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Inr Histnrians and Histnrica! 5ncia!

5cicntists
A Gcngraphic InInrmatinn 5ystcms (GI5)
Training Manua!
J.B. Owcns
Andcrsnn 5andcs
Barbara 5tcphcnsnn
David Dixnn
Cathcrinc Za|anc
This wnrk is prnvidcd as part nI thc prn|cct
"Undcrstanding 5ncia! Nctwnrks within Cnmp!cx,
Nnn!incar 5ystcms: Gcngraphica!!y-Intcgratcd Histnry
and Dynamics GI5 |5OCNET{", which is suppnrtcd
by thc U.5. Natinna! 5cicncc Fnundatinn undcr Grants
No. 0941371 and No. 0941501. Any opinions, ndings, and
cnnc!usinns nr rccnmmcndatinns cxprcsscd in this training
manua! arc thnsc nI thc authnrs and dn nnt ncccssari!y
reect the views of the National Science Foundation.




















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coy of lhis Iicense, visil hll://crealivecommons.org/Iicenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ or send a
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94105, USA.

ased on a vork al hll://idahoslale.academia.edu/}}ackOvens/ooks.

Iermissions beyond lhe scoe of lhis Iicense may be avaiIabIe al
hll://geograhicaIIyinlegraledhislory.com
or hll://vvv.isu.edu/hislory/
or from }. . Ovens (oven|ack+isu.edu).












Dedicaled lo lhe memory of Gary L. Walry (1953-2008),
Cenler for Ocean-Almosheric Irediclion Sludies (COAIS),
IIorida Slale Universily (ISU)





































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AddilionaI TooIs ReIaled lo Digilizing 177
IXIRCISI 9 178



"#$%&'() *+, "#$%&' (#%# 196
Hov is Rasler Dala Used by Hislorians and HisloricaI SociaI Scienlisls` 197
DigilaI IIevalion ModeIs 198
AeriaI Iholograhy 199
Rasler Dala vs. Veclor Dala: A Comarison 200
IXIRCISI 10 202



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1
!"#$%&'(#!%"
The idea for lhis geograhic informalion syslems (GIS) lraining manuaI for hislorians
and hisloricaI sociaI scienlisls emerged during lhe crealion of lhe innovalive, GIS-based
masler's rogram in hislory al Idaho Slale Universily (ISU).
1
Many hislorians vho vere
inleresled in lhe aIicalion of GIS lo lheir research and leaching vere nonelheIess
inlimidaled by lhe slee Iearning curve lhey faced lo masler lhe soflvare and by lhe
olenliaI cosls. We have reared lhe foIIoving chalers and exercises lo rovide an
accessibIe inlroduclion lo GIS for novices. Moreover, unliI readers reach some more
advanced chalers al lhe end, aII of lhe exercises use MaWindov GIS
(hll://vvv.MaWindov.org/), vhich is a free, oen source roducl avaiIabIe for
dovnIoad vilhoul cosl by anyone. The direcl insiralion for crealing lhis book came
from lhe use of an earIier MaWindov luloriaI, G. L. Walry, and D. I. Ames, D. I.
(2007), ! #$%&'(&%) )**+ %' ,%#-(./*0 123 (US, UK & CA: IuIu.com). Gary Walry died
shorlIy afler lhe ubIicalion of lhis guide, and ve dedicale lhis lraining manuaI lo his
memory.

We have based lhe finaI four luloriaIs of lhe book on lhe use of ArcGIS, lhe ma|or
roducl of ISRI (vvv.esri.com), one of lhe ioneering comanies in lhe deveIomenl
of GIS. Ior many of lhe lhings lhal hislorians and hisloricaI sociaI scienlisls viII vanl lo
do vilh GIS, MaWindov is loo Iimiled. Ior examIe, lhe MaWindov soflvare does
nol suorl rofessionaI quaIily carlograhic visuaIizalions. Therefore, once
researchers and leachers have maslered lhe basics of GIS, lhey viII vanl lo lransilion lo
ArcGIS. When lhey become arl of lhe ArcGIS communily, lhis grou of users viII
have access lo a variely of resources. Il is lrue lhal ArcGIS is quile exensive, bul many
inslilulions aIready have sile Iicenses for lhe soflvare, vhich make ils use free for
individuaIs. AIso, ISRI has avaiIabIe severaI rograms lhal suorl lhe educalionaI use
of lhe soflvare. ISRI rovides a rich Iearning environmenl for ArcGIS users, bolh
onIine and during lhe huge users' convenlion, vhich is heId every year in }uIy.

1
}. . Ovens and Laura Woodvorlh-Ney, Invisioning a masler's degree rogram in geograhicaIIy-
inlegraled hislory, 4*5$.%) *6 '78 !99*&(%'(*. 6*$ :(9'*$; %./ <*=#5'(.> 8/2 (Selember 2005)
|hll://mceI.acificu.edu/|ahc/2005/issue2/arlicIes/ovensvoodvorlh.hj, Idaho Slale Universily
Creales Innovalive Irogram in Hislory and GIS, !$&?809 (IaII 2005)
|hll://vvv.esri.com/nevs/arcnevs/faII05arlicIes/idaho-slale-univ.hlmI, accessed 19 Augusl 2013j. }. .
Ovens, Graduale Iducalion in GeograhicaIIy-Inlegraled Hislory: A IersonaI Accounl, 4*5$.%) *6 '78
!99*&(%'(*. 6*$ :(9'*$; %./ <*=#5'(.> 13/1 (May 2010) |hll://hdI.handIe.nel/2027/so.3310410.0013.105,
hll://quod.Iib.umich.edu/cgi/l/lexl/lexl-idx`c|ahc,vievlexl,rgnmain,idno3310410.0013.105, accessed
2 May 2014j.


2
AIlhough lhis convenlion is aIso exensive in lerms of individuaI regislralion, lhere is a
research segmenl lhal ermils lhe resenlalion of aers aboul hisloricaI research using
ArcGIS, vhich may encourage inslilulions lo subsidize lhe cosl of allending lhe
meelings.

Nole lhal ve have lied lhe exercises in lhe firsl len chalers lo a slabIe version of
MaWindov GIS. Hovever, ve couId nol design lhe finaI four exercises lo incIude a
slabIe version of ArcGIS 10.x, vhich means lhal users of lhis lraining manuaI may nole
some sIighl differences in lhe exercise rocedures.

The crealion of lhis lraining manuaI vas roosed as arl of lhe coIIaboralive ro|ecl
Underslanding SociaI Nelvorks vilhin ComIex, NonIinear Syslems: GeograhicaIIy-
Inlegraled Hislory and Dynamics GIS |SOCNITj, vhich is suorled by lhe U.S.
NalionaI Science Ioundalion under Granls No. 0941371 ($1,290.704, Iead ro|ecl
IrinciaI Invesligalor Dr. }. . Ovens, Idaho Slale Universily) and No. 0941501
($471,193, IrinciaI Invesligalor Dr. May Yuan, Universily of OkIahoma), for a lolaI
avard of $1,761,897. The ro|ecl vas funded lhrough an NSI rogram caIIed Cyber-
InabIed Discovery and Innovalion (CDI). CDI had lhree lhemes, aII of vhich are
reIevanl lo lhe SOCNIT ro|ecl: Dala lo KnovIedge, Underslanding ComIex Syslems,
and VirluaI Organizalions. Ior us, GIS is a key, inlegralive looI for moving from dala lo
knovIedge and for underslanding dynamic comIexily.

Hovever, lhe avaiIabIe commerciaI GIS soflvare roducls do nol serve hislorians veII
because lhey do nol Iend lhemseIves easiIy lo deaIing vilh lime.
2
We are hislorians vho
asserl lhal narralive is a dislincl and vaIuabIe source of knovIedge. To achieve
narralive knovIedge, ve vanled a GIS lhal vouId aIIov us lo roduce more
comIicaled narralives lhan hislorians have been caabIe of crealing: narralives lhal
ay allenlion simuIlaneousIy lo aclivilies, evenls, and rocesses vhiIe couIing naluraI
and human syslems. In order lo creale narralives lhal heI us undersland comIex
syslems, olenliaIIy al a gIobaI scaIe, ve needed lo encourage more hislorians and

2
}. . Ovens, Whal hislorians vanl from GIS, !"#$%&' 29/2 (summer 2007): 4-6, and
hll://vvv.esri.com/nevs/arcnevs/summer07arlicIes/vhal-hislorians-vanl.hlmI, accessed on 19 Augusl
2013, }. . Ovens, HisloricaI Sludies, GIS for. In Karen Kem (ed.), ()#*#+,-%./0 ,2 3%,4"0-5/# 6)2,"708/,)
9#/%)#% (Thousand Oaks, CaIifornia: Sage, 2008), . 220-21, May Yuan, Dynamics GIS: recognizing lhe
dynamic nalure of reaIily, !"#$%&' 30/1 (sring 2008): 1, 4-5, and
hll://vvv.esri.com/nevs/arcnevs/sring08arlicIes/dynamics-gis.hlmI, accessed on 19 Augusl 2013.

3
hisloricaI sociaI scienlisls lo organize lheir informalion vilhin a GIS soflvare
environmenl.
3
Whal did ve vanl lo do`

There is a Iong lradilion, eseciaIIy in lhe disciIines of geograhy and hislory, of
research done by lhose vho vish lo combine somehov hisloricaI deveIomenls and
geograhy, bul lhe resuIls resenl a confusing iclure.
4
In order lo rovide a more
coherenl framevork for lhe raclilioners in lhis area, Ovens foIIoved a suggeslion
allribuled lo AIberl Iinslein: IrobIems cannol be soIved by lhe same IeveI of lhinking
lhal crealed lhem. He crealed an inlegralive aradigm, vhich he caIIs !"#$%&'()*&++,-
./0"$%&0"1 3)40#%,, lo gel lo a higher IeveI of lhoughl aboul lhe reIalionshis of
geograhy and hislory. As an inlerdisciIinary research and leaching slralegy,
GeograhicaIIy-Inlegraled Hislory is founded on lhe idea lhal lhe underslanding of
hisloricaI rocesses requires an inlegralion of lhe naluraI, sociaI, and cuIluraI
environmenls on lhe basis of Iace, sace, and lime, and accomIishing lhis inlegralion
oses a chaIIenge lhal can be mel vilh modern comulalionaI looIs, eseciaIIy dynamic
forms of GIS and sociaI nelvork anaIysis, and visuaIizalion lechniques. Three
comonenls define lhe GeograhicaIIy-Inlegraled Hislory inlegralive aradigm: (1)
HisloricaI eriods are comIex, dynamic, nonIinear syslems lhal are saliaIIy Iarge, and
in more recenl cenluries, gIobaI in exlension, and lhese syslems somelimes become
unslabIe, Ieading lo a hase lransilion, bifurcalion, and lhe organizalion of nev
syslems. (2) Wilhin such syslems, eoIe and Iaces are connecled by seIf-organizing
nelvorks, vhich are lhe sources of innovalion and lhe emergence of nev forms. And (3)
lhe hislory of any Iace is shaed in significanl vays by lhe vay lhe Iace is connecled
lo olher Iaces and by lhe changes in lhese conneclions over lime.

This aradigm has imorlanl imIicalions for lhe vay lhal hislorians frame lheir
research queslions, for lhe melhodoIogies lhey use in lheir vork, and for lhe vay lhal
hisloricaI rocesses and eriods are defined. Ior examIe, lhe nonIinear dynamics of
comIex syslems ermils onIy Iimiled rediclabiIily, vhich means lhal allemls lo
slring logelher Iong causaI chains robabIy do a oor |ob of reresenling hisloricaI
rocesses. The SOCNIT ro|ecl focuses on lhe Iirsl GIobaI Age, roughIy 1400-1800, as a
syslem because lhere vas a hase lransilion al lhe end of lhis eriod, vhich means lhal

3
}. . Ovens, "Tovard a geograhicaIIy-inlegraled, connecled vorId hislory: ImIoying geograhic
informalion syslems (GIS)," !"#$%&' )%*+,## 5/6 (Oclober 2007): 2014-2040, doi: 10.1111/|.1478-
0542.2007.00476.x.
4
AIan R. H. aker is arlicuIarIy good al surveying lhis variely. See, A.R.H aker, RefIeclions on lhe
reIalions of hisloricaI geograhy and lhe AnnaIes SchooI of hislory. In S. CIark (ed.), -./ 011,2/# 34.%%25
4&"$"4,2 ,##/##*/1$#6 7%2899 (London: RoulIedge, 1999), 96-129, A. R.H. aker, On lhe ReIalions of Hislory
and Geograhy, !"#$%&"4,22' 3+/,:"1; 5/6 (}uIy/Augusl 2004): 27-29, A. R. H. aker, </%;&,+.' ,1= !"#$%&'5
>&"=;"1; $./ ?"7"=/ (Cambridge: Cambridge Universily Iress, 2003).
4
hislorians can say somelhing imorlanl aboul asecls of lhis human syslem lhal cannol
be deaIl vilh veII by research on conlemorary scenarios. ul ve are roducls of lhe
cuIluraI and sociaI environmenls of a differenl syslem and, lherefore, ve have difficuIly
underslanding lhe ideas and aclions of eoIe vho Iived in an earIier hisloric eriod,
even vhen lhey used our Ianguage and emIoyed conceluaI lerms lhal aear
famiIiar.

In order lo exIore lhese lhemes, ve musl have a Iol more quaIilalive and quanlilalive
informalion organized for anaIysis using GIS. Therefore, one of lhe main goaIs of lhis
GIS lraining manuaI for hislorians and hisloricaI sociaI scienlisls is lo encourage you,
lhe researchers, lo roduce such dala. Il viII aIso be imorlanl lhal you voIunleer your
dala sels lo ma|or reosilories for such resources.

Of course, il viII nol be sufficienl lo have a bunch of user-generaled informalion in
cenlraI reosilories. We viII need some vay lo inlegrale lhis informalion. This
inlegralion viII nol be an easy lask because lhe dala sels viII have been crealed on lhe
basis of differenl organizalionaI schemes and onloIogies. Therefore, a orlion of our
fulure research viII concenlrale on hov user-generaled conlenl can be evaIualed and
inlegraled efficienlIy.

My coaulhor Anderson Sandes is unusuaI among researchers in lhe disciIine lhis
lraining manuaI romoles because he hoIds graduale degrees in bolh geograhic
informalion science and hislory (M.A. in HisloricaI Resources Managemenl, M.S. in
Geograhic Informalion Science). He is lhe aulhor of aII of lhe exercises, and he used his
considerabIe skiII as a lechnicaI vriler lo creale an allraclive and cIear finaI roducl.
UnliI she Iefl lhe ro|ecl in lhe summer of 2013, much of lhe manuaI's organizalion vas
done by Dr. arbara Slehenson, vho served as lhe osldocloraI researcher for lhe
SOCNIT ro|ecl al Idaho Slale Universily. She vas abIy assisled by David Dixon (M.A.
in HisloricaI Resources Managemenl) and Calherine Za|anc (M.S. in Geograhic
Informalion Science), vho vorked as research assislanls for lhe ro|ecl and vrole
imorlanl seclions of severaI chalers. Dr. DanieI I. Ames, direclor of MaWindov GIS
and nov al righam Young Universily, rovided us vilh imorlanl advice. We aIso
Iearned much from Dr. Sarah Hinman, nov of lhe sociaI sciences dearlmenl of Leiden
Universily CoIIege, The Hague, and Keilh T. Weber, founding direclor of lhe Idaho
Slale Universily GIS Training and Research Cenler. I exress my ersonaI arecialion
for aII of lhis assislance.

}. . Ovens, Ih.D.
Research Irofessor of GeograhicaIIy-Inlegraled Hislory
Idaho Slale Universily
5
!"#$%&' )* +,-./012340556!!"#$%&'#$( *+,#-&.
Wilh lhis lraining manuaI ve viII shov hov using GIS (geograhic informalion
syslems) can conlribule lo hisloricaI sludies, and ve viII rovide novice users vilh a
slruclured luloriaI lhal viII aIIov lhem lo Iearn GIS. To make Iearning GIS as accessibIe
as ossibIe for hislorians and hisloricaI sociaI scienlisls, lhe firsl len chalers of lhis
book are based on MaWindov GIS, a free, oen-source rogram. This inslruclion viII
leach lhe basic lechniques. Hovever, once hislorians have gollen lhis far in lheir use of
GIS, lhey viII need lo make a lransilion lo a more advanced soflvare ackage,
eseciaIIy for lhe roduclion of sohislicaled carlograhic visuaIizalions. Therefore,
lhis lraining manuaI viII cIose vilh four exercises based on lhe use of ArcGIS 10.x,
roduced by lhe comany ISRI.

The use of GIS for hisloricaI research has oflen been referred lo as hisloricaI GIS (HGIS).
We refer lhe lerm geograhicaIIy-inlegraled hislory lo avoid narroving lhe Iisl of
sub|ecls lhal can be lrealed in lhis fashion, as HGIS has somelimes done. Ior us, GIS is
lhe ma|or looI for a necessary inlegralion of Iace, sace, and lime. GeograhicaIIy-
inlegraled hislory has deveIoed over lhe asl fev decades in order lo incororale lhe
saliaI and lemoraI eIemenls of hislory in a more sohislicaled manner. y roviding
a salio-lemoraI comonenl lo hisloricaI research, geograhicaIIy-inlegraled hislory
can do much lo furlher research and anaIysis. The Ieader of lhe ro|ecl lo roduce lhis
manuaI, }. . Ovens, has exIained eIsevhere hov he came lo use GIS.
1
WhiIe Ovens
vas nol lhe firsl lo incororale GIS inlo hisloricaI research, his slory is iIIuslralive of
hov doing so conlribules lo hisloricaI sludies by roviding a visuaI means of anaIyzing
comIicaled informalion. Ovens aIso recognized lhal GIS couId Iay an imorlanl roIe
in changing hov lhe disciIine of hislory incororales nev lechnoIogy, Ieading him lo
focus on ro|ecls of a much broader scaIe. GIS aIIovs schoIars lo vork vilh much Iarger
quanlilies of dala lhan in re-soflvare days, vhich in lurn ermils one lo ask, and
ansver, much broader queslions. Hislorians and hisloricaI sociaI scienlisls sludying
many differenl regions and loics have found using GIS heIfuI vilh lheir
melhodoIogy.


1
}. . Ovens, Whal hislorians vanl from GIS, !"#$%&' 29/2 (summer 2007): 4-6, and
hll://vvv.esri.com/nevs/arcnevs/summer07arlicIes/vhal-hislorians-vanl.hlmI, accessed on 19 Augusl
2013, and }. . Ovens, Whal Hislorians Wanl from GIS, in ()* ,%'- ."/#-0#%'1 2''/3' 45 (%46"/783 /59
()* (RedIands, CaIifornia: ISRI, 2008), 35-46, and hll://vvv.esri.com/Iibrary/beslraclices/essays-on-
geograhy-gis.df, accessed on 24 Selember 2013, }. . Ovens, Tovard a GeograhicaIIy-Inlegraled,
Connecled WorId Hislory: ImIoying Geograhic Informalion Syslems (GIS), :0'-4"3 ;4<7/'' 5/6
(2007): 2014-2040.
6
AII human inleraclions, vilh olhers or vilh lheir environmenl, have inherenl saliaI
characlerislics, aIlhough lhis is oflen imIicil in hisloricaI vork ralher lhan exIicilIy
addressed. ul underslanding lhe geograhicaI sace in vhich human hislory occurred
is an imorlanl arl of underslanding lhal hislory, and GIS aIIovs hislorians lo fiII in
lhal ga. Hislorian Loren Sieberl oinled oul vhy lhe geograhic comonenl of
hisloricaI sludies is so imorlanl.

There is a simIe, lvo-arl ansver. Iirsl, humans are saliaI beings. IndividuaIs,
grous, and inslilulions exisl and inleracl in naluraI and human environmenls
lhal occuy sace over lime. Human hislory necessariIy incIudes a saliaI
dimension, vhich hislorians oflen overIook. Second, geograhic informalion
syslems are designed lo record saliaI fealures and reIaled informalion, disIay
lhem, and anaIyze lheir condilions and saliaI reIalionshis. These caacilies
enabIe saliaI hisloricaI research and exlend ils anaIylicaI reach.
2


Ior lhese reasons, Sieberl used GIS as arl of his melhodoIogy in his saliaI hislory of
Tokyo. He seIecled vhich sources lo use based on inleresl, avaiIabiIily, and hov veII a
GIS rogram handIed lhe dala, among olher faclors. The resuIling sources came from
loograhic mas, census mas, census informalion, cororale hislories, Ianning
reorls and mas, and agency records. These dala vere harvesled lo oblain informalion
regarding lransorlalion, Iand ovnershi, Iand use, commerciaI and induslriaI
aclivilies, governmenlaI boundaries, economic condilions, and olher fealures.
3
He lhen
used lhis dala lo creale an eIeclronic hisloricaI alIas lhal can be queried and used for
anaIysis.
4
AIlhough enlering aII lhe dala inlo a GIS vas lime-inlensive, Sieberl
described lhe advanlages of GIS for an hislorian: y Iinking hisloricaI saliaI
informalion lo corresonding geograhic fealures in a comulerized carlograhic
dalabase, geograhic informalion syslems make il ossibIe lo record, disIay, and
evaIuale reIalionshis belveen lyes of informalion lhal vere in hard-lo-comare
formals or sread over many sequenliaI hisloricaI mas.
5
The resuIling ma rovides a
visuaI reference lhal can more easiIy convey lhe comIicaled reIalionshis belveen lhe
dala.


2
Loren Sieberl, Using GIS lo Documenl, VisuaIize, and Inlerrel Tokyo's SaliaI Hislory, !"#$%& !#$()#(
*$+,"-. 24/ 3 (2000): 538.
3
Ibid., 552-553.
4
Ibid., 541.
5
Ibid., 538.
7
!"#$ &' ()*+
In her inlroduclion lo an issue of !"#$%& !#$()#( *$+,"-. devoled lo HisloricaI GIS,
geograher Anne KeIIy KnovIes defined GIS as a saliaI dalabase lhal inlegrales ma-
based informalion aboul lhe hisloricaI Iocalion of cerlain enlilies (such as census
dislricls, induslriaI firms, or rivers) vilh quanlilalive or quaIilalive informalion aboul
lhose enlilies (such as ouIalion, roducl, or IeveI of oIIulion).
6
DeIinealing belveen
GIS and HisloricaI GIS, KnovIes mainlained lhal lhe key difference belveen hisloricaI
GIS and lhe vasl ma|orily of GIS racliced loday is lhal ils source dala lyicaIIy incIude
archivaI maleriaI lhal musl be converled from anaIog lo digilaI form.
7
Ierhas because
of lhese reasons, Ian Gregory, a Senior Leclurer in DigilaI Humanilies al Lancasler
Universily, and Richard HeaIey, a Geograhy rofessor al lhe Universily of Iorlsmoulh,
defined GIS as a dalabase lechnoIogy ralher lhan a soflvare rimariIy concerned
vilh maing:

A GIS is a seciaIized form of dalabase because each ilem of dala, be il a rov of
slalislics, a slring of lexl, an image, or a movie, is Iinked lo a coordinale-based
reresenlalion of lhe Iocalion lhal lhe dala refer lo. Thus, GIS combines +/%,$%&
0%,% in lhe form of oinls, Iines, oIygons, or grid ceIIs, vilh lhe %,,-$12,( 0%,%
heId in convenlionaI dalabase form. This rovides a slruclure lhal is abIe lo
ansver queries nol onIy aboul 34%, fealures are in lhe dalabase, bul aIso 34(-(
lhey are Iocaled. This is vhal makes a GIS unique.
8


More recenlIy, Gregory and IauI III, Direclor of lhe Cenlre for Dala Digilisalion and
AnaIysis in lhe SchooI of Geograhy, ArcheoIogy and IaIaeoecoIogy al Queen's
Universily in eIfasl, slaled lhal in simIesl lerms, GIS is a lye of soflvare, bul argued
lhal hislorians shouId lhink of il nol as a lye of soflvare bul as looIs lhal soflvare
offers.
9
In lhis conlexl, lhey defined GIS using IngIand's Dearlmenl of lhe
Invironmenl definilion: |aj syslem for caluring, sloring, checking, inlegraling,
maniuIaling, anaIysing and disIaying dala vhich are saliaIIy referenced lo lhe
Iarlh.
10
There are nov many examIes of hov geograhicaIIy-inlegraled hislory has

6
Anne KeIIy KnovIes, Inlroduclion, !"#$%& !#$()#( *$+,"-. 24/3 (IaII 2000): 452.
7
Ibid.
8
Ian N. Gregory and Richard G. HeaIey, HisloricaI GIS: Slrucluring, Maing, and AnaIysing
Geograhies of lhe Iasl, 5-"6-(++ $) *27%) 8("6-%/4. 31/5 (2007): 638-9.
9
Ian N. Gregory and IauI S. III, *$+,"-$#%& 89!: ;(#4)"&"6$(+< =(,4"0"&"6$(+ %)0 !#4"&%-+4$/ (Cambridge:
Cambridge Universily Iress, 2007): 3.
10
Dearlmenl of lhe Invironmenl, *%)0&$)6 8("6-%/4$# 9)>"-7%,$"): ?(/"-, "> ,4( @"77$,,(( "> A)B2$-.
@4%$-(0 1. C"-0 @4"-&(. *=!D (London, 1987), quoled in Gregory and III, *$+,"-$#%& 89!, 3-4.
8
been used lo enhance hisloricaI research and visuaIize hisloricaI informalion in nev
vays.
11


!"#$%&$'() +, -./ ,+0 12)&+02$%)
Wilh lhese definilions in mind, vhal can GIS do for hislorians` Iiona Iack, erlrum
MacDonaId, and }. MaIcom Iack emhasized lhe conlexl a GIS ro|ecl can rovide by
coIIecling various lyes of dala inlo an aroriale Iocalion in lime and sace.
12
Some
of lhese dala incIude numericaI, lexluaI, and visuaI sources. HighIighling lhe secific
areas in vhich GIS can assisl book hislorians, lhe aulhors noled lhal

GIS lechnoIogy offers book hislorians lhe oorlunily lo visuaIize, synlhesize,
and anaIyze a vide array of reIevanl demograhic, economic, and bibIiograhic
variabIes from disarale source dalabases. Numerous ossibiIilies exisl for
crealing nev knovIedge or al Ieasl examining more broadIy some of lhe issues
lhal concern us: for examIe, Iileracy rales affecling lhe numbers of readers,
numbers of readers affecling lhe markels erceived by bookseIIers and
ubIishers, and nalionaI or elhnic background of sellIers affecling lhe ercelion
of lhe imorlance of educalion and rinl cuIlure generaIIy. Dala reIaling lo aII of
lhese faclors have been or viII be ul inlo dalabase formal by schoIars, vhelher
or nol lhey are yel lhinking of GIS as an anaIylicaI looI.
13


Gregory and III oinled oul lhal anolher advanlage of GIS for hislorians is lhal il can
chaIIenge exisling lheories or orlhodoxies.
14
Geoff Cunfer's !" $%& '(&)$ *+),"-.
/0(,12+$2(& )"3 4"5,(6"7&"$ rovides a good examIe of hov lhis can be done.
15

Discussing lhe recenl hisloriograhy on lhe inleraclions belveen eoIe and lhe Iand in
lhe Greal IIains area, Cunfer exIained lhal mosl hislorians have been fairIy essimislic
aboul hov humans have lrealed nalure, ciling lhe vork of DonaId Worsler in
arlicuIar.
16
In 82-$ 96:+. ;%& <62$%&(" *+),"- ," $%& =>?@-,
17
Worsler argued lhal
cailaIisl forces drove farmers beyond ecoIogicaI suslainabiIily. Cunfer's anaIysis

11
Ior a robusl Iisl of hisloricaI sludies vhich incororale GIS, see
hll://vvv.hgis.org.uk/bibIiograhy.hlm, accessed on 24 Selember 2013.
12
Iiona A. Iack, erlrum H. MacDonaId, and }. MaIcom W. Iack, Geograhic Informalion Syslems: A
Nev Research melhod for ook Hislory, 966A B,-$6(C 1/1 (1998):11.
13
Ibid., 18.
14
Gregory and III, B,-$6(,1)+ 'D<, 16.
15
Geoff Cunfer, !" $%& '(&)$ *+),"-. /0(,12+$2(& )"3 4"5,(6"7&"$ (CoIIege Slalion: Texas A&M Universily
Iress, 2005), 9.
16
Ibid.
17
DonaId Worsler, 82-$ 96:+. ;%& <62$%&(" *+),"- ," $%& =>?@- (Nev York: Oxford Universily Iress, 2004
|1979j).
9
rovided a much more comIicaled exIanalion, hovever. His book roose|dj lhal
lhe inleraclion belveen eoIe and lhe resl of nalure is much more comIex and
ambiguous lhan eilher a rogressive or a decIensionisl narralive aIIovs.
18
Cunfer vove
logelher dala from severaI decades and sources, inleroIaling lhem in a GIS. In
arlicuIar, he used ouIalion dala, soiI dala, cIimale dala, agricuIluraI dala, and ma
dala in his anaIysis of lhe Dusl ovI.
19
!" $%& '(&)$ *+),"- aIso demonslrales lhe vasl
amounl of dala a GIS can handIe, vhich makes ossibIe ro|ecls lhal are much Iarger in
scoe lhan vouId be feasibIe vilhoul lhis soflvare.

Any hislorian can benefil from using GIS, regardIess of fieId or sources, because of ils
incororalion of bolh quanlilalive and quaIilalive dala, vhich reinlroduces lhe saliaI
comonenl of lhe human asl. Ior examIe, lhe |urisdiclionaI lerrilory of a sixleenlh-
cenlury Irench courl can be roughIy delermined by using lhe lovn names given in
courl records over lhe san of one monarch's reign. Or lhe migralion of ouIalion in
lhe Iale lvenlielh-cenlury Uniled Slales can be Iolled by using federaI and slale census
records. The rise and faII of lhe AlIanlic sIave lrade can be maed from lhe African
orls lhal vere sources for sIaves, lhrough lhe various orls of caII across lhe Caribbean,
lo lhe imorlanl sIavery deols of Norlh America. Church records can be used lo lrack
lhe sread of Iroleslanlism across communilies or of Chrislianily across lhe Nev
WorId. These are |usl a fev of lhe many lyes of ro|ecl for vhich GIS can be used lo
heI visuaIize and ansver common hisloricaI research queslions.

"#$ $%&'()*+ ,)-.)/+0
Nov lhal ve have rovided a IillIe background on hov hislorians can and have used
GIS, ve viII consider some of lhe GIS rograms avaiIabIe. There are many oen-source
and commerciaI GIS rograms,
20
vhich have differenl slrenglhs and veaknesses. The
mosl ouIar commerciaI GIS soflvare is ArcGIS from ISRI, a comany lhal deveIos
GIS roducls and services and vhich has Iayed a cruciaI roIe in selling induslry
slandards. This soflvare nol onIy aIIovs for dala managemenl and anaIysis regarding
geograhic Iaces, bul has lhe olenliaI for ma visuaIizalion in 2D as veII as 3D.
ModeI uiIder vilhin ArcGIS aIIovs a user lo run a series of looIs on an area of a ma
and lhen aIy lhose same looIs lo olher geograhic Iocalions on lhe ma. ArcGIS aIso
rovides roducls such as deveIoer looIs, mobiIe GIS, and servers for GIS. Many
governmenl agencies and rivale cororalions emIoy ArcGIS for uses such as

18
Cunfer 2005, 10.
19
Ibid., 241-262.
20
Oen-source rograms are ones lhal are nol onIy free, bul aIIov lhe user lo access lhe acluaI rogram
source code. This means lhal comuler-savvy users can vrile lheir ovn funclions lo cuslomize lhe
rogram lo beller suil lheir needs.
10
conservalion, Iand deveIomenl, and educalion. Hovever, lhere are severaI dravbacks
lo ArcGIS, incIuding ils slee Iearning curve, high rice (around $3,000.00), and lhe
coyrighl issues inherenl in non-oen source soflvare.

GoogIe Iarlh is a free rogram lhal deicls a virluaI gIobe, vilh geograhicaI and
maing informalion, aIlhough il is nol a comIele GIS rogram. The free version
rovides Iimiled funclionaIily, aIlhough GoogIe Iarlh Iro can be urchased and does
rovide more funclions. GoogIe Iarlh uses saleIIile images lo offer imeccabIe 3D
images of lhe Iarlh, bul il is difficuIl lo add dala lo lhose images. Therefore, ils biggesl
dravback is lhe inabiIily lo use il lo generale cuslomized mas for dala anaIysis.

Wikimaia is simiIar lo GoogIe Mas in lhal il is an onIine ma and saleIIile imagery
sile. Hovever, il aIso aIIovs users lo add informalion, such as noles or iclures, lo any
Iocalion. Users can aIso add fealures such as roads and rivers. Thus, Wikimaia offers a
bil more funclionaIily lhan GoogIe Iarlh. olh of lhese rograms aIIov one lo Iocale
secific oinls on lhe gIobe, bul do nol aIIov for lhe user lo enler quaIilalive dala or
creale a ma using lhal dala, making lhem unsuilabIe for any sorl of geograhicaIIy-
inlegraled hislory. There are many olher commerciaI and oen-source GIS rograms
avaiIabIe. Hovever, lhey lend lo faII inlo lhe same calegories: loo exensive for
educalionaI use, or loo Iimiled for hisloricaI dala anaIysis.

MaWindov GIS is an oen source rogram lhal offers greal olenliaI for hisloricaI
geograhic dala anaIysis, and il is free for aII users. Hovever, due lo lhe comIicaled
nalure of fuIIy-funclionaI geograhic informalion syslems, vhich is lheir grealesl
benefil, lhere is a slee Iearning curve a user musl overcome lo emIoy any of lhese
rograms. Our goaI vilh lhis lraining manuaI is lo heI users manage lhis curve by
resenling lhe essenliaI concels and lechniques of MaWindov GIS in len shorl
chalers vilh hands-on exercises. We have aIso focused onIy on lhose asecls of GIS
lhal are usefuI for hislorians and olher sociaI science and humanilies schoIars, omilling
lhe looIs designed more for researchers in lhe naluraI sciences. We hoe lhal even a
busy educalor or a cIass of inleresled sludenls can masler lhe basics of GIS in one
semesler by comIeling a chaler each veek, aIIoving lhe user lo aIy GIS lo
hisloricaI source maleriaIs.

!"#$ &' (#)!&*+,- ./01
MaWindov GIS is an oen-source GIS rogram used by GIS anaIysls, lechnicians, and
rogrammers vorIdvide. MaWindov is free lo bolh users and deveIoers, and lhe
source code for lhe rogram can be acquired by anyone and added lo or aIlered lo suil
lheir uroses. Il is lhe mosl videIy used oen-source GIS for lhe Windovs oeraling
11
syslem, vilh over 6000 dovnIoads er monlh from lhe MaWindov vebsile,
vvv.mavindov.org. MaWindov can erform many of lhe same lasks as a
commerciaI GIS rogram, such as ArcGIS. Thus, MaWindov rovides an exceIIenl
oorlunily for lhose inleresled in Iearning aboul GIS vilhoul having lo send money
on a commerciaI GIS suile. The exercise for lhis chaler viII be lo dovnIoad and inslaII
lhis rogram.

CurrenlIy lhere are lvo versions of MaWindov. MaWindov 4 is a highIy slabIe
rogram lhal has been around in one form or anolher since 2005. Il is currenlIy in slage
4.8 of deveIomenl and, by aII eslimalions, viII conlinue lo be used and imroved uon
for years lo come. MaWindov 6 vas reIeased in ils Ialer lesling slages in lhe sring of
2011. WhiIe MaWindov 6 reresenls lhe fulure of lhe MaWindov ro|ecl,
MaWindov 4 vas chosen for lhis manuaI because il is a more slabIe version, and
version 6 is sliII being debugged and deveIoed. In lhis manuaI, ve viII be using lhe
MaWindov 4.8.6 reIease, vhich ve viII make avaiIabIe aIong vilh lhe lraining
manuaI ilseIf.

"#$%&' () *%)+ ,-).( .'$%& , /01 23)&3,4
IiIe organizalion is a key comonenl of any GIS ro|ecl. A GIS ro|ecl is made u of
severaI fiIes of differenl lyes, aII of vhich musl be found easiIy by lhe soflvare, lhese
fiIes are aulomalicaIIy generaled vhen a GIS ro|ecl is crealed and saved. ecause each
GIS ro|ecl is made u of many fiIes, ve !"#$%&'( #*+$,,*%- lhal you designale a foIder
on your comuler desklo for aII fiIes associaled vilh MaWindov. This viII ensure
lhal aII lhe necessary fiIes are in lhe same Iocalion and lhal MaWindov can find lhe
necessary fiIes as you vork on a ro|ecl. As you vork lhrough lhe exercises in lhis
manuaI, you shouId creale a nev subfoIder vilhin your MaWindov foIder for each
GIS ro|ecl crealed by lhe exercises. As hislorians are veII avare, managing fiIes in an
organized fashion can save a greal deaI of lime on a ro|ecl. This organizalion is
arlicuIarIy imorlanl because of lhe lime-inlensive nalure of a GIS ro|ecl. Much of lhe
lime lhal goes inlo a GIS sludy is devoled lo lhe rearalion of lhe dala needed for
resuIls.
21
Many schoIars eslimale lhal as much as 80% of lhe lime senl on a ro|ecl viII
be senl on dala rearalion. If dala musl be rocessed from anaIog lo digilaI form,
rearalion lime couId be even more inlensive. Moreover, no GIS rogram can oen a
ro|ecl unIess il can Iocale aII of lhe affiIialed fiIes, vhich musl be in lhe same Iocalion.
Therefore, organizalion in GIS is vilaI for saving lime and for overaII efficiency.


21
Anne KeIIy KnovIes, Inlroduclion, .$+/0' .+/*%+* 1/!"$#( 24/ 3 (IaII 2000), 463.

12
!"#$%&$%'()"* ,)-($%)#'. %/-/'%#, )"($ ' 0!1 ,'- 2)-()"#( '23'"('*/-4 5$"3/%()"*6
&.7**)"* )"6 '"2 '"'.89)"* ,)-($%)#'. 2'(' #'" ./'2 ($ "/: (8&/- $; %/-/'%#, <7/-()$"-
'"2 2)-#$3/%)/-4 ='&>)"2$: 0!1 &%$3)2/- '" $&&$%(7")(8 ;$% ,)-($%)'"- ($ )"#.72/ '
&$:/%;7. */$-&'()'. #$?&$"/"( )" (,/)% %/-/'%#, '( "$ #$-(6 7".)@/ #$??/%#)'. 0!1
-7)(/-4 A,7-6 ='&>)"2$: 0!1 $;;/%- ?7#, ($ ,)-($%)'"- -//@)"* ($ )"#$%&$%'(/ ' B/((/%
-/"-/ $; ()?/ '"2 -&'#/ )" (,/)% %/-/'%#,4 !" (,)- ;)%-( /C/%#)-/6 8$7 :).. ./'%" ($
2$:".$'2 ='&>)"2$: 0!1 ($ 8$7% &/%-$"'. #$?&7(/%4 A,/ "/C( #,'&(/% :).. ;$#7- $"
-$?/ $; (,/ "7(- '"2 B$.(- $; 0!1 '"2 :).. -,$: 8$7 $"/ $; (,/ :'8- )" :,)#, 0!1 #'"
2/'. :)(, &$&7.'()$" 2'('4































13
!!"#$%&" !
Our firsl exercise viII shov you hov lo dovnIoad and inslaII MaWindov GIS version
4.8.6, so lhal you can become famiIiarized vilh lhe soflvare inlerface before Iearning
hov lo use lhe rogram.

"#$%&
Our lask for lhis exercise is lo dovnIoad and inslaII MaWindov, and lo become
famiIiarized vilh ils Iayoul.

'()* +&
efore dovnIoading lhe soflvare, you shouId cIose any olher rograms you may have
running on your comuler, such as MSWord. Oen your brovser (IxIorer, Iirefox,
elc.), and go lo hll://vvv.mavindov.org/dovnIoads/MaWindovx86IuII-v48IinaI-
inslaIIer.exe.

,-()&
Ralher lhan coying and asling lhe URL inlo your brovser, (.*) lhe URL described in
$()* + inlo your brovser, and ress Inler. This viII enabIe you lo dovnIoad
MaWindov 4.8.6.

We caulion our users lhal coying any URL from a IDI documenl and asling il
direclIy inlo a veb brovser mighl Iead lhem lo dovnIoading inaccurale dala.
















14
!"#$ &'
When lhe dovnIoad is finished, cIick on lhe bullon Run lo inslaII MaWindov
|Iigure 1.1j.


()*+,# -.-' /01234156 718$4#"#9 8#::5*#.

;1"#:
If you are running Windovs 7, you viII need lo cIose your brovser once lhe dovnIoad
is finished. There viII nov be a MaWindov icon on your desklo for lhe inslaIIalion
rogram. CIick on lhis icon lo run lhe inslaIIalion.















!"
!"#$ &'
$%&%'()'* +' ,+-. /%.0)+' +1 2)'(+304 ,+- 56, 0%% 6 78%9-.):, 26.')'*; 0:6:)'* :<6:
): 5)*<: '+: =% 061% :+ )'0:6>> :<% 0+1:36.% ?@)*-.% !ABCA $)0.%*6.( :<)0 36.')'* 6'( 9>)9D
+' :<% 7E-'; =-::+'A


()*+,# -./' 0!#1+,)"2 34,5)5*.6

!"#$ 7'
F+- 3)>> =% 60D%( :+ 0%>%9: :<% 0%:-& >6'*-6*% ?@)*-.% !AGCA 8%>%9: :<% >6'*-6*% +1 ,+-.
9<+)9% 6'( :<%' 9>)9D +' 7HIA;


()*+,# -.&' 0!#8#1" !#"+$ 945*+4*#.6









16
!"#$ &'
The finaI sle is lhe MaWindov GIS Selu Wizard |Iigure 1.4j. CIick on Nexl. Il
may lake a fev seconds for lhe foIIoving screen lo aear:


()*+,# -./' 012$3)4567 89! !#"+$ 3):2,5.;

!"#$ <'
The MaWindov's License Agreemenl vindov viII oen |Iigure 1.5j. Choose lhe
olion I accel lhe agreemenl and lhen cIick on Nexl.


()*+,# -.&' 0=)>#4?# @*,##A#4".;

!"
!"#$ &'
$%& '&() *+,&&' -.// *%0- *01& .'20,13).0' 4&*+,.5.'6 -%3) .* '&- .' )%.* 7&,*.0' 02
839:.'40-; </.+= 0' >?&();@


()*+,# -./' 0123" )4 5#6 )5 73$1)5896.:

!"#$ ;'
?&()A B0C -.// 5& 3*=&4 .2 B0C -0C/4 /.=& )0 40'3)& *01& 10'&B )0 )%& 839:.'40-
9,0D&+) EF.6C,& !;"G; H/&3*& +0'*.4&, %&/9.'6 )0 2C'4 )%& 839:.'40- 9,0D&+)A 3/)%0C6%
B0C 3,& C'4&, '0 05/.63).0' )0 40 *0A 3'4 )%&' +/.+= 0' >?&();@


()*+,# -.&' 0<953"# "9 73$1)5896.:

18
!"#$ &'
!"# %#&' ()*##% +,-- .(/ +"#*# 012 +12-3 -,/# 4.56,%31+ '1 7# ,%('.--#3 89,:2*# ;<=><
?-,)/ 1% @A#&'B '1 ,%('.-- '"# 5*1:*.C ,% ,'( 1+% D1-3#*<


()*+,# -./' 0!#1#2" 3#4")56")75 8726")75.9

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E12 +,-- %1+ 7# .(/#3 '1 @F#-#)' )1C51%#%'(B '1 7# ,%('.--#3 89,:2*# ;<G>< ?"11(# @92--
,%('.--.',1%B .%3 )-,)/ 1% @A#&'<B


()*+,# -.&' 0!#1#2" ;7<$75#5"49 42,##5.


19
!"#$ &&'
Afler lhe seIeclion is done, you viII be asked if you vouId Iike MaWindov lo be Iisled
as a rogram in your Slarl Menu |Iigure 1.10j. If you vouId Iike MaWindov lo be
in your Slarl Menu, cIick on Nexl. If you do nol vanl a shorlcul in lhe Slarl Menu,
seIecl lhe box in lhe bollom Iefl marked Don'l creale a Slarl Menu foIder and lhen
cIick on Nexl.


()*+,# &-&.' /!#0#1" !"2," 3#4+ (506#,-7

!"#$ &8'
Nov lhal you have chosen your inslaIIalion olions, you are ready lo inslaII
MaWindov. CIick on InslaII lo begin |Iigure 1.11j:


()*+,# &-&&' /9#26: "5 ;4<"2007 =)465=-
20
!"#$ &'(
!"# %&'' ()) *+) ,-"./')*&01 *+) 23/4&05"% 678 8)*#/ 4&93:5; (<:))0 =>&1#:) ?@?AB@
!"# <30 ')3C) 3'' *+:)) "/*&"0( ()')<*)5D ": E#(* <+""() ,8*3:* 23/4&05"% 678@; 4+)0
F"# +3C) <+"()0 F"#: "/*&"0(D <'&<G "0 ,>&0&(+@;


)*+,-# &.&/( 0123$4#"*5+ "6# !#",$ 7*89-:.;

!"#$ &<(
23/4&05"% %&'' "/)0 305 F"# (+"#'5 ()) *+) 23/4&05"% .3&0 /31)D %&*+ *+)
,4)'<".) *" 23/4&05"%; (<:))0 =>&1#:) ?@?HB@ -'"() *+) ,4)'<".); (<:))0 305 *3G)
(".) *&.) *" )I3.&0) *+) ("J*%3:)@


)*+,-# &.&'( =9$7*5:2> 623# ?@-##5.
21
!"#$ &'(
Afler you cIose lhe WeIcome screen, you viII see lhe basic MaWindov screen. There
are some asecls of lhis screen lhal you shouId be famiIiar vilh. The firsl lhing lo knov
is lhal lhe Iarge vindov lhal lakes u mosl of lhe screen is caIIed lhe Ma ane. The
smaIIer vindov on lhe uer Iefl is lhe Legend ane. This ane is used for many of
lhe basic oeralions in MaWindov, and you viII become very used lo using il. eIov
lhe Legend ane is lhe Ireviev ane. This ane is nol used very oflen for our
uroses, aIlhough il is good for you lo recognize vhal and vhere il is.

!"#$ &)(
You shouId feeI free lo Iay vilh lhe bullons across lhe lo of lhe screen, and lo oen
lhe dro-dovn menus. MaWindov incIudes some samIe dala you can Iay vilh, if
you vouId Iike.


*+,-.# &/&0( 12# 34$5+6789 :4+6 ;<.##6= <86"4+6+6, "2# >34$=? >@#,#67=? 467
>A.#B+#9? $46#;/

CongraluIalions! You have successfuIIy dovnIoaded and inslaIIed MaWindov GIS.
You are nov ready lo move onlo Chaler 2, vhich viII leach you hov lo (1) add Iayers,
(2) change Iayer coIors, and (3) creale a choroIelh ma of lhe Uniled Slales.

