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Chapter 08.03 Runge-Kutta 2nd Order Method for Ordinary Differential Equations-More Examples Mechanical Engineering

Example 1

is needed to be contracted so that it can be

shrunk-fit into a hollow hub. It is placed in a refrigerated chamber that is maintained at

A solid steel shaft at room temperature of 27 C

o

33

o

C

. The rate of change of temperature of the solid shaft is given by

dθ

dt



5 33

.

10

6

3 69

.

10

6

θ

5 42

.

4

10

2 33

.

2

θ

5

θ

10

5 588

.

3

1 35

.

10

3

θ

2

 

θ 33

θ027 C Using the Runge-Kutta 2 nd order method, find the temperature of the steel shaft after 86400 seconds. Take a step size of h 43200 seconds. Solution

dθ

dt



5 33

.

10

f



t, θ 

5 33

.

6

10

6

3 69

.

10

3 69

.

5 42

10

.

6

6

θ

4

10

θ

4

5 42

.

10

5 588

2 33

.

2

θ

10

2 33

.

2

θ

.

5

θ

10

5 588

.

5

θ

3

Per Heun’s method

For

i

i

1

i

1

2

k 1

k

k

0,

k

k 1 f 0,27

f

1

t ,

i

i

t

2

f

t

0

1 f

i

0,

t

0

,

h

i

0

,

0

27

1

k

2

2

k h

1

h

 

5.33

10

6

3.69

1.35

10

10

6

3

 4



27

27

2

2.33

5.42

10

10

5

2





27

27

 0.0020893

k

2

f

t

0

,

h

0

k h

1

08.03.1

1 35

.

10

3

1 35

.

3

θ

2

θ 33

10

3

θ

2

θ 33

3

5.588

27 33

08.03.2

Chapter 08.03

f 0 43200,27 0.002089343200f 43200,63.278

 

5.33

10

6

3.69

1.35

10

10

6

3

 4



63.278

63.278

2

2.33

5.42

10

10

5

2

1

 0.0092607

 

0

27

1

2

2

1

k

1

1

2

k

2

h

0.0020893

1

2

27 0.005675043200

 218.16 C

0.009260743200

1 is the approximate temperature at

For

i

t t

1

t

0

h

0 43200 43200 s

43200

1,

k

1

t

1

1



1

218.16 C

1



1

218.16

43200,

t ,

f

f 43200,218.16





63.278

63.278

3

5.588

 

k

2

5.33

10

6

10

1.35 10

3.69

6

3

 4



218.16

218.16

2

2.33

5.42

10

10

 8.4304

k h

f

t

1

,

h

1

f 43200 43200,218.16 8.430443200

f 86400,364410

1

5

2





218.16

218.16

3

5.588

 

5.33

10

6

 

1.35

3.69

10

10

6

3

 4



364410

364410

2

2.33

5.42

 1.263810

17

 

218.16

1 k

2 1

1

2

1



k

   1

2

2 2

h

8.4304

1

2

1.2638





218.16

2.7298

 6.3190

10

21

C

10 43200

16

10

17

10

10

5

2





364410

364410

43200

3

5.588

2

is the approximate temperature at

63.278

218.16

364410

33

33

33

Runge-Kutta 2nd Order Method for ODE-More Examples: Mechanical Engineering

t t

2

t

1

86400

h

43200 43200 86400 s



2

2.7298

10

21

C

08.03.3

The solution to this nonlinear equation at t 86400s is (86400)  26.099 C

The results from Heun’s method are compared with exact results in Figure 1.

Figure 1 Heun’s method results for different step sizes.

Using smaller step size would increases the accuracy of the result as given in Table 1 and Figure 2 below.

Table 1 Effect of step size for Heun’s method.

 Step size, h  86400 E t  t % 86400 58466 58440 223920 43200  2.729810 21 2.729810 21 1.0460 10 22 21600 24.537 1.5619 5.9845 10800 25.785 0.31368 1.2019 5400 26.027 0.072214 0.27670

08.03.4

Chapter 08.03

Figure 2 Effect of step size in Heun’s method.

In Table 2, the Euler’s method and Runge-Kutta 2 nd order method results are shown as a function of step size.

 Table 2 Comparison of Euler and the Runge-Kutta methods. Step size,  (86400) h Euler Heun Midpoint Ralston 86400 153.52 58466 774.64 12163 43200 464.32  2.7298 10 21 0.33691 19.776 21600 29.541 24.537 24.069 24.268 10800 27.795 25.785 25.808 25.777 5400 26.958 26.027 26.039 26.032

While in Figure 3, the comparison is shown over the range of time.

Runge-Kutta 2nd Order Method for ODE-More Examples: Mechanical Engineering

08.03.5

 Figure 3 Comparison of Euler and Runge Kutta methods with exact results over time.