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2 Division of Literature

Prose
Prose is derived from a Latin root word, prosa, that means "straightforward" (other scholars argue that the root for "prose" is proversa
oratio, which means " straightforward discourse." Prose is generally defined as direct, common language presented in a
straightforward manner. A victim of identity by negation, prose is frequently defined as "that which is not poetry." Prose
demonstrates purposeful grammatic design in that it is constructed strategically by the author to create specific meaning. Prose also
contains plot and the attendant narrative structures of plot.
In most cultures, prose narrative tends to appear after a culture has developed verse. Prose genres are many and varied, ranging from
science fiction to romance. The major generic divisions of prose are:
novel - A lengthy fictional prose narrative.
novella - A fictional prose narrative ranging from 50 to 100 pages, most common in science fiction and detective fiction.
short story - a brief fictional prose narrative.
anecdote - A very brief account of some interesting, usually humorous, event.
Poetry
Poetry, from the Greek poetes which means "doer" or "creator," is a catch-all term that is applied to any form of rhythmical or
metrical composition. While poetry is considered to be a subset of verse (and also considered to be superior to verse) both are
rhythmical/metrical. What distinguishes poetry from verse is its "imaginative quality, intricate structure, serious or lofty subject
matter, or noble purpose." Most culture's first serious literary works are poetry (In Western tradition, we need look only as far
as Homer and Hesiod). The purposes of poetry are said to include:
1. A didactic purpose, meaning that it aims to instruct the reader.
2. Unique insight that is not available in other genres.
3. To provide pleasure to the reader.
4. To uplift the reader to some higher insight or meaning.
Types of Prose



1. Prose Drama a drama in prose form. It consists entirely dialogues in prose, and is meant to be act on stage.
2. Essay a short literary composition which is expository in nature. The author shares his thoughts feelings,
experiences, or observations on some aspects of life that has interested him.
3. Prose Fiction something invented, imagined, or feigned to be true)


1. Novel a long fiction narrative with a complicated plot. It may have one main plot and one or more sub
plots that develop with the main plot. It is made up of chapters.
2. Short Story a fictitious narrative compressed into one unit of time, place and action. It deals with single
character interest, a single emotion or series of emotions called forth by a single. It is distinguished from
the novel by its compression.
4. Biography and Autobiography


1. Biography a story of a certain persons life written by another who knows the subject well.
2. Autobiography a written account of mans life written by himself.
5. Letter a written message which displays aspects of an authors physiological make-up not immediately apparent
in his more public writings. It is a prose form which by the force of its style and the importance of its statements
becomes an object of interest in its own right.
6. Diary a daily written record of account of the writers own experiences, thoughts, activities or observations.
7. Journal a magazine or periodical especially of serious or learned nature. It is the reflection, opinion of a read
material.

Types of Poetry

Narrative Poetry a poem that tells a story.

1. Epic a long narrative poem of the largest proportions. Epic is a tale mainly about a hero concerning the
beginning, continuance, and the end of events of great significance on tribal or national significance.
2. Metrical Poem a narrative poem that tells a story of adventure, love and chivalry. The Typical hero is a
knight on a quest.
3. Metrical Tale a narrative poem consisting usually a single series connective events that are simple, and
generally do not form a plot. Examples of these are simple idylls or home tales, love tales, tales of the
supernatural or tales written for a strong moral purpose in verse form.
4. Ballad the simplest type of narrative poetry. It is s short narrative poem telling a single incident in
simple meter and stanzas. It is meant to be sung.
5. Popular ballad a ballad of wide workman ship telling some simple incidents of adventure, cruelty,
passion, or superstition, an incident that shows the primary instincts of man influenced by the restraint of
modern civilization.
6. Modern or artistic created by poet in imitation of the folk ballad, makes use of many of its devices and
conventions.
7. Metrical Allegory an extended narrative that carries a second meaning along worth the surface story.
Lyric Poetry a poem that is very personal in nature. It expresses the authors own thoughts, feelings, moods and
reflections in musical language. It derived its name from the musical instrument, the lyre.


1. Ode a lyric poem of some length, serious in subject and dignified in style. It is most majestic of the lyric
poems. It is written in a spirit of praise of some persons or things.
2. Elegy a poem written on the death of a friend of the poet. The ostensible purpose is to praise the friend.
But in the end of the poem, however, we can expect that poet will have come to terms with his grief.
3. Song a lyric poem in a regular metrical pattern set to music. These have twelve syllables and slowly sung
to the accompaniment of a guitar or banduria.
4. Sonnet a lyric poem containing four iambic pentameter lines, and a complicated rhyme.
Subdivision of literature
List of literary genres
Autobiography, Memoir, Spiritual autobiography
Biography
Diaries and Journals
Electronic literature
Erotic literature
Fable, Fairy tale, Folklore
Fiction
o Adventure novel
o Children's literature
o Comic novel
o Crime fiction
Detective fiction
o Fantasy (for more details see Fantasy subgenres; fantasy literature)
o Gothic fiction (initially synonymous with horror)
o Historical fiction
o Horror
o Medical novel
o Mystery fiction
o Philosophical novel
o Political fiction
o Romance novel
Historical romance
o Saga, Family Saga
o Satire
o Science fiction (for more details see Science fiction genre)
o Slave narrative
o Thriller
Conspiracy fiction
Legal thriller
Psychological thriller
Spy fiction/Political thriller
o Tragedy