!!
!"#$%&' )* +,--./0 1-23-,4 5.-6 7289./4:5 +;1
#$% &'(& %) '(*) +,-./--)+ '$% $0) .(0 ,0.$12$1(&) 345 ,0&$ ',-&$1,.(6 1)-)(1.'7 %)
.(0 8)9,0 &$ ):26$1) '$% ;(2<,0+$% 345 (66$%- &') /-)1 &$ -=0&')-,>) *,-/(6 (0+
-2(&,(6 +(&( ?$1 (0(6=-,-@ A,1-&7 '$%)*)17 %) %,66 ):26(,0 ( ?)% 8(-,. &)1B- ,0 $1+)1 &$
')62 =$/ /0+)1-&(0+ '$% 345 21$91(B- ?/0.&,$0@ C',- ):26(0(&,$0 %,66 B(D) ,& )(-,)1
?$1 =$/ &$ /0+)1-&(0+ '$% &') -$?&%(1) ,- /-)+ (0+ &$ .$B26)&) &') ):)1.,-)- (& &') )0+
$? )(.' .'(2&)1@

# <,5 =,>./.-.:/?
4& ,- ,B2$1&(0& &$ /0+)1-&(0+ .)1&(,0 &)1B- 1)6(&)+ &$ 9)$91(2',. ,0?$1B(&,$0 (0+ 345
8)?$1) -&(1&,09 &$ /-) ;(2<,0+$%@ A$1 B/.' $? &',- B(0/(67 %) %,66 8) %$1D,09 ,0 (
@,A-:3 42-2 B:4,C@ E *).&$1 +(&( B$+)6 /-)- 9)$91(2',.(6 .$$1+,0(&)- &$ 1)21)-)0&
-2(&,(6 +(&(@ C') -2(&,(6 +(&( (1) 1)21)-)0&)+ (- 9)$B)&1,. 8:./-?7 C./,?7 (0+ 8:CD0:/?@
$:./-? ,0 345 '(*) 0$ -,>)7 (1)(7 $1 %,+&'7 &'$/9' ( -=B8$6 ?$1 ( 2$,0& +$)-@ E 2$,0&
-=B8$6 -'$%- ( *)1&): (& %',.' &') 6,0)- $? C:/0.-E4, FGH (0+ C2-.-E4, FDH .1$--@ F$,0&-
(66$% ( /-)1 &$ (--,90 ( 21).,-) 9)$91(2',.(6 6$.(&,$0 &$ &') B(2 GA,9/1) !@HI@ C')= .(0
1)21)-)0& (0=&',09 ?1$B .,&,)- &$ ?,1) '=+1(0&-7 &$ +)(&'- .(/-)+ 8= =)66$% ?)*)1@

<.0E3, )IJ* $:3- K:E.?L -6, A28.-2C :> 72E3.-.E?L .? 3,83,?,/-,4 2? 2 8:./-I

K./,? (1) B(+) /2 $? ( -)1,)- $? *)1&,.)-7 $1 .$00).&)+ 2$,0&-7 &'(& B(= 8)
1)21)-)0&(&,*) $? 6)09&'7 8/& &=2,.(66= 0$& %,+&' GA,9/1) !@!I@ J,0)- B(= 1)21)-)0& 1,*)1-
$1 -&1))&-7 &'$/9' &')= (1) 0$& 6,B,&)+ &$ &')-) &',09-@

23

!"#$%& ()(* +,& -".& /"0&% "1 2&3"45&2 67 8 ."9& 4:;3:1&2 :< 1&0&%8. 0&%5"4&1 :<
4::%2"985&1= %&3%&1&95&2 81 3:"951)

>:.7#:91 are a grou of connecled Iines and are, lherefore, shaes lhal reresenl an
area, vhelher lhal area is geograhicaI or oIilicaI in nalure |Iigure 2.3j. IxamIes of
oIygons are slales, counlries, conlinenls, geograhicaI regions, elc. A comIele ma in
GIS is comosed of some combinalion of oinls, Iines, and oIygons, aII of vhich can be
user-defined or dovnIoaded from various onIine Iibraries.


!"#$%& ()?* @$15%8."8 "1 89 &A8;3.& :< 8 3:.7#:9)

These various lyes of geograhic dala are orlrayed in MaWindov GIS as .87&%1. A
Iayer in GIS reresenls one lye of geograhic dalum. In olher vords, using Iayers is
simiIar lo Iacing severaI overhead ro|eclor lransarencies over each olher, and each
Iayer can onIy conlain one lye of informalion (oinls, Iines, or oIygons). To move a

24
Iayer on lo of anolher Iayer, lhe user can cIick and drag lhe Iayer name lo lhe desired
Iocalion in lhe Dala Layers area of lhe !"#"$% '($". The )(' '($" is vhere lhe dala
Iayers are dravn. Iigure 2.4 shovs a ma of lhe Uniled Slales made u of a oIygon
Iayer conlaining lhe slales, a Iine Iayer of lhe rivers, and a oinl Iayer vilh cily dala.


*+#,-" ./01 2 3(' 45 67" 8/9/ :+67 ;(<"-= =6(>?"% 4$ 64' 45 4$" ($467"-/

AIong vilh oinls, Iines, and oIygons, veclor dala can slore (66-+@,6"= lhal are
associaled vilh secific coordinales. 266-+@,6"= in a GIS couId be names, ouIalion
informalion, homes, cros, or any number of lhings. An examIe of allribule dala is
seen in Iigure 2.5. In lhis examIe, ve can see lhe allribules Iisled for various counlries,
incIuding cilies, counlry name, geograhicaI sub-region, geograhicaI region, and
cailaI cilies.


!"

"#$%&' ()*+ ,- .//&#0%/' /.01' #- 2.34#-567 89:)

$%& '()*&++ ), -.&/.012 *(&34.012 305 6+.01 -3(.)6+ 7.05+ ), +89:);+ .0 <=> .+ *3;;&5
;<=0616$<? @4 4%& &05 ), 4%& *%3'4&(2 4%& &A&(*.+& /.;; 4&3*% 8)6 %)/ 4) 6+& +89:);)18
4));+ 4) *(&34& 3 >?6&631'/? =.3? @ *%)()';&4% 93' .+ 3 4%&934.* 93' .0 /%.*% 3(&3+
3(& +%35&5 .0 '()')(4.)0 4) 4%& 9&3+6(&9&04 ), 4%& 5343 -3(.3:;& :&.01 5&'.*4&5
BC.16(& !?DE?


"#$%&' ()@+ A?#; >?6&631'/? =.3 ;?.5'; '.>? ;/./' 0.;'5 6- #/; B6&'#$-C06&-
363%1./#6- .>>6&5#-$ /6 /?' DEFF G):) H'-;%;)

!"
$ %&'()* +,(, -)+&. /*)0&'( 12 2,%&+ 13 , 43154& 61.& 6)*-,( 73)83 ,2 , !"#$%&'(%9 $
/*)0&'( ',3 :& 2,%&+ ,( ,3; 2(,<&= 81(>)4( :&13< ,3 &3+ *&24.(9 ?( 12 1-/)*(,3( () 3)(& (>&
+12(13'(1)3 :&(8&&3 , .,;&* ,3+ , 2>,/&61.&9 @>1.& (#)%* 61.&2 ,*& 42&+ () %124,.1A&
2>,/&61.&2= , .,;&* 12 3)( , +,(, 6)*-,(9 $ !"#$%&'(% 12 ')-/*12&+ )6 2&%&*,. +166&*&3(
61.&2= 13'.4+13< .,;&* 61.&29 B&541*&+ 61.&2 ')3(,13&+ 81(>13 , 2>,/&61.& 13'.4+& (>& 9+:6
61.& C+,(,:,2& 61.&D= ,3+ , 92>E 61.& C2>,/& 13+&E 6)*-,(D9 $3; <1%&3 2>,/&61.& -,; >,%&
-,3; )(>&* 61.& &E(&321)32 ,22)'1,(&+ 81(> 1(9 F)-& )6 (>&2& 61.&2 13 G,/@13+)8 -,;
13'.4+& 9-82* C*&3+&*13< 61.&D= 9/*0 C/*)0&'( 61.&D= 92:3 C2/,(1,. 13+&E )6 6&,(4*&2D= 92:E
C,.2) , 2/,(1,. 13+&E )6 6&,(4*&2D= ,3+ , 92>/9E-. 61.& C/*)%1+&2 -&(,+,(, 13 ,3 9E-.
6)*-,(D9 $ 2>,/&61.& 81.. )3.; )/&3 13 , H?F /*)<*,- 16 ,.. )6 (>&2& ,22)'1,(&+ 61.&2 ,*&
.),+&+ /*)/&*.;9 I)4 ',3 <4,*,3(&& (>,( ,.. )6 (>& *&541*&+ 61.&2 81.. :& .),+&+ ()<&(>&*9
J)* 132(,3'&= 16 ;)4 ,*& 8)*713< 81(> , *),+2 2>,/&61.&= , ')43(*; 2>,/&61.&= ,3+ , '1(1&2
2>,/&61.& 13 G,/@13+)8= ,3+ ;)4 8)4.+ .17& () 2,%& ,.. )6 (>&2& 2>,/&61.&2 ()<&(>&*=
(>12 ',3 :& +)3& :; 2,%13< &%&*;(>13< ()<&(>&* ,2 , /*)0&'( KJ1<4*& !9LM9 $ /*)0&'( 13
G,/@13+)8 12 2,%&+ ,2 , 9-8/*0 61.&9 F,%13< ,3 &3(1*& /*)0&'( /&*-1(2 42&*2 () /1'7 4/
, /*)0&'( 8>&*& (>&; .&6( 1( +4*13< (>& /*&%1)42 8)*7 2&221)3= ,3+ 1( ,..)82 (>& /*)<*,-
() +) (>& 61.& -,3,<&-&3(9


+',-*% /012 3#4'5, # $*67%890

N3'& '*&,(&+ )* .),+&+ 13() G,/@13+)8= (>& .,;&*2 ',3 :& ,221<3&+ , $*67%89'659 $
/*)0&'(1)3 (,7&2 , 2/>&*1',. /)*(1)3 )6 (>& O,*(>P2 24*6,'&= .,*<& )* 2-,..= ,3+ ,((&-/(2
() /.,'& (>,( ,*&, )3 , 6.,( 24*6,'&= 24'> ,2 , ')-/4(&* 2'*&&3 )* , /1&'& )6 /,/&*= 8>1.&
7&&/13< (>& 6&,(4*&2 )6 (>,( ,*&, ,2 13(,'( ,2 /)221:.&9 @& 81.. +12'422 /*)0&'(1)3 13
<*&,(&* +&(,1. 13 '>,/(&* Q9 R>&*& ,*& -,3; )(>&* <&)<*,/>1' ,3+ H?F ')3'&/(2 ,3+
(&*-2 (>,( 81.. 3&&+ () :& +&613&+ ,2 ;)4 :&')-& /*)61'1&3( 13 G,/@13+)89 R>&2& 81..
:& +&613&+ ,2 (>&; ,*12& 13 64(4*& '>,/(&*2= ,3+ 8>&3 ;)4 613+ 1( 3&'&22,*; () *&-&-:&*
,3; )6 (>& ')3'&/(2 ,3+ (&*-2= ;)4 -,; ')324.( (>& <.)22,*;9

27
!"!#$%&! (
Oflen hislorians are inleresled nol onIy in lhe size of a ouIalion, bul in ils makeu:
for inslance, lhe ercenlage of immigranls in lhe ouIalion. GIS can aIIov us lo convey
such dala in a visuaI vay vilh a choroIelh ma.

)*+,-
Ior lhis exercise, ve viII creale a choroIelh ma lhal disIays lhe ercenlage of lhe
ouIalion lhal vas foreign-born for each slale in lhe Uniled Slales in 1900.

&./0 1-
Remember lhal for good fiIe managemenl, each ro|ecl (lhus, each exercise) shouId be
saved lo ils ovn subfoIder. Therefore, lhe firsl lhing lo do is lo creale a foIder on your
desklo lo slore your MaWindov fiIes, ve recommend lhal you name lhis foIder
Ixercises.

Ior each exercise, you shouId creale a subfoIder for lhe dala used in lhal exercise and
for lhe resuIls of lhe exercise. Ior lhis exercise, lhal subfoIder shouId be IabeIed
Ixercise 2.

23./-
If you are using Windovs 7, lhis subfoIder viII be crealed vhen you unzi lhe
shaefiIes foIder.

&./0 (-
Nexl, ve are going lo dovnIoad a foIder conlaining lhree shaefiIes: lhe Uniled Slales
vilh lhe ercenlage of lhe foreign-born ouIalion in 1900, lhe ma|or rivers of lhe
Uniled Slales, and lhe ma|or cilies of lhe Uniled Slales. We viII be Ioading lhese fiIes
inlo MaWindov so lhal ve can see and modify lhe ma.

Go lo hll://vvv.geograhicaIIyinlegraledhislory.com/v-
conlenl/uIoads/exercises/exercise2.zi

You viII be asked if you vanl lo save lhe foIder conlaining lhe shaefiIes. CIick Save
lo slarl lhe dovnIoad of lhe foIder.

23./-
This Iink viII nol oen a veb age. Il viII oen a vindov asking you if you vanl lo
save lhe foIder. The fiIes for lhis exercise are zied. If you are running Windovs 7, you

28
can exlracl lhe fiIes from lhis foIder by righl-cIicking on lhe foIder and choosing
Ixlracl aII.. If you are nol using Windovs 7, and you do nol have a rogram lhal
viII oen zied fiIes, Iease go lo hll://vvv.vinzi.com lo gel WinZi, and foIIov
lhe inslruclions lo exlracl lhe fiIes.

Once you have unzied lhe shaefiIe, lhe foIIoving fiIes shouId aear in your
Ixercise 2 subfoIder: USrivers.sh, UScilies.sh, UniledSlales1900.sh. You may see
olher fiIes vilh differenl exlensions in lhe foIder, deending on vhich oeraling syslem
you used. Nov you are ready lo use lhe nev dala in MaWindov.

!"#$ &'
Oen lhe MaWindov aIicalion. MaWindov is a Iarge rogram, so il may lake
severaI seconds for il lo oen.

!"#$ ('
CIick lhe bullon.

Navigale lo lhe foIder vhere you saved lhe UniledSlales1900 shaefiIe. This shouId
be your "Ixercise 2 foIder.

SeIecl lhe shaefiIe UniledSlales1900.sh and oen il, lhis oens lhe Iayer in
MaWindov. You shouId be abIe lo see a ma deicling lhe Uniled Slales on your
screen.

!"#$ )'
Use lhe Ian bullon lo move your ma, and lhe In and Oul
bullons lo zoom in and zoom oul.

*+"#'
Do nol vorry if lhe coIors of lhe Uniled Slales are nol lhe same coIors lhal you see
deicled in lhis exercise. GIS soflvare randomIy assigns coIors vhen a Iayer is firsl
oened.




29
!"#$ &'
Nov lhal lhe Uniled Slales Iayer has been Ioaded, ve viII add lhe ma|or cilies and
rivers as addilionaI Iayers.

CIick lhe Add bullon . Go lo lhe foIder vhere lhe USrivers and UScilies
shaefiIes are saved. This shouId be your Ixercise 2 subfoIder.

Oen lhe UScilies and USrivers shaefiIes by reealing lhe rocedure used lo oen
lhe UniledSlales1900 shaefiIe.

Your screen shouId Iook Iike |Iigure 2.1j:


()*+,# -./' 01$ 23 "4# 56)"#7 !"1"#8.

!"#$ 9'
Nov ve viII lurn off lhe rivers and cilies Iayers. Go lo lhe Legend ane in lhe Iefl-
hand corner of your screen and Iocale lhe Dala Layers Iisl |Iigure 2.2j. Uncheck lhe
Usrivers and Uscilies Iayers lo lurn lhem off.


!"

!"#$%& ()(* +,-.&/"0& 0-1&%23 4"5, "6782 "89"6-5"8# 5,& .7"853 0"8&3 -89 .701#78 0-1&%2)

$%&'() &*+& &*) '(%,- -*%., /)0%. &*) 0+1)2 &'&0)- ', 3'452) 676 2)82)-),& 8%',&9 0',)9 +,:
8%014%, 0+1)2-9 +,: &*+& /%&* ;<=('&')-> +,: ;<=2'?)2-> +2) 5,(*)(@):9 ',:'(+&',4 &*+&
&*)1 +2) &52,): %AA7

BA&)2 1%5 *+?) &52,): %AA &*) <=('&')- +,: <=2'?)2- 0+1)2-9 0%%@ +& 1%52 C+8 D3'452)
67!E7 F%5 -*%50: -)) + C+8 %A &*) <,'&): =&+&)- .'&* )+(* -&+&) %5&0',):9 /5& .'&* ,%
%&*)2 :)&+'0-7


!"#$%& ():* ;-. 7/ 5,& <8"5&9 +5-5&2 4"5, 5,& =%">&%2? -89 =6"5"&2? 0-1&%2 5$%8&9 7//)

+5&. @*
$%. &*+& .) *+?) 0)+2,): &% 0%+: 0+1)2- +,: &% &52, &*)C %, +,: %AA9 .) .'00 0)+2, *%.
&% -&%2) +,: C+,'850+&) &*) :+&+ +--%('+&): .'&* + 0+1)27 G% :% &*'-9 .) .'00 )H+C',) &*)
+&&2'/5&) ',A%2C+&'%, -&%2): ', &*) <,'&):=&+&)-IJ"" -*+8)A'0)7



31
Go lo Dala Layers in lhe Legend ane.

Righl-cIick lhe UniledSlales1900 Iayer.

SeIecl Allribule TabIe Idilor.

This viII oen lhe Allribule TabIe Idilor vindov |Iigure 2.4j. Nolice lhal lhere are
horizonlaI and verlicaI scroII bars you can use lo see more of lhe fiIe. Locale lhe fieId
coIumn IabeIed I1900. This coIumn conlains lhe ercenlage of lhe ouIalion lhal
vas foreign born for each slale in lhe year 1900.


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-..%"/$.& 01/2& 34".5%)6 07& 8"&24 ,!9:;<<6 =75>= .7& ?&%@&A.1#& 58
85%&"#AB/5%A @"."C&A= "A &1@7 =.1.&)

D.&? ;+
To deicl lhe ercenlages of foreign-born individuaIs in lhe U.S. in 1900, ve need lo
aIy coIors lo deicl lhe various ercenlages. We can do lhis by using a coIor ram,
vhich assigns a coIor vaIue based on lhe ercenlage vaIue of lhe chosen allribule.

CIose lhe Allribule TabIe Idilor.

Go lo lhe Layers lab in lhe Legend ane.

32
Righl-cIick lhe UniledSlales1900 Iayer.

Choose "Iroerlies" from lhe dro-dovn menu. You viII see lhe Layer roerlies
vindov |Iigure 2.5j:


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-./&% 0%10&%2"&34 5"6715)

















!!
#$ %$ %&' ()*%'+$,-'.( %*/0 *. .''1 -1 2-+3,' 4565 7&-. %*/ 8'%. 3. .'8'9% :&-9& ;*%* <-'8;
:' :*1% %$ /,'*= -1%$ 9*%'+$,-'.0 *1; %$ *..-+1 * 9$8$, .9&'>' %$ %&$.' 9*%'+$,-'.5


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-./&#0%"&12 03/"04 $45&% ,6%03&%/"&1)2
















34
!"#$ &'(
In "Numeric IieIds," choose I1900 from lhe dro-dovn menu. This leIIs
MaWindov lo use lhis dala in lhe coIoring scheme. In CoIor scheme, cIick lhe
bullon. The CoIor schemes Iisl vindov viII aear |Iigure 2.7j.


)*+,-# ./0( 12343- 567#8#5 4*5"/9

CIick Idil. The coIor scheme ediling vindov viII aear. Choose vhile for CoIor
1 and bIue for CoIor 2, as shovn in Iigure 2.8, and cIick Ok.


)*+,-# ./:( 12343- 567#8# #;*"*<+9 =*<;3=/



!"
$%& '()) *++ ,%&- ./%*+0 .%)%-(01 *./+2+ (0 3/+ 45%)%- *./+2+* )(*367 5)(.8 49867 :/+
'(0;%' '()) .)%*+ <0; ,%& '()) =+ =<.8 <3 3/+ 45<3+1%-(+*7 '(0;%'6


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-./.% 012&3&0 /"04)5























36
!"#$ &&'
In lhe Calegories vindov, go lo CoIor scheme. In CoIor scheme, choose lhe bIue
and vhile coIoring scheme lhal you crealed, as Iigure 2.10 shovs. In Calegories,
under CIassificalion, seIecl lhe vaIue 5. Make sure lhal I1900 is seIecled in lhe
Numeric IieIds coIumn. IinaIIy, cIick Generale in lhe uer-righl corner, and lhen
cIick Ok.


()*+,# -.&/' 0123#, 4,5$#,")#67 8)9:58.















37
Nov your ma shouId Iook Iike |Iigure 2.11j.


!"#$%& ()**+ ,-.%./0&1- 23/ 4"1- 5.0.%"6# 75-&2& 3//0"&8 1. "1)

91&/ *(+
Nov, lo viev lhe ercenlage of foreign-born ouIalion in any slale, cIick lhe
bullon on MaWindov's menu bar, and lhen cIick lhe slale.












!"
!"#$ &'(
$% &'() *%+, -,%.)/01 2% 0% 34,%.)/015 '67 86 34,%.)/015 /9%%&) 3:'() ;&5 <=82+,) >?@>A


)*+,-# ./&.( 0!12# 345 6$"*67 *7 "8# 9-6:#;" <#7,/

B'C) *%+, -,%.)/0 3DE),/8&) >5 '67 /F8/G 3:'()5 <=82+,) >?@!A?


)*+,-# ./&'( 0!12# 345 =*7>6=/

39
If you vouId Iike lo check and make sure lhal your ro|ecl has saved roerIy, cIose
MaWindov and lhen reoen il. On lhe enlry screen, you shouId nov see Ixercise
2.mvr| under lhe Oen a ro|ecl icon |Iigure 2.14j.


!"#$%& ()*+, -.&%/"0& ( 123 04230 $15&% 678&1 9 8%2:&/;)<

CongraluIalions! You have generaled a choroIelh ma and used a coIor ram lo
highIighl asecls of lhe dala associaled vilh lhe ma. You shouId nov feeI comforlabIe
vilh lhe MaWindov inlerface. IeeI free lo reeal any orlion of lhis exercise vilh
vhich you vouId Iike more raclice, incIuding changing lhe coIors used lo reresenl
lhe foreign-born ouIalion ercenlages.

You are nov ready lo move lo Chaler 3. In lhal chaler, you viII Iearn some of lhe
basics of carlograhy, incIuding lhe imorlance of seIecling lhe correcl ro|eclion, and
you viII aIy lhis knovIedge lo a ma of Irance.



40
!"#$%&' )* +,-./ ,01 2,3 $45678-950
AII mas, vhelher of your homelovn or of lhe universe, are lvo-dimensionaI
reresenlalions of a lhree-dimensionaI sace, vhich means lhal aII mas have a cerlain
IeveI of dislorlion. This dislorlion may nol maller much vhen lhe ma is of lhe
universe or even of our gaIaxy, bul vhen lhe ma deicls lhe Iarlh or any region of lhe
Iarlh, lhe issue is more imorlanl. ecause lhe Iarlh is an irreguIar sheremore
secificaIIy, lhe Iarlh's shae is described as an irreguIar eIIisoida lransformalion
musl occur lo Iace a lhree-dimensionaI area of lhe Iarlh on a fIal surface. This
lransformalion is caIIed 345678-950. Many differenl ro|eclions exisl, and vhich
ro|eclion is chosen by a carlograher deends on lhe urose for vhich lhe
geograhic dala are disIayed.

Longilude and Ialilude vere deveIoed in order lo delermine lhe Iocalion of secific
osilions on lhe earlh's surface. :50;9-.17 is anchored by lhe rime meridian, an
imaginary Iine vhich is delermined lo be 0 and vhich circIes lhe earlh from lhe Norlh
IoIe lo lhe Soulh IoIe, dividing lhe earlh inlo lhe Iaslern and Weslern hemisheres.
Longilude is measured by degrees, from 0 lo 180, vilh eilher a Wesl or an Iasl direclion.
Lines of <,-9-.17 cross Iines of Iongilude. The equalor is lhe equivaIenl of lhe IaleraI
rime meridian, and il divides lhe vorId inlo lhe Norlhern and Soulhern hemisheres.
Hence, lhe Ialilude of a Iace on lhe earlh viII be belveen 0 and 90, vilh eilher a
Norlh or a Soulh direclion. Degrees can be divided furlher inlo minules and seconds.
CaIcuIaling an exacl Iocalion on lhe earlh's surface requires delermining lhe Iocalion's
Iongilude and Ialilude lo an exacl degree, minule, and second. If you have ever used a
GIS, you have seen lhe nine-digil nolalion used for geograhic Iocalions. A GIS dravs
on Iibraries of GIS dala lo caIcuIale differenl ma ro|eclions for you.

The Iines of Iongilude and Ialilude essenliaIIy creale a grid of lhe Iarlh's surface, vhich
is imorlanl for mamaking because il rovides a vay for users lo assign geograhic
coordinales lo lheir dala. This grid musl be maled lo an eslimale of lhe shae and size
of lhe Iarlh, and lhis eslimale is referred lo as a 1,-./. A dalum rovides a modeI of
lhe Iarlh as an eIIisoid, because lhe Iarlh is nol a erfecl eIIisoid, lhere are many
differenl dalums (correcl IuraI for lhis use of lhe vord dalum, nol dala) lo exress
ils irreguIar shae. When lhe dalum modeI is exressed in Iongilude and Ialilude (and
oflen eIevalion) dala, lhe resuIl is commonIy caIIed, in lhe GIS vorId, a ;75;4,3=98
8554190,-7 >?>-7/. Among lhe mosl common dalums are lhe WorId Geodelic Syslem
1984 (WGS 1984), lhe Norlh American Dalum 83 (NAD83), lhe Norlh American Dalum
27 (NAD27), and lhe Iuroean TerreslriaI Reference Syslem 1989 (ITRS89). When
crealing a ma, il is imorlanl firsl lo assign a dalum lo give meaning lo lhe Iocalion of
your dala. Hundreds of dalums have been crealed, and each of lhem viII inlroduce a

41
measure of dislorlion lo lhe finaI ma, deending on lhe area of lhe Iarlh's surface in
vhich lhe carlograher is inleresled. IorlunaleIy, you do nol have lo vorry aboul lhe
malhemalicaI basis of dalums, you |usl have lo remember lo ick one al lhe beginning
of any ro|ecl, before you slarl vorking on a ma. Once a dalum has been seIecled for a
ro|ecl, lhe second slage is lo assign a lye of ma ro|eclion. Differenl ro|eclions are
seIecled for differenl communicalion uroses.

!"#$%# '( )"* +,'-.%/$'0
ecause lhe Iarlh cannol be reresenled accuraleIy on a fIal surface, such as a iece of
aer or a comuler screen, every ma ro|eclion resenls some sorl of dislorlion. A
ro|eclion may seek lo reserve various roerlies of a ma, such as area, shae, or
dislance, bul a ro|eclion cannol reserve aII of lhese lhings al once. Oflen, a ro|eclion
viII seek a baIance lo reserve as much of lhe area, shae, and dislance as ossibIe, lhus
making each of lhem sIighlIy dislorled.

AIlhough il is difficuIl lo cIassify lhe differenl lyes of ro|eclion, }udilh Tyner has
searaled ro|eclion roerlies inlo four lyes: a) equivaIence of an area, b)
reservalion of angIes or of lhe shae of smaII areas, c) Iinear scaIe, and d) direclion.
1

IquivaIence of area or equaI area mas reserve area scaIe. ConformaI or orlhomorhic
ro|eclions reserve angIes or lhe shae of smaII areas. These ro|eclions are besl al
reserving smaII fealures, such as a bay or eninsuIa.
2
Linear scaIe, aIso caIIed
equidislanl ro|eclion, shovs dislances correclIy. Direclion ro|eclions are aIso caIIed
azimulhaI or zenilhaI ro|eclions, lhey viII reresenl lhe correcl dislances belveen
Iaces vhen lhe caIcuIalions are made from lhe cenler oinl of lhe ma. Of lhe many
ro|eclions avaiIabIe, each has dislinclive advanlages and disadvanlages deending on
lhe scaIe and urose of your ma. To visuaIize lhe difference a ro|eclion can make,
see Iigure 3.1. Nole lhe slrelch lhal occurs in lhe image on lhe righl vhen lhe ma
ro|eclion used for lhe image on lhe Iefl is changed lo anolher ro|eclion.





1
}udilh Tyner, !"#$%#&'() +, -.& /()#0$ (Nev York: The GuiIford Iress, 2010), 101-122.
2
Ibid., 102.

42

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-& "./#& 01 2-& 3&42 "5 / 60%2- 7.&%"8/ 739&%5 :;$/3 7%&/ <%0=&82"01) >1
2-& %"#-2? 2-& "./#& @/5 %&A%0=&82&B "120 / 67C *DE( F,G H01& IJ6)

KL3"1B%"8/3? K01"8/3? /1B 7M".$2-/3 <%0=&82"015
AII ro|eclions lake a lhree-dimensionaI image and ma il onlo a lvo-dimensionaI ma.
The lhree mosl common vays of doing lhis maing are by using cyIindricaI, conicaI,
and azimulhaI ro|eclions. A 8L3"1B%"8/3 ro|eclion, in essence, vras a geomelric Iane
around lhe Iarlh: in lhis examIe, onIy louching around lhe equalor (see Iigure 3.2).
3

The resuIl is a Ianar reresenlalion of lhe Iarlh. Wilh lhis cyIindricaI ro|eclion, lhere
is Iess dislorlion around lhe equalor and more around lhe IoIar Regions.


!"#$%& ()I+ ,-"5 "./#& B&.0152%/2&5 -0@ 8L3"1B%"8/3 A%0=&82"015 /%& 8%&/2&B)

If lhe Iane vas vraed around lhe oIes, ralher lhan lhe equalor, lhe dislorlion lo lhe
ma vouId be Iess al lhe oIes, and il vouId increase cIoser lo lhe equalor.

A 801"8/3 ro|eclion Iaces a cone over a arl of lhe earlh. A conicaI ro|eclion, laken
from lhe vanlage oinl of lhe Norlh IoIe, can be seen in Iigure 3.3.
4
Wilh a conicaI
ro|eclion, area is reserved, bul nol scaIe and shae.

3
MiIIer CyIindricaI Iro|eclion, from lhe Wikimedia Commons (commons.vikimedia.org).
4
IoIar ConicaI Iro|eclion, from lhe Wikimedia Commons (commons.vikimedia.org).

!"

!"#$%& ()(* + ,-.",/0 1%-2&,3"-.)

$% /4"5$36/0 &'()*+,-(% ./*/ 0 &10%0' /.'20+* 0%3 &10+*/ -, 0+'(// 0 /-%41* &(-%, (2 ,5*
60',57/ /.'20+*8 $9-:.,501 &'()*+,-(%/ &'*/*';* 3-'*+,-(% 2'(: 0 +*',0-% &(-%,8
$3(&,-%4 ,5-/ 4(01 :*0%/ ,50, /50&* 0%3 0'*0 0'* -%+'*0/-%41< 3-/,(',*3 2'(: ,5* +*%,*'
&(-%, (2 0 :0&8 =5* >0:?*', 09-:.,501 &'()*+,-(% -/ /5(@% -% A-4.'* "8!8
B
=5* &(-%, 0,
@5-+5 ,5* &10%0' /.'20+* ,(.+5*/ ,5* 60',5 -% ,5* >0:?*', 09-:.,501 &'()*+,-(% -/ CD E
0%3 CD 6F /(.,5 (2 ,5* G*/, $2'-+0% +(.%,'< (2 H50%08 E(,-+* 5(@ :.+5 :('* 3-/,(',*3
?(,5 ,5* I(10' J*4-(%/ 0%3 ,5* *K.0,('-01 *34*/ 0'* -% ,5-/ :0&8

B
>0:?*', $9-:.,501 I'()*+,-(%F 2'(: ,5* G-L-:*3-0 M(::(%/ N+(::(%/8@-L-:*3-08('4O8

44

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-". "/0#& 12%3%04. 05 06"/$3-07 1%28&93"25 :"3- "3. 9&53&% 12"53 8$.3
.2$3- 2; <-050)

The =5">&%.07 ,%05.>&%.& ?&%9032% (UTM) is a ro|ecled coordinale syslem lhal
divides lhe earlh inlo 60 zones. UTM aIies lhe Transverse Mercalor ma ro|eclion, is
based on a secific cyIindricaI ro|eclion. UTM coordinale syslems seek a baIance
belveen reserving shae, area, dislance, and direclion. As hislorians are inleresled in
differenl arls of lhe vorId, il is good lo Iearn vhich UTM(s) faII inside of your
region(s) of inleresl. UTM ro|eclions can be a good fil for many GIS users if lheir area
of concern faIIs enlireIy vilhin a UTM zone. Iigure 3.5 Iisls aII 60 of lhese UTM zones.
6

One of lhe benefils of using UTM ro|eclions is lhal each zone is fairIy smaII, making il
easier lo minimize dislorlions.

6
UTM 60 Zones, from lhe Wikimedia Commons (commons.vikimedia.org), via lhe Wikiedia arlicIe
UniversaI Transverse Mercalor coordinale syslem,
hll://en.vikiedia.org/viki/UniversaI_Transverse_Mercalor_coordinale_syslem, accessed on 9 }anuary
2014.

!"

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-& ./"0&%123 ,%2/10&%1& 4&%5267% 8.,49 1:16&; 7< ="0"="/# 6-& >2%6-
"/67 ?@ A%7B&56"7/1)

C6-&% ,:A&1 7< D26$;1
$%&'( )*+( ,-.() */ 01,2+ 13( 3(4&*51'6 51,&*51'6 *3 4'*71' &5 )8*.(6 ,%(3( 13( 1')*
+28% +*3( '*81'&9(0 *5(): ;*3 (<1+.'(6 &5 ,%( =5&,(0 >,1,()6 ,%( ),1,( .'15( 8**30&51,(
)-),(+ &) ?&0('- 2)(06 150 @(&A&546 B%&516 1')* %1) &,) *?5 8**30&51,( )-),(+: C%()(
8**30&51,( )-),(+) ?(3( 0(D('*.(0 &5 *30(3 ,* .3()(3D( 1) +28% 13(16 0&),158(6 150
)%1.( 1882318- 1) .*))&7'(: ;*3 +15- %&),*3&15) 150 *,%(3 )*8&1' )8&(58( 150 %2+15&,&()
)8%*'13)6 ,%( $E>F! 01,2+ ?&'' 7( ,%( 7(), 8%*&8(: G*?(D(36 &/ -*23 3()(138% ,*.&8 &)
/*82)(0 *5 1 D(3- )+1'' 13(16 '&H( 1 )&54'( 8&,-6 *3 *5 1 D(3- '134( 13(16 )28% 1) 15 (5,&3(
8*5,&5(5,6 1 0&//(3(5, 01,2+ +1- ?*3H 7(,,(3 /*3 ,%( 813,*431.%&8 D&)21'&91,&*5 */ -*23
&5/*3+1,&*5:

I5 ,%( /*''*?&54 (<(38&)(6 ?( ?&'' 1..'- ?%1, -*2 %1D( '(135(0 3(4130&54 01,2+) 150
+1. .3*A(8,&*5): $%&'( 4*&54 ,%3*24% ,%&) (<(38&)(6 &, &) &+.*3,15, ,* 3(+(+7(3 ,%1, &5
,(3+) */ +1.+1H&546 ,%(3( &) 5*, 1 )&54'( 8*33(8, .3*A(8,&*5: C%( .3*.(3 .3*A(8,&*5
0(.(50) 2.*5 ,%( .23.*)( */ (18% &50&D&021' +1.: B13,*431.%- &) 1 /*3+ */
8*++25&81,&*56 150 ,%( .3*A(8,&*5 -*2 )('(8, ?&'' 0(.(50 *5 ?%1, -*2 ?&)% ,*
8*++25&81,( ?&,% -*23 +1.: J*), */ ,%( (<(38&)() &5 ,%&) +1521' ?&'' 2)( 1 =CJ
.3*A(8,(0 8**30&51,( )-),(+ /*3 813,*431.%&8 .3*A(8,):


46
!"!#$%&! (
Of lhe hundreds of digilaI mas avaiIabIe onIine, many have nol been ro|ecled, and
olhers may have been assigned a ro|eclion lhal is nol lhe besl one for a arlicuIar use.
Therefore, il is imorlanl lo knov hov lo aIy a ro|eclion lo a digilaI ma.

)*+,-
Ior lhis exercise, ve are going lo lake an unro|ecled ma of Irance and aIy an
aroriale ro|eclion lo il.

&./0 1-
Go lo hll://vvv.geograhicaIIyinlegraledhislory.com/v-
conlenl/uIoads/exercises/exercise3.zi

Save lhis shaefiIe in your ShaefiIes foIder in a subfoIder IabeIed Ixercise 3, and
unzi lhe shaefiIe. You viII see lhe Irance.sh fiIe in your Ixercise 3 subfoIder.

23./:
If you are using Windovs 7, lhe subfoIder viII be crealed for you vhen you unzi lhe
fiIe.

&./0 4-
To Ioad lhis shaefiIe, oen lhe MaWindov aIicalion.

CIick lhe bullon.

Navigale lo your "Ixercise 3 subfoIder.

SeIecl lhe shaefiIe Irance.sh and oen il as a Iayer in MaWindov |Iigure 3.1j. The
coIors of your ma may be differenl from lhose in lhe ma used lo iIIuslrale lhis
exercise. As you can see, lhe ma of Irance is dislorled. We need lo aIy a ro|eclion
lo correcl lhal dislorlion.


!"

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-. /0 !%-12& 3"45/$4 .%/6&24"/1)

74&. (+
$% &'( )*+, -,*./,01 2),., *., 3*/& 0*2(3% */0 4.'5,62,0 6''.07/*2, %&%2,3% 8.'3
9)76) 2' 6)''%,1 */0 %'3, '8 2),%, 8*+'. 0788,.,/2 *.,*% '8 2), :-';,< ='. =.*/6,1 9,
%)'(-0 (%, 2), >?@ ABC! D>'.-0 ?,'0,276 @&%2,3 ABC!E 0*2(3 */0 2), >?@ ABC!
FGH I'/, JKL 4.'5,627'/< $% 9, ,M4-*7/,0 7/ 2), 6)*42,.1 FGH %2*/0% 8'. NF/7+,.%*-
G.*/%+,.%, H,.6*2'.<O >, *., (%7/: P'/, JKL ;,6*(%, =.*/6, 8*--% 972)7/ P'/, JK '8 2),
L'.2),./ ),37%4),.,<

G' ;, *;-, 2' 6)''%, * 4.'5,627'/1 &'( 97-- /,,0 2' %9726) 8.'3 2), NQ*&,.%O +7,9 2' 2),
NG''-;'MO +7,9 7/ 2), NQ,:,/0O 4*/, '/ 2), -,82 %70, '8 2), %6.,,/ R=7:(., J<ST<


48

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-../0.1, 2"&3 "4 56& 7&#&48 9:4&)

;5&9 <+
To delermine if a dalum or a geograhic coordinale syslem has been aIied lo lhe
shaefiIe of Irance, go lo Iro|eclions, in lhe TooIbox menu, and in Iro|eclions,
doubIe-cIick Idenlify Iro|eclion. This viII oen lhe Idenlify Iro|eclion vindov
|Iigure 3.3j.


49

!"#$%& ()(* +,-&./"01 2%34&5/"3.+ 6".-36)

In SeIecl Iayer, choose Irance, and lhen cIick lhe Idenlify bullon. You viII see
lhal lhe Iro|eclion slring vindov is bIank because a ro|eclion has nol been aIied
lo lhe shaefiIe.

To assign lhe WGS 1984 dalum, cIick CanceI lo go back lo Iro|eclions, and doubIe-
cIick Assign Iro|eclion lo ShaefiIe lo oen lhe Assign Iro|eclion vindov |Iigure
3.4j.


!"

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-.."#/ 0%12&34"1/, 5"/615)

$%&'( )*+ ,-. /0))12 34*152 12 )*+ /1))16 17 )*+ 8&9*) *:%7 17 )*+ 4'8++2; )1 1<+2 )*+
,=+%+') %:>+84. 5&2?15@ =+%+') )*+ ,A8:2'+. %:>+8B :4 4*152 &2 A&908+ C@!B :2? '%&'(
,D(@.


!"#$%& ()7+ 89&:&34 :;<&%.= 5"/615)


!"
$%& '()' '(* +,-)./*0 1)2*- ()3 4**. 3*1*/'*56 '(73 &7.5%& &711 /1%3* ).5 2%8 &711
-*'8-. '% '(* +9337:. ;-%<*/'7%.0 3/-**.=

>*1*/' '(* +?*%:-)@(7/)10 A%15*- 7. '(* A71* 173' %. '(* 1*A' 375* %A '(* 3/-**.= B. '(*
+?*%:-)@(7/)10 A%15*-6 /17/C +D?> EF60 ).5 '(*. /17/C '(* +9337:.0 48''%. G,7:8-* H=IJ=


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-./ 012 "3 45& ,.&6#%785"97:2 ;6:<&%)

K%8 &711 3** ) L*33):* 3')'7.: '()' +'(* @-%<*/'7%. &)3 38//*33A8112 )337:.*5 '% '(* A71*0
G,7:8-* H=MJ= N(* 5)'8L ()3 4**. )337:.*56 ).5 2%8 )-* ()1A&)2 '% 38//*33O


!"#$%& ()=+ /$99&>>;$: 8%6?&94"63 @&>>7#&)



52
!"#$ &'
Nov lhal ve have aIied lhe WGS84 dalum, ve need lo seIecl lhe correcl UTM zone
lo give us a ma ro|eclion, lhe one for Irance is UTM zone 30N.

CIose lhe Assign Iro|eclion vindov and in lhe Iro|eclions looIbox, doubIe-cIick
Rero|ecl ShaefiIe. This viII oen lhe Rero|ecl Layers vindov |Iigure 3.8j.


()*+,# -./' 01#$,23#4" 567#,80 9):;29.















!"
$%&'( )*+ ,-. /0))12 324 5+%+') )*+ ,6732'+. %38+79 35 810 4&4 &2 5)+: ;< =2 )*+ >1%4+7
,?17%4. 12 )*+ %+>) 5&4+ 1> )*+ @&241@9 '*115+ )*+ 50/>1%4+7 ,?AB C;. D6&E07+ "<FG<


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-./ 01, 2$34567&%)

















!"
$%&'( )*+ ,-. /0123% 4+5) )3 )*+ ,678 9". )3 +5:;4< )*+ /=2>3%<+? ;4< /'?3%% <3@4 )3
)*+ >3%<+? %;2+%+< ,ABC D3?)*+?4 E+1&/:*+?+F. ;4< )*+4 '%&'( )*+ ,-. /0123% )3
+5:;4< )*+ ,ABC D3?)*+?4 E+1&/:*+?+. /=2>3%<+?G H4 ,ABC D3?)*+?4 E+1&/:*+?+F.
'*33/+ ,678 9" I ABC J34+ KL D. MN&O=?+ KGPLQF ;4< '%&'( )*+ ,R+:?3S+'). 2=))34G


!"#$%& ()*+, -./0 123456 789& (+ :- ;%8<&=>"89)

T3= @&%% /++ ; @&4<3@ <&/:%;0&4O )*+ :?3S+')&34 ?+/=%)/ MN&O=?+ KGPPQG U4'+ 03= *;V+
'34>&?1+< )*+ ?+/=%)/F '%&'( ,$%3/+G.


!"#$%& ()**, -?%8<&=>"89 =@&=A"9# %&B$C>B)-


!!
!"#$ &'
#$%&' ()* +,-& ./)0&1 %+& 23')4&.%5)6 .+&.7568 '&0*/%09 :561):; ()* :5// 0&& , <&00,8&
0%,%568 %+,% %+& =')4&.%&1 /,(&' .)*/1 6)% >& ,11&1 %) %+& <,= ?@58*'& ABCDEB ()*+"
,)--. F %+50 4*0% <&,60 %+,% ()* :5// +,-& %) <,6*,//( ,11 %+& '&=')4&.%&1 /,(&' %)
G,=H561):B


/012-# 3456' 7-)8#9"0)* :#;;<1#4

I/)0& %+& 23')4&.%5)6 <&00,8&9 :561):; ,61 %+&6 ./)0& %+& 2J&=')4&.% /,(&'09 :561):B

I/5.7 %+& 2#119 >*%%)6 %) )=&6 %+& 2#11 G,= K,(&'9 :561):; ,61 6,-58,%& %)
()*' 2LM&'.50& A9 0*>$)/1&'B N)* 0+)*/1 0&& , 6&: 0+,=&$5/& 6,<&1 2@',6.&BHOP QR F
STG U)6& AVW;9 ,0 0+):6 56 @58*'& ABCAB P&/&.% %+50 0+,=&$5/& ,61 ./5.7 %+& 2X=&69
>*%%)6B


56

!"#$%& ()*(+ ,-.. /01 203&%, 4"5.64)

You viII nolice lhal lhe nev ma does nol aear on lhe screen. Thal is because ve
need lo leII MaWindov lo shov lhe nev one.

In lhe Legend ane, svilch lo lhe Layers viev, righl-cIick lhe nevIy added Iayer,
and choose Zoom lo Layer from lhe dro-dovn menu |Iigure 3.14j.


!"#$%& ()*7+ 8966: ;6 203&%< "5 ;=& 203&%> :&5$)

57
Nov you viII see lhal you have a nev ma of Irance vilh a ro|ecled geograhic
coordinale syslem added lo il |Iigure 3.15j:


!"#$%& ()*+, -.%%&/012 3%.4&/0&5 673 .8 !%79/&)

CongraluIalions! You nov have a correclIy ro|ecled lhe ma of Irance. Save lhis nev
fiIe lo your Ixercise 3 subfoIder, ve viII be using il for fulure exercises.

If you do nol yel feeI comforlabIe vilh dalums and ro|eclions, ve suggesl lhal you
save lhis ma, and lhen reeal lhis exercise choosing olher dalums and ro|eclions.
This reelilion viII give you a sense of hov lhe various ro|eclion syslems viII redrav
lhe ma, and famiIiarize you vilh lhe rocess of ro|ecling a coordinale syslem.

When you are ready lo conlinue, move on lo lhe nexl chaler, vhich viII inlroduce you
lo lhe basics of carlograhy so lhal you can roduce informalive, easy-lo-read mas.

58
!"#$%&' )* !+,-./,+012
Wilh lhis chaler, ve Iace in your hands a arlicuIarIy overfuI vay lo communicale
your ideas. !+,-./,+012 is lhe sludy and raclice of roducing mas. Il is ossibIe lhal
lhe ma|orily of lhe human brain has evoIved lo deaI vilh lhe visuaI. This cenlraIily of
visuaI ercelion makes carlograhy a suerb form of communicalion among humans.
Indeed, carlograhic communicalion is so overfuI lhal lhose roducing mas musl
lake care lhal lhey do nol convey faIse informalion.
1


Ma roduclion combines eIemenls of arl, science, and lechnoIogy. ecause ma-
making generaIIy invoIves scaIing dovn a reresenlalion of lhe Iarlh's surface, lhe
rocess comes vilh inherenl Iimilalions. Good carlograhy seeks lo minimize lhose
Iimilalions as much as ossibIe. Hovever, il is imorlanl lo reaIize lhal no ma can
shov everylhing. Whal lhe carlograher decides lo incIude in a ma shouId IargeIy
deend uon lhe scaIe and urose of lhe ma. WhiIe lhere is nol a hard and fasl sel of
ruIes for carlograhic design, lhere are some generaI guideIines lhal ve can discuss.
Much of lhis discussion is based on }udilh Tyner's !"#$%#&'() +, -.& /()#0$.
2


&34546-7 .8 + 9+0
Mosl mas incIude ilems lo make il easier for lhe reader lo undersland lhe meaning of
lhe ma. Such ilems incIude lilIes, Iegends, a norlh arrov or comass rose, and some
indicalion of lhe size of lhe region shovn on lhe ma, usuaIIy by incIuding a scaIe bar.
The -:-34 of a ma shouId be concise bul descrilive of lhe sub|ecl of lhe ma. A 34/46;
shouId exIain lhe symboIs used on lhe ma. If a Iegend lilIe is deemed necessary, il
shouId be differenl from, bul a concise and effeclive comIemenl lo lhe ma lilIe. The
Iegend shouId incIude aII symboIs on lhe ma, aIong vilh lheir meanings. A <.50+77
,.74 or 6.,-1 +,,.= rovides a direclionaI orienlalion for lhe ma. Using a comass
rose or norlh arrov is arlicuIarIy heIfuI vhen deaIing vilh a geograhic area lhal
may nol be famiIiar lo your ma readers. As aIvays, your design decisions shouId be
delermined by lhe urose, audience, inlended use of your ma. ><+34 shovs lhe
reresenlalive unils of measuremenl of lhe ma. There are lhree vays lo shov scaIe:
vilh a ralio, in vords, or by a bar scaIe, and MaWindov can shov scaIe in aII of lhese
vays. An examIe of a scaIe based uon ,+-:. is lhis exression: 1:250,000. This lye of
scaIe is arlicuIarIy usefuI because a ralio lranscends unils. The scaIe of a ma can aIso

1
Idvard R. Tufle, 1$2#)#+$#$0 3$,+"4.5#+$ (Cheshire, CT: Grahics Iress, 1990). As soon as ossibIe, you
shouId read lvo inexensive books by Mark Monmonier, ubIished by lhe Universily of Chicago Iress:
6+7 5+ 8#( 7#59 -.&) (1996), and -.&&#$0 35 :;5< 1=&+)#5+"> ?."5+0".&9> ,+" 59( 6;4.$#5#() .$@ A+%#.'
A%#($%() (1993).
2
}udilh Tyner, !"#$%#&'() +, -.& /()#0$ (Nev York: The GuiIford Iress, 2010).
59
be exressed in vords: one inch reresenls len miIes. A scaIe bar deicls ma unils
grahicaIIy, such as:


You musl undersland hov carlograhers emIoy lhe lerms !"#$% '("!% and ')"!! '("!%,
because lhe concels are oflen confused. Ior examIe, vhen comaring mas vilh
ralios of 1:250,000 and 1:1,000, one mighl assume lhal lhe 1:1,000 scaIe is smaIIer and lhe
1:250,000 is Iarger, hovever, lhe oosile hoIds lrue. If lhe ma unil reresenls one/one-
lhousandlhs of lhe area of lhe ma, il is Iarger lhan a unil reresenling one/lvo
hundred fifly-lhousandlhs of lhal area. Thus, a scaIe of 1:1,000 is Iarger lhan a scaIe of
1:250,000. The carlograhic slandard is lhal lhe Iarger lhe area reresenled by lhe ma,
lhe smaIIer lhe scaIe. To see lhis concel visuaIIy, comare Iigures 4.1 and 4.2.


