t&is sacred dialo#ue o* ours will !e e2uivalent to wors&i""in# 6e wit&
&oever &ears t&is sacred dialo#ue wit& *ait& and wit&out cavil !ecomes *ree *rom sin) and attains
&eaven : t&e &i#&er worlds o* t&ose w&ose actions are "ure and virtuous. ;88.C8<
. Ar3una) did you listen to t&is wit& sin#le-minded attention? Has your delusion !orn o* i#norance
com"letely destroyed? ;88.C@<
Ar3una said$ By Hour #race my delusion is destroyed) I &ave #ained Sel*-(nowled#e) my con*usion
re#ard to !ody and S"irit is dis"elled and I s&all o!ey Hour command. ;88.C%<
San3aya said$ T&us I &eard t&is wonder*ul dialo#ue !etween +ord 5ris&na and Ar3una) causin# my &air
stand on end. ;88.CE<
By t&e #race o* sa#e Vyasa) I &eard t&is most secret and su"reme yo#a directly *rom 5ris&na) t&e +ord
yo#a) Himsel* s"ea(in# to Ar3una !e*ore my very eyes o* clairvoyance #ranted !y sa#e Vyasa. ;88.CF<
. 5in#) !y re"eated remem!rance o* t&is marvelous and sacred dialo#ue !etween +ord 5ris&na and
Ar3una) I am t&rilled at every moment> and ;88.CB<
-ecollectin# a#ain and a#ain) . 5in#) t&at marvelous *orm o* 5ris&na I am #reatly amaIed and I
over and over a#ain. ;88.CC<
B.TH T-A,S1E,/E,TA+ 5,.+E/GE A,/ A1TI., A-E ,EE/E/ '.- A BA+A,1E/
&erever t&ere will !e !ot& 5ris&na) t&e +ord o* yo#a) or /&arma in t&e *orm o* t&e scri"tures)
and Ar3una wit& t&e wea"ons o* duty and "rotection> t&ere will !e everlastin# "ros"erity) victory)
&a""iness) and morality. T&is is my conviction. ;88.C8<
T&e American Gita SocietyP
T&e American Gita Society ;AGS< is a re#istered) non-"ro*it) tax-exem"t) s"iritual institution in t&e
0nited States o* America under Section F98;c< ;%< o* t&e I-S 1ode. It was *ounded in 8D8E to
and serve t&e &umanity t&rou#& t&e medium o* t&e B&a#avad-Gita. T&e Aims and .!3ectives o* AGS
include t&e *ollowin#$
8. To "u!lis& t&e B&a#avad-Gita in En#lis& and ot&er lan#ua#es and distri!ute it at a
nominal su!sidiIed cost) and "ut t&e Gita in li!raries) &os"itals) &otels) motels) and ot&er
"u!lic "laces t&rou#&out t&e world) startin# *rom India and t&e 0SA) similar to w&at
t&e American Bi!le Society &as done *or t&e Bi!le all over t&e world.
@. To S"read t&e !asic ,on-sectarian 0niversal Teac&in#s o* S&rimad B&a#avad-Gita and
ot&er Vedic scri"tures in an easy to understand lan#ua#e !y esta!lis&in# !ranc&es o* t&e
Society in ot&er countries to !e named as$ International Gita Society ;IGS<. T&e
mem!ers&i" to t&e Society will !e *ree) and o"en to all.
%. To "rovide su""ort) and #uidance in esta!lis&in# Gita Study and /iscussion ;Satsan#<
Grou"s) and "rovide *ree Gita corres"ondence course to t&e yout&) students) !usy
executives and ot&er interested "ersons.
E. To "rovide ins"iration) coo"eration) and su""ort to "ersons and non-"ro*it
or#aniIations en#a#ed in t&e study and "ro"a#ation o* t&e Vedic (nowled#e> and to arran#e
lectures) seminars) and s&ort courses on meditation) yo#a) and meta"&ysical sciences.
F. To !rea( t&e !arriers !etween *ait&s) and esta!lis& unity o* races) reli#ions castes) and
creeds t&rou#& t&e immortal non-sectarian teac&in#s o* t&e Vedas) 0"anis&ads) Gita)
-amayana) as well as ot&er ma3or world scri"tures suc& as t&e /&amma"ada) t&e Bi!le) and
t&e 5oran> and to "romote t&e 0niversal Brot&er&ood o* Human(ind.
-eaders interested in "romotin# t&e ideals o* t&e society are invited to corres"ond wit& t&e secretary$
T&e American Gita Society
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