*+$,#% -./0 12+' ')"!!3'("!% +)"$% '245' " !"#$% "#%".

60

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-". /0%#& .10/& 203 .-45. 0 .20//&% 0%&0 6-07 "7 8"#$%& ()9)

:0;4$6 07< =/077"7#
AIong vilh lhe Iegend, comass rose, and scaIe, lhere are olher asecls lo a good ma
lhal can make lhe ma easier lo read for lhe viever. When designing a ma, il is
imorlanl lo consider lhese various eIemenls. ObviousIy, lhe geograhic comonenl of
your ma shouId make u lhe Iargesl orlion, bul lhere are olher comonenls of a ma
lhal can make lhe informalion more easiIy underslood by lhe viever. Tyner suggesled
lhal carlograhers ay arlicuIar allenlion lo lhe design eIemenls of lhe ma, incIuding
cIarily, order, baIance, conlrasl, unily, and harmony. She noled lhal aII lhe eIemenls of a
ma are inlerdeendenl, incIuding loic, audience, Iellering, urose, scaIe, coIor, and
symboIs.
3
Imagine lhal each ma eIemenl carries vilh il a veighl, based uon ils size
and coIor. Iach veighl shouId be baIanced in such a vay lhal lhe ma incIudes aII lhe
informalion needed, vilhoul lhese olher eIemenls overshadoving lhe grahic ma
ilseIf. Iigures 4.3 and 4.4 iIIuslrale lhe difference belveen a baIanced ma and an
unbaIanced one.


3
Ibid., 19-23.
!"

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-". /01 -0. 203045&6 033 78 9-& /01 &3&/&49. 05%7.. 9-& 10#&)



!"#$%& ()(+ ,-& 30:7$9 78 9-". /01 ". 479 ;&33<203045&6 046 ". 6"88"5$39 97 %&06)
62
Lcttcring
Texl in a ma serves severaI uroses: lo IabeI, lo exIain, lo direcl lhe user lo secific
fealures, lo eslabIish a hierarchy, or lo shov size. Here are some generaI guideIines for
formalling and Iacing lexl on a ma:
1) Waler fealures, such as rivers and Iakes, are IabeIed in ilaIics. Wilh rivers, lhe
name shouId foIIov lhe Iine reresenling lhe river and be reealed lhroughoul
lhe ma if lhe river is a Iong one. Lakes and olher bodies of valer shouId have
lhe name inside if il fils, if nol, il shouId be Iaced comIeleIy oulside lhe body
of valer.
2) Roads, raiIroads, and olher Iinear fealures are IabeIed Iike rivers, excel lhey
are nnt ilaIicized.
3) Mounlain ranges, regions, and olher areas lyicaIIy have lexl lhal is sread
lhroughoul lhe reseclive sace.
4) When oinl symboIs are used lo reresenl Iocalions of Iaces, such as cilies,
lhere is a hierarchy of olimaI Iaces lo Iocale lhe name in reIalion lo lhe oinl.
The besl Iace is off lhe lo-righl of lhe oinl, lhe nexl besl is lhe bollom righl,
lhen lo-Iefl, or if none of lhese is ossibIe, lhe bollom-Iefl. If olher fealures in
lhe ma do nol aIIov for lhe besl convenlion, Iace lhe IabeI in lhe besl Iocalion
ossibIe |see Iigure 4.5j. As aIvays, you are concerned aboul achieving cIarily
and IegibiIily.


Figurc 4.5: In this cxamp!c, bccausc nI thc path nI thc rivcr, thc bcst !ncatinn Inr thc
city namc is tnp-!cIt, rathcr than tnp-right.

WhiIe lhe simIesl soIulion may be lo Iace lexl near a oinl fealure on a ma,
carlograhic guideIines suggesl lhal if lhe lexl can be Iaced in lhe olimaI osilion
63
using !"#$%&#"'()! +",-).&, lhe carlograher shouId do so. If ve Iook al Iigure 4.5, ve
can see lhal if ve |usl ul lhe lexl Sl. IauI lo lhe lo-righl of lhe oinl reresenling
lhe cily, ve vouId obscure arls of bolh lhe Iine indicaling lhe river and lhe one
indicaling lhe slale border. Carlograhic masking aIIovs lhe ma-maker lo creale a
smaII oIygon across lhose fealures in such a vay lhal lhe cily name can be Iocaled in
lhe roer osilion vilhoul obscuring lhe Iine fealures. Ior examIe, in Iigure 4.6, a
carlograhic mask vas Iaced lhrough lhe Mississii River in order lo rovide a sace
for lhe name Sl. IauI.


/)&0#1 2345 6"' 71')!$).& $(1 8"918 :%# ;$3 <"08 0,).& !"#$%&#"'()! +",-).&3

Masks can be erformed vilh many differenl coIors, if necessary, by crealing as many
differenl coIored oIygons as needed. We used lhe same fiII coIor for lhe background of
our IabeI, and sel lhe border coIor lo cIear, so lhal lhe IabeI box around lhe lexl vouId
disaear. In lhis vay, carlograhic masking enabIes users lo disIay Iellering in a Iess-
cIullered manner. Any decision lo emIoy carlograhic masking musl be based on lhe
urose of lhe ma. Ior examIe, if lhe Mississii River vere lhe main sub|ecl of lhe
ma, ve vouId robabIy nol vish lo cul u lhal fealure vilh reealed carlograhic
masking.

=%8%#
When used roerIy, coIor can enhance carlograhic visuaIizalion, hovever, oor coIor
choices can obscure imorlanl asecls of a ma. Arlhur Robinson
4
suggesled lhree

4
Arlhur H. Robinson (1915-2004), of lhe Universily of Wisconsin-Madison, inlroduced Ovens lo
carlograhic design and lhe hislory of carlograhy. efore Robinson's dealh, Ovens vas abIe lo leII him
64
reasons for using coIor in carlograhy: firsl, il can cIarify and simIify lhe informalion
on lhe ma by increasing lhe number of visuaI IeveIs and unifying lhe eIemenls on lhe
ma, second, coIor choices can slrongIy infIuence lhe reaclions of lhe ma reader, and
finaIIy, coIor can markedIy affecl hov lhe reader erceives lhe ma.
5
CoIor aIso allracls
allenlion and Ieads lhe eye lo lhe mosl reIevanl areas of lhe ma. Ior lhis reason, ma-
makers shouId choose coIors lhal are nol overIy shovy and lhal share lhe same lonaI
vaIues. Il is aIso a good idea lo use onIy as many coIors as are needed lo highIighl lhe
informalion you vanl your ma lo convey, loo many coIors can dislracl lhe eye and
make il more difficuIl for lhe user lo comrehend lhe urose of lhe ma. CoIor oflen
carries cuIluraI ercelions, loo, for examIe, among mosl Iinguislic grous, red is
generaIIy recognized lo indicale heal, vhiIe bIue is usuaIIy inlerreled as cooI.
Therefore, il is imorlanl lhal your coIor choices be made vilh lhese ercelions in
mind. Unvise coIor choices can Iead lhe ma viever lo misundersland lhe ma's
urose and lhe informalion lhe ma is meanl lo convey.

AIso, you shouId communicale lo your audience informalion aboul lhe crealor of your
ma (you) and lhe decisions you made aboul ro|eclion. In olher vords, ul your name
on your ma vilh some indicalion of your affiIialion. TeII your audience lhe dalum and
ro|eclion you used in crealing lhe ma. Remember lhal your choices of dalum and
ro|eclion viII have an imacl on lhe vay lhal your ma aears, and sohislicaled
vievers viII vanl lo knov vhal choices Iay behind lhe ma lhey see. AIso, deending
on lhe nalure of your ma, you may vish lo incIude a concise indicalion of lhe sources
of lhe informalion on vhich lhe ma is based.

AIlhough il is imossibIe lo discuss in delaiI every asecl of carlograhy in one chaler
(see nole 1 on lhe books of Mark Monmonier), lhose ve have discussed viII heI you
add meaning lo your ma. As you become more famiIiar vilh mamaking and lhe use
of MaWindov, il viII become easier for you lo kee lhese eIemenls in mind as you
design your mas. AIso, |usl as you vouId do vilh a vrillen lexl, you shouId have
coIIeagues read your ma lo make sure lhal ils urose and meaning are
communicaled cIearIy. They can aIso evaIuale if your ma is inleresling and originaI,
lhese are imorlanl issues in making use of a overfuI form of communicalion. Our
exercise for lhis chaler viII lake lhe correclIy ro|ecled ma of Irance ve crealed in
Ixercise 3, and leach you hov lo lurn il inlo a roerIy-baIanced finished ma.


aboul lhe roosed GIS-based graduale rogram al Idaho Slale Universily and aboul lhe Carlograhy:
Hislory and Design course Ovens vas crealing. He vas lhe aulhor of lhe infIuenliaI Robinson
ro|eclion for a vorId ma.
5
As summarized in Tyner, !"#$%#&'() +, -.& /()#0$, 62.
65
!"!#$%&! (
We have aIready crealed a roerIy ro|ecled ma of Irance. Hovever, lhal ma
conveys no informalion besides lhe basic shae and roorlion of lhe counlry, vilh ils
ma|or regions oulIined. Hovever, lhis ma is incomIele and unbaIanced because il
Iacks lhe carlograhic fealures, such as a Iegend and lilIe, lhal rovide crilicaI
informalion lo lhe ma reader.

)*+,:
This exercise viII leach you hov lo creale a baIanced ma of lhe adminislralive regions
of Irance by using coIor lo differenliale lhe regions and by adding a Iegend, comass
rose, and scaIe indicalor. We viII aIso use MaWindov's Irinl Layoul fealure lo rinl
lhe finished ma.

&-./ 01
Oen MaWindov. CIick on lhe add bullon and add as a Iayer in MaWindov lhe
Irance.WGS 84 UTM zone 30N shaefiIe of Irance |Iigure 4.1j, vhich you crealed
in exercise 3 as a Iayer in MaWindov.


23456. (701 826*9:. ;<&=( > ?)@ AB9. CDE8 F*G.6 :6.*-.H 39 !I.6:3+. C7




66
!"#$ &'
MaWindov rovides many carlograhic looIs in lhe Iroerlies of a given Iayer.
These incIude looIs lo change lhe coIor of a ma. To exIore lhese looIs, go lo Layers
in lhe Legend ane. Righl-cIick on lhe Irance Iayer and seIecl Iroerlies from lhe
dro-dovn menu lo oen lhe Layer roerlies vindov |Iigure 4.2j.


()*+,# -.&' /012#, $,3$#,")#4/ 5)6735 83, 3+, (,169# :12#,.














!"
$% &'( )*+,(- .-/.(-&0(12 30%4/35 1(6(7& &'( )8+&(9/-0(12 &+: ;<09=-( >?@A? B%4(-
)86+110C07+&0/%52 7'(7D &'( :/E )B%0F=( G+6=(1?2 $% )<0(64152 1(6(7& )HIJK2 &/ 7'//1(
&'( %+L(1 /C &'( +4L0%01&-+&0G( -(90/%1 /C <-+%7(5 +%4 7607D )M(%(-+&(?2 H/&07( &'( 601&
/C -(90/%1 &'+& %/3 +..(+-1 =%4(- )8+&(9/-0(1?2


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-./&#0%"&12 3"4503 .6/&% /7& .58"4"1/%./"9& %&#"041 .%& 1&:&;/&5)















68
Nov ve vanl lo use coIor lo differenliale belveen lhe adminislralive regions. In CoIor
scheme, check lhe box Random CoIors, vhich viII oen a dro-dovn Iisl of coIor
schemes, and seIecl lhe sevenlh coIor scheme |Iigure 4.4j. CIick Generale, lhen
AIy, and lhen Ok.


!"#$%& ()(* +",- ./ 0.1.% ,23&4&,)













!"
$%&' ()* +,%&-. -%%/ +%(01,234 -2/0 524&'0 6787 !" $"% &"''( 29 :%&' ;%-%'+
)**0)' .2990'0317 <)*=23.%> >2-- &+0 1,0 +)(0 ;%-%'+ +;,0(0? @&1 (): )++243
.2990'031 ;%-%' A)-&0+ 9'%( 217


)*+,-. /012 345 67 )-489. :*;< ;<. 4=>*8*?;-4;*@. -.+*68? =.A*8.4;.= BC 96A6-0



















!"
!"#$ &'
$% &'( )*+,-+. &'(* /,01 2,0345.'6 7,% )*+,-+. , 8+9+5.1 , %),8+ :,*1 ,5. , 5'*-7
,**'6; <'6+=+*1 :+),(%+ 2,0345.'6 .'+% 5'- 5+)+%%,*48& 08,)+ -7+%+ 4-+/% 45 -7+
:+%- 8'),-4'5% '5 -7+ /,01 4- 4% 4/0'*-,5- -' *+,%%495 -7+/ ,))'*.459 -' &'(* /,0
.+%495; >5 -7+ 2,0345.'6 /+5( :,*1 9' -' ?@*'A+)-1B ,5. -7+5 )7''%+ ?@*45-;B


()*+,# -./' 01$2)3456 7#3+ 81,.













71
The MaWindov Irinl Layoul vindov viII oen |Iigure 4.7j. Nolice lhal lhere is a
ane on lhe uer righl-hand side vilh a Iisl of ma comonenls. We can edil lhe ma
by choosing lhe reIevanl comonenls from lhis Iisl.


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-%"./ 0123$/, 4".534)

Iirsl, ve vanl lo cenler lhe osilion of lhe ma on our rinl Iayoul. To do lhis, in lhe
uer righl hand ane, scroII dovn unliI you see lhe olion Ma 1 and cIick on il.
This choice gives you lhe abiIily lo move lhe ma on lhe main ane. IIace your ma in
lhe visuaI cenler of lhe age |Iigure 4.8j.

63/&+
To increase or decrease lhe size of your ma, you can use lhe and bullons.
IIease nole lhal lhese bullons are aclivaled 3.72 vhen lhe olion Ma 1 is seIecled.

!"

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-./"0# 12& 3.4 "0 12& 5"6$.- /&01&% 78 12& 4.#&)

91&4 (+
$% &'( )*+ %,, -.'/ 012(., 3456 '(. /*7 %8199 +,,:% ;'.<= ;>19, ?*7@1+:'; >*%
2,+,.*8,: 8>, %)*9, A*. -'. (%6 79*),: 8>, :*8, '+ 8>, /*76 *+: 7.'B1:,: * 9,2,+:6 8>,
/*7 .,/*1+% (+A*9*+),:4 C,)*(%, 8>, 9,2,+: *+: 8>, ?*7@1+:'; 9'2' *., 1+ 8>,
;.'+2 79*),%6 ;, *., 2'1+2 8' /'B, 8>,/ 8' A,88,. 9')*81'+%4

D+ 8>, (77,. .12>8 7*+,6 %).'99 8' 8>, '781'+ EF,2,+: GH *+: )91)< '+ 18= 8>1% *99';% (% 8'
/'B, 8>, 9,2,+:4 @18> &'(. /'(%,6 :.*2 8>, 9,2,+: 8' 8>, A'88'/ 9,-8 )'.+,. *.,* '- 8>,
7*2,6 *A'B, 8>, :*8, ).,*8,:4

I'; ;, +,,: 8' /'B, 8>, ?*7@1+:'; 9'2' 8' * 79*), ;>,., 18 ;199 +'8 :.*; 8>,
.,*:,.J% ,&,% *;*& -.'/ 8>, /*74 K>, A,%8 9')*81'+ -'. 8>1% 7(.7'%, 1% 8>, .12>8 '- '(.
/*74



73
Irom lhe Iisl of eIemenls in lhe uer-righl, scroII lo and seIecl MaWindovLogo.
Drag lhe MaWindov Iogo lo lhe righl cenler of lhe age |Iigure 4.9j:


!"#$%& ()*+ ,%-.&%/0 ./12& /&#&34 134 /-#-)

56&. 7+
Our ma is beginning lo Iook more baIanced, bul il is sliII incomIele. We need lo add a
lilIe lo lhe ma. In lhe uer righl ane, scroII lo and seIecl Iro|eclName. Nov Iook
al lhe informalion ane beIov lhe comonenl Iisl, on lhe bollom righl. You viII see a
Iisl vilh lhe lo ilem caIIed Layoul. These are fieIds lhal you can change lo add or
edil lexl informalion on lhe ma.

Ma lilIes shouId be shorl bul effeclive in leIIing lhe viever exaclIy vhal lhe ma
deicls. ecause our ma is of lhe adminislralive regions of Irance, lhal is vhal our lilIe
shouId be. Once a lilIe is chosen, ve vanl lo add il lo lhe ma in a cIear, easiIy-readabIe
fonl. Avoid fancy fonls for ma lilIes because lhose fonls viII drav allenlion avay
from lhe ma lo lhe lilIe. We are going lo use lhe Verdana fonl, and ve vanl il Iarge
enough lo be read easiIy, bul nol so Iarge lhal il overvheIms lhe ma.

74
In lhe Layoul Iisl, Iocale lhe fieId IabeIed Ionl, and cIick on il. Then cIick lhe
bullon lhal viII aear, vhich viII aIIov you lo seIecl and cuslomize lhe fonl. Choose
Verdana, ReguIar, and 28 oinl. CIick OK. Nov move your cursor lo lhe
Texl box beIov lhe Layoul Iisl, and lye Adminislralive Regions of Irance.

The lilIe viII nov shov u on lhe ma. To cenler lhe lilIe, drag lhe box lo lhe desired
Iocalion generaIIy, lhe lilIe viII be cenlered above lhe ma |Iigure 4.10j.


!"#$%& ()*+, -./ 0"12 1"13&)

Nolice lhal lhe ma of Irance lakes cenler Iace, vilh lhe lilIe, Iegend, comass rose,
scaIe bar, dale crealed, and MaWindov Iogo aII easiIy readabIe vilhoul inlerfering
vilh lhe ma. Those are lhe haIImarks of a veII-baIanced ma.

To save lhe ma, go lo lhe Iro|ecls menu and lhen seIecl lhe Save as olion. We
recommend lhal you aIso rinl your ma if you vouId Iike lo save il as a baIanced ma.


75
!"#$:
%& !&( )*+, -.&/ (0, 1.2!( 3*4&5( 62!%&67 The Save olion in lhe
Irinl Layoul vindov viII save lhe !"#$%&, vhich viII cause robIems vhen you use lhe
fealure on a differenl ma. This lroubIesome issue viII be addressed in a never version
of MaWindov.

CongraluIalions! This exercise has laughl you hov lo creale a baIanced ma using
coIors and MaWindov's Irinl Layoul fealure. As aIvays, if you feeI lhal you need
more raclice, you can do lhis exercise again. IIay vilh using differenl coIor schemes,
fonls, and Iacemenls lo gel a feeI for hov ma baIance is besl achieved. You can aIso
go beyond lhis exercise lo add your name and inslilulionaI affiIialion, as veII as
informalion aboul lhe dalum and ma ro|eclion you used lo creale lhe ma. This
addilionaI lexl viII require more lhoughl aboul hov lo baIance lhe ma.

In lhe nexl chaler, ve viII exIore hov lo refine our ma even more, lo be abIe lo
creale mas lruIy laiIored for one's research. We viII aIso exIain hov lo add dala lo a
ma Iayer or MaWindov ro|ecl. We slrongIy recommend lhal from lhis oinl on, you
oen MaWindov as you read a nev chaler, lo see and use lhe looIs as ve inlroduce
lhem.

76
!"#$%&' )* +,-./0/1, 234 5262 723218-836
+,-./0/1,
SymboIogy in MaWindov GIS aIIovs lhe user lo change lhe symboIs and aearance
of various dala Iayers lo enhance lhe communicalion imacl of lhe ro|ecl. Ior examIe,
one can change lhe coIor of lhe fiII vilhin lhe shae of an area, lhe lransarency of lhe
coIor, or lhe design of lhe fiII in a oIygon. Or one mighl vish lo change lhe coIor or
vidlh of Iines or of lhe border around an area. The shaes, sizes, and coIors of oinls
can aII be changed, as veII. Changing lhese fealures on lhe ma, vhiIe nol changing lhe
acluaI dala of a ro|ecl, conlribules lo lhe finaI Iook of lhe ma and can dramalicaIIy
imrove ils readabiIily. The vide variely of looIs avaiIabIe merils a cIoser Iook before
ve begin lo use lhem vilh a ma.

As ve sav in lhe revious chaler, MaWindov offers an easy vay lo change lhe
symboIogy of any asecl of a ma in lhe Iroerlies of lhe dala Iayer, vhich is oened
by righl-cIicking on lhe dala Iayer in lhe Legend ane, and lhen seIecling lhe
Iroerlies olion |Iigure 5.1j.


9:1;<8 )=>* %?8 @$</A8<6:8BC /A6:/3 D/< 2 4262 02,8<=
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84
lo slore and inlegrale dala from a variely of sources.
1
Dala can range from lhe Iocalions
of hisloricaI evenls, lo lhe number of acres of farmIand in a medievaI lovnshi, lo
disease oulbreaks, lo reIigious affiIialion, lo ouIalion drifl, lo dielary slaIes such as
fish and herd animaIs, lo anylhing eIse a user vanls lo incIude. Thus, lhe dala lhal can
be slored in lhe allribule labIe of a shaefiIe goes far beyond geograhic informalion
such as ubIic buiIdings, roads, rivers, adminislralive unils, and voodIands.
2
VaIuabIe
rimary sources aIso can be slored in an allribule labIe and be eilher visuaIized or ul
lo use in a saliaI anaIysis. In a sludy conducled by Roberl ChurchiII and Amy HiIIier,
lhe aulhors used oIice arresls, birlh and dealh records, cily, church, and slale
direclories, morlgage records, and census informalion, aII of vhich vas managed in a
GIS.
3
There are lvo vays lo add dala lo a MaWindov ro|ecl: by crealing a nev
shaefiIe or by crealing or modifying an allribule labIe of a dala Iayer.

!"#$%&'( $ *#+ ,-$.#/&0#
One vay lo add dala lo a GIS is by crealing a nev shaefiIe. As ve discussed in
Chaler 2, a shaefiIe is comrised of severaI differenl fiIes, bul ve can lhink of a singIe
shaefiIe as a dala Iayer. The combinalion of oinl, Iine, and oIygon shaefiIes, aIong
vilh any olher dala, make u a MaWindov ro|ecl (.mvr|). efore ve can creale a
nev shaefiIe, ve need lo lurn on lhe shaefiIe edilor. To do lhis, oen MaWindov
and cIick IIug-Ins in lhe main menu, and lhen seIecl ShaefiIe Idilor |Iigure 5.9j.

1
Ian N. Gregory and IauI S. III, !"#$%&"'() +,-. /0'12%)%3"0#4 50$1%6%)%3"0# (26 -'1%)(&#1"7 (Cambridge,
Nev York: Cambridge Universily Iress, 2008), 37.
2
Ibid.
3
Roberl ChurchiII and Amy HiIIier, Teaching vilh GIS, in 8)('"23 !"#$%&9. !%: 5(7#4 -7($"() ;($(4 (26
+,- (&0 <1(23"23 !"#$%&"'() -'1%)(&#1"7, eds. Anne K. KnovIes and Amy HiIIier (RedIands: ISRI Iress,
2008), 79.
85

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-&.".# /0& 1203-&4"5& 67"/8%9 -5$#:".)

This viII creale a nev looI bar across lhe lo of lhe MaWindov anes, and add a nev
menu olion on lhe Iefl-hand side of lhe main menu |Iigure 5.10j.


!"#$%& ();<+ =&> 1203-&4"5& 67"/8%9 /885 ?3%)
86

To creale a nev shaefiIe, cIick on lhe Creale nev shaefiIe bullon , vhich is
nov Iocaled in lhe uer Iefl corner of lhe screen under lhe main menu. A diaIog box
viII aear, as seen in |Iigure 5.11j. CIick lhe bullon lo seIecl lhe Iocalion vhere
you vish lo save lhe nev shaefiIe.


!"#$%& ()**+ ,&- ./01&2"3& 415"46.)

Remember lhal vhen saving a GIS ro|ecl, fiIe managemenl is imorlanl. You may
vanl lo creale a nev subfoIder vilhin your Ixercise foIder and caII il ShaefiIe
Iraclice. Afler designaling lhe Iocalion vhere il viII be saved, name lhe nev shaefiIe
Iraclice_Ioinl. Under ShaefiIe Tye, seIecl Ioinl, and cIick OK. The nev
shaefiIe viII aear under Dala Layers on lhe Iefl-hand side of lhe screen, and a
vindov viII oen lo varn you lhal an emly shaefiIe has been crealed |Iigure 5.12j.
CIick OK.


!"#$%& ()*7+ 8915: ./01&2"3& -0%6"6#)
!"
!"#$#%& ( )*(+,-#.,
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&),6$&0'+C$%/7
89

!"#$%& ()*+, -./01&2"3& 45"67%8 9":579)

;66%"<$6& =0<3&>
The dala used in a GIS is slored in a sreadsheel caIIed an allribule labIe. Iach Iine, or
rov, in lhe sreadsheel can conlain dala heId in a number of coIumns, lhe number of
coIumns and lhe lye of dala each coIumn hoIds is user-defined, making lhe
sreadsheel accommodaling enough lo hoId aImosl any lye of informalion. Microsofl
IxceI and OenOffice are lhe lvo mosl commonIy used soflvare ackages for crealing
sreadsheels. If you do nol have eilher of lhese rograms, you viII need lo dovnIoad
lhe free OenOffice soflvare lo be abIe lo creale lhe necessary allribule labIes for fulure
exercises.

The allribule labIe nol onIy slores lhe coordinale dala for oinls, Iines, and oIygons,
bul aIso any olher dala lhe user vanls lo have associaled vilh lhem. Ior examIe, for a
ma of lhe Uniled Slales lhal disIays ouIalion densily and elhnic diversily, lhe
allribule labIe can conlain U.S. Census dala on ouIalion and elhnicily |Iigure 5.17j.
The user can define vhal lyes of allribules and hov many fieIds are used lo slore lhe
dala. This fIexibiIily is one of lhe reasons GIS can be usefuI for any hisloricaI ro|ecl.
90

!"#$%& ()*+, -..%"/$.& .0/1& 23 0 456 107&% 829.0"9"9# :)6) 8&9;$; <0.0)

Throughoul lhis seclion, ve viII demonslrale various vays lo add dala lo an allribule
labIe in MaWindov. In order lo foIIov aIong, Iease oen lhe rero|ecled shaefiIe of
Irance crealed in lhe exercise for Chaler 3, IabeIed Irance.WGS84-UTM30N. Oen
lhe allribule labIe of lhe dala Iayer by righl-cIicking on lhe dala Iayer and lhen cIicking
Viev Allribule TabIe Idilor |Iigure 5.18j.


!"#$%& ()*=, >-..%"/$.& ?0/1& @<".2%A 2B."29)
91
Nov you shouId be abIe lo see aII of lhe allribule dala associaled vilh lhis ma Iayer
|Iigure 5.19j. In lhis allribule labIe, lhe NAMI fieId Iisls lhe name of each
adminislralive region of Irance, vhiIe lhe olher fieIds conlain many olher lyes of dala
associaled vilh lhis Iayer.


!"#$%& ()*+, -.//%"0$/& 1203& 45"/6%7 8"9568)

MaWindov gives users lhe abiIily lo add nev fieIds lo lhese exisling ones, vhich
ermils us lo add hisloricaI dala. This dala can lhen be synlhesized vilh lhe coordinale
dala in lhe allribule labIe. Hovever, enlering lhis dala is exlremeIy lime-consuming, so
il is vorlh sending some lime lo lhink aboul vhal kinds of informalion shouId be
incIuded lo give addilionaI vaIue lo your GIS ro|ecl.











92
!""#$% ' (#)*"
The firsl sle in adding nev informalion lo an allribule labIe is crealing a nev coIumn,
or fieId, vilhin lhe allribule labIe lo hoId lhe nev dala. To add a nev fieId, go lo lhe
Idil menu in lhe uer Iefl corner of lhe Allribule TabIe Idilor and cIick Add
IieId |Iigure 5.20j:


(#%+,) -./01 !""#$% ' 2#)*" 34 35) '33,#6+3) 3'6*).

This viII oen lhe Creale IieId diaIog box |Iigure 5.21j. Inler lhe name of your nev
fieId inlo lhe Name box, for our uroses, ve can caII il lesl. Nov ve need lo seIecl
vhich lye of dala ve viII be enlering.


(#%+,) -./71 89,)'3) (#)*": "#'*4% 64;.

Tye refers lo lhe kind of informalion lhe fieId viII conlain. In MaWindov, lhere
are lhree olions. The firsl lye in lhe dro-dovn menu is DoubIe. This dala lye is
used lo inul a number lhal conlains a decimaI, such as 123.456. The Irecision olion
is grayed oul unIess DoubIe is chosen under dala lye. Irecision viII lhen be
aclivaled lo aIIov lhe user lo secify lhe number of decimaI oinls aIIoved in lhe
associaled fieId. Inleger dala is a osilive or negalive vhoIe number, such as 100 or -
47. IinaIIy, Slring dala is a sequence of characlers encIosed by quolalion marks such
as lhis, lhis lye of fieId can conlain vords, hrases, or aIhanumeric slrings. The
Widlh fieId delermines hov Iong a lexl slring can be, vilh lhe defauIl sel lo 10. Ior
93
Ionger lexl slrings, il is necessary lo increase lhe corresonding vidlh. ecause
hislorians oflen vork vilh quaIilalive informalion ralher lhan quanlilalive dala, lhe
slring fieId fealure lakes on greal imorlance.
4


To reca, lo add dala lo an allribule labIe, you musl creale lhe nev fieId and seIecl ils
lye, and vidlh if necessary. Ior lhis demonslralion, seIecl Inleger and cIick OK.
As ve can see in Iigure 5.22, vhen a nev fieId is added lo an exisling allribule labIe,
lhe nev fieId is fiIIed vilh a NuII vaIue, vhich lhe user musl reIace vilh lhe
reIevanl dala by enlering lhe informalion inlo each Iine of lhe fieId. You can add and fiII
as many fieIds as needed for your arlicuIar research uroses.


!"#$%& ()**+ ,&- ."&/0 100&0 23 122%"4$2& 214/&)

Nov ve viII Iook al a secific examIe lo cIarify lhis rocedure. One of our aulhors,
arbara Slehenson, is sludying lhe records of a sixleenlh-cenlury Irench royaI Iav
courl over one king's reign, a 32-year eriod. The source maleriaIs come from lhe daiIy
records of lhe courl and incIude informalion such as lhe number of lhe foIio on vhich
lhe maleriaI is found, lhe dale of lhe evenl, lhe lye of evenl (leslimony, commission,
|udgmenl, elc.), lhe Iocalion of lhe evenl, and lhe names of lhe individuaIs invoIved. Al
firsl gIance, il mighl aear lhal lhe onIy reIevanl informalion for a ma vouId be lhe
Iocalions of lhe evenls. Hovever, using addilionaI dala can aIIov lhe researcher lo

4
Il is vorlh noling lhal Lolfi A. Zadeh has eslabIished fuzzy sel lheory or fuzzy Iogic lo rovide a
viabIe means of eslabIishing numericaI vaIues for quaIilalive informalion, vhen lhal is necessary because
of lhe inherenl comIexily of reaIily. See, }. . Ovens and Imery A. CooIa, }r., Iuzzy Sel Theory (or
Iuzzy Logic) lo Reresenl lhe Messy Dala of ComIex Human (and olher) Syslems
hlls://vvv.academia.edu/1100044/Iuzzy_Sel_Theory_or_Iuzzy_Logic_lo_Reresenl_lhe_Messy_Dala_
of_ComIex_Human_and_olher_Syslems, accessed 21 December 2013.
94
idenlify, for examIe, vhich lovns vere more IikeIy lo have reIigious confIicls lhal
required courl inlervenlion. Il is imorlanl, lherefore, lo kee lhe name and evenl lye
dala associaled vilh lhe Iace dala. The archivaI Iocalion of lhe source maleriaI (in lhis
case, lhe foIio number of a courl record) and lhe dale of lhe evenl are aIso reIevanl and
shouId be associaled vilh lhe evenl and Iace dala. Iurlhermore, because an imorlanl
asecl of lhe sludy is lhe anaIysis of sociaI inleraclions, lhe names of lhe individuaIs
invoIved in each evenl aIso need lo be associaled vilh lhe evenl. In shorl, aII lhe dala in
lhe source are reIevanl and shouId be incIuded in lhe sreadsheel, vilh a searale fieId,
or coIumn, for each lye. In a GIS ro|ecl, lhe incIusion of aII lhe dala associaled vilh
lhe research aIso makes il easier for Ialer schoIars lo buiId uon lhal research, even if
lhey are inleresled in differenl asecls of lhe dala. One of lhe good lhings aboul using
GIS for hisloricaI research is lhal a ro|ecl can be exlended and correcled lhrough
subsequenl research.

GIS rograms viII lyicaIIy incororale allribule labIes roduced using sreadsheel
soflvare. In MaWindov, ve can eilher enler dala direclIy inlo lhe nev fieId ve
crealed, or ve can use some lye of sreadsheel soflvare, such as Microsofl IxceI. We
have aIready discussed hov lo enler your ovn informalion manuaIIy inlo nev fieIds
vilhin MaWindov. Hovever, vhen deaIing vilh a Iarge quanlily of dala, a more
efficienl vay lo incororale your ovn dala inlo MaWindov is by crealing a nev
sreadsheel, fiIIing in lhe dala, and lhen adding il lo lhe exisling allribule labIe. The
exercise al lhe end of lhis chaler viII guide you lhrough lhe rocess of inulling dala
inlo a sreadsheel and lhen lransferring lhe dala inlo lhe allribule labIe of a given Iayer.
If you do nol have lhe sreadsheel rogram you need, Oen-Office rovides a free,
oen-source olion. This suile aIso incIudes documenl, resenlalion, dalabase, draving,
and olher soflvare.

95
!"!#$%&! (
We have Iearned hov lo use allribule labIes lo slore dala in a shaefiIe, and hov lo add
dala lo a MaWindov shaefiIe. Nov ve are going lo Iearn hov lo mine, or exlracl
vaIuabIe hisloricaI informalion from narralives and documenls and slore lhis
informalion in lhe allribule labIe of a shaefiIe. Then ve viII Iearn hov lo add lhis dala
lo a ma. As usuaI, you viII vanl lo creale a subfoIder for lhis exercise, IabeIed
Ixercise5.

)*+,-
We viII use acluaI rimary source dala from our aulhor's research on a sixleenlh-
cenlury Irench Iav courl and add il lo our ma of Irance from Ixercise 3. We viII lhen
Iol lhe Iocalion dala on lhe ma.

&./0 1-
The informalion lhal ve are going lo use lo creale our allribule labIe comes from lhe
foIIoving excerls from lhe rimary sources being used for a research ro|ecl by one of
our aulhors. The ilaIicized informalion indicales lhe evenl lye and lhe evenl Iocalion.

23453 (16 17 8/9 1(:7
On lhe said day, ermission vas given lo Monsieur de Casaux lo go and execule lhe
arrl of Monsieur de CouiIIard, and lo bring lhe said de CouiIIard lo lhe courl, lo be
made lo ay for his damages lo inleresls in erbigueres. !"#$%&'() +&,-.$"/,&01

23453 ;;6 1; 2/< 1(:7
The said day vere resenled by Monsieur de Ia Chassaigne cerlain Iellers alenl given
al Lyon on lhe 28 of Iasl Iebruary. y vhich lhe said de Ia Chassaigne is commissioned
lo raise lhe deniers of lhe generaIily of Guyenne for lhis year, requiring lhal he vacale
his osilion in lhe courl for lhis eriod. ,2345 4662.'(%&'() 732'1

23453 :=16 >1 8/9 1(:;
The said day ermission vas granled lo Monsieur de ouchier lo be absenl unliI lhe
Ieasl of Kings, lo go lo La ReoIIe. 6&,%.00.2') 74 8925&.

23453 (1=6 1? 8/9 1(:?
The said day ermission vas given lo Monsieur lhe Iirsl Iresidenl lo go on commission
lo lhe inhabilanls of Monezac, unliI a forlnighl afler lhe Ieasl of Kings. :2%%.00.2')
;2'6&<4(1

96
5tcp 2:
We need lo oen a nev sreadsheel in IxceI or OenOffice and enler lhe dala as
shovn, adding Iongilude and Ialilude for each Iocalion |Iigure 5.1j. You shouId define
lhe coIumn lyes for lhe dale, Iongilude, and Ialilude as number.

P!acc Mndcrn Evcnt Datc Lnng Lat F typc
Bcrbigucrcs Bcrbigucrcs |udgmcnt 17/12/1537 1.03 44.83 tnwn
Lynn Lynn rnya!
appnintmcnt
23/1/1537 4.83 45.76 tnwn
La Rcn!!c La Rn!c pcrmissinn 21/12/1538 -0.03 44.58 tnwn
Mnnpczac Mnnpczat cnmmissinn 19/12/1539 0.52 44.35 tnwn
Figurc 5.1: 5nurcc data in a sprcadshcct Inrmat.

As you can see by Iooking al lhe Iace names in our labIe, lhe modern Iace name can
differ from lhe name in lhe hisloricaI record. ecause sources for geograhic
coordinales use modern Iace names, il essenliaI for lhe success of your ma ro|ecl lo
make sure you are searching for lhe coordinales under lhe correcl name.

Nntc:
Ior lhis exercise, ve have rovided lhe Iongilude and Ialilude for each lovn. As you
become more roficienl vilh MaWindov and begin lo use il vilh your ovn dala, you
viII need lo find lhe necessary geograhic coordinales for yourseIf. There are many
sources avaiIabIe for lhis onIine, such as GoogIe Mas.

AIlhough ve have onIy incIuded four lovns in our sreadsheel for lhis exercise, il is
ossibIe lo add as many lovns or olher oinl dala as needed for your ovn ro|ecl,
vhelher lhal is a dozen Iocalions or lhousands. This asecl of using a GIS can be very
lime-consuming, deending on lhe size of your dala sel.

Nov lhal ve have crealed lhe allribule labIe, ve need lo save il as an .xIs fiIe. In
IxceI or Oen Office, name your fiIe Irance_Iocalions, and save il as an .xIs fiIe in
your Ixercise 5 subfoIder. !" $%& '() &*+,- ' .)(*+%, %" /01)2 34'3 +* 5%() ()1),3 34', 67789
5':) *&() $%& *'.) 34) "+2) '* ', ;<02*= "+2)9 ,%3 '* 34) >)"'&23 ;<02*0= "+2)9 ?$ *'.+,- +3 +, 34)
;/01)2 @AB6778= "%(5'3< Once you have saved your sreadsheel, cIose IxceI or
OenOffice.



97
!"#$ &'
To comIele lhis exercise, ve viII use lhe shaefiIe of Irance lhal vas crealed in
Ixercise 3. Oen MaWindov, and go lo your Ixercise3 subfoIder lo Ioad lhe
Irance.WGS 84 UTM zone 30N shaefiIe |Iigure 5.2j.


()*+,# -./' 0(,123#.45!67 8 9:; <=2# &>?@ AB1$#C)D#.

!"#$ 7'
To add lhe dala from lhe sreadsheel ve |usl crealed lo a shaefiIe and lhen Iol lhe
Iocalions, ve need lo add lhe SaliaI Converler funclion lo MaWindov. Go lo lhe
IIug-ins olions in lhe lo menu and cIick on SaliaI Converler, as shovn in
Iigure 5.3:


()*+,# -.&' !$1")1D E=2F#,"#, $D+*8)2.
!"
$% &'()*+), -.%/01*0123 4,+45 &$6(.1* *. ) 78)(09+,03: *80% 4,+45 &$6(.1* 91.6 0;40,<3
=80 &$6(.1*>?'3 @+%A.@ *80% @+,, )((0)1 BC+DE10 F<GH<


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-./0%1234, 5"6705)

-,+45 *80 IE**.% %0;* *. *80 &$%(E* 9+,03 ,+%02 %)/+D)*0 *. J.E1 &K;014+70 F3
7EI9.,A012 )%A 48..70 *80 &C1)%40L,.4)*+.%7<;,73 9+,0 *8)* J.E 7)/0A +% 7*0( M<










!!
#$ %&' ()*+,-**,. -*/0 1'2'3% (4&''%5. 6$7 3283, %&' (9:'$ ;82'<. -=%%*$ >;8?=+' @A@BA


!"#$%& ()(* +,-./&0&1 23-.,%04562 7"81,7)

C*$D8+E %&6% (:*8$%1. 81 1'2'3%'7 8$ (F6%6 GH:'0. %&'$ 3283, %&' (C*$I'+%. -=%%*$ 6% %&'
-*%%*E *D %&' 13+''$A J'6I' %&' *%&'+ *:%8*$1 61 1'%A

K6:)8$7*L L822 61, L&'+' H*= L*=27 28,' %* 16I' %&' $'L 1&6:'D82'A C&**1' H*=+
(M/'+381' @. 1=-D*27'+ 6$7 32*1' %&' (#E:*+%NJ4. L8$7*LA






100
!"#$ &'
MaWindov viII ask if you vanl lo assign a ro|eclion lo lhe nev shaefiIe |Iigure
5.6j. Choose Ignore lhe absence, and cIick Ok. We viII manuaIIy assign a ro|eclion
lo lhe shaefiIe.


()*+,# &-.' /0,12#3")14 567#43#/ 8)4918-

If you Iook al lhe Legend ane, you shouId see a nev Iayer caIIed Irance_Iocalions,
vhich is a oinl dala Iayer. Righl-cIick on il and seIecl Zoom lo Iayer. The four oinls
from lhe sreadsheel shouId nov shov on your screen as a Iayer |Iigure 5.7j.


()*+,# &-:' 01)4" ;5<#, =,1> "?# )>$1,"#9 7$,#597?##"-
101
ObviousIy, lhis oinl Iayer does nol indicale anylhing meaningfuI, because lhere is no
olher informalion associaled vilh il. We need lo assign a ro|eclion lo lhe dala Iayer so
lhal MaWindov knovs vhere lo Iace lhese oinls.

!"#$ &'
To assign a ro|eclion lo lhe shaefiIe so lhal lhe four oinls are aIigned vilh our
Irance.WGS 84 UTM zone 30N shaefiIe, svilch lo TooIbox in lhe Legend ane.
In Iro|eclions, doubIe-cIick on Assign Iro|eclion lo ShaefiIe |Iigure 5.8j.


()*+,# -./' 01,23#4")2567 2$")256 )5 "8# 0922:;2<7 =#5+.

The Assign Iro|eclion vindov viII oen |Iigure 5.9j. CIick lhe + bullon in lhe
righl-hand ane. Check lhe Irance_Iocalions Iayer, and cIick Ok.


()*+,# -.>' ?@66)*5 1,23#4")25? A)5B2A.
102
In lhe Iefl-hand ane, seIecl lhe GeograhicaI foIder and choose WGS 84. CIick lhe
bullon Assign, and lhen cIick CIose. You shouId see lhe message lhal lhe ro|eclion
assignmenl vas successfuI |Iigure 5.10j.


!"#$%& ()*+, -$..&//0$1 2%34&.5"36 7&//8#&)

Nov lhal ve have added a ro|eclion, ve need lo rero|ecl il vilh lhe correcl UTM
zone, |usl as ve did in Ixercise 3. Go back lo Iro|eclions and choose Rero|ecl
Iayers |Iigure 5.11j.


!"#$%& ()**, 9:&2%34&.5 18;&%/9 <"6=3<)

CIick lhe + bullon in lhe bollom righl-hand ane and seIecl lhe Irance_Iocalions
Iayer. In lhe foIder Iisl in lhe Iefl-hand ane, seIecl WorId ! WGS84! UTM
Norlhern Hemishere, and choose WGS 84/ UTM zone 30 N.

CIick Rero|ecl, and lhen CIose.


103
You viII be asked if you vanl lo add Iayers lo lhe ro|ecl |Iigure 5.12j. CIick Yes:


!"#$%& ()*+, -.. /01&%2 3$&24"56 27%&&6)

84&9 :,
We can nov see in lhe Layers Iisl a nev Iayer lhal conlains a ma of Irance vilh our
four oinls. Go lo lhe Layers viev in lhe Legend ane, vhich nov conlains lhe
nev Iayer Irance_Iocalions. WGS84 UTM zone30N. Righl-cIick lhis nev Iayer and
choose Zoom lo Iayer lo see lhis nev Iayer |Iigure 5.13j.

You can idenlify each oinl using lhe Idenlify bullon.


!"#$%& ()*;, <09 5= !%067& >"4? 95"642 %&9%&2&64"6# 5$% 45>62)
104
CongraluIalions! You have successfuIIy added informalion lo a ma by crealing an
allribule labIe (sreadsheel) lo hoId lhe dala, imorling il inlo MaWindov, adding lhe
correcl ro|eclion lo il, and adding il lo a re-exisling ma! Nov you can save lhis nev
ma lo your Ixercise 5 foIder, ve named il NevIrance_Iocalions, bul you can give
il a differenl name if you choose.

As aIvays, if you do nol feeI comforlabIe vilh lhe sles in lhe exercise, you shouId redo
lhe exercise unliI you are comforlabIe, before moving on lo lhe nexl chaler.

Nov lhal you have Iearned lhe basics of Ioading and ediling shaefiIes and adding dala
lo a ro|ecl, you are ready lo slarl using MaWindov lo do basic anaIysis of saliaI
dala.


105
!"#$%&' )* +,-./ 01,2.,3 #4,35-.-
MaWindov rovides a variely of vays lo anaIyze geograhic dala. This lye of
anaIysis is knovn as -1,2.,3 ,4,35-.-. A fundamenlaI vay lo do so is lo creale and
maniuIale oinl and Iine dala. This chaler viII discuss lhe geocoding, cIiing,
buffering, and inlersecl looIs in MaWindov. We viII aIso discuss hov lhese looIs can
assisl you in anaIyzing hisloricaI dala.

678/89.4:
678/89.4: assigns X and Y coordinales, or Iongilude and Ialilude vaIues, lo addresses,
cilies, or olher dala lhal can be reresenled vilh oinls. This rocess aIIovs lhe
mamaker lo Iace buiIdings, lovns, or virluaIIy any dala lhal couId be reresenled as
oinls in lheir exacl geograhic Iocalion on lhe ma. As ve have seen, lhe more
accurale a ma is, lhe more usefuI il viII be. Mosl of us do nol knov vhal lhe X and Y
coordinales are for a given Iocalion, hovever, lhere are various onIine looIs lo find
lhese coordinales. In MaWindov, a Iug-in can be added lhal aIIovs lhe carlograher
lo use GoogIe Geocoder. To sel u lhis looI, cIick IIug-ins in lhe main menu bar
|Iigure 6.1j.


;.:<=7 )>?* %@7 $3<:AB4- C74<>

106
Choose lhe GoogIe Geocoder olion, vhich viII add a nev choice lo lhe main menu
|Iigure 6.2j. Nov cIick on lhe GoogIe Geocoder olion, vhich viII be nexl lo lhe HeI
olion on lhe lo menu.


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-& ./00#1& /&0203&%4 567 08 5-& 96"8 9&8$ 76%)

The vindov lhal oens viII offer lhree olions: Iind an address, Geocode
address(es), or Aboul IIug-in |Iigure 6.3j.


!"#$%& ():+ /00#1& /&0203&% ;"830;)

Ior our uroses here, cIick Geocode address(es). A message box viII aear
informing you lhal lhere is a Key missing, and leIIing you lhal You musl enler a
GoogIe AII key in lhe aboul Iug-in menu |Iigure 6.4j.


!"#$%& ()<+ =>? @&A ;6%8"8#)

CIick OK lo oen lhe aboul Iug-in menu |Iigure 6.5j, vhich viII aIIov you lo Iocale
lhe correcl AII key. An AII key is an aIicalion rogramming inlerface key. Il
aIIovs eoIe lo access a vebsile's aIicalion rogramming inlerface, and in lhis case,
il ermils you lo enler your inslilulionaI affiIialion, vhich viII be used lo caIcuIale your
geograhic Iocalion and lo lrack hov many Iocalions you geocode vilh lhe GoogIe
Iug-in.

107

"#$%&' ()*+ ,-./%01 2#34/2 5/& 6//$7' 6'/8/4'&)

To oblain an AII key, and lherefore lhe righl lo use lhe GoogIe Geocoder looI, simIy
enler lhe URL of lhe inslilulion of vhich you are affiIialed, for examIe
hll://vvv.isu.edu, in lhe Your AII key box. Uon enlering lhe URL, a vindov viII
oen in vhich you can enler Iandmarks or addresses you may vish lo geocode.

Once you have gone lhrough lhese sles, you are ready lo use lhe GoogIe Geocoder. To
lesl ils funclionaIily, go lo Geocode Addresses, and lye a series of Iandmark names
or addresses |Iigure 6.6j.


!"#

!"#$%& ()(* +&,-,.& /"01 ,2 3..%&00&0 4"56,#$& 7,8)

%&'()*+',-(&./ 0+12,*345 +&&456 .47 '4 +33 + &4*8 &,6' 49 +33)(66(6 :. 71&4+3,*8 +
'(;' 9,&( 49 '<( +33)(66(6 '4 '<( 8(4=43()> ?*=( .47 <+-( +33(3 '<( +33)(66(6/ @+A(
67)( '<( :7''4* BC)(+'( *(5 14,*' &+.()D ,6 6(&(='(3/ +*3 '<(* =&,=A '<( BE(4=43(D
:7''4*> F<( BG(),9. E(4=43,*8 H(67&'6D 6=)((* 5,&& 41(* IJ,87)( K>LM> C&,=A (+=<
+33)(66 '4 6(( '<( +==7)+=. 49 '<( )(67&'6> H(67&'6 6<47&3 :( 8,-(* +* +==7)+=. &(-(&
:('5((* 4*( +*3 *,*(/ 5<()( *,*( ,6 '<( @46' +==7)+'(> N9 '<( +==7)+=. =4&7@* )(14)'6 +
K"" 4) <,8<()/ '<( E448&( E(4=43() <+6 :((* 7*+:&( '4 &4=+'( '<+' +33)(66> O4'( '<+' '<(
&+6' '54 9,(&36 ,* '<( )45 6<45 '<( &+','73( +*3 &4*8,'73( 49 + 8,-(* +33)(66 4)
&+*3@+)A>


109

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-& .&%"/0 1&2324"5# 6&7$897 :3%&&5)

When you are salisfied vilh your resuIls, cIick Done. You viII be asked lo save your
nev oinls as a shaefiIe. Name lhe shaefiIe somelhing easiIy remembered, such as
WorIdLandmarks or ResearchCilies.

;2< 92 !"54 => ? @22%4"5A9&7
AIlhough lhe GoogIe Geocoder viII rovide lhe Iongilude and Ialilude of mosl
addresses or Iandmarks, il viII yieId an accuracy raling of 600 lo indicale if il does nol
recognize lhe Iocalion. In some cases, GoogIe Geocoder cannol differenliale belveen lhe
address being geocoded and simiIar addresses if lhere are muIliIe occurrences of lhe
address in differenl Iocalions (e.g., 123 Main Slreel, vilh no lovn informalion). This
inabiIily lo differenliale can be a reaI robIem for hislorians, eseciaIIy for lhose
vorking on re-lvenlielh-cenlury hislory. Therefore, il can be cruciaI lo delermine lhe
modern names of lhe Iocalions in vhich you are inleresled.

If you ever need coordinale dala for addresses, lhere are olher Iaces onIine lhal can
rovide lhis informalion. We viII use GoogIe Mas lo discover lhe coordinales of
cerlain Iocalions, in arl because GoogIe Mas vorks vilh MaWindov, and in arl
because il is so easy lo use. To oblain coordinales from GoogIe Mas, inul eilher an
address or lhe name of a Iace, such as Tucume, Ieru, home of severaI re-Hisanic
yramids. Once GoogIe Mas has come u vilh lhe correcl Iocalion, a inoinl viII
aear on lhe ma. To discover lhe coordinales of lhal Iocalion, righl cIick on lhe

110
inoinl and seIecl Whal's Here. The coordinales viII aear in lhe search bar,
shoving Ialilude firsl, and lhen Iongilude.

Afler lhe mamaker has added lhe dala oinls lhrough geocoding, or lhrough using a
ma acquired from a differenl source, il is oflen necessary lo edil lhal ma lo eIiminale
exlraneous dala. We viII nov lurn lo various vays lo edil lhe visuaI dala of a ma.

"#$%%$&'
There are limes vhen a mamaker needs lo excise unnecessary dala lo cuslomize a
ma: for examIe, vhen Iine dala such as roads, rivers, or raiIroads exlend beyond lhe
borders of lhe oIygon vilh vhich you are vorking, you mighl vanl lo cul, or (#$%) lhe
Iine dala. In Iigure 6.8, lhe oulIine of Idaho indicales lhe area of lhe ma in vhich ve
are inleresled, bul river dala for lhe enlire area of lhe conliguous Uniled Slales obscures
lhis area. To access lhe cIiing looI, cIick TooIbox in lhe Legend ane, oen lhe
OverIay foIder, and seIecl lhe cIiing looI. This looI aIIovs Iine dala lo be lruncaled
so lhal il is disIayed onIy vilhin lhe secified oIygon |Iigure 6.9j.


*$'+,- ./01 23% 4$56 +&43&5-7 #$&- 7353/

!!!

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-& .-/0&1"2& 32"00"4# 5"/26# 768)

#$ %&'($( )*$ +*',$-.%$ /0.1$0+2 .3 )*$ /4567$8) +*',$-.%$2 6&9 6$8'5+$ )*') .+ )*$ %':$0
)& 6$ 8%.,,$(; #$ +$%$8)$( /<('*&2 '+ )*$ /=%.,,.3> +*',$-.%$2 6$8'5+$ .) .+ )*$ %':$0 )&
?*.8* ?$ ?'3) )& @', )*$ 0.1$0+A '3( )*$3 ?$ 8%.8B$( /CD;2 E.>50$ F;!G +*&?+ )*$
0$+5%) &- )*$ 8%.,,.3> &,$0').&3;


!"#$%& ()9:+ ,-& %&;$2< 61 =2"00"4# <-& %">&%; <6 <-& 6$<2"4& 61 <-& ;</<& 61 ?@/-6)

112
!""#$% '$" ()*#$% +,-.#/,0
Olher lechniques for ediling Iayers in MaWindov incIude adding or moving lhe
verlices of a Iine or oIygon. This lechnique has arlicuIar reIevance for hislorians, vho
oflen musl recreale mas in digilaI form lo aIy lhe anaIylicaI caabiIilies of GIS. To
raclice, oen lhe Nev ShaefiIe IIug-in in lhe IIug-ins menu and cIick lhe Nev
bullon Iocaled on lhe far Iefl side of lhe screen. To add verlices lo a oIygon, cIick lhe
Add verlices bullon. Lefl-cIick around lhe edges of lhe oIygon vherever you vish lo
add verlices. The more verlices a oIygon has, lhe more delaiI il can have. When you
are finished adding verlices, cIick lhe Move verlices bullon. Hover lhe mouse over
one of lhe verlices you have |usl added and Iefl-cIick, lhis aclion viII aIIov you lo drag
lhe verlex lo a nev Iocalion. This rocedure viII Iel you drav a nev Iine exaclIy vhere
il is needed, or lo move an exisling Iine lo a correcl Iocalion. If you are moving a Iine,
once you have Iaced lhe nev verlices in lhe roer Iocalions, you can deIele lhe oId,
inaccurale or unneeded ones by using lhe Remove verlices bullon.

1233,-#$%4 52,-6#$%4 '$" 7$.,-0,/.#$%
There are olher vays lo anaIyze lhe ma dala once you have crealed your hisloricaI
ma. Hovever, lo use some of lhese looIs, you need a comIeled, saved ma ro|ecl lo
vhich MaWindov has aIIocaled a scaIe bar. One overfuI looI is 8233,-#$%, vhich
Iaces a buffer zone around user-defined oinls on lhe ma9 This looI aIIovs lhe user
lo creale a oIygon lhal encomasses a defined orlion of lhe ma, and lo delermine
lhe dislances belveen lhe cenler of lhis nev oIygon and olher Iocalions on lhe ma.
The nev oIygon, or 8233,-, can be Iaced al a dislance delermined by lhe user around
a oinl, Iine, or oIygon. Irior lo buffering a oinl, Iine, or oIygon, you musl firsl
ro|ecl lhe dala vilh vhich you are vorking, if you do nol do so, lhe size of lhe buffer
viII be defined in unsecified ma unils. Therefore, il is beller lo knov lhe lye of
unil vilh vhich you are vorking rior lo buffering dala. If necessary, you can change
lhe measuremenl unils associaled vilh your ma by righl-cIicking lhe scaIe bar, lhen
cIicking Change DisIay Unils |Iigure 6.11j. This rocedure ermils you lo be sure
vhich unil of measuremenl is being used on lhe ma, and for lhe buffer.


113

Figurc 6.11: "Changc Disp!ay Units" tnn!, which appcars whcn right-c!icking nn thc
map's sca!c bar.

The buffering looI heIs visuaIize roximily and can aIso heI lo ansver hisloricaI
queslions. Ior examIe, imagine lhal you are sludying lhe oulbreak and sread of a
valerborne disease. Il may be usefuI lo lrack cases of lhal disease by using buffers
around lhree knovn veIIs. To aIy a buffer, go lo TooIbox in lhe Legend ane,
oen lhe Slandard foIder, and lhen doubIe-cIick uffer Shaes. In lhe vindov lhal
oens, choose lhe Iayer you vish lo buffer, aIong vilh lhe dislance and ma unils you
vish lo use |Iigure 6.12j.

Figurc 6.12: This buIIcr nvcr!aps at thrcc pnints.

Oflen vhen buffering, as in our veII examIe, you may vanl lo shov vhere lhings
overIa. To achieve lhis visuaIizalion, ve can use lhe intcrscctinn looI Iocaled in lhe
OverIays foIder of lhe TooIbox. This rocedure vorks arlicuIarIy veII vhen
combining muIliIe ieces of informalion. Ior examIe, suose ve are lrying lo Iocale
vhere a hisloricaI evenl occurred using lhe evidence of lvo vilnesses. ased uon lheir

!!"
$%%&'()*+ ,- .(&, ,/-0- -$%/ &1 )/- 2(32423'$5* ,$* 6&*2)2&(-3 ,2)/ 0-5$)2&( )& )/-
-4-()7 82)/ )/2* 2(1&09$)2&(+ ,- %$( 3-3'%- $660&:29$)-5; ,/-0- )/- -4-() &%%'00-37
<( )/- =>/$6-125-* <()-0*-%)2&(? ,2(3&,+ ,- 2(6') )/- ),& */$6-125-* 0-60-*-()2(@ &'0
,2)(-**-* $(3 -()-0 $ 125-($9- )& *$4- )/- 0-*'5) AB2@'0- C7!DE7


!"#$%& ()*+, -.& /0.12&3"4&5 678&%5&98":7; <:=)

















115
If each buffer reresenls hov much of lhe scene an eyevilness couId see, lhe evenl musl
have occurred vilhin lhe inlerseclion of lhe buffers. The resuIling shaefiIe yieIds lhe
area over vhich lhe lvo buffers overIa |Iigure 6.14j, vhich MaWindov has
darkened for us.


!"#$%& ()*+, -.& /0%1&% 23%4"35 6&47&&5 4.&8& 6$99&%8 8.378 4.& "54&%8&:4"35)

Anolher imorlanl anaIylicaI looI is ;$&%<"5#, vhich aIIovs lhe user lo seIecl dala lhal
fil a cerlain crilerion. To vrile a query, lhe user musl buiId a IogicaI exression using
ooIean oeralors and define lhe informalion lo be used lo ansver lhe query. Il is
imorlanl lo nole lhal lhe IogicaI exression of lhe query musl be enlered reciseIy or
lhe query viII nol run.
1
To oen lhe query looI, you musl righl-cIick on lhe desired
Iayer and seIecl lhe Allribule TabIe Idilor. Nexl, cIick SeIeclion. In lhe SeIeclion
vindov, choose Query. In lhe Query vindov, aII lhe fieIds of lhe shaefiIe viII
aear, aIong vilh a caIcuIalor lhal enabIes lhe user lo buiId a ooIean equalion |Iigure
6.15j. The caIcuIalor Iels us buiId query exressions, such as AND and OR, as veII
as delermining reIalive vaIues such as Iess lhan or equaI lo or grealer lhan.


1
If you are nol famiIiar vilh ooIean Iogic, you shouId consuIl Wikiedia or olher sources for an
exIanalion.

!!"

!"#$%& ()*+, -."/ 0$&%1 &23%&//"45 6"77 "8&59":1 /9;9&/ 6."<. .;8 ;9 7&;/9 *= >"77"45
;<%&/ 4: <%43/ $58&% <$79"?;9"45 "5 *@AB)

$% &'(% )*+,,%- ' ./%*0 ,1 +2%-,+30 )&+4& 5,',%5 &'2 ', 6%'5, !7 8+66+1- '4*%5 /-2%*
4/6,+(',+1- +- !9:;< =&% 3+%62 >?@ABCD?@:;E 41-,'+-5 ,&% -/8F%* 13 '4*%5 /-2%*
4/6,+(',+1- 31* %'4& 5,',%< A/* ./%*0 '5G5 H'I$+-21) 31* '66 5,',%5 31* )&+4&
>?@ABCD?:;E +5 %./'6 ,1 1* J*%',%* ,&'- !7 8+66+1-< K1,+4% ,&', )% &'(% -1, /5%2 '-0
4188'5 +- >!7777777EL ,&+5 +5 21-% F%4'/5% H'I$+-21) 21%5 -1, I%*8+, 4188'5 +-
-/8F%*5 +- M116%'- %NI*%55+1-5< D3,%* %N%4/,+-J ' 5I%4+3+4 ./%*0O )% 4'- %NI1*, ,&%
5%6%4,%2 3%',/*%5 '-2 5'(% ,&%8 '5 ' -%) 5&'I%3+6% F0 46+4G+-J 1- >P%6%4,+1-E '-2 ,&%-
>QNI1*, P%6%4,%2 R%',/*%5E )+,&+- ,&% >D,,*+F/,% ='F6% Q2+,1*E SR+J/*% "<!"T<


!"#$%& ()*(, C:9&% /&7&<9"5# :&;9$%&/ $/"5# 9.& 0$&%1 9447D 9.&1 <;5 E& &234%9&8 ;/ ;
5&6 /.;3&:"7&)

$% 4'- 5%% ,&% *%5/6,5 13 1/* ./%*0 +- R+J/*% "<!;< =&% 5&'2%2 5,',%5 &'2 ', 6%'5, !7
8+66+1- '4*%5 /-2%* 4/6,+(',+1- +- !9:;< A/* ./%*0 )'5 ' (%*0 5+8I6% 1-%O F/, +, +5
I155+F6% ,1 41-5,*/4, 81*% 418I6%N ./%*+%5 +- H'I$+-21)< H1*%1(%*O F%4'/5% ,&%

117
user can save lhe resuIls of a query, il is ossibIe lo do ileralive queries on lhe dala, lo
narrov lhe dala being anaIyzed based on user-defined crileria.


!"#$%& ()*+, -.& %&/$01 23 2$% 4$&%5 672$1 8$01"961&: 68%&6#&)

;2<80$/"2<
In lhis chaler ve have discussed a variely of melhods lhal can be used lo anaIyze
saliaI dala. y using lhe geocoding, buffering, inlerseclion, and querying looIs, you
can erform differenl lyes of saliaI anaIysis on lhe dala you are using. In Ixercise 6,
ve viII aIy each of lhese lechniques lo a reaIislic scenario using hisloricaI dala.

118
!"!#$%&! (
This exercise viII demonslrale hov lo use MaWindov lo erform basic saliaI
anaIysis lo ansver a secific queslion by adding oinls, cIiing a Iayer, and using a
buffer. We viII use GoogIe Geocoder lo Iol our oinls, and lhe Inlerseclion looI lo
delermine vhich oinls are Iocaled vilhin lhe buffer.

)*+,-
Imagine lhal you are a Irench hislorian vho vanls lo find oul vhich of lhe lovns
menlioned in your rimary sources aboul lhe !"#$%"&'( of Irance are Iocaled vilhin
10,000 melers of a river. To ansver lhis queslion, ve need lo Iol lhose lovns on a ma
of lhal region, lhen add lhe rivers, and use a buffer lo delermine vhich lovns are
vilhin lhe desired area. We viII use lhe ma of Irance again, used in earIier exercises,
aIlhough you viII need lo dovnIoad a nev shaefiIe.

&./0 1-
Go lo hll://vvv.geograhicaIIyinlegraledhislory.com/v-
conlenl/uIoads/exercises/exercise6.zi

When lhe fiIe has dovnIoaded, exlracl lhe fiIes lo your MaWindov Ixercises foIder.

&./0 2-
Oen MaWindov and using lhe Add bullon, navigale lo your Ixercise 6 foIder.
SeIecl lhe fra_area_rero|ecled shaefiIe, vhich is lhe same shaefiIe lhal you crealed
in Ixercise 3 |Iigure 6.1j.


34567/ (81- 9:7*;*7/*;7/07<=/>./?@ +A*0/:4B/8

!!"
!"#$ &'
$%&'()% *% '+% ,-./ 0-1%+%)1%2 0- 13% !"#$%"&'( ,4 5+'-&%6 *% '+% 7,0-7 1, %89,+1 :()1
13'1 '+%' ') ' -%* )3'9%40.%; <.0&= 13% >?%.%&1@ A(11,- 0- 13% B'9C0-2,*D)
E%-( A'+; F3%- &.0&= ,- 13% '+%' ,4 13% E'9 13'1 &,++%)9,-2) 1, 13% !"#$%"&'( ,4 5+'-&%;
F3% '+%' 13'1 /,( )%.%&1 *0.. A% 3073.0731%2 G507(+% H;IJ;


()*+,# -./' 01# !"#$%"&'( 23 (,456# 47 4 7#8#6"#9 4,#4.








!"#
%& '() *+),)&-. /0&)1 234'5( '6 '() *766896:. ;4)3 0&- 6/)& '() *<)5'6= >/)=0'46&2.
?68-)=@ %& *<)5'6= >/)=0'46&21. 5(662) '() *A'0&-0=-. ?68-)= 0&- '()& 2)8)5' *B:/6='
A)8)5'46&. CD4,E=) F@GH@ 7() *B:/6=' A)8)5'46&. 6/)=0'46& 3488 08863 E2 '6 ):/6=' '()
0=)0 3) 2)8)5')- 02 0 &)3 I0/ 80J)=@


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-& ./01231%34 5673&% "2 .8&906% :;&%10"62<4 "2 0-& .,667=6>)4




121
The Ixorl seIecled shaes vindov viII oen |Iigure 6.4j. In lhe ShaefiIe box,
choose lhe fra_area_rero|ecled shaefiIe, and make sure lhal lhe IiIe lo Save
ResuIls To: is named fra_area_rero|ecled_seIecl1.sh. CIick Ok.


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-& ./012%3 4&5&63&7 4-81&49 :";72:)

You viII be asked if you vanl lo add lhe nev Iayer lo lhe ma. Choose Yes.

In lhe Legend ane, seIecl Layers and uncheck lhe fra_area_rero|ecled Iayer lo
see our seIecled region |Iigure 6.5j.


!"#$%& ()<+ =&: 58>&% 4-2:";# 2$% 4&5&63&7 %&#"2; 2? !%8;6&)

122
!"#$ &'
Nov ve need lo add lhe lovns in vhich ve are inleresled lo our ma using lhe
GoogIe Geocoder. Go lo IIug-ins in lhe menu bar, and seIecl GoogIe Geocoder
|Iigure 6.6j.


()*+,# -.-' /011*2# 0#1314#,5 )6 "7# /82+*9)6:5 ;#6+.

<1"#'
If you did nol enler an AII key for lhe GoogIe Geocoder Iug-in as you read lhe chaler,
you viII be asked lo inserl an AII key in lhe syslem before you can use lhe GoogIe
Geocoder Iug-in for lhe firsl lime. Inler your inslilulion's veb address (URL) inlo lhe
AII key box (for examIe, hll://vvv.isu.edu).

123
SeIecl GoogIe Geocoder from lhe menu bar, and lhen seIecl Geocode addresses. We
have chosen 21 lovns and cilies Iocaled in our region lo geocode, given in TabIe 6.1.

Rochechouarl
Limoges
eIIac
Guerel
Aubusson
UsseI
TuIIe
rive-Ia-GaiIIarde
SarIal-Ia-Caneda
Ierigueux
Nonlron
Libourne
ergerac
Lesarre-Medoc
Iaye
ordeaux
ViIIeneuve-sur-
Lol
Nerac
Marmande
Agen
Gourdon
!"#$% '()* +,-. /0 ./12- "23 4,.,%- ,2 .5% !"#$%"&'( "6%" /0 76"24% ./ #% 8%/4/3%3(

In lhe Geocode Iisl of addresses vindov, lye lhe name of a lovn from lhe labIe and
lhen cIick lhe Add bullon, as shovn in Iigure 6.7. Reeal lhis rocedure unliI aII 21
lovns and cilies are Iisled. You can aIso hil lhe Inler key inslead of lhe Add bullon
afler each name, if you refer.

9/.%*
The diacrilicaI marks in lhe names of some of lhe cilies musl be inserled correclIy. You
can use lhe vebsile hll://french.lyeil.org lo lye lhe name of lhe cilies correclIy, and
lhen asle lhose names inlo lhe address fieId in lhe GoogIe Geocoder vindov as
needed.


!"#

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-&./.0& 1"23 .4 500%&22&26 7"80.7)

%&'() *+, -./( &0102-(3 (1'()014 '-( '+51 .13 60'* 1.7(28 9++: &+) '-( ;<.)4(' =.*()>
+?'0+1 .' '-( @+''+7 +& '-( 5013+5 AB04,)( CDEFD G(9(6' '-( ;H)(.'( 1(5 ?+01' 9.*()>
@,''+18 '-(1 6906: ;I(+6+3(> '+ 2'.)' 4(+6+3014 '-( 9+6.'0+12D

<-( ;J()0&* I(+6+3014 K(2,9'2> 5013+5 5099 .??(.)D L& *+, 502-8 *+, 7.* .22(22 '-(
.66,).6* +& '-( 4(+6+3014 ?)+6(22 '+ (12,)( '-.' '-( 9+6.'0+12 &+) '-( '+512 .13 60'0(2
.99 &.99 50'-01 +,) 2(9(6'(3 )(40+1D H906: ;M+1(> 5-(1 *+, .)( 2.'02&0(3 50'- '-( )(2,9'2D
% ;G./( .2> 5013+5 5099 +?(1 '+ .99+5 *+, '+ 2./( '-( 4(+6+3(3 ?9.6(2 .2 . ?+01' 9.*()
01 N.?O013+5D P.7( '-02 &09( ;H0'0(2> .13 2./( 0' 01 *+,) ;QR()602( C> &+93()D <-(1
.33 '-( 1(5 ;H0'0(2> 9.*() 01 N.?O013+5D








!"#
%&'( )*+ ,-&'./ 0&1 .&&2 .324 536'(4 7898


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-. /0 !"#$%"&'( !%-12& 3"45 /$% #&/2/6&6 4/317 -16 2"4"&7)















!"#
!"#$ &'
%&' '( )*+ ,(( -.( /&)*-0&+ &1 &23 "! -&'+, *+4 )0-0(,5 62- -.*- 4&(, +&- *+,'(3 &23
72(,-0&+ *6&2- '.0). 82+0)09*/0-0(, *3( '0-.0+ !:5::: 8(-(3, &1 * 30;(3< =& 3(,9&+4 -&
-.*- 72(,-0&+5 '( +((4 -& *44 -.( 30;(3, -.*- 1/&' -.3&2>. -.0, 9*3- &1 ?3*+)(< @9(+ -.(
A13*30;(3B3(93&C()-(4D ,.*9(10/( 13&8 E&23 FG(3)0,( # 1&/4(3< H&23 ,)3((+ ,.&2/4 /&&I
/0I( ?0>23( #<J<


()*+,# -./' 01)2#,34 356$#7)8# 699#9 ": :+, ;6$.

K, E&2 )*+ ,((5 &23 AL0;(3,D /*E(3 ,.&', *// -.( 30;(3, 0+ ?3*+)(5 +&- C2,- -.( &+(, 0+ -.(
!"#$%"&'(< M( *3( >&0+> -& 2,( -.( <8)$$)=* 12+)-0&+ -& )/09 *// &1 -.( /0+( 4*-* -.*- 4&(,
+&- 1*// '0-.0+ -.( 9&/E>&+ 4(90)-0+> -.( !"#$%"&'( &1 ?3*+)(<


N+ -.( AO(>(+4D 9*+(5 ,'0-). -& -.( A=&&/6&GD ;0('5D *+4 2+4(3 AP()-&3 @9(3*-0&+,5D
&9(+ -.( A@;(3/*E,D 1&/4(35 *+4 ).&&,( AQ/0990+>D R?0>23( #<!:S<

!"#

!"#$%& ()*+, -.& /01"22"3#4 526"53 "3 6.& /78&%19:;4 <&3$)

%&' ()&*+',-.' /.-++-012 3-0453 3-.. 5+'06 /&557' (,8*8-9'8:8'+85;'<='42 *7 >5?8
()?@;'<= 7&*+',-.'2 *04 (,8*:*8'*:8'+85;'<='4:7'.'<=!2 *7 >5?8 (/.-++-01 7&*+',-.'2
AB-1?8' C6!!D6 /.-<E (FEG2 *04 *44 =&' 8'7?.= =5 H*+I-0453 *7 * 0'3 .*>'8 3&'0 *7E'46
H*+I-0453 3-.. +859-4' =&' <588'<= .5<*=-50 *04 * 0*J' ,58 =&-7 0'3 ,-.'6


!"#$%& ()**, /=.92&>"1& 01"22"3#4 ?"3@5?)


!"#
%& '() *+,-)./0 1,&)2 3&4()45 '() *6.,.78).9.)1.:;)4')<0 /(,1)67=)> ?:3 /(:3=< /)) '()
.)/3=' :6 '() 4=7117&@ :1).,'7:& AB7@3.) C>!"D>


!"#$%& ()*+, -&.$/0 12 3/"44"5# 06& 7-"8&%.9 /:;&% 01 2:// <"06"5 06& !"#$%"&'( 12
!%:53&)















!"#
!"#$ &'
%& '() *&& +,(+ -(). /0 /12 +/3)* ()4 '5+5&* 65& (6/)7 +,& 258&2* 5) +,& 2&75/)9 :1+ )/3
3& )&&4 +/ 05)4 /1+ ,/3 '6/*& +,&. (2& +/ +,& 258&2*;

<35+', +/ +,& =>//6:/?@ 85&39 ()4 5) =<+()4(249@ ',//*& +,& 01)'+5/) =A100&2 <,(B&*@
CD5712& E;!FG;

()*+,# &-./' 01+22#, !34$#56 2+78")97 )7 "3# 0!"47:4,:6 "99;<9=-









!"#
%&'( )&*')+ ,'-- *.+/ 0&+ 12344+5 (&6.+(7 ,'/8*, 9:';35+ <=!>?=


!"#$%& ()*+, -.$//&% 0123&04 5"6785)

@/ 1A+)0*5 B6C+5D7 )&**(+ 0&+ 14565'E+5F5+.5*G+)0+8F)-'.!7 (&6.+4'-+D 6/8 '/ 12344+5
H'(06/)+D7 '/(+50 0&+ E6-3+ *4 !#### I,'0&*30 6 )*JJ6K= L6M+ (35+ 0&60 0&+
J+6(35+J+/0 0C.+ '( (+0 4*5 1J+0+5(D7 6/8 0&60 0&+ 1L+5;+ 5+(3-0'/; (&6.+(7 N*O '(
)&+)M+8=

P-')M 1QR7 0* E6-'860+ 0&+ )&6/;+(D 6/8 688 0&+ /+, -6C+5 0* C*35 J6.=














!"!
!"#$ &'
$%& &' ()* +'' &,-(, .%-*/+ 0)11 (1%+' /% %23 4200'3 %0 !56555 7'/'3+6 42/ &' &)*/ /%
+'' !"#$ /,%+' /%&*+ )*8 (-/-'+ /,)/ 0)11 &-/,-* %23 4200'3 /% )*+&'3 %23 92'+/-%*:
;3<)*-=' >%23 1)>'3+ 2*8'3 /,' ?@)>'3+A .)*' +% /,)/ /,'> )3' 1-+/'8 'B)(/1> )+ -*
C-<23' D:!E:


()*+,# -./0' 12# "3456 758 9+::#,6 35 3+, ;7$ 3: !"#$%"&'( (,75<#.













!"#
%& '&()*+ ,-.(- *&,/0 )/1 (.*.+0 )2+ ./0.1+ &3 &42 !56555 7+*+2 8433+2 )2&4/1 *-+ 2.9+206
,+ /++1 *& 3./1 *-+ &9+2'):06 &2 ./*+20+(*.&/06 &3 &42 ');+2 1)*)< =+ ,.'' 40+ *-+
>?/*+20+(*.&/@ *&&' *& '&()*+ *-+0+ &9+2');0<

A,.*(- *& *-+ >%&&'8&B@ 9.+,6 )/1 (-&&0+ *-+ 34/(*.&/ >?/*+20+(*.&/@ 4/1+2 >C9+2');0@
DE.F42+ G<!GH<


!"#$%& ()*(+ ,-./&%0&1/"2.3 4$.1/"2.)


133
The ShaefiIes Inlerseclion vindov viII oen |Iigure 6.17j. You shouId seIecl
Cilies as ShaefiIe 1 and frariver_rero|ecled_cIi1_buffer1 as ShaefiIe 2.
CIick Ok, and lhen add lhe nev Iayer lo lhe ma.


!"#$%& ()*+, -./01&2"3&4 567&%4&87"96: ;"6<9;)

This rocedure viII lake lhe cilies Iayer and lhe buffer Iayer and caIcuIale lhe overIa,
or inlerseclion, of lhe Iayers, reveaIing vhich lovns and cilies are inside our 10,000-
meler buffer.














!"#
%& '& '() *+),)-./ 01-) 1-. 2)3)4' *+15)627/ 896- &:: '() *;<'<)2/ 315)6 '& 2)) '()
6)293'2 &: &96 *=-')62)4'<&-/ &0)61'<&- >?<,96) @7!AB7


!"#$%& ()*+, -./01 203 4"5"&1 1&6&45&3 78 59& :;05&%1&45".0< =$045".0)

;&-,61'931'<&-2C D&9 (1E) -&F 2944)22:9335 1..). -)F 0&<-' .1'1 '& 1 G10 92<-,
%&&,3) %)&4&.)6H '6<GG). 9--)).). 3<-) .1'1 92<-, '() 43<00<-, :9-4'<&-H 1-. 92). 1
I9::)6 '& 3&41') F(<4( '&F-2 <- &96 3<2' 16) F<'(<- 1 .):<-). .<2'1-4) :6&G 1 6<E)67 =: 5&9
F&93. 3<J) '& J-&F '() -1G)2 &: '() '&F-2 '(1' 16) F<'(<- &96 <-')62)4'<&-H 5&9 41- 92)
'() *=.)-'<:5/ :9-4'<&- :6&G '() G)-9 I16 '& 2)3)4' 1 0&<-' 1-. 2)) '() .1'1 6)31'). '& <'7

K&F '(1' F) (1E) 92). ,)&4&.<-, '& 1.. .1'1 '& 1 G10H 1-. 0)6:&6G). 2&G) I12<4
201'<13 1-1352<2 &- '(1' .1'1H F) 41- .<24922 '() -&6G13<L1'<&- &: <-:&6G1'<&-7 M1'1
-&6G13<L1'<&- 133&F2 92 '& 92) G&6) 4&66)4' <-:&6G1'<&- <- &96 1-1352)2H 1-. 0)6G<'2 92
'& 92) .1'1 <- G&6) 4&G03<41'). F1527
135
!"#$%&' )* +,-, ./01,234,-3/5
When vorking vilh dala in an allribule labIe, vhich is essenliaIIy a lye of dalabase, il
is imorlanl lo make sure lhal your dala are normaIized, or veII-organized and as
error-free as ossibIe. Ior lhis reason, vhen buiIding an allribule labIe vilh your dala,
you musl lhink carefuIIy aboul hov lhal dala shouId be organized before il is used in
MaWindov or any GIS syslem. An allribule labIe can slore a greal deaI of dala, even if
much of il viII never be shovn on lhe ma. Ior dala lhal viII be deicled on lhe ma, il
is even more cruciaI lo make sure lhal lhe dala sel is as error-free as ossibIe. asic
recaulions, such as ensuring lhal vords are seIIed consislenlIy and correclIy and lhal
numbers are correcl, viII save a greal deaI of lime and fruslralion once lhe dala are
imorled inlo MaWindov.

Hovever, lhere are olher forms of normaIizalion lhal are more comIicaled. Ior
examIe, one lye of 5/01,234,-3/5 aIIovs us lo lake muIliIe sels of dala lhal have a
common variabIe and divide lhem by lhal variabIe, lo uncover olher characlerislics of
lhe dala sels. Or, ve can lake one allribule of a dala sel and divide il by anolher
allribule. Ior inslance, if ve Iook al census dala for lhe Uniled Slales in 1990, lhe
allribule labIe conlains severaI lyes of dala lhal can be normaIized. We couId
normaIize lhe overaII ouIalion by lhe ouIalion of Hisanics, Asians, African
Americans, or Nalive Americans lo delermine vhich elhnicilies vere minorilies, and
vhich minorilies made u a Iarger orlion of lhe ouIalion lhan olhers. We couId aIso
normaIize lhe number of vacanl houses by lhe lolaI number of houses, vhich couId
demonslrale lhe imacl of a ouIalion shifl, an economic disrulion, or a naluraI
disasler. There are aIso socio-economic dala, such as age, marriage, househoId income,
and number of chiIdren lhal couId be normaIized. Of course, il is aIso ossibIe lo
normaIize severaI differenl dala fieIds, lo rovide a more nuanced anaIysis. Ior inslance,
ve couId normaIize ouIalion dala by elhnicily, househoId income, !"# number of
chiIdren lo eslimale vhich elhnicily is mosl roserous. We couId lhen normaIize
househoId Iocalion lo delermine vhelher ruraI or urban famiIies vere Iarger or had
Iarger incomes, or vhelher minorilies lend lo be concenlraled in cilies ralher lhan lhe
counlry.

This normaIizalion rocess may be cIearer if ve Iook al an examIe: a choroIelh ma
based of maIes in Idaho er counly vouId Iook quile differenl from a ma lhal
"$%&!'()*# lhe maIes of each counly by examining hov lhe number of maIes reIales lo
lhe lolaI ouIalion. Iigure 7.1 is a choroIelh ma lhal Iooks soIeIy al lhe lolaI number
of maIes, vhiIe Iigure 7.2 shovs a choroIelh ma lhal "$%&!'()*, lhe number of maIes
by dividing il by lhe lolaI ouIalion. As one mighl execl, lhese lvo mas roduce
differenl resuIls.
!"#

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-.&/ "0 12-34 5&% 64$078 "0 *99:; -664%2"0# 74 73& *99: <)=) 6&0/$/; $/"0#
2-7- 73-7 3->& 047 ?&&0 04%@-."A&2)

137
If ve comare lhis ma lo lhe ma in Iigure 7.2, ve can see cIear differences. When ve
dislinguish belveen absoIule numbers and lolaI ouIalion, ve can anaIyze lhe dala
differenlIy, or ask differenl queslions of il. Ior examIe, if ve vanl lo exIore lhe
effecliveness of disasler rearedness in Iov-Iying coaslaI areas, ouIalion densily is a
cruciaI faclor. Or, if ve vanl lo examine hov minorily grous have moved from one
seclion of a melrooIilan area lo anolher, knoving overaII ouIalion densily and lhe
ercenlage of a given minorily in lhe ouIalion of each neighborhood vouId be usefuI.
To gel lhis informalion, ve vouId firsl caIcuIale ouIalion densily overaII, lhen lhe
ercenlages for each minorily in lhal ouIalion.
!"#

"#$%&' ()*+ ,-.'/ #0 12-34 5'& 64%078 #0 9::;< -664&2#0$ 74 73' 9::; =)>) 6'0/%/<
%/#0$ 2-7- 73-7 3-?' @''0 04&A-.#B'2 74 &'C.'67 73' 5'&6'07-$' 4C A-.'/ #0 '-63
64%078)

!"#
%&'(' )(' *'+'(), -).* /0 10(2),34' 5)/)6 7&3,' /&' 86 96 5)/) )(' 1)/301), 31 *:0;'< 3/ 3*
=')*3>,' /0 10(2),34' 5)/) 01 ) =31'( *:),'< *?:& )* ) :3/.< :0?1/.< 0( :'1*?* /():/6 @)1.
/.;'* 0= 5)/) )(' (')53,. )+)3,)>,' /&(0?A& A0+'(12'1/ )A'1:3'* ):(0** /&' -0(,56 B=
:0?(*'< -0(C31A -3/& &3*/0(3:), 5)/)< .0? 2). -3*& /0 ?*' .0?( 0-1 5)/) *'/* 31 0(5'(
/0 10(2),34' 5)/) 0= 32;0(/)1:' /0 .0?( =3',5 0= */?5. *0 /&)/ .0? ;(05?:' (','+)1/
2);*6

D0(2* 0= 10(2),34)/301 /&)/ A0 >'.015 /&' 0(A)134)/301 0= /&' 5)/) )15 /&' ',3231)/301
0= ('5?15)1:3'* ('E?3(' ) ,'+', 0= ;(?5'1:' )15 :02;'/'1:' =(02 /&' ?*'(6 F0?( 5)/)
:)1 +)(. A(')/,. 5';'1531A 01 &0- .0? 2)13;?,)/' 3/6 @);* /&)/ *&0- 10(2),34'5
5)/) :0?,5 :01+'. *02'/&31A :02;,'/',. 53=='('1/ /&)1 31/'15'56 G1 'H)2;,' 0= /&3*
:01=?*301 -0?,5 >' ?*31A ;'( :);3/) 31:02' 5)/) /&)/ 50'* 10/ /)C' 31/0 )::0?1/ /&'
:0*/ 0= ,3+31A -&'1 .0? )(' /(.31A /0 5'/'(231' -&3:& ('A301 0= ) :0?1/(. 3* 20('
;(0*;'(0?*6 7&3,' /&' ;'0;,' 0= 01' ('A301 2). ')(1 20(' 201'. 0+'( ) ;'(305 0= /32'<
3/ 50'* 10/ 1':'**)(3,. 2')1 /&)/ /&'. &)+' 20(' *;'1531A ;0-'( -3/& /&)/ 201'.6
G1. )1*-'( /&)/ 50'* 10/ =):/0( 31 /&' :0*/ 0= ,3+31A -3,, >' 31)::?()/' 0( 23*,')531A6
I3*/0(3)1* )(' ?*'5 /0 ,00C31A )/ /&'*' /.;'* 0= +)(3)>,'< )15 J?53:30?* ?*' 0=
10(2),34)/301 :)1 &',; ?* '1&)1:' 0?( *:&0,)(*&3; >. :(')/31A +3*?),,. */?1131A 2);*<
-&3:& :01+'. 31=0(2)/301 31 ) -). /&)/ -0(5* *02'/32'* :)110/6

G10/&'( -). /0 32;(0+' 5)/) 0(A)134)/301 )15 )1),.*3* 3* /0 >(')C 1?2'(3:), 5)/)
50-1 31/0 *2),,'( ;3':'*< 0( :,)**'*6 D3A?('* K6" )15 K6L 5'201*/()/' &0- ) 2); :)1
:&)1A' -&'1 -' ?*' /&' *)2' 5)/) >?/ 53=='('1/ 1?2>'(* 0= :,)**'*6 G* .0? :)1 *''< >.
?*31A 53=='('1/ 1?2>'(* 0= :,)**'* 31 2);*< /&' :)(/0A();&'( :)1 A'/ E?3/' 53=='('1/
('*?,/*6 %&'('=0('< .0? 2?*/ >' /&0?A&/=?, -&'1 2)C31A /&'*' :&03:'*6 %00 2)1. 0( /00
='- :,)**'* :)1 ,')5 /0 /&' 53*/0(/301 0= /&' 5)/) 0( /0 23*,')531A ('*?,/*M /&'('=0('<
10(2),34' )15 53+35' .0?( 5)/) 31/0 :,)**'* -3/& :)('6
!"#


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-.&/ "0 12-34 5&% 64$078 "0 9::;< -664%2"0# 74 73& 9::; =)>) 6&0/$/<
?%4@&0 "074 A4$% 6.-//&/)
!"!


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-.&/ "0 12-34 5&% 64$078 "0 9::;< -664%2"0# 74 73& 9::; =)>) 6&0/$/<
?%4@&0 "074 7A4 6.-//&/)

142
!"#$$%&%'#(%)* ,-.#/$
Aarl from lhe number of cIasses used in a ma, you can aIso choose differenl vays lo
break u lhe dala inlo cIasses.
1
ecause of lhis caacily, you musl ensure lhal your ma
dala are anaIyzed roerIy, according lo lhe uroses of your ma. There are severaI
vays lo break your dala u inlo cIasses and each one vorks besl for cerlain lyes of
dala or cerlain forms of anaIysis. One melhod of breaking u cIasses of dala is #-0%(-#-1.
This melhod, as lhe name indicales, means lhal breaks are seIecled by lhe carlograher
for no anaIylicaI urose olher lhan lo break lhe dala inlo usabIe ieces. Oflen, lhis
division viII mean searaling your dala by numbers ending in zero, such as 1-10, 11-20,
and so on. The arbilrary melhod is used moslIy because il breaks u lhe dala inlo
numbers vilh vhich lhe ma readers are famiIiar.

234#" 5*(.-6#" cIassificalion divides lhe dala cIasses inlo equaI arls, for examIe 0-7, 8-
15, elc. The inlervaIs are defined by delermining lhe range of vaIues and dividing il by
lhe number of cIasses you vish lo use. An advanlage of lhis cIassificalion slyIe is lhal il
is reIaliveIy easy for lhe carlograher lo emIoy and easy for lhe reader of lhe ma lo
undersland. This melhod may be lhe one lo choose vhen lhe cIassificalion sles, or dala
cIasses, vilh vhich you are vorking are nearIy equaI in size.

74#-(%". or 74%*(%". breaks means lhal lhe dala are broken u inlo four or five cIasses,
resecliveIy. This aroach has more lo do vilh rank lhan vaIue. A choroIelh ma
lhal uses eilher lhe quarliIe or quinliIe aroach viII !"# highIighl lhe differences in a
dalasel because, regardIess of lhe vaIues, lhey are dislribuled equaIIy inlo cIasses.
Hovever, lhese lvo lyes of dala cIassificalion can be usefuI if lhe urose of your ma
is simIy lo order your dala. Ior examIe, if you vere maing dala from a survey
queslion lhal broke u lhe dala inlo 1) SlrongIy Disagree, 2) Disagree, 3) NeulraI, 4)
Agree, and 5) SlrongIy Agree, lhen lhe quinliIe melhod vouId vork veII.

Using lhe 8(#*9#-9 :.6%#(%)* melhod of eslabIishing cIassificalion breaks is a good
vay lo shov exlremes in a dala sel, eilher high or Iov. The rocedure vorks besl vhen
dala naluraIIy form a beII-shaed curve vhen Iolled. Anolher melhod is ;#(4-#"
,-.#/$, vilh vhich one examines lhe dala eilher numericaIIy or grahicaIIyfor
examIe, in a hislogramlo delermine vhere lhe dala lend lo break naluraIIy |Iigure
7.5j. y examining lhe dala and considering vhal informalion you vanl lo convey vilh
your ma, you can delermine vhich melhod and lhe number of breaks lo use.
Calegories can lhen be delermined, and lhese viII resuIl in lhe grouing of dala vilh
simiIar vaIues. This melhod is oflen lhe defauIl for GIS soflvare. Hovever, nole lhal

1
Ior an exlended discussion on cIassificalion breaks, see }udilh Tyner, $%&!'&()*+ "- ./( 0*+&1! (Nev
York: The GuiIford Iress), 165-168.
143
vhen deaIing vilh a monochromalic choroIelh ma, four or five cIass breaks generaIIy
vorks besl. Iever breaks viII usuaIIy nol convey meaningfuI informalion, vhiIe lhe
visuaI syslems of ma users viII nol be abIe lo recognize dislinclions invoIving more
lhan five calegories.


!"#$%& ()*+ , -"./0#%12 .$3- 1. /-". 04& 314 -&56 70$ 8".$1557 9&/&%2"4& :-&%&
41/$%15 ;%&1<. 033$% "4 70$% 91/1)

=0435$."04
When using MaWindov or any olher soflvare rogram lo heI visuaIize and anaIyze
your dala, you musl ensure lhal lhe dala are as error-free as ossibIe, and lhal any
redundancies in lhe dala are reconciIed. This reviev of lhe informalion is lhe mosl basic
form of dala normaIizalion. Hovever, more advanced melhods of normaIizalion viII
aIIov you lo uncover and highIighl asecls of your maleriaI lhal vouId olhervise be
difficuIl lo idenlify. As is aIvays lhe case, you need lo ask lhe righl queslions and lo
normaIize lhe dala in lhe vays lhal viII uncover lhe nuances of your informalion.
efore you use any form of normaIizalion, you musl carefuIIy seIecl lhe besl melhod lo
ansver lhe research queslions you are asking, a oor choice can Iead lo dislorled resuIls,
vhich in lurn can Iead lo misIeading or erroneous concIusions. Hovever, vilh carefuI
use, dala normaIizalion can be a overfuI anaIylicaI looI, vhich aIIovs you lo resenl
cruciaI informalion in an easiIy-underslood visuaI formal.

We are going lo aIy some of lhese lechniques in our exercise lo creale a ma lhal
accuraleIy deicls lhe ercenlage of Asian Americans in lhe Uniled Slales in 2005, by
slale.


144
!"!#$%&! (
Dala normaIizalion is a overfuI looI for anaIyzing ma dala, aIlhough il musl be used
carefuIIy. We viII add dala lo an allribule labIe, normaIize lhe dala sel, and ma lhe
resuIls.

)*+,-
Hislorians are oflen inleresled in a subseclion of a given ouIalion, and lhe U.S.
Census lracks seIf-idenlified elhnic grous in lhe Uniled Slales. We are going lo
normaIize lhe ouIalion dala in lhe allribule labIe of our ma lo deicl lhe ercenlage
of Asian Americans in lhe ouIalion of each slale in 2005.

&./0 1-
This exercise viII use lhe shaefiIe of lhe Uniled Slales lhal you dovnIoaded for
exercise 2, vhich shouId be in your Ixercise 2 subfoIder.

Oen lhe MaWindov aIicalion, and cIick lhe Add bullon in lhe menu bar.
Navigale lo your Ixercise 2 subfoIder and oen lhe UniledSlales1900.sh fiIe as a
Iayer |Iigure 7.1j.


23456/ (71- 8*0 9: .;/ <=3./> &.*./+7




145
!"#$ &'
In lhe Legend ane, go lo Layers and righl-cIick UniledSlales1900.sh, and seIecl
Allribule TabIe Idilor |Iigure 7.2j. As ve have seen in earIier exercises, lhe allribule
labIe for a dala Iayer can conlain any informalion lhal lhe user vanls lo have associaled
vilh lhe ma. In lhis case, lhe allribule labIe conlains a greal deaI of census informalion
from lhe 1990 census, as veII as ouIalion dala lhal vas added Ialer.


()*+,# -.&' /0"",)1+"# 2314# 56)"7,8 9):679.

The dala shovn in Iigure 7.2 are in lheir rav formal, ve need lo normaIize lhe dala
ve vanl lo use on our ma. The firsl sle is lo add a nev fieId, or coIumn, lo lhe
allribule labIe lo slore our normaIized dala.











!"#
%& '() *+'',-./') 01.2) 34-'5,6 7-&4578 92-9: *34-'6 1&4 ;)2)9' *+44 <-)246 '5 5=)& '()
*+44 <-)246 7-&457> ?1@) '() &)7 A-)24 +B%+?C?DEF G<-H/,) I>JK> <5, *0L=)86
9(55;) M5/.2)> N()9: '() *O-4'(6 1&4 *P,)9-;-5&6 A-)24; '5 @1:) ;/,) '(1' '() Q12/);
1,) !R 1&4 J8 1&4 92-9: *DS>6


"#$%&' ()*+ ,-.. "#'/.0 1#2.31)

435'+
0() &)7 A-)24 &1@) 7-22 .) ',/&91')4 -& ;5@) 7-&457; '5 +B%+?C?DE T '(-; -; &5' 1&
),,5,U

%& '() *+'',-./') 01.2) 34-'5,86 ;9,522 '5 '() ,-H(' '5 2591') '() A-)24 '(1' L5/ V/;' 9,)1')4>
0(-; &)7 9,)1'-5& ;(5/24 .) '() 21;' A-)24 -& '() *+'',-./') 01.2) 34-'5,6 7-&457
G<-H/,) I>"K>


"#$%&' ()6+ 4'1/7 8..'. 9#'/. #2 5:' ,-55&#;%5' <8;/' =.#53&0 1#2.31)

147
!"#$ &'
We can see lhal MaWindov assigned nuII vaIues lo lhe fieId lhal ve |usl crealed.
Righl-cIick lhe coIumn header ASIAN_NORM, and choose CaIcuIale VaIues (AII
Records) |Iigure 7.5j


()*+,# -./' 01# 23456+54")7* 845+#9: ;#7+ 61<)6#.

The IieId CaIcuIalor vindov viII aear on lhe screen, vhich viII Iel us leII
MaWindov lo assign numeric vaIues lo lhe fieId ve crealed. We need lo give
MaWindov an equalion lhal viII derive lhe numeric vaIues for lhe ASIAN_NORM
fieId, by dividing lhe fieId ASIANS by lhe lolaI ouIalion fieId IOI2005.

To do lhis division, ve firsl leII MaWindov inlo vhich fieId lhe resuIls need lo go.
Thus, in lhe Deslinalion TabIe IieId, seIecl our nev fieId, ASIAN_NORM. Nexl, ve
need lo vrile our equalion in lhe Iarge, emly vindov beIov lhal box.

To buiId lhe equalion, seIecl ASIANS in lhe TabIe IieIds Iisl. Irom lhe rov of
oeralions undernealh lhe Iunclions vindov, seIecl lhe division bullon (/), and
lhen doubIe-cIick IOI2005 |Iigure 7.6j.

!"#

"#$%&' ()*+ ,-' '.%/0#12 %3'4 01 5/65%6/0' 0-' 21&7/6#8'4 919%6/0#12 1: ;3#/2
;7'&#5/23)

%&'() *%+&(,&+-./ +01 2+34'0156 6'&& 7,0 -8. .9,+-'50 +01 3,- -8. 7.:,&-: '0-5 -8.
;<=;>?>@A2 B'.&1C @0(. 0,D.7'( E+&,.: 8+E. F..0 +::'G0.1 -5 -8. B'.&1H
2+34'0156 6'&& +:) 'B I5, 65,&1 &'). -5 (&5:. -8. *J'.&1 %+&(,&+-57 4'0156C/ %855:.
*K.:C/

=0 -8. +--7'F,-. -+F&.H :(75&& 7'G8- +G+'0 -5 -8. ;<=;>?>@A2 B'.&1 +01 I5, 6'&& :.. -8+-
0,D.7'( E+&,.: 8+E. F..0 +::'G0.1 LJ'G,7. MCMNC O8.:. E+&,.: 7.37.:.0- -8. 057D+&'P.1
1+-+H 7.357-.1 '0 3.7(.0-+G.H B57 -8. ;:'+0 353,&+-'50 &'E'0G '0 -8. Q0'-.1 <-+-.: '0 RSSTC

149

"#$%&' ()(* +%,'&#- ./0%'1 /11#$2'3 45 2'6 7#'03)

To save lhe nev informalion, go lo lhe bollom of lhe screen and cIick AIy, and
lhen cIose lhe Allribule TabIe Idilor vindov.

84'9 :*
Nov ve vanl lo assign a coIoring scheme on our ma of lhe Uniled Slales for lhe
ASIAN_NORM fieId lo make a more readabIe choroIelh ma. Go lo Layers, righl-
cIick lhe UniledSlales1900 Iayer and seIecl Iroerlies, and lhen choose lhe
Calegories lab.


"#$%&' ();* <=/4'$5&#'1> 6#2356 6#4? 4?' 9&59'& ./0%'1 1'0'-4'3)
150
In Numeric fieIds, seIecl ASIAN_NORM, and lhen seIecl 3 for lhe Calegories
vaIue in lhe CIassificalion box |Iigure 7.9j. Under CoIor scheme, check lhe
Gradienl box, and lhen cIick lhe dovn arrov lo see lhe coIor choices. SeIecl lhe
second coIor scheme choice. IinaIIy, cIick Generale, lhen AIy, and lhen OK.

Your finaI ma shouId Iook Iike Iigure 7.9, vilh lhe coIor of each slale indicaling lhe
ercenlage of Asian-Americans Iiving in lhal slale in 2005.


"#$%&' ()*+ ,'&-'./0$' 12 34#0.4 5#6#.$ #. /7' 8.#/'9 :/0/'4 #. ;<<=)

CongraluIalions! You have crealed a nev fieId (or coIumn) in an allribule labIe, by
using lhe fieId caIcuIalor looI, you normaIized rav ouIalion dala lo caIcuIale vhal
ercenlage of lhe ouIalion of lhe Uniled Slales in 2005 vas Asian American, and you
roduced a choroIelh ma deicling lhe normaIized ouIalion dala. These looIs can
be aIied lo any, or aII, of lhe numeric dala conlained in an allribule labIe. One couId
use lhis formuIa lo roduce severaI mas deicling differenl elhnic grou ouIalions
al a given lime, or generale severaI mas for one grou using dala coIIecled al differenl
limes in order lo lrack ouIalion grovlh or movemenl vilhin lhal grou in lhal
limeframe.

Nov lhal you have Iearned hov lo do some basic saliaI anaIysis and hov lo use some
dala anaIysis looIs, ve viII Iook al hov lo use for research lhe hisloricaI mas lhal have
nol been digilized. We viII lurn lhem inlo mas lhal are usabIe in MaWindov.
151
!"#$%&' )* +,-. / $/01, "234-,25/6 7/0 4- / 82924/6 :;1
HisloricaI mas deicl lhe hysicaI Iandscae in vhich imorlanl human aclions,
evenls, and rocesses vere shaed and look Iace. These mas heI hislorians visuaIize
hov lhe Iandscae of an area changed over lime and hov lhose lransformalions refIecl
lhe human slory. ul because hisloricaI mas vere crealed by lhose vho underslood
lhe vorId and ils geograhy in lhe lerms of lheir lime, nol ours, lhese mas oflen
conlain informalion nol found on more recenl mas. This informalion mighl be lhe
former names for regions of lhe ma lhal have since become arl of a differenl counlry,
or for lovns lhal have since disaeared, or for coaslIines lhal vere dravn based on
second- or lhird-hand knovIedge, vhich has since been shovn lo be inaccurale. This
dala, even if nol accurale, can convey imorlanl informalion for lhe hisloricaI loic
under sludy, vhich lhe researcher viII, lherefore, vish lo mainlain. David Rumsey and
Meredilh WiIIiams recognized lhal mosl geograhicaIIy-inlegraled hislory vouId be
imossibIe vilhoul hisloricaI mas. They mainlained lhal one can use hisloricaI mas
lo examine hov fealures have changed over lime, and lhal GIS is freeing mas from lhe
slalic confines of lheir originaI rinl form.
1
Hovever, before one can use an hisloricaI
ma vilhin GIS, il is necessary lo lurn lhal hysicaI ma inlo a digilaI one, vhich can
lhen become a Iayer in a GIS ro|ecl. The rocess of laking a aer ma and lurning il
inlo a usabIe digilaI ma is a form of 91-,1<1,1;52;9, and il is a cruciaI looI for any
hislorian using GIS.
2


ecause hislorians generaIIy do nol lake inlo accounl images as sources of evidence,
lhose inleresled in aIying GIS lo hisloricaI research face a ma|or chaIIenge vhen
seeking recognilion for lheir vork, as Anne K. KnovIes observed.
3
Once one has
recognized lhe vaIue of mas as rimary sources and has decided lo inlegrale an
hisloricaI ma inlo a GIS, one needs lo georeference lhe ma. Rumsey and WiIIiams
defined georeferencing a carlograhic roducl as aIigning a scanned ma vilh |ilsj
acluaI geograhicaI Iocalion by assigning geograhicaI coordinales lo each oinl, or by
Iinking each oinl lo ils equivaIenl on a modern, accurale digilaI ma.
4
In olher vords,
lo georeference a ma, one musl scan lhe ma lo creale a digilaI image, vhich can be
read in a GIS rogram, Iocale lhe correcl coordinales for severaI oinls on lhe ma, and
lhen connecl lhose oinls lo lhe ma lo ensure lhal il is roerIy ro|ecled.

1
David Rumsey and Meredilh WiIIiams, HisloricaI Mas in GIS, in !"#$ &'()* !"#$ !+",)- ./0 123 4'#$235,
ed. Anne K. KnovIes (RedIands, CaIifornia: ISRI Iress, 2002), 2.
2
Ior a roer inlroduclion lo georeferencing, you musl read, Linda L. HiII, .)23)1)3)6,'67- &8) .)273"98',
:##2,'"$'26# 21 /6123("$'26 (Cambridge, Massachusells, and London: MIT Iress, 2006 |aer 2009j).
3
Anne K. KnovIes, GIS and Hislory, in !+",'67 4'#$235- 42; <"9#* 09"$'"+ ="$"* "6> ./0 :3) ?8"67'67
4'#$23',"+ 0,82+"3#8'9, ed. Anne K. KnovIes and Anne HiIIier (RedIands, CaIifornia: ISRI Iress, 2008), 2.
4
Rumsey and WiIIiams, HisloricaI Mas in GIS, 4-5.
152
!"#$$%$&
Once you have idenlified a ma lhal you vanl lo use in MaWindov, you musl scan il
(or holograh il, deending on ils hysicaI condilion) so lhal lhe resuIling digilaI
image can be used vilh a comuler. MaWindov viII Ioad scanned images
in .bm, .ng, .df, .lif, .gif, .img, and .|g formals. Mosl, if nol aII, scanner soflvare
ackages offer users lhe olion lo save fiIes in more lhan one of lhese formals. Wilh lhe
increasing accuracy of modern scanners, even a smaII desklo scanner can be used lo
digilize your mas and images, aIlhough Iarger mas may need a Iarge-formal scanner.
efore scanning your ma, hovever, you shouId check onIine lo see if digilaI versions
of il are aIready avaiIabIe. Ior examIe, for lhe U.S. you viII find lhe imorlanl Sanborn
insurance mas, vhich have been scanned and are accessibIe lo GIS users. The Sanborn
comany originaIIy made lhese mas of ma|or cilies lo rovide insurance undervrilers
vilh fire vuInerabiIily dala in lhe Iale nineleenlh- and earIy lvenlielh cenluries. They
rovide a bird's eye viev of various cilies al secific limes, lhey deicl arceIs of Iand,
shov lhe buiIdings on lhe arceIs, and nole lhe uroses lhose buiIdings served. Many
of lhese mas are avaiIabIe for differenl areas of lhe Uniled Slales and cover muIliIe
years. WhiIe lhere are no anaIogous mas for olher counlries, because lhe number of
digilized mas avaiIabIe onIine grovs daiIy, you musl check lo see if a ma lhal suils
your research needs is avaiIabIe onIine before digilizing your ovn. Hovever, for lhose
vho need lo digilize lheir ovn mas, or for onIine mas lhal have been scanned bul nol
roerIy ro|ecled, MaWindov can be used lo roduce correcl and usabIe digilized
mas.

()*+),)+)$"%$& -%./ 0#12%$3*-
Georeferencing a digilized or scanned version of a ma consisls of laking and aIying
reaI-vorId coordinales lo il, in lhis case using MaWindov. Irimary source mas may
nol incIude your enlire research area, lherefore, you may need lo |oin severaI digilized
mas logelher lo creale a singIe ma. Ian Gregory and IauI III Iisled lhree slages in lhe
rocess of laking anaIog geograhic informalion and digilizing il: georeferencing lo
converl from digilizer lo reaI-vorId coordinales, ro|ecling lo add a ma ro|eclion,
and |oining ad|acenl ma sheels logelher, robabIy vilh lhe heI of !"##$!%&'$$()*+, lo
creale a singIe Iayer reresenling severaI ma sheels.
5
Whelher you are vorking vilh a
singIe ma or need lo |oin severaI mas inlo one, lhe rocess of georeferencing lhe ma
in MaWindov makes il reIaliveIy easy lo do.



5
Ian N. Gregory and IauI S. III, ,)&(-!)./0 2345 6$.'*-0-+)$&7 8$('-9-0-+)$& /*9 4.'-0/!&'): (Cambridge:
Cambridge Universily Iress), 47.
153
Using a Iug-in looI caIIed Image lo Ma, MaWindov aIIovs lhe user lo seIecl
!"#$%"& (")#$* lo aIign lhe hisloricaI ma lo an aIready ro|ecled shaefiIe of lhe same
area. The conlroI oinls are reference oinls lhal leII lhe rogram lhal lhe oinl on lhe
hisloricaI ma needs lo be Iocaled al lhe same osilion on lhe shaefiIe Iayer. Ior
examIe, if ve needed lo georeference a ma of CoIorado, ve vouId use lhe corners of
lhe slale as conlroI oinls, and MaWindov vouId slack lhe shaefiIe and lhe
hisloricaI ma so lhal lhose four corner oinls vere on lo of each olher. Anolher vay
lo lhink aboul lhe rocess is lo imagine lhal you have lvo ieces of fabric, one vilh an
image of lhe IiffeI Tover on il, and lhe olher vilh a cul-oul of lhe IiffeI Tover. If you
vanl lo in lhe cul-oul iece on lo of lhe image of lhe IiffeI Tover, you vouId need lo
in il so lhal lhe cul-oul vas aIigned vilh lhe image. The Image lo Ma looI aIIovs
us lo leII MaWindov vhere lhe ins shouId go, so lhal lhe resuIling ma viII be
roerIy aIigned. Once ve have used lhis looI lo aIign our digilized hisloricaI ma, ve
can emIoy olher looIs lo enhance ils usabiIily.

+,-&&.#/.* -#0 1)2)$-$)"#*
Digilizing and georeferencing mas can be chaIIenging for severaI reasons: scanning
Iarge mas lhal require a Iarge-formal scanner can be exensive and ledious, scanning
errors can make il more difficuIl lo Iocale lhe correcl coordinales for lhe ma, and il can
be difficuIl lo find good conlroI oinls lo georeference lhe ma correclIy. Hovever,
georeferencing and digilizing hisloricaI mas aIIovs hislorians bolh lo uncover
hislories of vhich hislorians lhemseIves mighl be unavare and lo reserve lhe
knovIedge and lhe memories of hysicaI and sociaI Iandscaes from lhe asl. We viII
see hov a ma of lhe raziIian orl of Recife |Iigure 8.1j can serve bolh of lhese
uroses.
6











6
!"# %&' () #*+(+,#-. /0,&*1 -1 '12+1 # '2&3!! #$ %$&'!()*+, -,& .,/0 1$&'!'#$/ %,&2*3!I. IiIolo que
serviu n'armada ReaI. Anno 1808. Il is in lhe ubIic domain. A holocoy can be found in
GiIberlo Ierrez, !"#"$ & '#&()*$"$ +)$,"$ & '"-*#"."$ /* !&()0&1 2344 5 2644 !"#$%&#' !"#$%&!!" $%&'"(%) *+,-
!"#$%&' " )*+,-./01 234561 7&89:;8 <'=" number.
154
When lhis ma vas found by one of our aulhors, Anderson Sandes, he aIso Iearned
somelhing aboul lhe reviousIy unknovn mamaker: }ose Iernandes IorlugaI. The
aulhor of lhe ma acliveIy suorled lhe revoIulion lhal broke oul in raziI in 1817,
during vhich individuaIs allemled lo eslabIish an indeendenl governmenl lhal
vouId free raziI from conlroI by lhe Iorluguese crovn.


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-./ 01 23& 40%2 01 5&6"1&7 *(8(7 9: ;0<= !&%/./>&< ,0%2$#.-7
0?&%-."> 0/ @A5BC< D%6E-09&)

UnforlunaleIy, he vas arresled and died in rison from slarvalion.
7
y inlegraling
Iernandes IorlugaI's 1808 ma of lhe orl of Recife inlo his GIS, Sandes vas abIe lo
visuaIize lhe Iandscae of Recife al lhal lime. AIso, he connecled fealures deicled on
lhe ma, such as buiIdings and slreels, vilh dala exlracled from lraveI accounls of lhe
lime in order lo buiId a more comIele, geograhicaIIy-inlegraled narralive of lhe
municiaIily's roIe in lhe revoIulion. Thus, lhe discovery of lhis ma and lhe
inlegralion of dala from lhe lraveI narralives aIIoved Sandes lo reveaI reviousIy
unknovn informalion aboul an imorlanl member of lhe revoIulionary movemenl and
lhe cily's roIe in earIy nineleenlh-cenlury raziI.

ecause oId mas oflen conlain informalion nol found on more modern mas, a
hislorian mighl vanl lo georeference an hisloricaI ma lo make beller use of lhal dala.
Ior examIe, an hisloricaI ma mighl conlain nol onIy lhe rivers and mounlains in a

7
Inslilulo Hislrico e Geografico rasiIeiro, !"#$%&' )*$+",%'- ./ 0,%&$&1&/ 2$%&/*$3/4 5"/6*'78$3/4 "
9&,/6*'78$3/ ./ :*'%$- (Rio de }aneiro: . L. Gardiner, 1867), 363.
!""
$%&'()* $+,*'&-. /,' (01+ 2,*)$)3(0)')%1 '4(' 4(5% 1)*$% 6)1(33%(&%6. +& &%7)+*(0 *(2%1
'4(' (&% *+ 0+*7%& )* ,1%. +& /+&6%&1 '4(' 4(5% 1)*$% 14)8'%6 (1 ( &%1,0' +8 ( 9(&: ;('4%&
'4(* (''%23')*7 '+ &%$&%('% '4)1 )*8+&2(')+* ($$,&('%0- +* ( </0(*=> 2(3 $&%('%6 )*
?(3@)*6+9 +& (*+'4%& ABC. 7%+&%8%&%*$)*7 (00+91 ,1 '+ 3&+6,$% (* ($$,&('% 2(3 +8
'4% $+,*'&- +& &%7)+* 94)0% 2()*'()*)*7 )23+&'(*' 4)1'+&)$(0 )*8+&2(')+*: B* %11%*$%.
+*$% 9% 4(5% $+&&%$'0- 7%+&%8%&%*$%6 1,$4 ( 2(3. 9% $(* 2(*)3,0('% '4% 2(3 0(-%& 1+
'4(' '4+1% 4)1'+&)$(0 6%'()01 (&% 5)1)/0% +* '4% *%9. 7%+7&(34)$(00- ($$,&('% 2(3: @% 9)00
*+9 0%(&* 4+9 '+ $(&&- +,' 1,$4 ( 2(*)3,0(')+*. ,1)*7 +,& 2(3 +8 D&(*$% 8&+2 (*
%(&0)%& %E%&$)1%:

















156
!"!#$%&! (
We have Iearned in lhis chaler lhal ve can do more lhan add dala lo a ma or ils
allribule labIe, ve can aIso lake a hisloricaI ma lhal is nol a shaefiIe Iayer and
reference il lo a shaefiIe. This referencing aIIovs us lo seIecl mas lhal ve vanl lo use
in our research and lurn lhem inlo digilaI mas lhal can lhen be anaIyzed. This exercise
viII Iel you raclice lhis skiII, vhich is one of lhe mosl imorlanl ones necessary for
doing GeograhicaIIy-Inlegraled Hislory vilh a GIS.

)*+,-
We are going lo lake a hisloric ma of Irance
8
and digilize il, lo creale a Iayer vilh an
accurale ro|eclion and deiclion of scaIe, vilhoul Iosing lhe delaiIs of lhe originaI ma.
The resuIl viII be a correclIy ro|ecled ma of Irance, vilh lhe municiaI names and
olher informalion from lhe originaI ma visibIe and usabIe for anaIysis.

&./0 1-
Go lo hll://vvv.geograhicaIIyinlegraledhislory.com/v-
conlenl/uIoads/exercises/exercise8.zi

DovnIoad lhe foIder vilh lhe dala required for lhe comIelion of lhe exercise. Inside
lhe foIder, you viII find a ma of Irance from lhe David Rumsey coIIeclion, shovn in
Iigure 8.1, and lhe shaefiIe Iayer of Irance, vhich viII be used as our reference Iayer,
shovn in Iigure 8.2.


8
The ma vas crealed by Aaron Arrovsmilh and SamueI Levis and ubIished in lheir vorId alIas
(oslon: Thomas & Andrevs, 1812). We have used lhe ma from lhe David Rumsey Ma CoIIeclion
(vvv.DavidRumsey.com), Iisl no. 0028.006. Il is described as an engraved ma, uncoIored, vilh lhe
reIief shovn by hachures.
!"#

"#$%&' ()*+ ,-. /0 "&-12' 3*(*45 0&/6 78' 9-:#; <%6='> ,-. ?/@@'27#/1)


"#$%&' ()4+ A8-.'0#@' @->'& 78-7 B#@@ C' /%& &'0'&'12' @->'&)



158
!"#$%
AIvays make sure lhal your shaefiIe is ro|ecled before aIigning il vilh an image. You
musl eslabIish lhe shaefiIe ro|eclion because you viII assign lhe ro|eclion of lhe
shaefiIe lo lhe image. The shaefiIe you are using is aIready ro|ecled, under WGS-
84/UTM zone 30 Norlh (Irance).

'#$( )%
Oen MaWindov. ecause you musl Ioad lhe reference Iayer firsl, add lhe
france_rero|ecled shaefiIe lhal you have dovnIoaded. Then Ioad lhe Irance ma.
Refer lo exercise 2, sle 4, if you need lo reviev hov lo Ioad dala.

'#$( *%
Once lhe ma has been Ioaded, lhe Iro|eclion absence vindov viII aear |Iigure
8.3j. You viII receive lhis nolificalion because lhe ma is an image vilh no ro|eclion
assigned lo il. Choose Assign ro|eclion from ro|ecl, and cIick Ok. Nov your ma
has lhe same ro|eclion as lhe france_rero|ecled shaefiIe.


+,-./$ 01*% 23/"4$5#,"6 789$65$: ;,6<";1






159
A nev vindov viII aear, lhe Iro|eclion checking resuIls |Iigure 8.4j, slaling lhal a
ro|eclion has been assigned. CIick CIose lo roceed vilh lhe exercise.


"#$%&' ()*+ ,-&./'01#.2 03'04#2$ &'5%6157 8#29.8)

Look al lhe Layers Iisl in lhe Legend ane. The Iayers shouId be disIayed as
shovn in Iigure 8.5. If necessary, move lhe france image so il is above lhe
france_rero|ecled Iayer.


"#$%&' ():+ ,;<1< 6<='&57 ><2')

?1'> *+
Nov ve vanl lo gel bolh images lo be disIayed al aroximaleIy lhe same size. Righl-
cIick on each Iayer and choose lhe olion Zoom lo Layer from lhe dro-dovn menu.
Iach Iayer viII shov as il is zoomed, bul you viII nol see bolh images al lhe same lime.
You see lhe Iayers searaleIy because lhey are nol aIigned yel. When ve georeference
lhe lvo Iayers, lhen ve viII see onIy a singIe Iayer.



160
To georeference our Iayers, ve musl firsl lurn on lhe Image lo Ma Iug-in. Go lo
IIug-ins in lhe main menu bar, and scroII dovn lo Image lo Ma. CIick Image lo
Ma |Iigure 8.6j. When you have lurned on lhe Iug-in, you viII see a nev olion on
lhe main menu bar, enlilIed Image lo Ma.


"#$%&' ()*+ ,-./$' 01 2/34 35%$6#7)

!"!
!"#$ &'
$%&' ()* +*, -.'/0* (& 1/23 &2(4&+ 4+ ()* '/4+ '*+5 6/%7 8)&&9* -!: .'/0*
;*049(%/(4&+3 <$405%* =:>?:


()*+,# -./' 0123*# 4#*)5",3")678 6$")67 )7 0123*# "6 93$.8

@)49 8)&48* ,4AA &2*+ ()* -.'/0* (& 1/2 ;*049(%/(4&+ 6B C*/9( DE5/%*93 ,4+F&,
<$405%* =:=?:

:6"#'
.+ %*F A*((*%9 /8%&99 ()* (&2 &G ()* ,4+F&,7 ()*%* 49 / +&(* ()/( 9/B9 -1&H* ()49 I4+F&,
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%&' ()*+,( -,*./)*0 .&1'' +)22'1'*. 3/*'04 5' (/*. ., 6,,7 /. .&' 3/*' ,* .&' 6'2.8
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"#$%&' ()?* @A' B#&4/ /<0 C05/&0D 20#5/4 <' <#DD C&'./')


163
To creale lhe firsl conlroI oinl, cIick on lhe bullon in lhe Iefl-hand ane of lhe
Image lo Ma Regislralion by Leasl Squares vindov, and move lhe vindov oul of
lhe vay. Nolice lhal your cursor has changed.

As soon as you cIick on lhe oinl on lhe ma Iayer |Iigure 8.10j, lhe ma of Irance
Iayer shouId disaear and lhe shaefiIe Iayer shouId aear.


"#$%&' ()*+, "#&-. /01.&02 30#1. 01 .4' 563)









!"#
%&'() *+, (-..,/0-12'13 0-'1* -1 *+, .,4,.,1(,2 /+50,4'&, &56,. 78'39., :;!!<; =-9 +5>,
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?/ /--1 5/ 6-9 (&'() -1 *+, (-1*.-& 0-'1* -1 *+, /+50,4'&, &56,.@ *+, A50 051, A56 3-
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/6%&( 2( G25.,' H3!I3

()"#'
8B =%. +-((%* B2() *6' 789-5' *% :-1 ;'52/*,-*2%( <= >'-/* ?@.-,'/A &2()%&C )% (%*
1-(2+J :2(292K' :-1L2()%& -() -(= %*6', &2()%&/ *6-* =%. 6-E' %1'( %( =%.,
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&2()%& *% *6' <-+D5,%.()3


*+,-.# &/01' 23# 4#5)67 5)6".)8 $)+6" )6 "3# 9:$ 8:;#./

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&' *.,(') %BB *6' 7B,-(+'M,'1,%N'+*')A 0-=',C &' ('') *% *.,( 2* %( -5-2(3 O% *% *6'
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!"#

!"#$%& ()*+, -./0&%12 3"45 45& -6%/78&9%&:%;<&84&=2 6">& 4$%7&= ;7)

%&' (')'('*+', -&./')01' 1.2'( 3011 .//'.(4 563 +10+7 8&' -'+6*, +6*8(61 /60*8 6* 8&'
-&./')01' 9:0;<(' =4!#>4


!"#$%& ()*?, @5& 1&8;7= 8;74%;> :;"74 ;7 45& 15/:&6">& >/0&%)

A;4&,
?) 26< 36<1, 107' 86 -8.(8 8&' '@'(+0-' 6A'(B 26< +.* ,6 -6 .8 .*2 80C'4 D63'A'(B 26<
3011 &.A' 86 <-' 8&' 6(0;0*.1 )01'- /1.+', 0* 8&' E0//', )61,'( )6( F@'(+0-' =4 G6< C<-8
<-' 8&6-' )01'- H'+.<-'B .8 8&0- /60*8B 26<( 0C.;' 0- .1('.,2 ;'6(')'('*+', 86 . +'(8.0*
!"#
%&'%(') *+ ,-. /- 0%1%2' '3% %&%0456%7 ,-. 63-.8/ 48-6% 921:5(/-; ;5'3-.' 62<5(=7 2(/
'3%( 0%-1%( 921:5(/-; 2(/ 0%8-2/ '3% -05=5(28 >&%0456% # +58%6)

!"#$%
?3% 40%2'5-( -+ 4-('0-8 1-5('6 56 -(% -+ '3% @-0% /5++54.8' '--86 '- @26'%0) ><%(
%&1%05%(4%/ .6%06 42( 32<% 10-A8%@6 ;5'3 '3% 10-4%/.0%) B6%06 -+'%( +258 '- 1824% '3%
4-('0-8 1-5('6 4-00%4'8,) *+ '32' 3211%(67 '3% 10-4%/.0% 10-/.4%6 2 6C%;%/ @217 ;3543
56 (-' 10-1%08, 285=(%/) D-. 63-.8/ +%%8 +0%% '- 0%1%2' '356 1-0'5-( -+ '3% %&%0456% 26
-+'%( 26 (%%/%/ .('58 ,-. +%%8 4-@+-0'2A8% ;5'3 '3% 6'%16 2(/ '3% 0%6.8'6) D-. 42( 286-
%&1%05@%(' ;5'3 43--65(= /5++%0%(' 4-('0-8 1-5('6)

E+'%0 ,-. 32<% 1824%/ ';- 4-('0-8 1-5('67 '3% @21 2(/ '3% 0%+%0%(4% 82,%0 63-.8/ A-'3
211%20 -( ,-.0 640%%(7 26 5( F5=.0% #)!#) D-. ;588 6%% '32' '3% -05=5(28 @21 5@2=% 56
.(/%0(%2'3 '3% 0%+%0%(4% 82,%0)






!"#

"#$%&' ()*(+ ,-&&'./01 $'-&'2'&'3.'4 567 -2 "&63.'8 9#/: /:' "&63.' ;:67'2#0' 061'&'4
-3 /-7 -2 /:' :#;/-&#.60 567 -2 "&63.')

</'7 =+
%& '()& *+,,&*-./ 0&+,&1&,&2*&3 -'& '45-+,4* 6(7 +1 8,(2*&9 :+;&)&,< ;& *(22+- =5&
-'45 ,&5=.- >&*(=5& 4- +>5*=,&5 -'& 3(-( 1,+6 -'& +,4042(. 6(79 %& 2&&3 -+ *+67.&-& -'&
3404-4?(-4+2 +1 -'& 6(7 5+ -'(- -'& -+;25< *4-4&5< (23 +-'&, 421+,6(-4+2 +1 -'& +,4042(.
6(7 (,& )454>.& (23 =5(>.&9 %& *(2 3+ -'45 >/ 14,5- '()420 @(7%423+; *+67=-& -'&
2&; 6(7 =5420 +=, *+2-,+. 7+42-59

A+ >(*B -+ -'& CD6(0& -+ @(7 E&045-,(-4+2 >/ F&(5- GH=(,&5I ;423+; (23 .++B (- -'&
.&1- 7(2& (0(429

J.4*B CJ+67=-&<I (23 -'&2 *.4*B C84245'I K840=,& L9!#M9

!"#

"#$%&' ()*+, -'./01234 523' #3 /1'
6782$' /9 :25 ;'$#</&2/#93 => -'2</ ?@%2&'<A B#349B)

?/'5 *C,
%&'())*+ ,- '--. /0 &'D/#.> 012 '-, 3(4 &' 02.-2 /0 5--4 /6- &3(7- 4-23('-'/)*
(8809&(/-. ,&/6 /6- 2-:-2-'9-. 86(4-:&)- )(*-2;

<0 =(95 /0 /6- >?3(7- /0 @(4A 04/&0' &' /6- 3(&' 3-'1 =(2+ ('. 96008- >B; ?3(7-
C-9/&:&9(/&0';A D6- >?3(7- C-9/&:&9(/&0'A ,&'.0, ,&)) 04-' E%&712- F;B#G; H005 (/ /6-
)-:/ 4('- 0: /6- ,&'.0,;

171

"#$%&' ()*+, -./0$' 1'23#4#203#567 82&''6)

In lhe SeIecl Image lo Reclify box, choose france. CIick Reclify, and lhen cIick
Iinish. 9:' ;&52'88 54 &'23#4<#6$ 3:' #/0$' /#$:3 30=' 0 4'> /#6%3'8)

When lhe image reclificalion has finished, go back lo lhe Layers Iisl in lhe Legend
ane. Righl-cIick on lhe france_rero|ecled Iayer and choose Iroerlies from lhe
dro-dovn menu |Iigure 8.21j.


"#$%&' ()*?, 9:' -@&5;'&3#'87 5;3#56 45& 3:' -4&062'A&';&5B'23'C7 D0<'&)

172
In lhe Layer roerlies vindov, go lo lhe Aearance lab, and in lhe box nexl lo
Transarency, lye in lhe vaIue of 150. CIick AIy, and lhen cIick Ok.


"#$%&' ()**+ ,&-./0-&'.12 #. 34' 5600'-&-.1'7 3-8 %.9'& 5:&;0'&3#'/)7

Your screen shouId nov Iook Iike Iigure 8.23:


"#$%&' ()*<+ =';&'>'&'.1'9 ?-0 ;> "&-.1')

!"#
%&'()*+,-*+.&'/0 1&, 2*34 /,554//6,--7 (4&)464)4'548 * 2./+&).5*- 9*: ,/.'(
;*:<.'8&=0 >/ *-=*7/? 7&, /2&,-8 )4:4*+ +2./ 4@4)5./4 ,'+.- 7&, 644- 5&96&)+*A-4
=.+2 +24/4 +452'.B,4/C <4 /,((4/+ 7&, +)7 ,/.'( 8.664)4'+ 5&'+)&- :&.'+/ D:4)2*:/ &'4
&' +24 =4/+4)' 48(4 *'8 &'4 &' +24 4*/+4)' A&)84)? &) &'4 .' +24 '&)+2 *'8 &'4 .' +24
/&,+2EC 1&, 5*' *-/& :-*7 =.+2 8.664)4'+ 3*-,4/ 6&) +24 +)*'/:*)4'57 /4++.'(C F24)4 *)4
3*-.8 )4*/&'/ 6&) 9*G.'( +24 )464)4'54 -*74) 434' 9&)4 +)*'/:*)4'+H 6&) 4@*9:-4? 7&,
9*7 =./2 +& 9*G4 .+ 4*/.4) +& )4*8 +24 &).(.'*- .'6&)9*+.&' &' +24 9*:C

I6 7&, 2*34 2./+&).5*- 9*:/ &6 7&,) &='? 7&, /2&,-8 /5*' +249 D.6 7&, 2*34 '&+ *-)4*87
8&'4 /&E *'8 )48& +2./ 4@4)5./4 ,/.'( 7&,) &=' 9*:/C J4949A4) +2*+ 7&, ;KLF 2*34
* 5&))45+-7 :)&M45+48 /2*:46.-4 +2*+ 5&))4/:&'8/ +& 7&,) 9*: +& A4 *A-4 +& (4&)464)4'54
.+0

<24' 7&, 644- +2*+ 7&, 2*34 9*/+4)48 +24 +&&-/ .' +2./ 4@4)5./4? 7&, 5*' 9&34 &' +&
%2*:+4) N? =2.52 =.-- +4*52 7&, /&94 9&)4 *83*'548 8.(.+*-.O*+.&' /G.--/C F24/4 /G.--/
5*' A4 ,/48 +& 9*G4 8.(.+.O48 9*:/ 434' 9&)4 84+*.-48? *'8 +2,/ 9&)4 ,/46,- 6&) 7&,)
)4/4*)52C
174
!"#$%&' )* +,-,.,/,0-
In order lo make saliaI conneclions vilh hisloricaI dala in a GIS, you mighl need lo
1,-,.,/2 much of your dala. Digilizing, in generaI lerms, means laking dala from an
anaIog formal and lransferring lhem inlo a digilaI formal. In lhis sense, scanning is a
form of digilizing. Hovever, vilh GIS, digilizing secificaIIy refers lo laking aer or
olher hardcoy mas and Iacing aII lhe informalion from lhose mas inlo a formal
comalibIe vilh GIS soflvare. This may mean digilaIIy lracing such fealures as roads,
arceIs, buiIdings, rivers, elc., inlo oinls, Iines, or oIygons. In olher vords, ve can
creale nev oinls, Iines, or oIygons on our ma lhal exaclIy lrace lhe fealures found
on lhe originaI ma. Nov lhal you have Iearned hov lo georeference and digilize a
ma in Chaler 8, lhe nexl sle is lo Iearn hov lo Iace evenls, conneclions, or olher
informalion on your ma.

The mosl usefuI melhod of Iacing such dala on your ma is 32415678 1,-,.,/,0-,
vhich refers lo Iolling a oinl, Iine, or oIygon manuaIIy in GIS. Once you have
georeferenced an image (as you did in Ixercise 8), you viII need lo assign geograhic
meaning lo lhe slreels, arceIs, or olher fealures of your hisloricaI ma. Digilizing
ermils lhis enhancemenl. Ior examIe, Iigure 9.1 is a Sanborn insurance ma,
1
vhich
deicls every road and buiIding in a seclion of oise, Idaho, USA, in 1912. In order lo
define lhis area in geograhic sace, ve can manuaIIy digilize lhe roads, cily bIocks,
roerlies, and even individuaI buiIdings. We can lhen enler as much informalion as
ossibIe aboul each of lhese ilems, incIuding sources such as digilized holograhs,
inlo an allribule labIe so lhal ve can aIy saliaI anaIysis lo lhal dala. When deaIing
vilh cilies, 894. :485 Iike lhe Sanborn masmas vhich Iocale individuaI roerly
boundaries lo scaIecan be digilized dovn lo each individuaI arceI. Using
digilizalion, ve can do lhe same lhing vilh olher hisloricaI mas, once lhey have been
georeferenced. Once our GIS rogram knovs lhe exacl geocoordinales of our ma
fealures, ve can begin lo anaIyze lhose fealures, such as delermining lhe dislance
belveen lvo roads or buiIdings, or hov many are Iocaled in lhe cily, or hov house size
correIales lo neighborhood, for examIe.


1
Many of lhe Sanborn Iire Insurance Mas can be found in lhe hoIdings of lhe U.S. Library of Congress
Geograhy and Ma Reading Room: hll://vvv.Ioc.gov/rr/geogma/sanborn/. UsefuI informalion is
avaiIabIe in lhe Wikiedia arlicIe Sanborn Mas: hll://en.vikiedia.org/viki/Sanborn_Mas.
!"#

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-./0%. 1-2 03 - 20%4"0. 03 50"6&7 89-:07 ;,<7 ". *(*=)




176
!"# !%&'"(%)*& +&, -%.%'%/%*. %* 01,%( 2,&,)(31
A good examIe of hov a hislorian has used digilizing in his research is rian
Donahue's !"# %&#'( )#'*+,- .'&/#&0 '1* ("# 2'1* 31 4+5+13'5 4+16+&*. Donahue soughl
lo demonslrale lhal coIoniaI Concord vas an ecoIogicaIIy suslainabIe adalion of
IngIish mixed husbandry lo a nev, chaIIenging environmenl.
2
To iIIuslrale lhis,
Donahue digilized arceIs of Iand described in deeds, by Iandovner, across Concord,
Massachusells, sanning lhree cenluries (aroximaleIy 1600-1900) and covering
roughIy 2,000 acres. Tracking Iand ovnershi vilh reIalion lo Iand-lye Ied Donahue lo
asserl lhal coIoniaI farming in Nev IngIand vas more environmenlaIIy sound lhan is
generaIIy suosed.
3
Using digilized informalion in his hisloricaI sludy aIIoved
Donahue lo anaIyze his dala more easiIy and accuraleIy lhan vouId have been ossibIe
vilhoul GIS, and lo anaIyze a Ionger eriod lhan couId have been done raclicaIIy
vilhoul a dalabase.

Anolher vay lo use digilized informalion can be seen in lhe vork of Sarah Hinman,
}ason Iackburn, and Andrev Curlis, vho vanled lo see if lhere vere any saliaI
correIalions for lyhoid oulbreaks in Washinglon, D.C., belveen 1906 and 1909.
4
In
order lo carry oul lhis invesligalion, lhey enlered hisloricaI dala aboul each
neighborhood and each recorded case of lhe disease inlo a GIS dalabase and aIied a
slalislicaI melhod caIIed RiIey's K-funclion lo anaIyze lhe maed oinl dala. Afler
running lheir anaIysis, lhey delermined lhal lhere vere no significanl saliaI allerns.
Hovever, lhe same anaIysis roved lhal lhere vere lemoraI allerns of lyhoid
oulbreaks in lhe area during lhe secified eriod.
5


There are many olher vays in vhich digilized informalion can enhance hisloricaI
anaIysis, such as: lracing ouIalion shifls, lracking archilecluraI, oIilicaI, reIigious, or
inleIIecluaI movemenls, deIinealing |urisdiclionaI boundaries, or correIaling veaIlh and
Iocalion, lo name a fev. The more one lhinks aboul lhe conneclions belveen
geograhicaI Iocalion or fealures and hisloricaI evenls, lhe more one sees lhe
lremendous ossibiIilies of using GIS for geograhicaIIy-inlegraled hislory.

2
rian Donahue, !"# %&#'( )#'*+,- .'&/#&0 '1* ("# 2'1* 31 4+5+13'5 4+16+&* (Nev Haven: YaIe Universily
Iress, 2004), xv.
3
rian Donahue, Maing Husbandry in Concord: GIS as a TooI for InvironmenlaI Hislory, in 75'6318
930(+&:- 9+, )';0< =;'(3'5 >'('< '1* %?= '&# 4"'18318 930(+&36'5 =6"+5'&0"3;, ed. Anne K. KnovIes
(RedIands: ISRI Iress, 2008), 174.
4
Sarah I. Hinman, }ason K Iackburn, and Andrev Curlis, SaliaI and TemoraI Slruclure of Tyhoid
Oulbreaks in Washinglon, D.C., 1906-1909: IvaIualing LocaI CIuslering vilh lhe Gi Slalislic,
?1(#&1'(3+1'5 @+A&1'5 +B 9#'5(" %#+8&';"360 5/13 (March, 2006), hll://vvv.i|-
heaIlhgeograhics.com/conlenl/5/1/13 (accessed 6 Selember 2011).
5
Ibid.
!""
!""#$#%&'( *%%(+ ,-('$-" $% .#/#$#0#&/
$% &' ()*' +'),-'./ 01 0% 23%%04+' 13 '.01 ) +)5', 0- 678 45 )..0-9 -'& 230-1%: ;('-
'.010-9 ) +)5',/ 0< 53= >+0>? 1(' @3=%' )1 ) 90*'- +3>)103-/ 53= >,')1' ) *',1'A/ 3, -'&
230-1: 71 0% 23%%04+' 13 3=1+0-' 23+593-% )-. .,)& +0-'% 0- 1(' %)@' &)5/ )+1(3=9( 1('
-=@4', 3< *',10>'% -'>'%%),5 &0++ *),5/ .'2'-.0-9 3- 1(' %()2' 3< 1(' 23+593-: B3,
'A)@2+'/ 0< 53= ),' 1,)>0-9 ) ,'>1)-9=+), 43=-.),5/ %=>( )% 1(' %1)1' 3< ;53@0-9/ C8$/
3-+5 <3=, *',10>'% &0++ 4' ,'D=0,'.: E=1 0< 53= ),' 1,)>0-9 ) >3)%1+0-'/ %=>( )% 1()1 3<
$=%1,)+0)/ @)-5 @3,' 230-1% @=%1 4' =%'.: F)2;0-.3& 2',@01% =%',% 13 )../ .'+'1'/
3, @3*' *',10>'% 0- )- 'A0%10-9 +0-' 3, 23+593-/ &(0>( )++3&% =%',% 13 ).. 3, ,'@3*'
.'1)0+ 0- 1(' .0901)+ 0@)9':

G<1'- &('- .09010H0-9 0-<3,@)103- 0- F)2;0-.3& 678/ 53= &0++ &0%( 13 93 4)>? )-.
@)?' >()-9'% 13 ) +0-' 3, 23+593- 13 0@2,3*' 01% )>>=,)>5: I(0% 0@2,3*'@'-1 >)- 4'
.3-' =%0-9 1(' J+)5', '.010-9 @'-=/K &(0>( )+%3 >3-1)0-% 133+% 1()1 ),' =%'<=+ <3,
.09010H0-9 .)1): G-' '.010-9 0%%=' 0% 1()1 .09010H0-9 @)2% >)- )+%3 0-*3+*' >,')10-9 +0-'%
3, 23+593-% 1()1 %01 -'A1 13 ')>( 31(', )-. ),' %3 >+3%' 1()1 01 >)- 4' .0<<0>=+1 13 .09010H'
-'09(43,0-9 ),')%: B3, 'A)@2+'/ 0- 1(' 8)-43,- @)2 0- B09=,' L:!/ 3-+5 3-' +0-' %',*'%
)% 1(' 43=-.),5 @),?', 4'1&''- 1&3 2),>'+% 3< +)-./ 4=1 0< &' .09010H' 1(' @)2/ ')>(
2),>'+ @=%1 ()*' <3=, +0-'% 13 <3,@ 1(' 2,32', 23+593-: I(0% ,'D=0,'@'-1 @')-% 1()1
1(' +0-'% .'20>10-9 1(' 43=-.),5 4'1&''- 1&3 2),>'+% @=%1 4' <+=%( &01( 1('
-'09(43,0-9 +0-'%: 7- 31(', &3,.%/ &()1 +33?% +0?' ) %0-9+' +0-' 3- 1(' @)2 @=%1 4'
0.'-10<0'. )% 1&3 +0-'% 13 F)2;0-.3&: F)2;0-.3& 2,3*0.'% 1(' +&'11#&/ 133+ 13
)>>3@2+0%( &()1 &3=+. 31(',&0%' 4' *',5 .0<<0>=+1 13 .3 45 ()-.: I(0% 133+ &0++
)=13@)10>)++5 %-)2 ) +0-' 13 *',10>'% 1()1 ),' >+3%'%1 13 1(' >=,%3,: 8-)220-9 @)?'% 01
23%%04+' 13 )+09- 1&3 %'2),)1' +0-'% 13 1(' %)@' *',10>'%/ 3, 13 +0-' =2 ),')% 3< *),03=%
%()2'%/ %3 1()1 1('5 ),' <+=%( &01( ')>( 31(',:

$<1', 9'3,'<','->0-9 )-. .09010H0-9 ) (0%13,0>)+ @)2/ )-31(', 0@23,1)-1 133+ 13 <=,1(',
53=, %2)10)+ )-)+5%0% 0% 1(' 2344-5 +6'1-+ 133+/ &(0>( )++3&% 53= 13 .,)& ) 4=<<',/ 3,
%()2'/ 3*', ) .'<0-'. 23,103- 3< 53=, @)2: B3, 'A)@2+'/ 53= @)5 &0%( 13 .'1',@0-'
(3& @)-5 (3=%'% ),' &01(0- :M @0+' 3< 1(' >3=,1(3=%': ;' ()*' )+,').5 =%'. ) 4=<<',
&('- &' +3>)1'. 1(' 13&-% 0- !"#$%"&'( B,)->' 1()1 &',' &01(0- !N/NNN @'1',% 3< )
,0*',O -3& &' &0++ +'),- (3& 13 =%' 4=<<',% <3, @3,' %32(0%10>)1'. 2=,23%'%:

G=, 'A',>0%' &0++ 1)?' ) (0%13,0>)+ @)2 1()1 ()% )+,').5 4''- 9'3,'<','->'./ 3< P'>0<'/
E,)H0+/ )-. 01 &0++ 1')>( 53= (3& 13 .09010H' @)-5 3< 01% <')1=,'%:



178
!"!#$%&! (
This exercise viII leach you hov lo erform a more advanced saliaI anaIysis using lhe
uffer Shaes looI, as veII as hov lo creale a shaefiIe and lo digilize oIygons, lo
deIimil a arlicuIar orlion of a cily and lhe buiIdings vilhin lhal seclion.

)*+,-
Imagine lhal you are a lraveI vriler visiling lhe cily of Recife, raziI, and you are lrying
lo find a Iace lo Iive. IdeaIIy, you vanl lo seIecl a buiIding lhal is vilhin 0.5 miIes of
lhe Iarge slone forl of Cinco Ionlas, as described by rilish lraveI vriler Henry
Kosler in his book !"#$%&' )* +"#,)&, ubIished in 1816. Due lo lransorlalion issues, you
aIso vanl a buiIding lhal is vilhin 0.4 miIes of lhe lvo main bridges in Recife.

&./0 1-
Go lo hll://vvv.geograhicaIIyinlegraledhislory.com/v-
conlenl/uIoads/exercises/exercise9.zi

DovnIoad lhe foIder vilh lhe dala required for lhe comIelion of lhis exercise, and lhen
exlracl lhese fiIes inlo your exercise 9 foIder.

Oen MaWindov and add lhe 1808 ma of Recife |Iigure 9.1j, and lhen add lhe
ridges and forl shaefiIes.


23456/ (71- 8*0 9: 1;<; #/=3:/> ?6*@3A> B3.C 093D. E*.* E/03=.3D4 .C/ =3.FG+ .B9 H*3D
I63E4/+ *DE .C/ :96. 9: $3D=9 J9D.*+7
!"#
%&' ()*( '+ )*,+ * -*. &/ 0+12/+ '2() ()+ 34256+7 *85 ()+ /&4( 28521*(+5 &8 2(9 '+ 8++5
(& *..:; 3<//+47 (& :&1*(+ ()+ .&4(2&87 &/ ()+ 12(; ()*( *4+ '2()28 =>? -2:+7 &/ ()+ /&4( *85
'2()28 =>@ -2:+7 &/ ()+ 34256+7> A)27 3<//+4286 '2:: )+:. <7 :&1*(+ ()&7+ *4+*7 &/ ()+ 12(;
5++-+5 7*/+7(>

"#$% &'
B247(9 '+ '2:: *..:; * 3<//+4 &/ =>? -2:+7 *4&<85 ()+ /&4(> C8 ()+ DE+6+85F .*8+9 7'2(1)
(& ()+ DA&&:3&GF ,2+' *85 6& (& DH+1(&4 I.+4*(2&87>F C8 DH+1(&4 I.+4*(2&879F 7+:+1( ()+
DJ(*85*45F /&:5+4 *85 1)&&7+ ()+ DK<//+4 7)*.+7F /<81(2&8 LB26<4+ #>MN>


()*+,$ -.&' /0+11$, "23%$45 )6 #2$ /"#3673,75 1897$, +67$, /:$;#8, <%$,3#)8645 )6
#2$ /=889>8?5 @)$A.
180
To aIy a buffer of 0.5 miIes around lhe forl, in lhe uffer shaes vindov, in lhe
Veclor Layer box, choose forl. In lhe uffer dislance fieId, lye in lhe vaIue of 0.5.
Irom lhe dro-dovn menu nexl lo uffer dislance, choose MiIes, and cIick Ok
|Iigure 9.3j. Confirm lhal lhe rogram viII save lhe resuIls lo lhe roer fiIe,
forl_buffer1.sh.


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-$..&% /012&/3 4"5674 4"80 80& 97%%&98 "5.7%:18"75 &58&%&6)

Afler you cIick OK, your screen shouId Iook Iike Iigure 9.4.


!"#$%& ();+ <12 7. =&9".& 4"80 1 >$..&% 7. ?)@ :"A&/ 1%7$56 80& .7%8)
!"!
!"#$ &'
$%& &' ('') *% +','-* *./0 ,+%1')2+' *% -,,34 - 5266'+ %6 789 :/3'0 -+%2() *.' 5+/);'0
%6 <'1/6'= 20/(; *.' >?+/);'0@ 0.-,'6/3'8 A-B' 02+' 4%2 0'3'1* *.' >?+/);'0@ 3-4'+ -()
*.-* *.' )/0*-(1' /0 0*/33 :'-02+') /( >A/3'0@ CD/;2+' E8FG8


()*+,# -./' 01+22#, 345$#36 7)89:7 ": ;,#5"# 5 <+22#, :2 =.> ?)@#3 5,:+89 "4# ?5)8
<,)9*#3 :2 A#;)2#.

H6*'+ -,,34/(; *.' 0'1%() 5266'+ -+%2() *.' 5+/);'0= 4%2+ :-, %6 <'1/6' 0.%23) 3%%B
3/B' D/;2+' E8I8


()*+,# -.B' C5$ :2 A#;)2# 7)"4 <+22#,3 5,:+89 "4# 2:," 589 <:"4 <,)9*#3.
!"#
%&' ()*+,*-./ 0&10 23)+, (' 1445345*10' 635 73)5 +*8*-. 1993::3,10*3-/ +*' *- 0&' 15'1
*- 2&*9& 0&'/' ()66'5/ 38'5+14;

!"#$ &'
%3 +3910' 0&' *-0'5/'90*3-< .3 (19= 03 0&' >%33+(3?@ 8*'2; A-,'5 >B'9035 C4'510*3-/<@
/'+'90 0&' >C8'5+17@ 63+,'5< 0&'- 9&33/' 0&' >D-0'5/'90*3-@ 033+; E&'- 0&' >F&14'6*+'/
D-0'5/'90*3-@ 2*-,32 34'-/< /'+'90 73)5 6350 ()66'5 635 F&14'6*+' ! 1-, 0&' (5*,.'/ 635
F&14'6*+' #< 1/ *- G*.)5' H;I; J1=' /)5' 0&10 0&' 5'/)+0 2*++ (' /18', 03 0&' 9355'90 6*+'<
1-, 9+*9= >CK;@


()*+,# -./' 01,,#2"34 5)33#6 7!89$#5)3# :;"#,<#2")1;= >);61>.













!"#
%&' ()** +, -./,0 )1 2&' (-34 4& -00 45, 3,( *-2,6 4& 2&'6 7-89 :*):/ ;%,.<= >&( 2&'6
7-8 .5&'*0 *&&/ *)/, ?)@'6, A<"<


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-.&%/&0."1- 2&3"0.&2 .4& 31%."1- 15 .4& 0".6 15 7&0"5& .48. "/ 9".4"- :);
<"=&/ 15 .4& 51%. 8-2 :)> <"=&/ 15 .4& ?%"2#&/)

@.&3 ;+
B, 5-C, )0,34)1),0 45, -6,- &1 )34,6.,:4)&3 &1 &'6 +'11,6.D +'4 (, 3,,0 4& .,, 45, -:4'-*
+')*0)3@. 45-4 -6, ()45)3 &'6 )34,6.,:4)&3 -30 0)@)4)E, 45,7< F'6 1)6.4 .4,8 ). 4& @& +-:/
4& 45, ;G-2,6.= C),( )3 45, ;G,@,30= 8-3, -30 4'63 &11 +&45 45, ;H6)0@,.I+'11,6!= -30
;1&64I+'11,6!= *-2,6. J?)@'6, A<AK 4& .,, L'.4 45, -6,- &1 )34,6.,:4)&3<


!"#$%& ()(+ A4& /&0."1- 15 7&0"5& .48. 01-.8"-/ ?$"=2"-#/ %&=&B8-. .1 1$% 8%&8 15
"-.&%&/.)
184
Nov ve need lo make our seIecled area lransarenl so lhal ve can see lhe buiIdings
vilhin il. In lhe Layers ane, righl-cIick lhe forl_buffer1_inlsc1 Iayer and choose
Iroerlies from lhe dro-dovn menu.

In lhe Layer roerlies vindov, go lo lhe Aearance lab. On lhe righl side of lhe
vindov, in lhe middIe, is a scaIe bar IabeIed Transarency, vilh a vaIue box nexl lo il
|Iigure 9.10j. Tye lhe vaIue of 100 in lhe box and cIick Ok.


"#$%&' ()*+, -.' /-&01230&'1456 7#1897 #1 /:05'& 3&93'&;#'2)6














!"#
%&' '( )*+ ,(( -.( /01231+4, -.*- 5*22 '1-.1+ -.( *667&671*-( *7(* 891407( :;!!< &5 -.(
)1-=;


"#$%&' ()**) +,,&-,&#./' 0%#12#3$4 5#/6#3 -%& 2'4#&'2 .&'. -7 8'9#7')















186
!"#$ &'
Our nexl sle is lo digilize lhe buiIdings lhal faII vilhin our area of inleresl.

To erform lhis digilizalion, ve need lo creale a nev oIygon shaefiIe. In lhe main
menu bar, go lo IIug-ins and add lhe ShaefiIe Idilor |Iigure 9.12j.


()*+,# -./0' 1!23$#4)5# 67)"8,9 $5+*:);.
187
This seIeclion viII add severaI icons lo lhe Iefl-hand side of lhe looI menu across lhe lo
of your screen.
CIick lhe bullon lhal viII aear under MaWindov's menu bar lo oen lhe
Nev ShaefiIe Olions vindov |Iigure 9.13j. Nolice lhal lhe defauIl shaefiIe lye is
oinl.


!"#$%& ()*+, -.&/ 0123&4"5& 637"89:);

07&3 <,
We vanl lo add lhe nev shaefiIe lo our Ixercise 9 foIder. To do add lhe shaefiIe,
cIick lhe bullon. The Choose Iocalion for nev shaefiIe vindov viII oen
|Iigure 9.14j. Navigale lo lhe correcl foIder, if necessary, and name lhe nev shaefiIe
IoIygons. Then cIick Save.


!"#$%& ()*=, ->188:& 58?27"89 48% 9&/ :123&4"5&; /"9@8/)
188
Afler you cIick Save, lhe Choose Iocalion vindov viII cIose and you viII be back al
lhe Nev ShaefiIe Olions vindov |Iigure 9.15j. In ShaefiIe Tye, choose
IoIygon from lhe dro-dovn menu, and cIick OK.


"#$%&' ()*+, -./01$/23 4'0'56'7 84 -9:8;'<#0' 61;'3 #2 6:' -='> 9:8;'<#0' ?;6#/243
>#27/>)

The Imorlanl Informalion! vindov viII oen lo inform you lhal an emly oIygon
shaefiIe has been crealed |Iigure 9.16j. The message viII varn you lo make sure your
exlenls are roerIy sel. CIick OK lo cIose lhe vindov.


"#$%&' ()*@, -AB;/&6826 A2</&B86#/2C3 >#27/>)












!"#
%&'()* '+,' -&./ 0*1 2+,3*4(5* (2 0&1 5(2'*6 (0 '+* 78,-*/29 3,0* :;(<./* #=!>?@ ,' '+*
'&3 &4 '+* 5(2' &4 5,-*/2=


"#$%&' ()*+, -'. /012$03 142'& #3 56' 78454 942'&:; /43')

<5'/ =,
%&1 '+,' 1* +,A* , 0*1 3&5-<&0 5,-*/@ 1* ),0 2',/' 6(<('(B(0< '+* C.(56(0<2 (0 &./
(0'*/2*)'(&0 &0 '+* D,3=

E5()F '+* C.''&0 '& 2',/' 6(<('(B(0< -&./ 3&5-<&0=

G& 6(<('(B* , 3&5-<&0@ 35,)* -&./ D&.2* )./2&/ &0 '+* )&/0*/ &4 '+* 3&5-<&0 HC.(56(0<I
'& C* 6(<('(B*6= J+*0 '+* )./2&/ (2 5&),'*6 3/&3*/5-@ )5()F '+* D&.2*= K C5.* 2+,3* 1(55
,33*,/ (0 '+* )&/0*/= K2 -&. D&A* -&./ D&.2*@ -&. 1(55 2** , C5.* 5(0* *L'*06(0< 4/&D
'+,' 3&(0' :;(<./* #=!"?= M&A* -&./ D&.2* '& '+* 0*L' )&/0*/ HA*/'*LI &4 '+* C.(56(0<@
,06 )5()F '+* D&.2* ,<,(0=

!"#

"#$%&' ()*+, -'.'/0#1$ 2'&0#/'3 415 3'$6'103 78 4 97.:$71 71 0;' 649)

<70',
%&' ()* '+, -., /0)*1 -&&2 -& 3&&4 5*-& -., 4)67 8.5(. 8522 4)9, 5- ,)+5,: -& +,, -.,
&'-25*,+ &; -., 6&2<=&*+ -& >, ?5=5-53,?@

A&*-5*', -& 4&B, <&': 4&'+, -& -., *,C- B,:-,C '*-52 )22 -., (&:*,:+ &; -., 6&2<=&*
.)B, >,,* +,2,(-,?@ D.,* (25(9 -., ;5:+- B,:-,C )=)5* -& (2&+, -., 6&2<=&*@ D., 6&2<=&*
+.&'2? *&8 >, +.)?,? &* -., 4)6 EF5=':, "@!"G@


"#$%&' ()*(, = /769.'0'5 97.:$71 >#.. ?' 3;45'5 71 0;' 649)

!"!
$%&%'( ()%*% *(%&* +,(-. /0+ )'1% 2-3-(-4%2 '.. ()% 5062%6* 07 ()% 5+-.2-,3* ()'( 7'..
8-()-, ()% '6%' 07 -,(%6*%9(-0, *)08, 0, ()% :'&;

<0+ 8-.. 7-,2 ()'( *0:% 5+-.2-,3* '6% ,0( *-:&.% 6%9(',3.%* 5+( )'1% :',/ 906,%6* ',2
*%3:%,(* =>-3+6% ";?@A; <0+ 9', 2-3-(-4% ()%*% -, ()% *':% 8'/B 5/ 9.-9C-,3 %'9) %,2 07
()% *%3:%,( 5%(8%%, (80 906,%6*B +,(-. /0+ )'1% 90,,%9(%2 ()% %,(-6% &0./30, =>-3+6%
";?!A;


"#$%&' ()*+, -'&.#/'0 123 0'$4'2.0 56 1 /5478'9 758:$52)


"#$%&' ()*;) <5478'.'3 #&&'$%81& 758:$52)

!"#
!"#$%
%&' ()* +,-,., ) /&-01&* 23.4 243(4 0&' )5, *&. 6).3673,+ 80 6,-,(.3*1 .4, /&-01&* 23.4
.4, 8'..&* &* 9)/:3*+&2;6 <,*' 8)5 )*+ .4,* (-3(=3*1 .4, 8'..&*>
?436 +,-,.3&* 23-- )--&2 0&' .& 6.)5. &@,5 23.4 .4). /&-01&*>

'#$( )%
A7.,* 24,* 0&' )5, +313.3B3*1 /&-01&*6C 0&' 23-- 4)@, )++3.3&*)- 3*7&5<).3&* )8&'.
.4,<C 243(4 0&' 2)*. .& 3*(-'+, 3* 0&'5 )..538'., .)8-,C 6'(4 )6 8'3-+3*1 *)<,6 &5 .4,
+).,6 24,* .4,0 2,5, ,5,(.,+> D-.4&'14 2, +& *&. 4)@, 6'(4 3*7&5<).3&* 7&5 &'5
8'3-+3*16 3* E,(37,C 2, )5, 1&3*1 .& )++ +).) .& &'5 )..538'., .)8-, )6 37 2, +3+>

%&' <'6. -,)5* 4&2 .& )++ +).) .& .4, )..538'., .)8-, &7 ) 64)/,73-,> F&5 ,G)</-,C 37 0&'
2,5, 3*@,6.31).3*1 .4, H,5*)<8'(& 5,@&-. &7 !I!JC 243(4 .&&= /-)(, 3* E,(37, K)*+
/5,(,+,+ .4, 3*+,/,*+,*(, &7 L5)B3-MC 0&' 2&'-+ 2)*. .& )++ .4, *)<,6 &7 .4,
3*+3@3+')-6 24& -3@,+ 3* ,)(4 8'3-+3*1 64&2* 3* .4, <)/> N* +&3*1 6&C 0&' (&'-+ (5,).,
) /5&O,(. )3<,+ ). ,G)<3*3*1 4&2 .4, 3+,)6 .4). 64)/,+ .4, 3*+,/,*+,*(, &7 L5)B3-
/)66,+ .45&'14 .4, 6&(3)- *,.2&5=6 &7 5,63+,*.6 23.43* .4, /4063()- -)*+6()/, &7 E,(37,
+'53*1 &*, &7 .4, <&6. (53.3()- /,53&+6 3* L5)B3-3)* 436.&50>



















193
Once you have finished digilizing aII lhe oIygons in our inlerseclion on lhe ma of
Recife, oen lhe allribule labIe of your oIygons shaefiIe |Iigure 9.22j, by righl-
cIicking on lhe Iayer name and seIecling Allribule TabIe Idilor. CIick Idil, and
choose Add IieId.


"#$%&' ()**+ ,-..&#/%.' 01/2' 34#.5&6 7#8457)




!"#
%&'()' ( *'+ ,-'./ *(0'/ 123-./-*456 (7 789+* -* :-43&' ";<=5 (*/ 7'.'>) 1?)&-*46 ,9&
)8' )@A'; B'0'0C'& )8() C'>(37' 7)&-*4 ,-'./7 >9*)(-* (.A8(*30'&-> /()(5 )8'@ >(* 89./
C9)8 +9&/7 (*/ *30C'&7;


"#$%&' ()*+, -.' /011 "#'213 4#5164 #5 7.' /077&#8%7' -982' :1#76&)3

D8' ())&-C3)' )(C.' ,9& @93& A9.@49*7 78(A',-.' +-.. 9A'*5 +-)8 ( .-*' ,9& '(>8 A9.@49*
)8() +(7 /-4-)-E'/; F(0' '(>8 9, )8' A9.@49*7 G:-43&' ";<#H5 >.->I 1JAA.@56 (*/ )8'*
1%.97';6 K93 >(* *(0' @93& C3-./-*47 89+'L'& @93 +(*)M +' 8(L' *(0'/ 93&7 12!56
12<56 ')>;


"#$%&' ()*;, <'4 /=%#21#5$3 >#'21 4#7. 59?'@ 911'1A #5 6%& 977&#8%7' 7982')
195
!"#$ &'(
efore ve Iook al lhe buiIdings lhal are in our seIecled area of Recife, ve need lo lurn
off lhe ShaefiIe Idilor Iug-in lo reslore our originaI menu bar. To do lhis, go lo
IIug-ins and cIick ShaefiIe Idilor lo deaclivale lhe Iug-in.

Your finaI screen vilh your digilized oIygons shouId Iook Iike Iigure 9.25.


)*+,-# ./01( 23$ 45 6#7*5# 8*"9 "9# :*+*"*;#: $4<=+4>? :#$*7"*>+ "9# @,*<:*>+?
8*"9*> "9# 3-#3 45 *>"#-?#7"*4> *:#>"*5*#: @= @,55#-?/

CongraluIalions! You have erformed comIex saliaI anaIysis on a hisloricaI ma of
Recife, raziI, by aIying muIliIe buffers, idenlifying lhe overIaing inlerseclion of
lhose buffers, and lhen digilizing lhe buiIdings Iocaled vilhin lhal inlerseclion.
AIlhough ve underlook lhis saliaI anaIysis lo Iocale aroriale housing Iocalions for
our ficlionaI lraveIer, lhe same lechniques can be used lo anaIyze a variely of hisloricaI
queslions. As aIvays, feeI free lo reeal lhis exercise and Iay vilh lhese looIs unliI you
feeI comforlabIe vilh lhem.

In our nexl chaler, ve viII begin lo use a differenl lye of dala from lhe veclor dala ve
have been using. Rasler dala rovides informalion aboul eIevalion. If you have ever
used a loograhicaI ma, you have used a ma vilh rasler dala. Ior some hisloricaI
queslions, mas using rasler dala can rovide more sohislicaled vays lo anaIyze your
dala.
!"#
!"#$%&' )*+ ',-./0 1,.,
%& &'()*+,&- .&/012 -*0* +, 34*(0&2 56 *,- ,17 7& *2& 81+,8 01 -+9/:99 * -+;;&2&,0 -*0*
;12<*0 =,17, *9 0,-./0 2,.,> %4+)& .&/012 -*0* :9&9 /112-+,*0&9 01 2&(2&9&,0 9(*0+*)
-*0* +, 04& ;12< 1; (1+,096 )+,&96 *,- (1)?81,96 2*90&2 -*0* *2& -+8+0*) +<*8&9 04*0
-+9()*? *,- 9012& +,;12<*0+1, *0 04& /&)) @12 (+'&)A )&.&)> B; ?1: 0*=& * (4101 7+04 *
-+8+0*) /*<&2*6 ?1: /2&*0& * 2*90&2 +<*8&> C1<& /1<<1, 2*90&2 ;12<*09 +,/):-& >0+;
@D*88&- B<*8& E+)&A6 >8&10+;; @F&12&;&2&,/&- D*88&- E+)& E12<*0A6 *,- >G(8 @;21< HIJF6
04& */21,?< 1; 04& H1+,0 I410182*(4+/ J'(&209 F21:(A> B,;12<*0+1, 2&8*2-+,8 ;&*0:2&96
9:/4 *9 &)&.*0+1, 12 )*,- :9&6 /*, K& +<K&--&- 7+04+, /&20*+, 0?(&9 1; 2*90&2 -*0*>
L+;;&2&,0 .*):&9 *2& 1;0&, *99+8,&- ;12 * (*20+/:)*2 0?(& 1; +,;12<*0+1,6 *,- 0419&
,:<K&29 *2& ()100&- 1, * 82+-M 04:96 &*/4 ,:<K&2 9417, 1, 04& 82+- <+840 2&(2&9&,0 *
-+;;&2&,0 &)&.*0+1,6 12 * -+;;&2&,0 )*,- :9&> E12 &'*<()&6 +, 04& 82+- 9417, +, E+8:2& !N>!6
&*/4 82+- /&)) 4*9 * ,:<K&2 *991/+*0&- 7+04 +0 74+/46 +, 0:2,6 2&(2&9&,09 )*,- :9& 0?(&>


Land use:

34560/ )*7)+ # 0,-./0 48,5/ 4- 90:;/< 2:=< >4?/@ 9A >4?/@B 4< .C4- D,-/ 9A @,<2 6-,5/7
197
ToograhicaI mas are a common examIe of mas using rasler dala, and many of
lhem aIso have !"#$"%& ()#*+, or isoIines, vhich are Iines lhal deIineale differenl
eIevalion vaIues. Ior examIe, lhe mas of lhe Uniled Slales GeoIogicaI Survey (USGS)
for hiking in nalionaI arks are loograhicaI mas vilh conlour Iines. Conlour Iines
on lhose mas are nol associaled vilh differenl coIor vaIues for differenl eIevalions, bul
il is ossibIe and, in some cases, desirabIe lo use bolh coIor and conlour Iines lo
emhasize lhe changes in eIevalion in a ma. As aIvays, you musl decide vhal you
vish lo communicale vilh your ma and make lhe carlograhic decisions lhal besl
ermil you lo achieve lhal goaI.

,"- )+ ./+$*& 0/$/ 1+*2 34 ,)+$"&)/#+ /#2 ,)+$"&)!/( 5"!)/( 5!)*#$)+$+6
AIlhough hislorians have lradilionaIIy used veclor dala in GIS sludies, lhere are many
oorlunilies for lhe aIicalion of rasler dala lo hisloricaI research. Nalive American
Sludies rofessor IIisabelh Rose MiddIelon used bolh rasler and veclor dala lo roduce
a ma of hisloric and conlemorary Maidu Iands in norlhern CaIifornia, USA.
1
She
argued lhal a ma made vilh GIS soflvare, in addilion lo slory-leIIing and lribaI
hislories, can roduce a overfuI sense of Iace-making. Draving uon such rasler
dala as arceI mas and saleIIile imagery, MiddIelon used GIS as a melhod lo recreale
lhe asl. Vieving cuIluraI informalion on a singIe frame, she said, is a greal vay lo
visuaIize various concelions of lhe Iandscae and rovides a visuaI looI lo air
geograhic vilh cuIluraI dala for anlhrooIogisls and elhnohislorians.
2


Geograhers }eff UeIand and arney Warf used census dala and a digilaI eIevalion
modeI (DIM) lo delermine vhelher 146 cilies in lhe soulhern Uniled Slales exhibiled
aIliludinaI residenliaI segregalion.
3
Of lhese cilies, lhey found lhal 35 ercenl
exhibiled slalislicaIIy significanl correIalions (!<.05) belveen ercenl bIack and mean
bIock-grou aIlilude in 1990, indicaling lhal vhiles Iived al grealer eIevalions lhan did
bIacks.
4
This correIalion heId lrue in mosl cases, vilh excelions noled onIy in lhe case
of exensive oceanfronl roerly. UeIand and Warf noled lhal Iiving al Iover
eIevalions oflen comes vilh disadvanlages, such as lhose associaled vilh dam and

1
IIisabelh Rose MiddIelon, Seeking SaliaI Reresenlalion: RefIeclions on Iarlicialory IlhnohisloricaI
GIS Maing of Maidu AIIolmenl Lands, "#$%&$'(#&)* 57/ 3(2010): 363-387,
hll://elhnohislory.duke|ournaIs.org/conlenl/57/3/363.fuII.df+hlmI.
2
Ibid., 381.
3
}eff UeIand and arney Warf, RaciaIized Toograhies: AIlilude and Race in Soulhern Cilies,
+,&-).!$'/.0 2,3',4 91/ 1 (2010): 1-29, hll://onIineIibrary.viIey.com/doi/10.1111/|.1931-
0846.2006.lb00387.x/df.
4
Ibid., 9.
198
fIood-rone areas. WhiIe lhey used recenl dala for lheir sludy, one couId recreale a
simiIar sludy in a differenl era using a simiIar aroach.
5


In Chaler 8, ve discussed hov hisloric mas can be defined in sace by
georeferencing lhe ma lo a shaefiIe of lhe same Iocalion using a series of conlroI
oinls. This melhod is a common vay for hislorians lo use GIS in lheir schoIarshi.
Hisloric mas lhal are scanned and georeferenced inlo MaWindov GIS are lechnicaIIy
rasler images because vhen scanned lhey are saved as an image, such as a .|g or a .ng
(IorlabIe Nelvork Grahics) fiIe. MaWindov offers a variely of vays lo erform
saliaI anaIysis of lhese rasler images.

!"#"$%& (&)*%$"+, -+.)&/
UnIike a basic digilaI image, a digilaI eIevalion modeI (DIM, aIso caIIed a digilaI lerrain
modeI) conlains eIevalion dala al lhe ixeI IeveI and shovs a 3-D reresenlalion of a
lerrain or surface. This modeI is crealed using a lrianguIar irreguIar nelvork (TIN). A
TIN is much Iike veclor dala in lhal Iines are connecled by oinls in order lo assign
vaIues lo ixeIs. If done in fine enough delaiI, lhis rocess can give a fairIy reaIislic
deiclion of lhe Iarlh's surface.
6
In lhis vay, rasler dala can give a 3-D aearance lo
lhe Iarlh, vhiIe veclor dala onIy aears in 2-dimensions. DIMs can be very significanl
for many hisloricaI queslions. Ior inslance, a researcher may vanl lo define areas of
habilalion of an indigenous grou of eoIe in a arlicuIar Iocalion. Draving uon
aIready exisling knovIedge aboul diel or lhe areas vhere lhe grou foraged from
season lo season, schoIars may idenlify lhe eIevalion of lhe fIora and fauna of lhe
grou's diel. In lhis vay, digilaI eIevalion modeIs couId heI ansver queslions aboul an
indigenous grou's hisloricaI boundaries or Iands of imorlance vhere such issues are
frequenlIy sources of conlenlion in nearIy aII of lhe vorId's regions.

5
Or one mighl use a lechnique from Marc Ioch, !"# %&'&%()'"# *'+,+-&./ 0" 123+#(*+'" '.'&1" 4'&-5&+#" (Iaris:
Armand CoIin, 1931), vho somelimes began vilh informalion aboul lhe 20lh-cenlury silualion and lhen
ursued ils origins in lhe hisloricaI record. Il vas a melhod lhal reveaIed lo him asecls of Irench ruraI
hislory lhal he mighl have olhervise missed. We menlion Ioch because he vas an insiralion for lhe use
of GIS for hisloricaI research, somelhing lhal onIy became ossibIe Iong afler his murder by lhe Geslao
in 1944 due lo his courageous vork in lhe Irench Resislance.
6
Ian N. Gregory and IauI S. III, 6+#(*'+%&1 789: ;"%3-*1*,+"#< ="(3*0*1*,+"#< &-0 9%3*1&'#3+> (Cambridge:
Cambridge Universily Iress, 2007), 30-31.
199

!"#$%& ()*+, -."/ 0.121 3&0"42/ 3"#"256 &6&752"18 91% 5 01%2"18 19 2.& :%583 ;58<18 19
2.& ;161%531 ="7&%> ?@A* A42$56 &6&752"18 3525 "/ 41825"8&3 B"2."8 5 CDE> 812 F$/2 5
%&#$65% "G5#&*

A&%"56 H.121#%50.<
AIlhough lhey do nol incIude lhe eIevalion dala of a DIM, aeriaI holograhs can aIso
be usefuI for hisloricaI anaIysis of a given Iocalion. A good vay lo viev aeriaI
holograhy, or orlhoimagery, of lhe Iarlh is lhrough lhe Uniled Slales' NalionaI
AgricuIlure Imagery Irogram (NAII). This rogram mainlains a Iarge Iibrary of aeriaI
holograhs onIine, vhich covers lhe Iarlh's surface over severaI decades. AeriaI
holograhy can onIy be emIoyed easiIy in hisloricaI sludies of lhe eriod since lhe
beginning of human fIighl. Hovever, for hislorians of lhe earIy lvenlielh cenlury on,
orlhoimagery can rove a usefuI looI. AeriaI holograhy has fIourished since WorId
War I and has exonenliaIIy increased our abiIily lo survey vasl svalhs of area vilh a
camera and an airIane. Nov vilh saleIIiles, high-recision imagery of our Ianel is
videIy avaiIabIe lo users everyvhere.
7
Ior lhe mosl arl, schoIars can find free,
dovnIoadabIe orlhoimagery of lhe enlire Iarlh, vilh varying degrees of resoIulion,
lhrough governmenl vebsiles.

7
Ior a brief hislory of geosaliaI imagery, see Ienn Slale Universily's !"#$%&'(&) +",#)-'(#. videos,
arlicuIarIy lhe firsl one, hll://vvv.youlube.com/valch`voMGRbfg38.
200

!"#$%& ()*+, -. /&%"/0 12343#%/12 35 6/#0&7 8/%9 ". :2%";4<2$%<2= >&? @&/0/.A*

B/;4&% C/4/ D;* E&<43% C/4/, - :3F1/%";3.
Rasler dala and veclor dala bolh serve cerlain uroses veII. WhiIe veclor dala Iimils
users lo emIoying dala lhal conlains Iongilude and Ialilude (x, y) measuremenls,
cerlain lyes of rasler dala enabIe users lo incororale eIevalion dala (oflen referred lo
as a z vaIue). Where veclor dala lyicaIIy shovs soIid coIors for areas on mas, rasler
dala incIudes orlhoholograhy, vhich can give a delaiIed, bird's-eye viev of lhe area
of inleresl. Of course, lhis delaiI may be more confusing for vievers, and using il
cerlainIy deends uon lhe urose of your ma. IinaIIy, lhough fiIe size is becoming
Iess of an issue vilh advancemenls in comuler lechnoIogy, il is vorlh discussing here.
Veclor dala uses a fraclion of lhe slorage sace of mosl rasler images. Ior examIe, an
aeriaI holograh of a valershed in veslern Wisconsin, USA, vhich comrised lvo
smaII counlies, surassed one gigabyle in size. Veclor dala of lhe same area, deending
!"#
%&'( )*+ ,--'.&,(/)(0 1,*,2,+34 .,/ '(5/ %+3 , 637 8)5'2/*3+9 :;3+3 ,<3 *;)(0+ *'
-'(+)13< 7;3( 3=&5'<)(0 /'%< '7( >?@ &<'A3-*9 ?6 /'%< &<'A3-* 7)55 23 <35),(* %&'(
<,+*3< 1,*,4 )* 7)55 5)835/ -'+* .'<3 *' '2*,)( ,(1 +*'<3 *;3 1,*, *;,( )* 7'%51 *' 1' ,
&<'A3-* '6 *;3 +,.3 ,<3, 7)*; B3-*'< 1,*,9 C%* 23-,%+3 <,+*3< 1,*, 1'3+ '663< %+3<+ .'<3
,(,5/*)-,5 &'*3(*),5 )( +'.3 <3+&3-*+4 *;3 13-)+)'( .%+* 23 2,+31 '( 7;,* /'% ,<3 *</)(0
*' -'(B3/ *' /'%< .,& <3,13<+9

?( '%< 3=3<-)+34 73 7)55 %+3 <,+*3< 1,*, 6'< , +&3-)6)- 03'0<,&;)-,5 ,<3, ,(1 ,&&5/
B,<)'%+ *''5+ *' 3(;,(-3 *;3 .,&D+ B,5%3 6'< , +&3-)6)- ;)+*'<)-,5 E%3+*)'(9 F3 7)55 %+3
-'5'< ,(1 -'(*'%< 5)(3+ *' ).&<'B3 *;3 <3,1,2)5)*/ '6 *;3 .,&4 ,(1 73 7)55 ,11 &')(*+
)(1)-,*)(0 *;3 5'-,*)'( '6 *;3 ;)+*'<)-,5 3B3(*+ )( 7;)-; 73 ,<3 )(*3<3+*319




























202
!"!#$%&! ()
Hislorians can use rasler dala and digilaI eIevalion modeIs (DIMs) lo inoinl
Iocalions and/or lrack lhe sread of an evenl according lo lhe looIogy of lhe area
under sludy. In lhis exercise, ve are going lo use lhis melhodoIogy lo alleml lo lrack a
disease oulbreak.

*+,-.
The infIuenza andemic belveen 1918 and 1920 vas one of lhe deadIiesl and mosl
severe andemics ever recorded. We are going lo use a DIM deicling Sainl Louis Cily
Counly, in Missouri, lo inoinl lhe Iocalions of lhe cases of infIuenza and ma lhe
sread of lhe disease.

&/01 (.
Go lo hll://vvv.geograhicaIIyinlegraledhislory.com/v-
conlenl/uIoads/exercises/exercise10.zi

DovnIoad lhe zied foIder conlaining lhe dala you viII use in lhis exercise, and unzi
il lo your Ixercise10 foIder. Your foIder viII conlain a subfoIder named DIM, vhich
conlains a DIM of Sainl Louis Cily Counly, and a second subfoIder named
InfIuenza_Dealhs, conlaining oinl dala deicling infIuenza dealhs.

&/01 2.
Oen MaWindov, cIick on lhe bullon, and navigale lo your DIM foIder. In
DIM, idenlify lhe fiIe hdr.adf and Ioad lhe fiIe as a Iayer in MaWindov |Iigure
10.1j.

!"#

!"#$%& ()*(+ ,-. /0 12"34 5/$"6 7"48 7/$3489 .:*


















204
!"#$ &'
Our DIM accuraleIy shovs lhe looIogy of our counly, bul ve vanl lo add a coIor
scheme lo make lhe differences in eIevalion more aarenl. To do lhis, go lo Dala
Layers, righl-cIick on lhe hdr Iayer, and seIecl Iroerlies.

Irom lhe Iroerlies menu, choose lhe Legend Idilor |Iigure 10.2j, and go lo
CoIoring Scheme. CIick on lhe bullon lhal viII aear nexl lo Idil... on lhe righl
of CoIoring Scheme.


()*+,# -./0' 12343,)5* !67#8#9 )5 "7# 1:#*#5; <;)"3,9 =)5;3=/












205
This viII oen lhe CoIoring Scheme Idilor vindov |Iigure 10.3j. CIick on lhe
bullon al lhe lo of lhe screen.


!"#$%& ()*+, -./0/%"1# 234&5& 67"8/%9 :"17/:*

The Inul number of breaks... vindov viII oen |Iigure 10.4j, vhich viII ask you
hov many breaks you vanl lo use. Iach break viII corresond lo an eIevalion vaIue,
you can have as many eIevalion vaIues as you desire, bul for our uroses, ve viII use
onIy 5 eIevalion vaIues.

Choose IquaI reaks from lhe dro-dovn menu, enler lhe vaIue 5, and cIick OK
|Iigure 10.4j.

!"#

"#$%&' ()*+, -./0%1 /%23'& 45 3&'6789: ;#/<4;*

%&' ()*+*,-./ 01&'2' 34-5*,6 7-.4*7 .*7 8&*78 9-:' '+':;5-*. :;+<'8 4'=-15'4 -.
4-99','.5 1*+*,8> )+-1? (@==+AB6 ;.4 5&'. (CD>6


"#$%&' ()*=, ->4?4&#/$ @AB'2' C<#14&: ;#/<4;*
207
The range of coIors assigned by MaWindov is nol one lhal viII shov our eIevalion
differences very cIearIy. To enhance lhe eIevalion differences, ve vanl lo change lhe
coIors lo Iighl bIue, Iighl green, green, ink, and brovn. To do lhis, cIick on lhe coIor
bIock in lhe Iefl-hand coIumn, vhich viII oen lhe CoIor vindov. This vindov viII
shov a grid of coIors headed asic coIors. SeIecl lhe desired coIor by cIicking on lhal
coIor box, and lhen cIick OK. The coIor bIock in lhe CoIor coIumn in lhe CoIoring
Scheme Idilor vindov shouId change lo lhe seIecled coIor. Reeal lhis unliI aII five
coIors malch lhose in Iigure 10.5, lhen cIose lhe CoIoring Scheme Idilor.

On lhe MaWindov ma screen, lhe DIM Iayer viII nov shov five differenl eIevalion
vaIues, vilh lhe coIor for each vaIue making il easy lo differenliale belveen lhem
|Iigure 10.6j.


Figure 10.6: Color-differentiated elevation values on our map.
!"#
!"#$ &'
%& '( ()*+,-.(/ -. 01( 21,*0(34 25.0563 +-.(&4 53 -&5+-.(&4 2533(&*5./ 05 +-.(& 57
(+(8,0-5.9 :5 ;(00(3 8-&6,+-<( 01( (+(8,0-5. 8,+6(& 735= 563 >?@4 '( 2,. ()03,20
25.0563 +-.(& 735= -09 ?,21 25.0563 +-.( '-++ 2533(&*5./ 05 (,21 (+(8,0-5. 8,+6(9

A. 01( BC(D(./E *,.(4 &'-021 05 01( B:55+;5)E 8-(' ,./ &235++ /5'. 05 01( BF,&0(3E
75+/(3 GH-D63( I"9JK9 L*(. -0 ,./ 2155&( BM(.(3,0( , N5.0563 O1,*(7-+(9E


()*+,# -./0' 12#3#,4"# 4 563"6+, !74$#8)9#: "669 )3 "7# 1;4<"#,: 869=#,/

















!"#
%&'( )*+ ,-+.+&/)+ 0'.)'1& 2*/3+456+7 85.9'8: 1.9+& ,0'.)'1& ;3)5'.<:7 =*''<+
,><+ 45?+9 6+@+6< A<+3/&/)+9 BC <3/=+D7 E%5F1&+ G"HIJ /.9 )C3+ )*+ +6+@/)5'. @/61+<
&+='&9+9 91&5.F !"#$ & A%5F1&+ G"HKDH 065=L '. )*+ ,-+.+&/)+7 B1))'.H


'()*+# ,-./0 12#3#+4"# 563"6*+ !74$#8(9#: ;(3<6; ;("7 "7# $+6$#+ =49*#> #3"#+#<.

M*+ ,N'.+7 85.9'8 8566 /33+/&: <)/)5.F )*/) / ='.)'1& <*/3+456+ */< B++. F+.+&/)+9
E%5F1&+ G"H#JH 065=L ,;OH7


'()*+# ,-.?0 1@63#A: B638(+C4"(63 ;(3<6;.

!"#
%&'( )*+ ,-&'./ 0&1 .&&2 .324 536'(4 "#7"#7


!"#$%& ()*()+ ,-. /"01 23403$% 5"4&6 7&8"20"4# &5&9:0"34 9:5$&6*

!""
!"#$ &'
$%& '()' &* ()+* ,*)-.*/ (%& '% +012),03* *,*+)'0%. +),2*1 4-%5 ) 6789 &* :).
).),;3* (%& '(* 0.4,2*.3) <)./*50: %::2--*/ 0. '(* :%2.';= >* &0,, /% '(01 ?; )//0.@
'(* <%0.' /)') '()' 1(%&1 '(* ,%:)'0%. %4 *):( :)1* %4 '(* /01*)1* '% %2- 5)<=

A-%5 '(* 5)0. 5*.2 ?)-9 )// '(* BC.4,2*.3)D"E"FG 1()<*40,* '% '(* <-%H*:'= I(01
1()<*40,* /*<0:'1 /*)'(1 :)21*/ ?; 0.4,2*.3) 0. 6*:*5?*- %4 "E"F 0. '(* :%2.';= I(*
5)< 1(%2,/ .%& :%.')0. <%0.'1 '()' 0./0:)'* '(* :)1*1 %4 '(* /01*)1* JA0@2-* "K=""L9 1%
&* :). 1** &(*'(*- '(* /01*)1* %::2--*/ 5%-* )' :*-')0. *,*+)'0%.1=


()*+,# -./--' -0-1 )234+#256 7#6"89 :; #4#<6")=2/

212
As ve can see, eIevalion vas a significanl faclor in lhe infIuenza oulbreak of 1918 in lhis
Missouri counly, vilh lhe mid-range eIevalions more IikeIy lo see an oulbreak lhan lhe
Iovesl or highesl eIevalions. We couId do even more vilh lhis DIM, for examIe, one
couId use lhis ma lo Iol lhe oinl dala for lovns in lhe counly, lo see if urban or ruraI
dveIIers vere more IikeIy lo Iive al lhese eIevalions and lherefore more IikeIy lo be
affecled by lhe andemic. A slalislic anaIysis can be used lo accuraleIy delermine a
correIalion belveen dealhs and eIevalion. If ve had lemoraI dala indicaling vhen
each case occurred, ve couId generale severaI mas, one for each lemoraI break, lo
lrack lhe oulbreak over lime.

CongraluIalions! You have nov Iearned hov lo use rasler dala, in lhe form of a DIM,
aIong vilh conlour Iines and oinl dala. As aIvays, you shouId reeal lhe exercise unliI
you feeI comforlabIe vilh lhese lechniques. If you feeI comforlabIe doing so, you couId
edil lhe allribule labIe of our oinl dala, or change lhe number of eIevalion breaks, and
see hov lhal changes lhe resuIling ma.

You have aIso comIeled lhe firsl seclion of lhis manuaI, vhich conlains lhe basic
lechniques necessary lo imIemenl GIS anaIysis inlo your research. The remainder of
lhis manuaI conlains more seciaIized informalion, designed for lhose users vho need
lo go beyond lhe basics in lheir research. We have lried lo offer severaI differenl
robIems lhe hisloricaI researcher mighl face, and lhe luloriaIs from lhe remaining
chaler do nol need lo be done in order, lhey are each beneficiaI on lheir ovn.


213
!"#$%&' ))* #+,-./ %012+3456
y lhe lime lhal you have comIeled lhe MaWindov luloriaIs, you viII have
deveIoed lhe basic skiII sel you need lo use GIS for hisloricaI research. You viII be
famiIiar vilh common GIS oeralions such as geocoding, georeferencing, cIiing, and
buffering shaes. You may vish, hovever, lo go beyond vhal you have Iearned.
MaWindov is an oen source ro|ecl, and il does nol rovide an exlensive sel of GIS
funclions. Al lhe lime of lhe roduclion of lhis lraining manuaI, MaWindov onIy
rovided lhe GIS looIs required lo gain a basic skiII sel and underslanding of GIS. As
you become more confidenl vilh your GIS skiIIs, you may vish lo Iearn nev concels
such as ma aIgebra, dala conversion, and relrievaI of eIevalion vaIues from digilaI
eIevalion modeIs (DIMs). These GIS oeralions are imorlanl if you vanl lo examine
issues such as lhe change of vegelalion in an area over a given eriod of lime, or if you
vanl lo relrieve secific eIevalion vaIues from a DIM lo examine lhe infIuence of
loograhy on a hisloricaI evenl. Many commerciaI ackages offer lhese fealures. This
chaler rovides four addilionaI luloriaIs aimed al heIing Iearners vho vish lo make
lhe lransilion from MaWindov GIS lo ISRI's ArcGIS 10 (or Ialer versions), and
discover lhe advanlages of using a commerciaI GIS soflvare ackage vilh an exlensive
sel of GIS and carlograhic funclions.
1


%012+345 . inlroduces you lo lhe concel of carlograhic modeIing. Il leaches you hov
lo buiId a simIe carlograhic modeI by using GIS oeralions vilh vhich you became
acquainled vhiIe comIeling lhe MaWindov GIS luloriaIs. %012+345 .. inlroduces you
lo dala conversion. You viII Iearn hov lo converl a shaefiIe lo a KML (KeyhoIe
Marku Language) fiIe designed for use in GoogIe Iarlh or ISRI's ArcGIobe. GoogIe
Iarlh and ArcGIobe enabIe lhe visuaIizalion of dala in a lhree-dimensionaI
environmenl. VisuaIizing your dala in GoogIe Iarlh or ArcGIobe mighl give you nev
insighls aboul your informalion. %012+345 ... inlroduces lhe concel of ma aIgebra.
You viII Iearn hov lo generale a nev rasler Iayer from aIready exisling Iayers. %012+345
.7 leaches you hov lo creale a carlograhic modeI aimed al idenlifying areas on mas
vilh arlicuIar characlerislics, such as eIevalion or sIoe.

The aroach lo Iearning ArcGIS 10 ve have adoled incIudes lhe crealion of
carlograhic modeIs buiIl lhrough ArcGIS 10 ModeIuiIder, and lhis melhod is
innovalive in hov il resenls GIS lo novice users. We chose lhis aroach because lhe
use of carlograhic modeIs enabIes users lo organize and visuaIize lheir dala and lhe

1
ArcGIS is one of lhe mosl sohislicaled soflvare-ackages for GIS. IIease access lhe ArcGIS vebsile lo
Iearn aboul ricing and hov lo urchase a coy of lhe soflvare:
hll://vvv.esri.com/soflvare/arcgis/ricing (accessed on Oclober 21 2013).
214
GIS oeralions lo vhich lheir dala are submilled. A carlograhic modeI can be
inlerreled as a fIovcharl.
2
A fIovcharl is a grahic reresenlalion of lhe dala, lhe GIS
oeralions lo vhich lhe dala are submilled, and lhe syslemalic secificalion of lheir
sequence.
3
The oulul dala deicls lhe finaI resuIl and shovs vhal vas ossibIe lo
relrieve from lhe saliaI invesligalion. You can creale differenl carlograhic modeIs lo
soIve lhe same robIem. ecause lhe crealion of a carlograhic modeI requires a
fIovcharl secifying lhe GIS looIs you are using aIong vilh lhe descrilion of lhe
sequence in vhich lhe looIs are resenled, you viII gain a deeer underslanding of lhe
GIS oeralions you are emIoying. As Iigure 1 shovs, buiIding a modeI inviles GIS
raclilioners lo lhink crilicaIIy aboul vhich GIS oeralions lhey vish lo use.


!"#$%& () *$"+,"-# . /"01+& 02,&+ "- 3%4567(8 9:2,&+*$"+,&%;<

The four luloriaIs ve resenl rovide aII of lhe inslruclions required lo buiId a
carlograhic modeI for lhe firsl lime. Carlograhic modeIs can be designed in a number
of vays lo soIve lhe same robIem. We encourage you lo exerimenl crealing
carlograhic modeIs differenl from lhose ve resenl. Irior exerience vilh ArcGIS 10
and ArcGIS 10 ModeIuiIder is nol a requiremenl for lhe comIelion of lhe luloriaIs.

We caulion users of lhis lraining manuaI lhal ve cannol creale lhe luloriaIs on lhe basis
of a slabIe version of ArcGIS because ISRI is conlinuousIy imroving lhe soflvare.
Therefore, you may exerience some differences from lhe rocedures ve describe.

=$>2%".+ 6
Our firsl luloriaI leaches you hov lo buiId a simIe modeI by using GIS oeralions vilh
vhich you became acquainled vhiIe doing lhe MaWindov GIS exercises. You viII
vork vilh a dalasel conlaining muIliIe enlries recorded in an IxceI sreadsheel. Your
lask is lo relrieve arlicuIar records lhal deicl lhe voyage commanded by Lieulenanl
GeneraI enilo Anlonio de IsinoIa from Veracruz, Mexico, lo Cadiz, Sain, in 1735.
The urose of lhis luloriaI is lo inlroduce you lo lhe concel of carlograhic modeIing.
You viII Iearn vhal a carlograhic modeI is, hov lo creale il, and hov lo use il in more

2
IauI oIslad, !"# %&'()*+',)-./ 0 %12., 3+4, 5' !+562)7819 "':52*),15' #;.,+*. (Minnesola: Iider Iress,
While ear Lake, 2008), 480.
3
Ibid.
215
comIex saliaI anaIyses, such as lhose lhal demand lhe use of rasler fiIes and DIMs.


"#$%&' () *+,'- .&+.+/', 0+& 1%1+&#2- 34

Ior her kindness in roviding us vilh lhe dala sel lhal ve use in lhis luloriaI, ve vouId
Iike lhank our coIIeague Dr. Ana Creso SoIana, a researcher vilh lhe !"#$%$&$' )*
+%#$',%-, .*"$,' )* .%*"/%-# +&0-"-# 1 2'/%-3*#, .'"#*4' 2&5*,%', )* !"6*#$%7-/%'"*#
.%*"$89%/-#, Madrid, Sain. Dr. Creso is a vorId-renovned exerl on 18
lh
-cenlury
AlIanlic lrade.

5%1+&#2- 33
Our second luloriaI inlroduces you lo dala conversion. You viII converl enlries
recorded in an IxceI sreadsheel lo a shaefiIe, and lhen converl lhe shaefiIe lo KML.
KML slands for KeyhoIe Marku Language. KML fiIes are rimariIy designed for use in
GoogIe Iarlh/Mas. Once you finish lhe dala conversion, you viII Ioad your KML fiIe
in ISRI's ArcGIobe or GoogIe Iarlh. You mighl vanl lo consider converling shaefiIes
lo KML fiIes for lhe uroses of beller visuaIizalion. GoogIe Iarlh uses digilaI eIevalion
modeIs lo deicl lhe surface of lhe Iarlh, and il, lherefore, enabIes you lo oblain a
visuaIizalion of lhe Iarlh in lhree dimensions.

VisuaIizing saliaI dala lhrough GoogIe Iarlh or ArcGIobe viII IikeIy enabIe you lo
gain nev insighls aboul your dala. The dalasel used in lhis exercise comes from
Anderson Sandes's research aboul Henry Kosler, a 19
lh
-cenlury lraveI vriler vho vrole
exlensiveIy aboul lhe hysicaI and sociaI Iandscae of raziI. You can viev lhe ro|ecl
onIine al hll://vvv.andersonsandes.com/kosler/.

216

"#$%&' () *+, -#.'/ 0'1#23#4$ 5'4&6 *7/3'&8/ 3&9:'. 7:'&.9#0 #4 ;77$.' +91/<

When you finish lhe luloriaI and Ioad lhe KML fiIe in GoogIe Iarlh or ArcGIobe, you
viII be abIe lo see lhe Iaces aboul vhich Kosler vrole. We hoe lhal you viII use KML
fiIes lo enhance lhe visuaIizalion of your ovn saliaI dala as you become more
acquainled vilh lhe lechnoIogy of GoogIe Iarlh and ArcGIobe.

=%37&#9. >>>
Our lhird luloriaI inlroduces lhe concel of ma aIgebra. Whal is ma aIgebra` SimIy
ul, ma aIgebra is as a sel of oeralions, such as addilion, sublraclion, muIliIicalion,
and division, belveen lhe ceIIs (or ixeIs) of lvo or more rasler Iayers.
4
When you
erform a ma aIgebra oeralion using rasler Iayers, a nev Iayer comosed of nev ceIIs
(or ixeIs) conlaining nev informalion is generaled. This luloriaI viII leach you hov lo
buiId a carlograhic modeI using Landsal 5 TM rasler saleIIile dalasels lo examine lhe
change of vegelalion in lhe eriod of 10 years (2001-2011) in annock Counly, Idaho,
lhe home of lhe main camus of Idaho Slale Universily. To relrieve lhe green vaIues
deicling vegelalion, you viII Iearn hov lo use lhe Rasler CaIcuIalor looI from
ArcGIS 10 and emIoy a vegelalion index.


4
Ior examIe, Ian N. Gregory, and IauI S. III, !"#$%&"'() +,-. /0'12%)%3"0#4 50$1%6%)%3"0# (26 -'1%)(&#1"7
(Cambridge, Nev York: Cambridge Universily Iress, 2007), 80-81, oIslad, +,- 8926(:02$()#, 380-384.
217
Vegelalion indices are formed lhrough lhe combinalion of seclraI vaIues lhal can be
added, divided, or muIliIied. This lechnique can assisl researchers in assessing lhe
vigor of vegelaled surfaces.
5
Ior lhis exercise, you viII aIy lhe NormaIized Difference
Vegelalion Index (NDVI), vhich is one of lhe mosl videIy used vegelalion indices.
6
The
NDVI uses lhe near-infrared and visibIe (red) bands of lhe Landsal 5 TM rasler dalasel,
as demonslraled beIov:



A nev rasler Iayer conlaining green vaIues is derived from lhe NDVI anaIysis. This nev
Iayer conlains informalion lhal corresonds lo vegelalion or vegelaled surfaces. y lhe
lime lhal you comIele lhis luloriaI, you viII have Iearned hov lo erform lhe NDVI
anaIysis lo relrieve green vaIues from Landsal 5 TM dalasels.


"#$%&' () *+,'- .&+.+/', 0+& 1%2+&#3- 4445

The Landsal 5 TM rasler dalasels resenled in lhis luloriaI are courlesy of Idaho Slale
Universily's GIS Training and Research Cenler (hll://giscenler.isu.dala).

5
}ames . CambeII, !"#$%&'(#)%" #% +,-%#, .,"/)"0 (Nev York, London: The GuiIford Iress, 2008), 465.
6
Ibid.
218
!"#$%&'( *+
Our fourlh luloriaI leaches you hov lo relrieve eIevalion vaIues from a DIM. Imagine
yourseIf Iiving in lhe cily of Sokane, Washinglon, Uniled Slales. You are a hislorian
and medicaI geograher inleresled in documenling lhe hislory of Sokane's famous
High ridge Iark. This recrealionaI area, according lo lhe hisloricaI ro|ecl Sokane
HisloricaI (hll://sokanehisloricaI.org), romoled by Iaslern Washinglon Universily
(hll://vvv.evu.edu), vas used as a sanilarium lo lreal alienls vilh lubercuIosis in
lhe asl.
7
You are Iooking for a house in vhich lo Iive in Sokane lhal is cIose lo lhe
ark, bul you disIike vaIking in hiIIy areas. Therefore, you vanl lo Iive in a house lhal
is vilhin 0.5 miIes of High ridge Iark, and lhal is in a fIal area. To idenlify a fIal area,
you viII use a DIM and Iook for secific areas in lhe cily vilh a sIoe of Iess lhan 0.5
degrees. To find lhese vaIues, you viII again use lhe Rasler CaIcuIalor looI from
ArcGIS 10. The DIM resenled in lhis luloriaI is courlesy of lhe Cily of Sokane
vebsile (hll://vvv.sokanecily.org).


,&-"%. /0 1$2.( 3%$3$4.2 5$% !"#$%&'( *+6

We hoe lhal lhe conlenl rovided lhrough lhe four luloriaIs heI you undersland and
feeI comforlabIe vhiIe using ArcGIS 10 or Ialer versions of lhe soflvare. We chose lo
inlroduce lhe concel of carlograhic modeIing because ve vanl you lo Iearn hov lo
organize your GIS dala and oeralions more syslemalicaIIy. In becoming comforlabIe
vilh carlograhic modeIing, il is our hoe lhal you viII Iearn hov lo lhink more
crilicaIIy aboul lhe GIS looIs and oeralions you are emIoying lo achieve your goaIs.



7
Tracy L. Rebslock, High ridge Iark. hll://sokanehisloricaI.org/ilems/shov/142-.UmrCgRbva-I
(accessed on }une 12 2012).
219
!"!#$%&' %
You viII buiId a modeI lo query lhe dala slored in lvo shaefiIes deicling muIliIe
18
lh
-cenlury voyages. In comIeling lhis luloriaI, you viII Iearn hov lo creale your firsl
modeI lhrough ArcGIS 10 ModeIuiIder, and creale a ma deicling an 18
lh
-cenlury
exedilion from Veracruz, Mexico, lo Cadiz, Sain

)*+,-./012-*+,
y nov, you musl have ArcGIS inslaIIed on your machine. You musl lurn on aII ArcGIS
exlensions. CIick lhe Slarl bullon, go lo AII Irograms, and lhen cIick lhe ArcMa
10 olion under ArcGIS |Iigure 1.1j.


3-450/ 6768 9&0:;1< 6=7>

When ArcMa 10 slarls, go lo Ixlensions. |Iigure 1.2j.


3-450/ 67?8 9@A2/+,-*+,7>


220
Aclivale aII lhe exlensions and cIick CIose, as shovn in Iigure 1.3.


"#$%&' ()*+ ,-./'01#2013 4#0524)

6/'7 (+
Go lo hll://vvv.geograhicaIIyinlegraledhislory.com/v-
conlenl/uIoads/exercises/luloriaI1.zi

DovnIoad lhe zied foIder. You are being rovided vilh lvo shaefiIes named
Origen1 and Deslino2, resecliveIy. ecause lhese dala reIales lo lhe 18
lh
-cenlury
CasliIian lrade, aII of our descrilions are in Sanish. Origen means origin and
deslino means deslinalion.

221
!"#$ &'
CIick lhe bullon lhal aclivales lhe ModeIuiIder vindov (ArcMa's menu bar):


()*+,# -./' 0123#45+)43#, 6)7326.8

!"#$ 9'
You viII see lhe ModeI vindov.


()*+,# -.:' 0123#48 6)7326.







222
!"#$ &'
CIick lhe bullon (ModeI vindov). Navigale lo your TuloriaI I foIder and Ioad
lhe lvo shaefiIes in lhe ModeI vindov:


()*+,# -./' 0122 34"4 5, 6557.8

!"#$ 9'
The ModeI vindov shouId Iook Iike in Iigure 1.7:


()*+,# -.:' 0;52#78 <)=25< <)"> )=$+" 24"4.
!!"
!"#$ &'
$%& '&() *)&+ ,-'*.*)* -/ 011.'2 345 -+&60).-'* )- )%& 78-1&9: ;.'1-;< =+&' )%&
75&06,% ;.'1-;: >? ,9.,@.'2 )%& 75&06,% ;.'1-;: >A))-' BC.2A6& D<EFG )?+& 75&9&,): .'
)%& *&06,% /.&91G 0'1 +6&** )%& @&? 7H')&6<: I602 )%& 75&9&,) JK'09?*.*L: )--9 /6-M )%&
9.*) 0'1 16-+ .) .')- )%& 7N.'1-;: M-1&9 BC.2A6& D<OF<


()*+,# -./' 0!#1,23 4)5674.8


!"#$%& ()*+ ,%-##".# /001 2%03 1"4/ 02 2$.5/"0.4 -.6 !"#$$%&' %) %&)# *+#!,-.
!"#$%!!

!"#$ 9'
P9.,@ );.,& -' )%& 6&,)0'29& 6&+6&*&').'2 )%& )--9 J75&9&,):L )%0) ?-A %0Q& 011&1 )- ?-A6
M-1&9< R-A ;.99 *&& )%& 75&9&,): ;.'1-;< $%.* +6-,&** .* )%& /.6*) )- ;%.,% ?-A6 .'+A)
10)0 ;.99 >& *A>M.))&1<




224
In Inul Iealures, choose Origen1.sh. Nov cIick lhe SQL bullon lo slarl
querying lhe dala:


"#$%&' ()(*+ ,-'.'/01 2#3452)

-0'6 7+
The Query uiIder vindov viII aear. We are inleresled in lhe voyage commanded
by Lieulenanl GeneraI enilo Anlonio de IsinoIa in 1735. Iormal your query as in
Iigure 1.11. Use lhe bullons , Gel Unique VaIues, and And lo formal your
query.


8#3452 ()((+ ,9%'&: ;%#.4'&1 2#3452)
!!"
!"#$ &'
$%& '(&)&*+, -./01- 2%13)0 )114 ).4& ./ 5.637& 898!9


()*+,# -.-/' 0!#1#2"3 4)5674.

!"#$%# '()*+# ),$) ),# -$)$ -#.*/#- 0.(1 ),*% %)#2 3*"" 4# %$/#- *' ),# 56#0$7")89-4:
!"#$%&%'%(") +, -#. /0(12 -#. 3%4 !"#$ &'$ ()&*)& +"!&$+ ,- " *."/$ (0 1()+ /'(,/$ "-2
!"#$% ' #())$%$"* "'+$, -. #. */(01 23(24 */$ !"##$% '($)% *% +*,"-. /0/1 2%3 4($$'. 2
!"#$% '( )*'$* +,- )#(. ., /#0% .*% ,-.!-. 1#.#2 !" $%&'()*+ !"#$%& (%)*( +,* -.+&.+
!"#" %& "'' ()%*+,,+, -. #/+ 01+&"2'#34!56 4+%!"#"5",+ #/"# -, '%*"#+! 2.!+)
!"#$%&'()!!"#$%&' !"#$% '())"*+ ,-. /01- '234+














!!"
!"#$ &'(
!"#$ &"'() *+"#)' )"", )-,( -. /-0#$( 12132 $%&'( )*+ ,-.)/ 012/.)3 4.))/5 )/ /6715&8+
)*+ %12/.) /9 2/.6 :/;+% 15; '%&'( )*+ ,<.53 4.))/5 )/ 6.5 2/.6 :/;+% =>&7.6+ ?@?AB@


!"#$%& ()(*+ ,-./&01 2"3/.2!


!"#$%& ()(*+ ,-$./ 012/$.3 145 ,6$43 7$../48!












227
!"#$ &&'
Your modeI shouId Iook Iike in Iigure 1.15:


()*+,# &-&.' /012#34 5)6215-
















!!"
!"#$ &'(
$%& '(&)&*+, +--) %./ /&)&*+&0 +%& 1-2 34 +%& .++1356+& +.5)& +%.+ *-11&/7-40/ +- +%&
8-9.:& )&0 59 ;3&6+&4.4+ <&4&1.) =&43+- >4+-43- 0& ?/7@4-).A B& 2.4+ +- &C7-1+ +%&
/&)&*+&0 &4+19 ./ . /%.7&D3)&A $- .*%3&8& +%3/ :-.)E 2& F6/+ 6/& +%& 'G-79, +--)A

H7&4 +%& '(&.1*% 2340-2, 59 *)3*I34: +%& '(&.1*% 2340-2, 56++-4 JK3:61& LALMNE +97&
'G-79, 34 +%& /&.1*% D3&)0E .40 71&// +%& I&9 '?4+&1A, O1.: +%& 'G-79 PO.+.
Q.4.:&F&4+R, +--) D1-F +%& )3/+ .40 01-7 3+ 34+- +%& 'B340-2, F-0&) JK3:61& LALSNA


)*+,-# &.&/( 0!#1-23 4*5674.8


)*+,-# &.&9( !"#$$%&$ ())* +"), *%-( )+ +.&/(%)&- #&0 0")11%&$ %( %&() 23)04*5
!"#$%!!







!!"
!"#$ &'(
$%&'( )*&'+ ,- ).+ /+')0-1%+ /+2/+3+-)&-1 ).+ ),,% ).0) 4,5 .06+ 077+7 ), 4,5/ 8,7+%
9:$,24;<= >,5 *&%% 3++ ).+ :$,24; *&-7,*= ?- :?-25) @0)0 A%+8+-)B; '.,,3+ ).+ 70)0
7+/&6+7 C/,8 ).+ :D+%+'); 2/,'+33 9E/&1+-FGD+%+')<=


)*+,-# &.&/( 012$34 5*6725.

!"#!"# %&'()# '*!' '*# +!'! +#,(-#+ .,&/ '*(" "'#0 1(22 3# "!-#+ (% '*# 45#.!62'78+39
!"#$%&%'%(") +, -#. /0(12 -#. 3%4 (%5" &1" #.&6.& 7%(&"7 04 % 68%3" #, -#.7 31#03" %4$
!"#$% ' #())$%$"* "'+$, -. #. */(01 23(24 */$ !"##$% '%( )*$$+, ' -.'), /% 0*/)* 1$"
!"#$ $& '"() $*) &+$,+$ -"$". !" $%&'()*+ !"#$%& (%)*( +,* -.+&.+ /%+% -0 %11 &"-#*((*(
!" $%& '(&)*+,$-./01 .&2/*$*0*3& $%*$ !3 ,24*$&/ +"/&5 (24+6&"$3!!"#$%&' )*+#,
!"##$%& ()* +,-) !./0&










!"#
!"#$ &'(
!"#$ &"'() *+"#)' )"", )-,( .+/. -0 1-2#$( 34564 %&'() *+, -./*0 1230/*4 5/**06 *0
07826'9, *+, &230/* 0: 30/7 ;0<,& 26< (&'() *+, -=/64 5/**06 *0 7/6 30/7 ;0<,&
>?'8/7, @A@BCA


!"#$%& ()(*+ ,-$./ 012/$.3 145 ,6$43 7$.!"#$%


)*+,-# &./0( 1234#56 7*8437.











231
!"#$ &'(
Once you have run your modeI, righl-cIick lhe dala derived from lhe Coy oeralion
and choose lhe olion Add lo DisIay.


)*+,-# &./&( 0122 "3 4*5$678.9

!"#$ &:(
Nov you can see a oinl deicling lhe origin of lhe voyage in Veracruz, Mexico.


)*+,-# &.//( !;7$#<*6# 2#-*=#2 <-3> ";# 0?3$89 3$#-7"*3@.
232
!"#$ &'(
The nexl sles consisl of aIying lo lhe Deslino2 shaefiIe lhe same rocess lhal ve
aIied lo lhe Origen1 shaefiIe. In doing lhis, ve viII oblain a oinl deicling lhe
deslinalion of lhe voyage.


)*+,-# &./0( 123#4.

!"#$ &5(
Drag lhe SeIecl (AnaIysis) looI from lhe Iisl and dro il inlo lhe Windov modeI:


)*+,-# &./6( !"#$$%&$ ())* +"), *%-( )+ +.&/(%)&- #&0 0")11%&$ %( %&() 23)04*5
!"#$%!!


!""
!"#$ &'(
$%&'( )*+ ,+')-./%+ ,+0,+1+.)&./ )*+ )22% )*-) 324 *-5+ -66+6 )2 324, 726+%8 9*+
:;+%+')< =&.62= =&%% -00+-,8 >. :>.04) ?+-)4,+1@< '*221+ :A+1)&.2!81*08< $%&'( )*+
:;BC< D4))2. )2 1)-,) E4+,3&./ 324, 6-)-8


)*+,-# &./0( 1!#2#3"4 5*6785.

!"#$ /9(
9*+ :B4+,3 F4&%6+,< =&.62= =&%% -00+-,8 G+ -,+ &.)+,+1)+6 &. )*+ 523-/+ '277-.6+6
D3 C&+4)+.-.) H+.+,-% F+.&)2 I.)2.&2 6+ J10K.2%- &. LM"N8 ?2,7-) 324, E4+,3 -1 &.
?&/4,+ L8!O8 P1+ )*+ D4))2.1 :Q@< :H+) P.&E4+ R-%4+1@< -.6 :I.6< )2 S2,7-) 324,
E4+,38


:*6785 &./;( 1<,#-= >,*27#-4 5*6785.
!"#
!"#$ &'(
%&' ()'*'+,- ./012. 3&24*1 *225 */5' 6/748' 9:!;:


)*+,-# '.&/( 0!#1#2"3 4*5674.

!"#$%# '()*+# ),$) ),# -$)$ -#.*/#- 0.(1 ),*% %)#2 3*"" 4# %$/#- *' ),# 56#0$7")89-4:
!"#$%&%'%(") +, -#. /0(12 -#. !"# %"&' ()' *+(,+( -"%('- .# " ,/"!' *0 1*+- !)*.!' "#2
!"#$% ' #())$%$"* "'+$, -. #. */(01 23(24 */$ !"##$% '($)% *% +*,"-. /0/1 2%3 4($$'. 2
!"#$% '( )*'$* +,- )#(. ., /#0% .*% ,-.!-. 1#.#2 !" $%&'()*+ !"#$%& (%)*( +,* -.+&.+
!"#" %& "'' ()%*+,,+, -. !"# %&#'()*!+,-./ ,#0-(!(.(1# !"(! 21 *03(!#- )4-#5
!"#$%&'()!!"#$%&' )*+#, -!..*/0 123 4562 -78'0












!"#
!"#$ &&'
%&'( )&*+, -.&',* ,&&/ ,0/+ 102'(+ 34!54 6,07/ 8.+ 9:'8& ;<=&'8> ?'88&@ 8& &(2<@0A+
8.+ ,<=&'8 &B =&'( )&*+, <@* 7,07/ 8.+ 9C'@> ?'88&@ 8& ('@ =&'( )&*+, D102'(+ 34!EF4


!"#$%& ()*+, -./0&12 3"40/3!


!"#$%& ()*+, -.$/0 1230$/4 256 -7$54 8$//059!









!"#
!"#$ &'(
%&' ()'*'+,- ,..* &/0 0'*'+,'1 ,&' 2.3 45 ,&' /,,2467,' ,/6*' ,&/, +.22'08.510 ,. ,&'
9.:/;' *'1 6: <4'7,'5/5, ='5'2/* >'54,. ?5,.54. 1' @08A5.*/B C' 3/5, ,. 'D8.2, ,&'
0'*'+,'1 '5,2: /0 / 0&/8'E4*'B %. /+&4'9' ,&40 ;./*F 3' G70, 70' ,&' (H.8:- ,..*B

I8'5 ,&' ()'/2+& 3451.3- 6: +*4+J45; ,&' ()'/2+& 3451.3- 67,,.5 KL4;72' MB"NOF ,:8'
(H.8:- 45 ,&' 0'/2+& E4'*1F /51 82'00 ,&' J': (@5,'2B- P2/; ,&' (H.8: QP/,/
R/5/;'G'5,S- ,..* E2.G ,&' *40, /51 12.8 4, 45,. ,&' (C451.3- G.1'* KL4;72' MB"MOB


)*+,-# ./'0( 1!#2-34 5*6785/9


)*+,-# ./'.( !"#$$%&$ ())* +"), *%-( )+ +.&/(%)&- #&0 !"#$$%&' %) %&)# *+#!,-.
!"#$%!&







!"#
!"#$ &'(
%&'() *+'(, -. */, 0,(*1.2&, 0,30,4,.*'.2 */, *--& */1* 5-6 /17, 188,8 *- 5-60 9-8,&
:;%-35<=> ?-6 +'&& 4,, */, ;%-35< +'.8-+> @. ;@.36* A1*1 B&,9,.*C< (/--4, */, 81*1
8,0'7,8 D0-9 */, ;E,&,(*< 30-(,44 :A,4*'.-!FE,&,(*=>


)*+,-# ./0&( 123$45 6*7836/

!"#$%# '()*+# ),$) ),# -$)$ -#.*/#- 0.(1 ),*% %)#2 3*"" 4# %$/#- *' ),# 56#0$7")89-4:
!"#$%&%'%(") +, -#. /0(12 -#. 3%4 (%5" &1" #.&6.& 7%(&"7 04 % 68%3" #, -#.7 31#03" %4$
!"#$% ' #())$%$"* "'+$, -. #. */(01 23(24 */$ !"##$% '%( )*$$+, ' -.'), /% 0*/)* 1!"
!"#$ $& '"() $*) &+$,+$ -"$". !" $%&'()*+ !"#$%& (%)*( +,* -.+&.+ /%+% -0 %11 &"-#*((*(
!" $%& '(&)*+,$-./01 .&2/*$*0*3& $%*$ !3 ,24*$&/ +"/&5 (24+6&"$3!!"#$%&' )*+#,
!"##$%& ()* +,-) !./0&

!"#$ &9(
!"#$ &"'() *+"#)' )"", )-,( -. /-0#$( 12332 %&'() */, ;G6*- H15-6*< I6**-. *- -021.'J,
*/, &15-6* -D 5-60 9-8,& 1.8 (&'() */, ;K6.< I6**-. *- 06. 5-60 9-8,& LM'260, N>"OP>


!"#$%& ()**+ ,-$./ 012/$.3 145 ,6$43 7$../48!

238

!"#$%& ()*+, -./0&12 3"40/3!

!"#$ &'(
Once you have run your modeI, righl-cIick lhe dala derived from lhe Coy oeralion
and choose lhe olion Add lo DisIay.


!"#$%& ()*+, -.// 01 2"34567!!




239
!"#$ &'(
Nov you can see a oinl deicling lhe deslinalion of lhe voyage in Cadiz, Sain:


)*+,-# ./01( !23$#4*5# 6#-*7#6 4-89 "2# :;8$<= 8$#-3"*8>/

!"#$ &?(
CIick lhe bullon (ModeI vindov) lo save your modeI. Your modeI viII be saved
in lhe TooIbox lhal is Iocaled under !"#$%&'()!!"#$%&' )*+,- ./- 01234+56 7+4-*'














240
!"#$ &'(
!" $%&'()*+ ,-". /(%0 &12&3 45- !"##$%& ()*+,)#- #$ .$"/ 01"#$/+)2 34 5$26-/ )%6
!"#$ &'( )'#*(+,!( -./01234506235738-!"#$ &' ()*+,-" .)/,'&01 234) 5,21)6 63
lhal lhey Iook Iike Iigure 1.37:


"#$%&' ()*+, -./'&0)

12'3 *4,
Svilch lo lhe Layoul Viev (bollom-righl of your screen):


"#$%&' ()*5, -./6%2 7#'8)

12'3 *(,
Creale a ma Iike lhe one shovn in Iigure 1.40. 96 :&'.2' . ;#<' ='3#:2#<$ 2>' 6&#$#<
.<= ='02#<.2#6< 6? 2>' @6/.$': Go lo Cuslomize, choose TooIbars, and lhen cIick
Drav. The Drav vindov viII aear. CIick lhe reclangIe shovn in Iigure 1.39.
Choose Line or Curve from lhe Iisl.


"#$%&' ()*A, BC&.8D 8#<=68)
!"#

"#$%&' ()*+, -./)

%&'()*+,-*+.&'/0 1&, 2*34 -4*)'45 2&6 +& 7,.-5 *'5 ),' * 8&54- /,994//:,--;< =: ;&,
:44- ,'9&8:&)+*7-4 6.+2 62*+ ;&, 2*34 -4*)'45> ?-4*/4 (& 7*9@ +& +24 74(.''.'( &: +24
4A4)9./4 *'5 ?)*9+.94 7,.-5.'( * 8&54- 7; 9*)4:,--; :&--&6.'( +24 .'/+),9+.&'/ +2./
4A4)9./4 ?)&3.54/<



242
!"!#$%&' %%
Henry Kosler lraveIed lhroughoul raziI from 1809 lo 1815 and carefuIIy recorded
informalion aboul each Iocalion he visiled. Kosler is raised as a lraveI vriler due lo his
cIose allenlion lo lhe hysicaI and sociaI Iandscae aboul vhich he vrole lhal of re-
indeendence raziI. This exercise viII leach you hov lo visuaIize in ArcGIobe each
Iocalion aboul vhich Kosler vrole.

!"#$%&"'"()*
!" $%&$'"( )$*+ ",-+ ./$. $%% 01 '0,- +2.+3"403" $-+ !"#$%!#&' !"#$" &$ '()#**#*) &+(
!"!#$%&!' )* +,! !"#!$%&'$% )*! $'# )+#&,)#!-. /'0 1&22 !"# !" $!%" &' (')*%"&" &+"
exercise. On ArcMa's menu bar, go lo Cuslomize, and lhen choose Ixlensions....
!"# %&'(#)*+,)*- .+)/,. .+00 122#134 5"#67 100 ("# #'(#)*+,)* ("1( 8,9 "1:# 1:1+01;0#
!"# %&'%( )*&+,-./ !"#$%# '()*+# ),$) ),# -./$)*$" 0'$"1%)2 #3)#'%*(' *% 45'6$7#')$" 4(8
!"# %&'()#!*&+ &, !"*- #.#/%*-#0


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-./&01"2013 4"0524!

243
!"#$ !"
!" $" hll://vvv.geograhicaIIyinlegraledhislory.com/v-
conlenl/uIoads/exercises/luloriaI2.zi

!!"#$!%& ()* +,--*& .!$&*/ 0!#(%,#,#1 ()* &%(% /*23,/*& .!/ ()* 0!4-$*(,!# !. (),5
!"!#$%&!'

!"#$ &'
!" $%&'()*+ ,-". /(%0 &12&3 45- !"##$% '%( %')*+'#, #$ #-, .$/(,0 1$" -'),
!"#$%"&!'!( *'%'+, ,-' ./%' 012&3'%45$62&7/%(8%49 &$! +%/+: 0;!!(9


!"#$%& ()(* +,-- ./0/1 2"3-42!

!"#$ &'
!"#$%&" ()% $*" %&+,- $, ./#"0 &1*"$2&3""45 6*#7$1 8+00 $&9 ()% 4) &"0"#4 43" &3""4
!"#! %&' (#)! !& &*+), -"&&.+ !"+ ."++! ."&() /) 0/1'2+ 3,45 #)6 78/79 :;66,<


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-.. /0102 3"4.53!

!""
!"#$ &'
!"# %&'' ()) *+) ,-.)**))/ #01)/ *+) 23-4') "5 6"0*)0*(7 8-0)9 :&,+*$!"#!$ &'( )#"( *#&'
!"#$ &"#'() *+, -.""'( /.( "0/1"+ 231'04*! 56 3*/*789


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-"./012 34 -15167 8/5"89!


















!"#
!"#$ &'
!"# %&'' ()) *+) ,-&(.'/0 1! -/*/2 %!"#$%& (" )*+ ,- .!+/#01 2*$$3+ !"#$%&'()*+,-
!" $%& '( )*&+,-. /%001& '234567!7829. 4+*/: ';<9.


!"#$%! #$%& '()*+,-. /0 (-1-2 3)4563$









246
!"#$ &'
You viII see a varning message. Ignore il and cIick OK. You viII see aII lhe Iocalions
aboul vhich Kosler vrole deicled as oinl dala:


()*+,# -.&' /012")034.













247
!"#$ &'
Ixorl lhe oinl dala as a shaefiIe. Righl-cIick lhe Iayer under lhe TabIe of Conlenls
ane, lhen go lo Dala, and choose lhe olion Ixorl Dala.


()*+,# -.&' /01$2," 34"456 2$")27.










!"#
!"#$ &'
%&' ()** +,, -., /012&3- 45-56 ()78&(9 :5;, -., +.52,<)*, )7 =&'3 />'-&3)5* ??6 <&*8,3
578 75@, )- /A&+-,396 B*)CD /EA6 578 588 -., 7,( +.52,<)*, 5+ 5 *5=,3 )7 F3CG529


()*+,# -.&' /01$2," 34"45 6)7826.

!"#$ 9'
E2,7 -., +.52,<)*,H+ 5--3)I'-, -5I*, -& +,, -., )7<&3@5-)&7 +-&3,8 )7 ,5C. 2&)7-9


()*+,# -.9' /:4;<#5 6)7826.


!"#
!"#$ &'(
%&'( ') '*++ ,-./0) 1-) +&&2 &3 1-) 4&*/15 6)4*,1*/0 7&51)895 18.:)+5; <),.=5) ') .8)
0&*/0 1& +&.6 1-) 4&*/15 */ >8,?+&@)( ') './1 1& A.2) 1-) 4&*/15 BC; D+*,2 1'*,) &/ 1-)
4&*/1 +.E)8 6)4*,1*/0 7&51)895 18.:)+5; F-*5 *5 1-) 5-.4)3*+) E&= -.:) ,8).1)6; F-)
GHEA@&+ H)+),1&8I '*/6&' '*++ .44).8;


)*+,-# ./&'( 0!12345 !#5#6"4-7 8*9:48/
















!"#
!"#$ &&'
%&'() *+ ,-. /0,1&. 2.3.4.+(.567 89,,*+:


()*+,# -.&&' /!01234 !#4#5"3,6 7)8937.












251
!"#$ &'(
The SlyIe References vindov viII shov u. Aclivale lhe olion ArcGIS_IxIorer,
as shovn in lhe figure beIov:


)*+,-# '.&'( /!"01# 2#3#-#45#67 8*49:8.













!"!
!"#$ &'(
$%& '%( &)** +,, -,& +'./%*+ )- 01, 23'./%* 3,*,40%56 &)-7%&8 91%%+, 01, 2:*;4<
=(+1>)-86 9*)4< 2?@86


)*+,-# ./&'( 0!12345 !#5#6"4-7 8*9:48/











!"#
!"#$ &'(
%&' (&)* +,*--. +/&)01 0&&2 032- 435)*- !6786


)*+,-# ./&'( $0*1"2/

!"#$ &3(
9)* .-:; +;-< 3+ ;& ,&.=-*; ;/- +/><-?30- 1-<3,;3.5 @&+;-*A+ 0&,>;3&.+ ;& @BC +& ;/>; (&)
,>. 0&>1 ;/- ?30- 3.;& D*,E0&F- >.1G >0;-*.>;3=-0(G 3.;& E&&50- B><+6 9<-. ;/- HI->*,/
'3.1&'J F( ,03,23.5 ;/- HI->*,/ '3.1&'J F);;&. K435)*- !67"LG ;(<- H@BCJ 3. ;/-
+->*,/ ?3-01G >.1 <*-++ ;/- 2-( HM.;-*6J


)*+,-# ./&3( 4!#5-67 8*1908/:







!"#
!"#$ &'(
%&'() *+, -.*'-/ 0123,4 *- 561 7%-/8,49'-/:;<


)*+,-# ./&'( 0123#- "4 561 7849:#-;*49</=


















!""
!"#$ &'(
$%& '()*&+ ,- ./(0 1234-1 1255 )66&)+7 83 '()*&+90 :%--;& '.-;,&+70 <)=& ,%& ->,6>,
?25& ); '@-;,&+A5-:),2-3;0 )34 B)@& ;>+& ,%& ?25& 2; ;)=&4 23 *->+ '$>,-+2)5 880 ?-54&+7 83
'()*&+ C>,6>, <:)5&90 ,*6& !DDDD7 E52:@ 'C.70


)*+,-# ./&'( 0123#- "4 561/7

!"#$ &8(
$%& ?-55-123F 1234-1 1255 )66&)+ -3 ,%& G-,,-B -? *->+ ;:+&&3 ;,),23F ,%), *->+ 5)*&+
%); G&&3 :-3=&+,&4 ,- ./(7


)*+,-# ./&8( 0123#- "4 5617 94:;#-<*4:/









!"#
!"#$ &'(
%&'() *+,-./ .01 '/)0 *+,2&'3)4


)*+,-# ./&'( 0$#1*1+ 2-34567#&8/










!"#
!"#$ &'(
%&'( )*+ ,-.( */(&(0 12'34*5(6 78 9744 4**: 47:( !;!<;


)*+,-# &.&'( /-01234# 50-##6.

!"#$ &7(
=*9 9( -2( >*7&> 8* 4*-0 8,( ?@A B74( 0(/7'87&> ?*C8(2DC 82-.(4C; 3* 8* EF+C8*G7H(6I
'47': EJ**45-2C6I -&0 '47': E?@A6I -C C,*9& 7& 8,( K7>+2( !;!L;


)*+,-# &.&7( /0"*89"*6+ :;< "33249-.

258
!"#$ &&'
The KML vindov viII aear. CIick lhe firsl bullon of lhe vindov, as shovn in lhe
figure beIov. Navigale lo your TuloriaI II foIder and Ioad in ArcGIobe lhe
kosler_Iocalions.kmz fiIe lhal you crealed in sle 17.


()*+,# &-&&' ./012 3)4563-

!"#$ &7'
This is vhal your screen shouId Iook Iike:


()*+,# &-&7' 8,9:;6<# =9,##4-






259
!"#$ &'(
You can nov visuaIize and relrieve informalion aboul lhe Iocalions visiled by Kosler.
Zoom in, zoom oul, and discover lhe names of each Iocalion aboul vhich Kosler vrole.


)*+,-# &.&'( /012"*034.

CongraluIalions! You have Iearned hov lo converl shaefiIes lo KML, and hov lo oen
KML fiIes in ArcGIobe. The nexl exercise viII leach you hov lo use Landsal 5 TM
saleIIile dalasels lo assess lhe change of vegelalion in lhe counly of annock, Idaho,
Uniled Slales, during lhe eriod of 10 years (2001-2010).














260
!"!#$%&' %%%
Landsal saleIIiles have been caluring images from lhe surface of Iarlh since 1972.
These images can rovide vaIuabIe informalion aboul lhe Iarlh's surface for sludies
aboul use, managemenl, and reservalion of naluraI resources.

A vegelalion index can be efficienlIy used lo delecl vegelaled surfaces from saleIIile
imagery. A vegelalion index is an indicalor of vegelalion heaIlh and abundance. The
NormaIized Difference Vegelalion Index (NDVI) is a vegelalion index lhal is videIy
used lo delecl heaIlhy green vegelalion from saleIIile imagery.

This luloriaI viII leach you hov lo delecl vegelalion informalion from Landsal 5 TM
dalasels in annock Counly, Idaho, in 2001 and 2011, resecliveIy.

You viII become famiIiarized vilh lhe foIIoving ArcGIS looIs:
IIoal
Rasler CaIcuIalor
RecIassify
Ixlracl by Mask

)*+,-./012-*+, 1+. 134+*56/.78/+2,
Idaho Slale Universily's GIS Training and Research Cenler has aIied almosheric
correclion lo lhe Landsal dalasels you are going lo use in lhis exercise. This means lhal
lhe dalasels can be accuraleIy aIied in a lemoraI sludy.

You can dovnIoad simiIar dalasels lhal are avaiIabIe for lhe scienlific communily for
free al hll://giscenler.isu.edu/dala/.

You viII be using onIy Landsal bands 3 (red) and 4 (near-infrared) in lhis exercise.











261
!"#$%&"'"()*
As aIvays, make sure lhal aII of your exlensions are aclivaled rior lo beginning lhe
exercise. If lhe exlensions are nol aclivaled, you viII (,) be abIe lo comIele lhe
exercise. On ArcMa's menu bar, go lo Cuslomize, and lhen choose Ixlensions....
The Ixlensions vindov viII aear. Check aII lhe exlensions lhal you have avaiIabIe
and cIick CIose. IIease nolice lhal lhe SaliaI AnaIysl exlension is fundamenlaI for
lhe comIelion of lhis exercise.


-%.$&" /012 345)"(*%,(*6 7%(8,70




!"!
$% & '()*+,('- ./0 )&. 1*%2 3'(&4( & 5/6,(' 4/ %4/'( &66 /5 42( /04704 ,&4& ,('*8(, 5'/)
./0' )/,(69 $% ./0 2&8( 6(&'+(, *+ :04/'*&6 ;- 12(+ ./0 3'(&4( &+, '0+ & )/,(6 !"#$
"$&'&()* &(+#, -),) )$. /#01.2,.- ," ) /., "3 +$"2.//./9 <&32 7'/3(%% 1*66 '(%064 *+ +(1
,&4&- &+, ./0 )&. 1*%2 4/ %&8( 42(%( ,&4& *+ & %7(3*5*3 5/6,(' /5 ./0' 32/*3(9

;5 ./0 ,/ +/4 %7(3*5. & 6/3&4*/+ 12('( ./0 1/06, 6*=( ./0' ,&4& 4/ >( %&8(,- 42( ,&4&
1*66 >( %&8(, *+ 42( ,(5&064 ?(/,&4&>&%( @AB(5&0649?,>CD 6/3&4(, &4
B/30)(+4%E$'3F;GEB(5&0649?,>9

$% *+ :04/'*&6 ;- ./0 1*66 3'(&4( &+ A$'3F;G HI J/,(6K0*6,('C )/,(69 :2*% )/,(6 *%
%2/1+ *+ L*?0'( M9!9 :2( )/,(6 %2/1% /0' *+704 ,&4&- 42( %(4 /5 7'/3(%%(% 4/ 12*32 /0'
*+704 ,&4& 1*66 >( %0>N(34(,- &+, 42( /04704 ,&4& /5 /0' )/,(69 <O&)*+( 42( )/,(6
36/%(6. &+, 4'. 4/ 0+,('%4&+, 42( %(4 /5 7'/3(%%(% ,(7*34(, *+ 42( )/,(69 ;5 ./0 3&++/4
0+,('%4&+, 42( )/,(6- ,/ +/4 1/''.9 :2*% (O('3*%( 1*66 4(&32 ./0 2/1 4/ >0*6, &+, '0+
42( )/,(6 %033(%%5066.9


4&'#$. 5678 9"-.* -.+&2,&(' /.:#.(2. "3 /,.+/6

263
!"#$ &'
Go lo hll://vvv.geograhicaIIyinlegraledhislory.com/v-
conlenl/uIoads/exercises/luloriaI3.zi

DovnIoad lhe zied foIder. If you exerience any difficuIlies unziing lhe fiIe, Iease
conlacl Anderson Sandes lhrough his e-maiI (sandande+isu.edu). ecause Landsal
images have a Iarge size, Iease be alienl and vail unliI lhe dovnIoad is finished lo
exlracl lhe fiIes.

!"#$ ('
As you did in TuloriaI I, oen ArcMa and cIick lhe ModeIuiIder vindov bullon
|Iigure 3.3j.


)*+,-# ./.' 0123#45,*43#- 6*73268 9,""27/

!"#$ .'
The ModeI vindov viII aear. As in TuloriaI I, cIick lhe + bullon lo add lhe inul
dala of your modeI |Iigure 3.4j. As in TuloriaI I, you viII drag GIS looIs from lhe Iisl of
funclions and dro lhese GIS looIs in lhe ModeI vindov.


)*+,-# ./:' 0123#48 6*7326/

264
!"#$ &'
Navigale lo lhe foIder you dovnIoaded. You viII find lvo sub-foIders named 2001
and 2011, resecliveIy. You viII aIso find a shaefiIe deicling annock Counly,
vhich ve viII use Ialer. Navigale lo lhe 2001 subfoIder and add lhe Landsal bands
aLT539r30_20010615b3.rsl and AIl539r30_20010615b4.rsl lo lhe ModeI
vindov. The inul dala are adding lo lhe ModeI are aroriale for lhe NDVI
anaIysis. The NDVI vegelalion index emIoys lhe red and near-infrared bands lo delecl
heaIlhy green vegelalion from saleIIile imagery. and 3 corresonds lo red
refIeclance and band 4 corresonds lo near-infrared refIeclance. Your inul dala
shouId aear as in Iigure 3.5.


()*+,# -./' 012341" 51234.











265
!"#$ &'
If you vish lo knov vhal a fiIe Iooks Iike, you can disIay il in ArcMa by righl-
cIicking lhe fiIe and lhen choosing lhe olion Add lo DisIay |Iigure 3.6j. Minimize
lhe ModeI vindov, and you viII be abIe lo see lhe fiIes in ArcMa |Iigure 3.7j.


()*+,# -./' 0122 "3 4)5$6789 3$")3:.


()*+,# -.;' ()6#5 2)5$678#2 ): 1,<=7$.




266
!"#$%
As you have Iearned in lhe firsl luloriaI' (")* "*+,+-./ +-0)# 1.#. 2+// 3$ 4)35$6#$1 #" .
4$# "7 0*"6$44$4.

8#$0 9%
Nolice lhal lhe rasler dalasel shovn in Iigure 3.7 is comosed of many ceIIs, or ixeIs.
To erform lhe NDVI anaIysis accuraleIy, ve need lo assure ourseIves lhal lhe numeric
vaIues of lhese ceIIs are reresenled .4 1$6+:./4; We can use lhe <=/".# >80.#+./
?-./(4#@A #""/ lo converl lhe numeric vaIue of each ceII inlo a fIoaling-oinl
reresenlalion.

Oen lhe Search vindov by cIicking lhe Search vindov bullon |Iigure 3.8j, lye
IIoal in lhe search fieId, and ress lhe key Inler. Drag lhe IIoal (SaliaI AnaIysl)
looI from lhe Iisl and dro il inlo lhe Windov modeI |Iigure 3.9j.


=+,)*$ B;C% <8$.*6D E+-1"2A 3)##"-;


=+,)*$ B;F% G*.,,+-, #""/ 7*": /+4# "7 7)-6#+"-4 .-1 1*"00+-, +# +-#" <H"1$/A
2+-1"2;


267
We viII have lo converl lhe lvo bands ve have Ioaded in lhe ModeI vindov inlo
decimaIs. ecause ve have lvo bands, ve viII have lo do lhe same rocedure lvice.
Righl-cIick lvice on lhe reclangIes reresenling lhe IIoal looI (lhe looI lhal you have
droed in lhe ModeI vindov) and lhe IIoal vindov viII aear |Iigure 3.10j.


"#$%&' ()*+, -"./012 3#45/3)

SeIecl band 3, as in Iigure 3.11, and cIick OK.


"#$%&' ()**, 6045 ( 7&'58)







268
Nntc:
IIease nolice lhal aII lhe oulul dala shovn in lhis exercise are saved in lhe
DefauIl.gdb geodalabase. If you vish, you can save lhe oulul rasler in a Iace of
your choice and under a differenl name. To do lhis, cIick lhe bullon under Oulul
rasler, and choose a Iace in vhich you vanl lo save lhe oulul dala. By dcIau!t,
ArcMa saves lhe oulul dala of aII rocesses in lhe DefauIl.gdb geodalabase lhal is
Iocaled under Documenls(ArcGIS.

Nov reeal lhe rocedure and do lo band 4 lhe same lhal you did lo band 3:


Figurc 3.12: Band 4 (ncar-inIrarcd).

















269
This is vhal your modeI shouId Iook Iike nov:


"#$%&' ()*(+ ,-.'/)

CIick lhe Aulo Layoul bullon lo organize lhe Iayoul of your modeI and cIick lhe
Run bullon lo run your modeI.


"#$%&' ()*0+ 12%3- 456-%37 58. 19%87 :%33-8;)











!"#
%&'( '( )&*+ ,-./ 0-123 (&-.31 3--4 3'42 5-)6


!"#$%& ()*+, -./&0)





















!"#
!"#$ &'
()* *# +,# ,#+-. ") /0# "1# 23+0"#, 4+56/5+"),7 "))58 %& '()& *+,,&**-+../ ,01)&23&4
3'& 1+5&26, )(.+& 0- &(,' ,&.. 0- 0+2 2(*3&2 4(3( 6130 4&,65(.*7 8.6,9 3'& :;&(2,'
<6140<= >+3301 ?@6A+2& B7CD 30 0E&1 3'& .6*3 0- -+1,3601*7 F/E& :G(*3&2 8(.,+.(302= 61
3'& *&(2,' -6&.4H (14 E2&** 3'& 9&/ :I13&27= J* /0+ 464 >&-02&H 42(A 3'& 300. -205 3'& .6*3
(14 420E 63 6130 3'& :%6140<= 504&. ?@6A+2& B7#KD7


9:;/,# <8=>' ?,+;;:@; "))5 A,)B 5:0" )A A/@6":)@0 +@- -,)$$:@; :" :@") 2C)-#57
*:@-)*8














272
Righl-cIick lvice on lhe Rasler CaIcuIalor looI in lhe ModeI vindov lo see lhe
Rasler CaIcuIalor |Iigure 3.17j:


Figurc 3.17: "Rastcr Ca!cu!atnr" windnw.

Nolice lhal ve are going lo use lhe dala derived from lhe IIoal oeralion.
IIoal_rsl1 corresonds lo band 3 (rcd), vhereas IIoal_rsl2 corresonds lo band 4
(ncar-inIrarcd).

The NDVI equalion is underslood as (ncar-inIrarcd - rcd) / (ncar-inIrarcd + rcd), or,
using lhe derived dala from sle 7, il can formalled as (F!nat_rst2 F!nat_rst1) /
(F!nat_rst2 + F!nat_rst1).












!"#
%&'&() )*& +,'-.)/01)!2 .34 +,'-.)/01)52 '.6&01 70-8 )*& +9.6&01 .34 :.0;.<'&12 ';1) <6
(';(=;3> &.(* -7 )*&8 ?;)* 6-@0 8-@1&A .34 7-08.) )*& &B@.);-3 .1 1*-?3 ;3 ,;>@0&
#C5DC


"#$%&' ()*+, -./01'& 2/34%3/15&6 7#8957)

E';(= +FGG'6A2 )*&3 +HIA2 .34 0@3 6-@0 8-4&'C


274

"#$%&' ()*+, -./'0)

The resuIl of lhe rasler caIcuIalion lhal you have erformed shouId be a singIe rasler
dalasel vilh binary vaIues ranging from -1 lo 1. To viev lhis singIe rasler dalasel in
ArcMa, righl-cIick lhe dala derived from lhe rasler caIcuIalion (ModeI vindov) and
lhen choose Add lo DisIay |Iigure 3.20j.


"#$%&' ()12, 34// 5. 6#7809:);



275
Minimize lhe ModeI vindov, and you viII be abIe lo viev lhe nev rasler dalasel
derived from lhe rasler caIcuIalion in ArcMa.


"#$%&' ()*+, -'. &/01'& 2/1/0'1 .#13 4/5%'0 &/6$#6$ 7&89 :+ 18 +)

Nolice lhal lhe minimaI vaIue for vegelaled surfaces may vary according lo each
silualion and Iocalion. Ior lhis exercise, ve are going lo use lhe vaIues of 0.2 lo 0.85 as
vaIues lhal deicl greenery. We, of course, encourage you lo exerimenl using olher
vaIues lo examine hov veII lhey deicl green refIeclance.
1







1
We recommend reading Zohrabi Samani el aI., Measuring on-farm irrigalion efficiency vilh chIoride
lracing under deficil irrigalion, !"#$%&' ") *$$+,&-+"% &%. /$&+%&,0 1%,+%00$+%, 131 (2005), 555559,
YoungryeI Ryu el aI., Tesling lhe erformance of a noveI seclraI refIeclance sensor, buiIl vilh Iighl
emilling diodes (LIDs), lo monilor ecosyslem melaboIism, slruclure and funclion, 2,$+3#'-#$&' &%. 4"$05-
60-0"$"'",7 150 (2010), 1597-1606.


!"#
!"#$ &'
(# )*# *#)+, "- ./# "0# 12#34)//56,7 "--48 %&'( )*' +,'-./* 01(2304 56 /71/81(9 )*'
+,'-./* 01(2304 5:))3( ;<19:.' =>?@A )6&' +B'/7-CC1D64 1( )*' C'-./* D1'72A -(2 &.'CC )*'
8'6 +E()'.>4 F.-9 )*' +B'/7-CC1D6 G,&-)1-7 H(-76C)I4 )337 D.3J )*' 71C) -(2 2.3& 1) 1()3
)*' +K1(2304 J32'7>


95:.*# ;8<<' =*)::5>: "--4 6*-? 45/" -6 6.>3"5->/ )>+ +*-$$5>: 5" 5>"- 1@-+#47
A5>+-A8
















277
Righl-cIick lhe RecIassify looI (as shovn in lhe ModeI vindov) and lhe
RecIassify vindov viII aear:


"#$%&' ()*(+ ,-'./011#234 5#6785)

In Inul rasler, choose lhe dala derived from lhe rasler caIcuIalion. You viII see aII
lhe vaIues ranging from -1 lo 1.


"#$%&' ()*9+ ,-'./011#234 5#6785)


278
SeIecl aII lhe rovs vilh your mouse and cIick DeIele Inlries, as shovn in Iigure 3.25.


"#$%&' ()*+, -.'/'0' 120&#'3)4

Add lhree emly rovs by cIicking lvice on lhe Add Inlry bullon:


"#$%&' ()*5, -677 120&8)4


279
Add lhe nev vaIues as shovn in Iigure 3.27. AII vaIues ranging from -1 - 0.2 viII be
cIassified as 0, or no green refIeclance. AII vaIues ranging from 0.2 - 0.85 viII be
cIassified as 1, or green refIeclance. AII vaIues ranging from 0.85 - 1 viII be cIassified
as 2, or no green refIeclance.


"#$%&' ()*+, -..#/$ /'0 123%'4)

CIick lhe Aulo Layoul bullon lo organize lhe Iayoul of your modeI and lhe Run
bullon lo run your modeI:


"#$%&' ()*5, 6-%78 92:8%7; 2/. 6<%/; =%778/4)








280
This is vhal your modeI shouId Iook Iike nov:


"#$%&' ()*+, -./'0)

Righl-cIick lhe dala derived from lhe recIassificalion rocess and seIecl Add lo
DisIay.


"#$%&' ()(1, 23// 4. 5#67089):




!"#
%&'&(&)* +,* (-.*/ 0&'.-01 2,&3 &3 0,4+ 5-67 387**' 3,-6/. /--9 /&9*:


"#$%&' ()(*+ ,'-%./#0$ .12'&)

34/'+
;- '-+ <-7=*+ +,4+ >*8463* ?@A 3-<+047* 433&='3 8-/-73 +- .4+4 74'.-(/5B 5-67 8-/-73
(&=,+ >* .&<<*7*'+ +,4' +,-3* 3,-0' &' C&=67* D1D#1

E*8463* +,* F4/6*3 -< GHI4'. G!I .- '-+ 7*J7*3*'+ =7**' 7*</*8+4'8*B 7&=,+K8/&89 +,*
7*8+4'=/*3 '*L+ +- GHI 4'. G!I 4'. 3*+ +,*&7 8-/-7 +- GM- N-/-71I A*+ +,* F4/6* -< G#I +-
GC*7' ?7**'1I


"#$%&' ()(5+ 64.4&-)

282
Turn on lhe Iayer derived from lhe rasler caIcuIalion. This is vhal your screen shouId
Iook Iike:


"#$%&' ()((* +,-. /0& 1223)

Zoom in lo an area of inleresl (e.g. lhe American IaIIs Reservoir) lo see hov lhe oulul
Iayer derived from your modeI deicls vegelaled surfaces accuraleIy. CongraluIalions!
You have Iearned hov lo creale a modeI lhal aIIovs you lo delecl green refIeclance
vaIues from saleIIile imagery.


"#$%&' ()(4* 56'&#789 "8::; <';'&=0#&)

!"#
!"#$ &'
%&' '( ')** +),-&.(/ '0)-0 %123 .4*5(, 64** ')70)8 9488&-: ;&587<= ><?( @AB7/4-7
C< D4,:E )8 70( ,(4/-0 6)(*+F 48+ ?/(,, 70( :(< @A87(/=E G, <&5 +)+ C(6&/(F +/4H 70( 7&&*
6/&I 70( *),7 48+ +/&? )7 )87& 70( @J)8+&'E I&+(*=


()*+,# -.-/' 0,1**)2* "334 5,36 4)7" 35 5+28")327 129 9,3$$)2* )" )2"3 :;39#4<
=)293=.

!"#$ >?'
%4.)H47( 7& 70( @>57&/)4* #E 6&*+(/ 48+ 4++ 70( 9488&-: ;&587< ,04?(6)*( 7& <&5/
I&+(* 5,)8H 70( C577&8=


()*+,# -.-@' :;39#4 =)293=.<

284
!"#$ &&'
Righl-cIick lhe Ixlracl by Mask looI (as shovn in lhe ModeI vindov) and lhe
Ixlracl by Mask vindov viII aear. In Inul rasler, choose RecIass_rasl1 and in
Inul rasler or fealure mask dala, choose annock.sh. CIick AIy and lhen
OK.


()*+,# -.-/' 012",34" 56 7389: ;)<=>;.

CIick lhe Aulo Layoul bullon lo organize lhe Iayoul of your modeI and lhe Run
bullon lo run your modeI:


()*+,# -.-?' 0@+"> A36>+": 3<= 0B+<: 5+""><8.










285
Righl-cIick lhe dala derived from lhe recIassificalion rocess and seIecl Add lo
DisIay.


"#$%&' ()(*+ ,-.. /0 1#23456)7

Organize your Iayers as in Iigure 3.40.


"#$%&' ()89+ ,:5;4' 0< =0>/'>/2)7



286
This is vhal your screen shouId Iook Iike:


"#$%&' ()*+, -.//012 30%/45)

64'7 +8,
Ixamine lhe inul dala and lhe oulul dala, as veII as lhe rocesses, documenled in
lhe modeI shovn in Iigure 3.2 in lhe beginning of lhe exercise. 90 0:4.#/ 4;' <=>? @0&
8A++, creale an #B'/4#1.C modeI lo lhe one shovn in Iigure 3.2. Make sure lhal you use
lhe dala slored in lhe 2011 subfoIder.













287
!"#$ &'(
Go lo lhe TabIe of Conlenls ane (Iefl side of lhe screen), and Iace lhe resuIling Iayer
from your 2011 modeI )*+,# lhe resuIling Iayer from lhe 2001 modeI. As you did in
sle 9, sel lhe 0 and 2 vaIues of lhe 2011 Iayer lo No CoIor and sel lhe 1 vaIue
of lhe 2011 Iayer lo Tzavorile Green.


-./01# '234( 5+6+172

!"#$ &3(
This is vhal your screen shouId Iook Iike:


-./01# '23'( 8)9#17 :.7$6)9#: .; <066 #="#;"2

!""
!"#$ &'(
$% &'( )*+,- ./0120 1 314 5*60 2,0 '70 +,')7 *7 8*9(/0 :;<<;


)*+,-# ./00( )*123 42$/


289
!"!#$%&' %)
TuloriaI IV viII leach you hov lo use a digilaI eIevalion modeI (DIM) lo assess vhich
areas of lhe cily of Sokane, in lhe Slale of Washinglon, Uniled Slales, are fIal or have a
sIoe of Iess lhan 0.5 degrees.

The ro|ecl Sokane HisloricaI is a ubIic hislory rogram deveIoed by Iaslern
Washinglon Universily (hll://vvv.evu.edu). You are a hislorian and medicaI
geograher inleresled in documenling lhe hislory of and doing fieId vork al lhe High
ridge Iark. This recrealionaI area of Sokane, according lo Sokane HisloricaI, vas
used as a sanilarium lo lreal alienls vilh lubercuIosis in lhe asl.

To documenl lhe hislory of High ridge Iark, you viII have lo Iive in Sokane for one
year. You are Iooking for a house in vhich lo Iive in Sokane lhal is cIose lo lhe ark.
You disIike vaIking in hiIIy areas. Therefore, you vanl lo Iive in a house lhal is vilhin
0.5 miIes of High ridge Iark and lhal is in a fIal area. ecause you vanl lo Iive in a fIal
area, you are required lo idenlify areas vilh a sIoe of Iess lhan 0.5 degree.

You viII use lhe foIIoving GIS funclions:
SIoe
Rasler CaIcuIalor
uffer
Ixlracl by Mask

*+,-./0123.+,- 2,/ 245,+670/890,3-
The saliaI dala you are using in lhis exercise are courlesy of lhe Cily of Sokane
vebsile (hll://vvv.sokanecily.org).












290
!"#$%&"'"()*
As aIvays, make sure lhal aII of your exlensions are aclivaled rior lo beginning lhe
exercise. If lhe exlensions are nol aclivaled, you viII (,) be abIe lo comIele lhe
exercise. On ArcMa's menu bar, go lo Cuslomize, and lhen choose Ixlensions....
The Ixlensions vindov viII aear. Check aII lhe exlensions lhal you have avaiIabIe
and cIick CIose. IIease nolice lhal lhe SaliaI AnaIysl exlension is fundamenlaI for
lhe comIelion of lhis exercise.


-%.$&" /012 345)"(*%,(*6 7%(8,70




291
As a reminder, you may vish creale a foIder lo slore aII of lhe oulul dala derived from
your modeI. As you have Iearned from TuloriaIs I and III, vhen you creale and run a
modeI !"#$ "$&'&()* &(+#, -),) )$. /#01.2,.- ," ) /., "3 +$"2.//./. Iach rocess viII
resuIl in nev dala, and you may vish lo save lhese dala in a secific foIder of your
choice. If you do nol secify a Iocalion vhere you vouId Iike your dala lo be saved, lhe
dala viII be saved in lhe defauIl geodalabase (DefauIl.gdb) Iocaled al
Documenls(ArcGIS(DefauIl.gdb.

As in lhe revious exercises, you viII creale an ArcGIS 10 ModeIuiIder modeI. This
modeI is shovn in Iigure 4.2. The modeI shovs our inul dala, lhe sel of rocesses lo
vhich our inul dala viII be sub|ecled, and lhe oulul dala of our modeI. Ixamine lhe
modeI cIoseIy and lry lo undersland lhe sel of rocesses deicled in lhe modeI. If you
cannol undersland lhe modeI, do nol vorry! This exercise viII leach you hov lo buiId
and run lhe modeI successfuIIy.


4&'#$. 5678 9"-.* -.+&2,&(' /.:#.(2. "3 /,.+/6


;,.+ <8
Go lo hll://vvv.geograhicaIIyinlegraledhislory.com/v-
conlenl/uIoads/exercises/luloriaI4.zi

DovnIoad lhe zied foIder.



292
!"#$ &'
As you did in lhe revious exercises, oen ArcMa and cIick lhe ModeIuiIder
vindov bullon:

()*+,# -./' 0123#45+)43#, 6)73268 9+""27.

!"#$ /'
The ModeI vindov viII aear. CIick lhe + bullon lo add lhe inul dala of your
modeI. As in lhe revious exercises, you viII drag GIS looIs from lhe Iisl of funclions
and dro lhese GIS looIs in lhe ModeI vindov.


()*+,# -.-' 0123#48 6)7326.







293
!"#$ &'
Navigale lo lhe foIder you dovnIoaded. Load lhe DIM from vhich lhe sIoe viII be
caIcuIaled and lhe HighridgeIark.sh shaefiIe inlo lhe ModeI vindov:


()*+,# &-.' /0$+" 12"2-















!"#
!"#$ &'
%&'( )*' +,'-./* 01(2304 56 /71/81(9 )*' +,'-./* 01(2304 5:))3( ;<19:.' #=>?@ )6&'
+,73&'4 1( )*' A'-./* B1'72@ -(2 &.'AA )*' 8'6 +C()'.=4 D.-9 )*' +,73&' E,&-)1-7
F(-76A)G4 )337 B.3H )*' 71A) -(2 2.3& 1) 1()3 )*' +I1(2304 H32'7 ;<19:.' #=J?=


()*+,# -./' 0!#1,23 4)56789 :+""75.


()*+,# -.;' <,1**)5* "77= >,7? =)@" 7> >+52")75@ 156 6,7$$)5* )" )5"7 0A76#=9
8)5678.










295
!"#$ &'
Righl-cIick lvice on lhe reclangIe reresenling lhe SIoe looI (lhe looI lhal you have
droed inlo lhe ModeI vindov) and lhe SIoe vindov viII aear. In Inul
rasler, choose 1239CATD.DDI. In Z faclor (olionaI), Ieave lhe defauIl vaIue of
1.


()*+,# -./' 0!12$#3 4)5624.

IIease nolice lhal lhe dala derived from lhis sle viII be saved in lhe DefauIl.gdb
geodalabase. If you vish, you can save lhe oulul rasler in a Iace of your choice and
under a differenl name. To do lhis, cIick lhe bullon shovn in Iigure 4.8 and choose a
Iace in vhich you vanl lo save lhe oulul dala. 78 6#9:+1"; ArcMa saves lhe oulul
dala of aII rocesses in lhe DefauIl.gdb geodalabase lhal is Iocaled under
Documenls(ArcGIS. CIick AIy and lhen OK.






!"#
!"#$ &'
%&'( )&*+, -.&',* ,&&/ ,0/+ 102'(+ 34"4 5,06/ 7.+ 89'7& :;<&'7= >'77&? 7& &(2;?0@+ 7.+
,;<&'7 &A <&'( )&*+,B ;?* 6,06/ 7.+ 8C'?= >'77&? 7& ('? <&'( )&*+, D102'(+ 34EFG4


()*+,# -./' 0123#45 6)7326.


()*+,# -.89' 0:+"2 ;<=2+"5 <73 0>+75 ?+""27@.








297
!"#$ &'
Your modeI shouId Iook Iike Iigure 4.11. If you vish lo knov vhal lhe derived dalasel
Iooks Iike, you can disIay il in ArcMa by righl-cIicking lhe fiIe and lhen choosing lhe
olion Add lo DisIay. You viII see lhe dalasel conlaining sIoe vaIues |Iigure 4.12j.


()*+,# -.//' 0122 "3 4)5$678.9


()*+,# -./:' 4#,);#2 ,75"#, 27"75#" <3="7)=)=* 563$# ;76+#5.

!"#
!"#$ &'
%&' (')* +*', -(./0.'+ -1'(*-23-(4 56'5+ -( 7&-8& *&' +0/,' -+ 0'++ *&5( 9:;: <,'( *&'
=>'568& 7-(1/7? @3 80-8A-(4 *&' =>'568& 7-(1/7? @B**/( CD-4B6' E:FGHI *3,' =J5+*'6
K508B05*/6? -( *&' +'568& 2-'01I 5(1 ,6'++ *&' A'3 =L(*'6:? M654 *&' =J5+*'6 K508B05*/6
N>,5*-50 O(503+*P? *//0 26/Q *&' 0-+* 5(1 16/, -* -(*/ *&' =R-(1/7? Q/1'0 CD-4B6' E:FEH:


()*+,# -./0' 1!#2,34 5)6789: ;+""86.


()*+,# -./-' <,2**)6* "88= >,8? =)@" 8> >+63")86@ 267 7,8$$)6* )" )6"8 1A87#=:
9)6789.








299
!"#$ &'(
Righl-cIick lvice on lhe reclangIe reresenling lhe Rasler CaIcuIalor looI (lhe looI lhal
you have droed inlo lhe ModeI vindov) and lhe Rasler CaIcuIalor vindov viII
aear. You viII creale a condilionaI slalemenl. In CondilionaI, choose Con. SeIecl
lhe SIoe_DDI1 Iayer from lhe Layers and variabIes Iisl by cIicking il vilh your
mouse. Iormal lhe equalion as shovn in Iigure 4.15. ecause lhis is a condilionaI
slalemenl, lhe vaIue of 1 means lrue, vhereas lhe vaIue of 0 means faIse. In
formalling lhe equalion as shovn in Iigure 4.15, lhe Rasler CaIcuIalor viII relurn
onIy sIoe vaIues beIov 0.5.


)*+,-# ./&0( 1234"#- 5367,63"8-9 :*;<8:/

IIease nolice lhal lhe dala derived from lhis sle viII be saved in lhe DefauIl.gdb
geodalabase. If you vish, you can save lhe oulul rasler in a Iace of your choice and
under a differenl name. To do lhis, cIick lhe bullon shovn in Iigure 4.15 and choose
a Iace in vhich you vanl lo save lhe oulul dala. => <#?3,6"@ ArcMa saves lhe oulul
dala of aII rocesses in lhe DefauIl.gdb geodalabase lhal is Iocaled under
Documenls(ArcGIS. CIick AIy and lhen OK.






!""
!"#$ &&'
$%&' (%)*+ ,-%&+) +%%. +/.* 0/1&'* 23453 6+/7. 8-* 9:&8% ;<=%&8> ?&88%@ 8% %'1<@/A*
8-* +<=%&8 %B =%&' (%)*+ <@) 7+/7. 8-* 9C&@> ?&88%@ 8% '&@ =%&' (%)*+ D0/1&'* 234EF3


()*+,# -.&/' 0123#45 6)7326.


()*+,# -.&8' 09+"2 :;<2+"5 ;73 0=+75 >+""27?.














301
!"#$ &'(
Your modeI shouId Iook Iike Iigure 4.18. If you vish lo knov vhal lhe derived dalasel
Iooks Iike, you can disIay il in ArcMa by righl-cIicking lhe fiIe and lhen choosing lhe
olion Add lo DisIay. You viII see lhe dalasel conlaining sIoe vaIues lhal are Iess
lhan 0.5 |Iigure 4.19j.


)*+,-# ./&0( 1233 "4 5*6$789/:


)*+,-# ./&;( 5#-*<#3 -86"#- 38"86#" =4>"8*>*>+ 674$# <87,#6/



!"#
!"#$%
%&'() *+&,)- ./+. +0) &)-- ./+1 "23 +0) 0)(0)-)1.)4 56 ./) 1,75)0 89:; </)0)+- -&'()
*+&,)- ./+. +0) &+0=)0 ./+1 "23 +0) 0)(0)-)1.)4 56 ./) 1,75)0 8"; >?@=,0) A29BC2 %). ./)
*+&,) 'D 8"; .' 8E' F'&'02;


'()*+$ ,-./% 0!" 1"2"+-3


'()*+$ ,-.4% 5*(#672$ 82"9$8-
!"!
!"#$ &'(
$%& '&() *)&+ ,'-./-&* 0++/1,'2 0 3455&6 .5 "78 9,/&* ). )%& *%0+&5,/& :&+,;),'2 <,2%
=6,:2& >06?7 @+&' )%& AB&06;% C,':.CD 31 ;/,;?,'2 )%& AB&06;% C,':.CD 34)).'
EF,246& G7HHIJ )1+& A=455&6D ,' )%& *&06;% 5,&/:J 0': +6&** )%& ?&1 AK')&67D L602 )%&
A=455&6 MN'0/1*)OD )../ 56.9 )%& /,*) 0': :6.+ ,) ,'). )%& AP,':.CD 9.:&/ EF,246& G7H!I7


)*+,-# ./00( 1!#2-34 5*6789: ;,""86/


)*+,-# ./0'( <-2++*6+ "88= >-8? =*@" 8> >,63"*86@ 267 7-8$$*6+ *" *6"8 1A87#=:
9*6789/









304
!"#$ &'(
Righl-cIick lvice on lhe reclangIe reresenling lhe uffer looI (lhe looI lhal you have
droed inlo lhe ModeI vindov) and lhe uffer vindov viII aear. In Inul
Iealures, choose HighridgeIark.sh, and in Linear unil, choose MiIes and lye
lhe vaIue of 0.5, as in Iigure 4.24.


)*+,-# './'( 01,22#-3 4*5674.

IIease nolice lhal lhe dala derived from lhis sle viII be saved in lhe DefauIl.gdb
geodalabase. If you vish, you can save lhe oulul rasler in a Iace of your choice and
under a differenl name. To do lhis, cIick lhe bullon shovn in Iigure 4.25 and choose
a Iace in vhich you vanl lo save lhe oulul dala. 18 6#29,:"; ArcMa saves lhe oulul
dala of aII rocesses in lhe DefauIl.gdb geodalabase lhal is Iocaled under
Documenls(ArcGIS. CIick AIy and lhen OK.

!"#$ &<(
CIick lhe Aulo Layoul bullon lo organize lhe Iayoul of your modeI and cIick lhe
Run bullon lo run your modeI |Iigure 4.25j.

)*+,-# './<( 0=,"7 >987,"3 956 0?,53 @,""75A.


305
!"#$ &'(
Your modeI shouId Iook Iike Iigure 4.26. If you vish lo knov vhal lhe buffer Iooks Iike,
you can disIay il in ArcMa by righl-cIicking lhe fiIe and lhen choosing lhe olion
Add lo DisIay |Iigure 4.27j.


)*+,-# ./0'( 1233 "4 5*6$789/:


)*+,-# ./0;( <,==#- 4= >/? @*7#6 6,--4,A3*A+ B*+C <-*3+# D8-E/
!"#
!"#$ &'(
%&' (')* +*', -+ *. ./*0-( *&' +1.,' 2013'+ 4014310*'5 -( +*', 6" *&0* 7011 8-*&-( *&' /377'9
.7 ":; <-1'+ +399.3(5-(= >-=& ?9-5=' @09A: %. 04&-'2' *&-+ =.01B 8' 3+' *&' *..1
CD)*904* /E F0+A:G H,'( *&' CI'094& 8-(5.8G /E 41-4A-(= *&' CI'094& 8-(5.8G /3**.(
JK-=39' L:MNOB *E,' C?377'9G -( *&' +'094& 7-'15B 0(5 ,9'++ *&' A'E CD(*'9:G P90= *&'
CD)*904* /E F0+A QI,0*-01 R(01E+*SG *..1 79.< *&' 1-+* 0(5 59., -* -(*. *&' CT-(5.8G
<.5'1 JK-=39' L:MUO:


)*+,-# ./01( 2!#3-45 6*789:; <,""97/


)*+,-# .(0=( >-3++*7+ "99? @-9A ?*B" 9@ @,74"*97B 378 8-9$$*7+ *" *7"9 2C98#?;
:*789:/








307
!"#$ &'(
Righl-cIick lvice on lhe reclangIe reresenling lhe Ixlracl by Mask looI (lhe looI lhal
you have droed in lhe ModeI vindov) and lhe Ixlracl by Mask vindov viII
aear. In Inul rasler, choose lhe dalasel derived from lhe Rasler CaIcuIalion
oeralion. In Inul rasler or fealure mask dala, choose lhe dalasel derived from lhe
uffer oeralion.


)*+,-# ./01( 234"-56" 78 95:;/<

IIease nolice lhal lhe dala derived from lhis sle viII be saved in lhe DefauIl.gdb
geodalabase. If you vish, you can save lhe oulul rasler in a Iace of your choice and
under a differenl name. To do lhis, cIick lhe bullon shovn in Iigure 4.31 and choose
a Iace in vhich you vanl lo save lhe oulul dala. =8 >#?5,@"A ArcMa saves lhe oulul
dala of aII rocesses in lhe DefauIl.gdb geodalabase lhal is Iocaled under
Documenls(ArcGIS. CIick AIy and lhen OK.

!"#$ &B(
CIick lhe Aulo Layoul bullon lo organize lhe Iayoul of your modeI, and cIick lhe
Run bullon lo run your modeI |Iigure 4.31j.

)*+,-# ./0&( 2C,"D E58D,"< 5F> 2G,F< 7,""DF:/


!"#
!"#$ &'(
%&'( )*+,-*./0 1&0/- 23&'-0 -&&4 -*4/ *+ 5*6'(/ 78!9:


)*+,-# ./0&( )*123*4#5 675#3/

!"#$ &8(
;& 2// <3/ 2'*<,=-/ ,(/,> (*63<?@-*@4 <3/ 0,<,2/< 0/(*A/0 )(&1 <3/ BCD<(,@< =E F,24G
&H/(,<*&+ ,+0 @3&&2/ <3/ &H<*&+ BI00 <& J*2H-,E8G ;3*2 *2 K3,< <3/ 2'*<,=-/ ,(/, 23&'-0
-&&4 -*4/:


)*+,-# ./00( !,*"293# 2-#2/
309
!"#$ &&'
You are nol yel seeing lhe suilabIe area because lhe Ixlracl by Mask funclion has
given you lvo vaIues: 0, or faIse, and 1 or lrue. Therefore, you shouId sel lhe vaIue
of 0 lo no coIor.


()*+,# -./-' 012 3242,.5

Nov you can see lhe aroriale areas vilh a sIoe of Iess lhan 0.5 degrees.


()*+,# -./6' !+)"784# 7,#79 :)"; 942$# 2< 4#99 ";7= >.6 ?#*,##9.
!"#
!"#$ &'(
%&'() *+, -.**/0 123/4,&5 6'04/67 */ 89:, ;/.< =/4,&> ?/.< =/4,& 6'&& -, 89:,4
'0 *+, 2@//&-/A5 *+9* '8 &/(9*,4 .04,< B/(.=,0*8CD<(EFG> %&/8, *+, 2H'04/65 =/4,&>

!"#$ &)(
I0 D<(39JK8 =,0. -9<L (&'() *+, -.**/0> M9:'N9*, */ ;/.< O/&4,< 904 &/94 *+,
8+9J,O'&, 28*<,,*85 '0 D<(39J> I<N90'P, ;/.< &9;,<8 8/ *+9* *+,; &//) &'), Q'N.<, R>!S>
FN0/<, *+, 2E,/N<9J+'( %//<4'09*, G;8*,=8 69<0'0N5 6'04/6 *+9* =9; 9JJ,9<>


*+,-.# )/'0( 123#.4/














!""
!"#$ &'(
$% &'( )*+,- ./0120 1 314 5*60 2,0 '70 +,')7 *7 8*9(/0 :;!<;


)*+,-# ./01( )*234 53$/

='79/12(512*'7+> ?'( ,1@0 501/70A ,') 2' B(*5A 17A /(7 +(..0++%(55& 1 .1/2'9/14,*.
3'A05 2,12 *A072*%*0+ %512 +5'40+; $% &'( %005 (7.'3%'/21B50 )*2, ),12 &'( ,1@0 501/70A-
4501+0 9' B1.6 2' 2,0 B09*77*79 '% 2,0 0C0/.*+0 17A .1/0%(55& %'55') 2,0 *7+2/(.2*'7+
191*7 (72*5 &'( %005 .'3%'/21B50;


312
!"#"!"$%"&
aker, A.R.H. RefIeclions on lhe reIalions of hisloricaI geograhy and lhe AnnaIes
SchooI of hislory. in !"# %&&'(#) *+",,(- +./0/+'( '))#))1#&0)2 3,(4556 ed. S. CIark. London:
RoulIedge, 1999.

___________. On lhe ReIalions of Hislory and Geograhy. 7/)0,./+'((8 *9#':/&; 5, no. 6
(}uIy/Augusl 2004): 27-29.

___________. <#,;.'9"8 '&= 7/)0,.8- >./=;/&; 0"# ?/3/=#. Cambridge: Cambridge
Universily Iress, 2003.

Iack, Iiona A., erlrum H. MacDonaId, and }. MaIcom W. Iack. Geograhic
Informalion Syslems: A Nev Research melhod for ook Hislory. >,,: 7/)0,.8 1, no. 1
(1998): 11-31.

Ioch, Marc. @#) +'.'+0A.#) ,./;/&'BC =# (D"/)0,/.# .B.'(# E.'&F'/)#4 Iaris: Armand CoIin,
1931.

oIslad, IauI. <5* GB&='1#&0'()- % G/.)0 !#C0 ,& <#,;.'9"/+ 5&E,.1'0/,& *8)0#1).
Minnesola: Iider Iress, While ear Lake, 2008.

CambeII, }ames. 5&0.,=B+0/,& 0, H#1,0# *#&)/&;. Nev York, London: The GuiIford Iress,
2008.

ChurchiII, Roberl, and Amy HiIIier. Teaching vilh GIS. in I('+/&; 7/)0,.8- 7,J K'9)6
*9'0/'( ?'0'6 '&= <5* '.# L"'&;/&; 7/)0,./+'( *+",('.)"/9, eds. Anne K. KnovIes and Amy
HiIIier. RedIands: ISRI Iress, 2008.

Cunfer, Geoff. M& 0"# <.#'0 I('/&)- %;./+B(0B.# '&= N&3/.,&1#&0. CoIIege Slalion: Texas
A&M Universily Iress, 2005.

Donahue, rian. !"# <.#'0 K#'=,J- G'.1#.) '&= 0"# @'&= /& L,(,&/'( L,&+,.=. Nev
Haven: YaIe Universily Iress, 2004.

___________. Maing Husbandry in Concord: GIS as a TooI for InvironmenlaI
Hislory. in I('+/&; 7/)0,.8- 7,J K'9)6 *9'0/'( ?'0'6 '&= <5* '.# L"'&;/&; 7/)0,./+'(
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Gregory, Ian N., and IauI S. III. 7/)0,./+'( <5*- !#+"&,(,;/#)6 K#0",=,(,;/#) '&= *+",('.)"/9.
Cambridge: Cambridge Universily Iress, 2007.

___________, and Richard G. HeaIey. HisloricaI GIS: Slrucluring, Maing, and
AnaIysing Geograhies of lhe Iasl. I.,;.#)) /& 7B1'& <#,;.'9"8 31, no. 5 (2007): 638-
653.

HiII, Linda L. <#,.#E#.#&+/&;- !"# <#,;.'9"/+ %)),+/'0/,&) ,E 5&E,.1'0/,&. Cambridge,
Massachusells, and London: MIT Iress, 2006.

Hinman, Sarah I., }ason K Iackburn, and Andrev Curlis. SaliaI and TemoraI
Slruclure of Tyhoid Oulbreaks in Washinglon, D.C., 1906-1909: IvaIualing LocaI
CIuslering vilh lhe Gi Slalislic. 5&0#.&'0/,&'( T,B.&'( ,E 7#'(0" <#,;.'9"/+) 5, no. 13
(March, 2006). hll://vvv.i|-heaIlhgeograhics.com/conlenl/5/1/13 (accessed 6
Selember 2011).

Inslilulo Hislrico e Geografico rasiIeiro. H#3/)0' !./1#&)'( =, 5&)0/0B0, 7/)0,./+,6
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KnovIes, Anne KeIIy. Inlroduclion. *,+/'( *+/#&+# 7/)0,.8 24, no. 3 (IaII 2000): 451-470.

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L"'&;/&; 7/)0,./+'( *+",('.)"/9, ed. Anne K. KnovIes and Anne HiIIier. RedIands: ISRI
Iress, 2008.

MiddIelon, IIisabelh Rose. Seeking SaliaI Reresenlalion: RefIeclions on
Iarlicialory IlhnohisloricaI GIS Maing of Maidu AIIolmenl Lands. N0"&,"/)0,.8 57,
no. 3 (2010): 363-387.

Monmonier, Mark. K'99/&; 50 MB0- NC9,)/0,.8 L'.0,;.'9"8 E,. 0"# 7B1'&/0/#) '&= *,+/'(
*+/#&+#)4 Chicago: Universily of Chicago Iress, 1993.

___________. 7,J 0, @/# J/0" K'9)4 Chicago: Universily of Chicago Iress, 1996.

Ovens, }. . Tovard a GeograhicaIIy-Inlegraled, Connecled WorId Hislory:
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___________. Whal hislorians vanl from GIS. %.+U#J), 29, 2 (summer 2007): 4-6.
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___________., and Laura Woodvorlh-Ney. Invisioning a masler's degree rogram in
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no. 2 (Selember 2005).

___________. Graduale Iducalion in GeograhicaIIy-Inlegraled Hislory: A IersonaI
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___________. HisloricaI Sludies, GIS for. in N&+8+(,9#=/' ,E <#,;.'9"/+ 5&E,.1'0/,&
*+/#&+#, ed. Karen Kam. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 2008.

___________., and Imery A. CooIa, }r. Iuzzy Sel Theory (or Iuzzy Logic) lo
Reresenl lhe Messy Dala of ComIex Human (and olher) Syslems.
hlls://vvv.academia.edu/1100044/Iuzzy_Sel_Theory_or_Iuzzy_Logic_lo_Reresenl_
lhe_Messy_Dala_of_ComIex_Human_and_olher_Syslems (accessed 21 December
2013).

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Samani, Zohrab, Ted Sammis, Rhonda Skaggs, N. AIkhaliri, and }ose Deras.
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Irrigalion. T,B.&'( ,E 5../;'0/,& '&= ?.'/&';# N&;/&##./&; 131, no. 6 (2005): 555-559.

Sieberl, Loren. Using GIS lo Documenl, VisuaIize, and Inlerrel Tokyo's SaliaI
Hislory. *,+/'( *+/#&+# 7/)0,.8 24, no. 3 (2000): 537-574.

Tufle, Idvard R. N&3/)/,&/&; 5&E,.1'0/,&. Cheshire, CT: Grahics Iress, 1990.

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315
UeIand, }eff, and arney Warf. RaciaIized Toograhies: AIlilude and Race in
Soulhern Cilies. <#,;.'9"/+'( H#3/#J 91, no. 1 (2010): 1-29.

Worsler, DonaId. ?B)0 >,J(- !"# *,B0"#.& I('/&) /& 0"# OVWX)4 Nev York: Oxford
Universily Iress, 1979.

Yuan, May. Dynamics GIS: Recognizing lhe dynamic nalure of reaIily. %.+ U#J) 30, 1
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(accessed 14 May 2014).































316
()*&&+!,- %.//.012 3456 758/4
+89(1.:5- ArcGIobe deicls a virluaI gIobe, vilh geograhic and maing informalion.
ArcGIobe rovides 3-D symboIogy and navigalion. See (..;15 "<8=>?

+==8@:A=5 =<:15- The dala used in a GIS is slored in a sreadsheel caIIed an allribule
labIe. Iach Iine, or rov, in lhe sreadsheel can conlain dala heId in a number of
coIumns, lhe number of coIumns and lhe lye of dala each coIumn hoIds is user-
defined, making lhe sreadsheel accommodaling enough lo hoId aImosl any lye of
informalion. See +==8@:A=54?

+==8@:A=54- Allribules in a GIS couId be names, ouIalion informalion, homes, cros,
or any number of lhings. Allribules in a GIS are slored in lhe +==8@:A=5 =<:15.

+B@/A=><1 C8.D59=@.0- An azimulhaI ro|eclion uses a Ianar surface and Iaces il
across a singIe oinl of lhe Iarlh's surface. AzimulhaI ro|eclions reserve direclion
from a cerlain oinl. See E8.D59=@.0?

F..15<0 1.;@9- To vrile a query, lhe user musl buiId a IogicaI exression using ooIean
oeralors and define lhe informalion lo be used lo ansver lhe query. See GA582@0;?

FAHH58 &><C54- uffer Shaes is a MaWindov looI Iocaled under Veclor
Oeralions in lhe TooIbox viev. See FAHH58@0;?

FAHH58@0;- The uffering looI Iaces a buffer zone around user-defined oinls, Iines, or
oIygons. This looI aIIovs lhe user lo creale a oIygon lhal encomasses a defined
orlion of lhe ma, and lo delermine lhe dislances belveen lhe cenler of lhis nev
oIygon and olher Iocalions on lhe ma.

%<8=.;8<C>@9 /.651- A carlograhic modeI conslilules a grahic reresenlalion of lhe
saliaI dala, and lhe oeralions lo vhich lhe dala are submilled. A carlograhic modeI
aIIovs lhe user lo describe lhe sequence in vhich each GIS oeralion is resenled. See
I.651 FA@1658?

%<8=.;8<C>2- Carlograhy is lhe sludy and raclice of roducing mas. Carlograhy
combines eIemenls of arl, science, and lechnoIogy.

%>.8.C15=> /<C- A lhemalic ma in vhich areas are shaded in roorlion lo lhe
measuremenl of lhe dala variabIe being deicled. See &2/:.1.;2?

317
%1@CC@0; =..1- The CIiing looI in MaWindov is Iocaled under OverIays in lhe
TooIbox viev. See %1@CC@0;?

%1@CC@0;- CIiing is lhe rocess of excising unnecessary dala lo cuslomize a ma. Ior
examIe, vhen Iine dala such as roads, rivers, or raiIroads exlend beyond lhe borders of
a oIygon, a GIS raclilioner or mamaker can cul, or 91@C, lhe Iine dala, by using lhe
%1@CC@0; =..1?

%.1.8- When used roerIy, coIor can enhance carlograhic visuaIizalion, hovever,
oor coIor choices can obscure imorlanl asecls of a ma. See %<8=.;8<C>2?
%.0@9<1 C8.D59=@.0- A conicaI ro|eclion Iaces a cone over a arl of lhe earlh. Wilh a
conicaI ro|eclion, area is reserved, bul nol scaIe and shae. See E8.D59=@.0?

%.0=.A8 1@054: AIso caIIed @4.1@054. Conlour Iines are Iines lhal deIineale differenl
eIevalion vaIues.

%.0=8.1 C.@0=4- ConlroI oinls are reference oinls lhal aIIov lhe user lo aIign a
scanned or digilized ma lo an aIready ro|ecled shaefiIe of lhe same area. See
(5.85H58509@0;?

%21@068@9<1 C8.D59=@.0- A cyIindricaI ro|eclion, in essence, vras a geomelric Iane
around lhe earlh. The resuIl is a Ianar reresenlalion of lhe Iarlh. Wilh lhis cyIindricaI
ro|eclion, lhere is Iess dislorlion around lhe equalor and more around lhe IoIar
Regions. See E8.D59=@.0?

J<=A/- A dalum rovides a modeI of lhe Iarlh as an eIIisoid, because lhe Iarlh is nol
a erfecl eIIisoid, lhere are many differenl dalums lo exress ils irreguIar shae. When
lhe dalum modeI is exressed in Iongilude and Ialilude (and oflen eIevalion) dala, lhe
resuIl is commonIy caIIed, in lhe GIS vorId, a ;5.;8<C>@9 9..86@0<=5 424=5/. When
crealing a ma, il is imorlanl firsl lo assign a dalum lo give meaning lo lhe Iocalion of
your dala.

J@;@=<1 515K<=@.0 /.651 LJ"IM- AIso caIIed a digilaI lerrain modeI. A digilaI eIevalion
modeI, or DIM, is a rasler fiIe lhal conlains eIevalion dala al lhe ixeI IeveI and shovs a
3-D reresenlalion of a lerrain or surface. See !<4=58 6<=<.

J@;@=@B@0;- Digilizing, in generaI lerms, means laking dala from an anaIog formal and
lransferring lhem inlo a digilaI formal. In GIS, digilizing may mean digilaIIy lracing
fealures such as buiIdings, rivers, counlies, elc., inlo oinls, Iines, or oIygons.

318
"7!&NO- Iuroean TerreslriaI Reference Syslem 1989. See J<=A/?

"PC.8= &5159=@.0- Ixorl SeIeclion is a MaWindov looI Iocaled under Veclor
Oeralions in lhe TooIbox viev. Ixorl SeIeclion aIIovs lhe user lo exorl a user-
defined area on lhe ma as a shaefiIe.

"P=8<9= :2 I<4Q- The Ixlracl by Mask looI aIIovs lhe user lo delermine vhich ceII (or
ixeI) vaIues faII vilhin a user-defined area. See !<4=58 6<=<?

#1.<=- The IIoal looI aIIovs lhe user lo converl lhe numeric vaIue of each ceII (or
ixeI) inlo a fIoaling-oinl reresenlalion. See !<4=58 6<=<?

(5.9.6@0;- Geocoding is a rocess lhal assigns X and Y coordinales, or Iongilude and
Ialilude vaIues, lo addresses, cilies, or olher dala lhal can be reresenled vilh oinls.

(5.;8<C>@9 9..86@0<=5 424=5/- See J<=A/?

(5.85H58509@0;- Georeferencing is lhe rocess of aIying reaI-vorId coordinales lo a
scanned or digilized ma lhrough conlroI oinls. Georeferencing aIIovs lhe user lo
aIign a ma lo an aIready ro|ecled shaefiIe of lhe same area. See %.0=8.1 C.@0=4?

(..;15 "<8=>- GoogIe Iarlh is a free rogram lhal deicls a virluaI gIobe, vilh
geograhic and maing informalion, aIlhough il is nol a comIele GIS rogram.
GoogIe Iarlh uses digilaI eIevalion modeIs lo deicl lhe surface of lhe Iarlh, and il,
lherefore, aIIovs lhe user lo oblain a visuaIizalion of lhe Iarlh in lhree dimensions.

(..;15 (5.9.658- GoogIe Geocoder is a MaWindov Iug-in lhal aIIovs lhe user lo
geocode Iocalions. See (5.9.6@0;?

R650=@H2 E8.D59=@.0- Idenlify Iro|eclion is a MaWindov looI Iocaled under
Iro|eclions in lhe TooIbox viev lhal aIIovs lhe user lo examine if a dalum or
ro|eclion has been assigned lo a shaefiIe.

R/<;5 =. I<C- Image lo Ma is a MaWindov Iug-in lhal aIIovs lhe user lo use
conlroI oinls lo aIign a scanned or digilized ma lo an aIready ro|ecled shaefiIe of
lhe same area. See (5.85H58509@0;?

R/C.8=S)&- The ImorlXLS looI aIIovs lhe user lo converl a sreadsheel fiIe
conlaining X and Y coordinales, or Iongilude and Ialilude vaIues, inlo a shaefiIe. See
&C<=@<1 %.0K58=58?

319
R0=58459=@.0- The Inlerseclion looI aIIovs a user lo visuaIize saliaI informalion (for
examIe, oIygons or Iines) lhal overIa or inlersecl. The Inlerseclion looI in
MaWindov is Iocaled under OverIays in lhe TooIbox viev.

R4.1@054- AIso caIIed 9.0=.A8 1@054? IsoIines are Iines lhal deIineale differenl eIevalion
vaIues.

TI)- KML slands for KeyhoIe Marku Language. KML fiIes are rimariIy designed for
use in GoogIe Iarlh. KML fiIes, combined vilh GoogIe Iarlh, aIIov lhe user lo enhance
lhe visuaIizalion of lheir dala. See (..;15 "<8=>?

)<=@=A65- Lines of Ialilude cross Iines of 1.0;@=A65? The equalor is lhe equivaIenl of lhe
IaleraI rime meridian, and il divides lhe vorId inlo lhe Norlhern and Soulhern
hemisheres. See ).0;@=A65.
)<2584- Various lyes of geograhic dala (for examIe, oinls, Iines, or oIygons) lhal
can be added lo MaWindov or ArcGIS, and lhen lurned on and off.

)5;506- A Iegend exIains lhe symboIs used on lhe ma. See %<8=.;8<C>2?

)@054- Lines in a GIS are made of a series of verlices, or connecled oinls, lhal may be
reresenlalive of Ienglh. Lines lyicaIIy reresenl rivers or slreels, lhough lhey are nol
Iimiled lo lhese lhings. See U59=.8 6<=< /.651?

).0;@=A65- Longilude is anchored by lhe rime meridian, an imaginary Iine vhich is
delermined lo be 0 and vhich circIes lhe earlh from lhe Norlh IoIe lo lhe Soulh IoIe,
dividing lhe earlh inlo lhe Iaslern and Weslern hemisheres. See )<=@=A65?
I<C +1;5:8<- Ma AIgebra is a sel of oeralions, such as addilion, sublraclion,
muIliIicalion, and division, belveen lhe ceIIs (or ixeIs) of lvo or more rasler Iayers.
See !<4=58 %<19A1<=.8?

I.651 FA@1658- ModeI uiIder is an aIicalion lhal aIIovs a user lo creale, edil, and
manage modeIs. These modeIs aIIov lhe user lo secify lhe GIS looIs used and organize
lhe sequence in vhich each looI is resenled. See %<8=.;8<C>@9 /.651.

$+JVW- Norlh American Dalum 27. See J<=A/?

$+JNX- Norlh American Dalum 83. See J<=A/?

320
$JUR- NormaIized Difference Vegelalion Index. The NDVI aIIovs a user lo delecl
green vaIues from saleIIile imagery by using lhe near-infrared and visibIe (red) bands.

$.8=> <88.Y- AIso caIIed a comass rose. A norlh arrov rovides a direclionaI
orienlalion for lhe ma. Using a norlh arrov is arlicuIarIy heIfuI vhen deaIing
vilh a geograhic area lhal may nol be famiIiar lo ma readers. See %<8=.;8<C>2?

E.@0=4- Ioinls in GIS aIIov a user lo assign a recise geograhicaI Iocalion lo a ma. A
oinl symboI shovs a verlex al vhich lhe Iines of Iongilude (x) and Ialilude (y) cross.
Ioinls can reresenl anylhing from cilies lo fire hydranls, lo dealhs caused by yeIIov
fever. See U59=.8 6<=< /.651?

E.12;.04- IoIygons in GIS are a grou of connecled Iines and are, lherefore, shaes lhal
reresenl an area. IxamIes of oIygons are slales, counlries, conlinenls, geograhic
regions, elc. See U59=.8 6<=< /.651?

E8.D59=@.0- ecause lhe Iarlh's shae is described as an irreguIar eIIisoid, a
lransformalion musl occur lo Iace a lhree-dimensionaI area of lhe Iarlh on a fIal
surface. This lransformalion is caIIed C8.D59=@.0? Many differenl ro|eclions exisl, and
vhich ro|eclion is chosen by a carlograher deends on lhe urose for vhich lhe
geograhic dala are disIayed.

GA582@0;- Querying aIIovs lhe user lo seIecl dala lhal fil a cerlain crilerion. See
F..15<0 1.;@9?

!<4=58 %<19A1<=.8- The Rasler CaIcuIalor looI aIIovs lhe user lo erform Ma AIgebra
exressions. See I<C +1;5:8<?

!<4=58 6<=<- DigilaI images lhal disIay and slore informalion al lhe ceII (or ixeI) IeveI.

&9<15- A scaIe shovs lhe reresenlalive unils of measuremenl of lhe ma. A scaIe can be
reresenled as a ralio, in vords, or by a bar scaIe.

&><C5H@15 "6@=.8- ShaefiIe Idilor is a MaWindov Iug-in lhal aIIovs lhe user lo
creale and edil a shaefiIe. See J@;@=@B@0;?

&><C5H@15- A fiIe comrised of severaI differenl fiIes. Required fiIes conlained vilhin a
shaefiIe incIude lhe dalabase fiIe (.dbf), and a shae index formal (.shx). Any given
shaefiIe may have many olher fiIe exlensions associaled vilh il. See U59=.8 6<=<
/.651?

321
&C<=@<1 %.0K58=58- SaliaI Converler is a MaWindov Iug-in lhal aIIovs lhe user lo
access lhe ImorlXLS looI. See R/C.8=S)&?

&2/:.1.;2- The rocess of vieving, crealing, and using various kinds of symboIs in
GIS. SymboIogy aIIovs lhe user lo change lhe symboIs and aearance of various dala
Iayers lo enhance lhe communicalion imacl of a ro|ecl.

30@K584<1 78<04K5845 I589<=.8 L37IM- Iro|ecled coordinale syslem lhal divides lhe
earlh inlo 60 zones (for examIe, Irance is vilhin zone 30 of lhe Norlhern hemishere).

U59=.8 6<=< /.651- A veclor dala modeI uses geograhicaI coordinales lo reresenl
saliaI dala. The saliaI dala are reresenled as geomelric oinls, Iines, and oIygons.
A veclor dala modeI is saved in a unique fiIe formal knovn as 4><C5H@15?

Z(& [ON\- WorId Geodelic Syslem 1984. See J<=A/?




When }. . Ovens vaIked inlo lhe earIy Iriday morning session al lhe 2006 American HisloricaI
Associalion (AHA) meeling, il Ieased him lo see a acked room of eoIe exciled lo hear lhe
CoIIege of San Anlonio discussion of lheir GIS-based vorId hislory edagogicaI ro|ecl
(hp://sacarcims.sac.alamo.edu/default.htm). But it shocked him when the presentation opened
vilh a quolalion from his 1999 WorId Hislory Associalion (WHA) aer aboul using geograhic
informalion syslems (GIS) for vorId hislory (based on a 1998 funding roosaI). When Ieaving
lhe session a fev hours Ialer, a rominenl vorId-syslems socioIogisl asked Ovens, Hov does
il feeI lo be recognized as a rohel, ahead of your lime` Ovens slammered a resonse aboul
hov lhere vere severaI olher eoIe in lhe room vho had Iayed more imorlanl roIes in
slimuIaling inleresl in lhe use of GIS for hisloricaI research and leaching. He lhoughl, hovever,
lhal aII of lhis inleresl, incIuding lhe slrong resonse lo lheir 2004 AHA aer aboul Idaho Slale
Universily's innovalive, GIS-based Masler's degree rogram (Ovens and Woodvorlh-Ney 2005),
resenled a chaIIenge because lhe disciIine Iacked an adequale research infraslruclure lo
reare hislorians, hisloricaI sociaI scienlisls, and lheir sludenls for lhis lye of vork. This GIS
training manual constitutes a partial response to Owenss concern. It oers tutorials that
introduce historians to the basic elements of GIS. The rst ten chapters use a free, open-source
GIS soflvare ackage so lhal inleresled researchers, leachers, and sludenls can lry lhe lechnoIogy
vilhoul cosl.
This lraining manuaI vas roosed as arl of lhe coIIaboralive ro|ecl Underslanding SociaI
Networks within Complex, Nonlinear Systems: Geographically-Integrated History and Dynamics
GIS |SOCNITj, vhich vas suorled by lhe U.S. NalionaI Science Ioundalion under Granls No.
0941371 ($1,290.704; lead project Principal Investigator Dr. J. B. Owens, Idaho State University)
and No. 0941501 ($471,193; Principal Investigator Dr. May Yuan, University of Oklahoma), for a
lolaI avard of $1,761,897 (2009-2013).