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UNIVERSITATEA DE VEST VASILE GOLDI ARAD

FACULTATEA DE MEDICIN, FARMACIE I MEDICIN DENTAR


SPECIALIZARE: NUTRIIE I DIETETIC, ANUL I
NEUROBIOLOGIE

Monoaminele
DATA PREDRII:
20:05:2014 STUDENT,

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CUPRINS
1.Introducere Monoa!ne"e..............................................................#
2.Seroton!na......................................................................................4
#.Do$a!na.......................................................................................5
4.Nore$!ne%r!na.................................................................................&
5.'!("!o)ra%!e....................................................................................*
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1. INTRODUCERE- MONOAMINELE
Mo"ecu"e"e re)"ator!! epinefrina, norepinefrina, dopamina +! serotonina %ac $arte d!n
%a!"!a ooa!ne"or. Seroton!na e,te der!-at. d!n a!noac!du" tr!$to%an. E$!ne%r!na,
nore$!ne%r!na +! do$a!na ,unt der!-a/! d!n a!noac!du" t!ro0!n. +! %orea0. o ,u(%a!"!e a
onoa!ne"or nu!t. cateco"a!ne.
E$!ne%r!na 1nu!t. de a,eenea adrena"!n.2 e,te un 3oron ,ecretat de )"anda adrena".,
nu e,te un neurotran,!/.tor, 4n t!$ ce nore$!ne%r!na %unc/!onea0. at5t ca un 3oron c5t +! ca un
neurotran,!/.tor.
Ca +! Ac3, neurotran,!/.tor!! onoa!n!c! ,unt e"!(era/! $r!n e6oc!to0. d!n -e0!cu"e"e
$re,!na$t!ce, d!%u0ea0. $r!n %ata ,!na$t!c. +! !nterac/!onea0. cu rece$tor! $rote!c! ,$ec!%!c! d!n
e(rana $o,t,!na$t!c.. E%ectu" ,t!u"ator a" ace,tor onoa!ne tre(u!e ra$!d !n3!(at $entru a
en/!ne un contro" neura" adec-at. In3!(!/!a ac/!un!! onoa!ne"or ,e datorea0.
112 re4nc.rc.r!! onoa!ne"or 4n ter!na/!!"e ner-oa,e $re,!na$t!ce,
122 de)radarea en0!at!c. a ooa!ne"or 4n neuronu" $re,!na$t!c de c.tre MAO
(monoaminoxidaza), +!
1#2 de)radarea en0!at!c. a cateco"a!ne"or 4n neuronu" $o,t,!na$t!c de
c.tre COMT (catecol-O-metiltransferaza).
In3!(!tor!! MA7 ,unt ed!caente ce ("oc3ea0a MA7, en0!a d!n ter!na/!!"e
$re,!na$t!ce ce ,c!ndea0. cateco"a!ne"e +! ,eroton!na du$. ce au %o,t 4n".turate d!n %anta
,!na$t!c.. Ace,te ed!caente $roo-ea0. a,t%e" tran,!,!a 4n ,!na$,e"e ce %o"o,e,c
onoa!ne"e dre$t neurotra,n,!/.tor!. A,t%e" de ed!caente ,8au do-ed!t ut!"e 4n trataentu"
de$re,!e!, ,u)er5nd %a$tu" c. o de%!c!en/. 4n tran,!,!a onoa!ne"or contr!(u!e "a ace,te
dere)".r!. Un !n3!(!tor MA7 e,te de a,eenea %o"o,!t 4n trataentu" (o"!! Par9!n,on, deoarece
,$ore+te ca$ac!tatea do$a!ne! de a %unc/!ona ca un neurotran,!/.tor.
Tran,!/.tor!! onoa!n!c! nu cau0ea0. d!rect de,c3!derea cana"e"or !on!ce 4n e(rana
$o,t,!na$t!c.. :n ,c3!(, ace+t! neurotran,!/.tor! ac/!onea0. $r!ntr8un re)u"ator !ntered!ar
cuno,cut ,u( nue"e de e,a)er ,ecund. :n ca0u" c5tor-a ,!n$a,e ce %o"o,e,c cateco"a!ne"e
$entru tran,!,!a ,!na$t!c., ace,t e,a)er ,ecund e,te adenozin monofosfat ciclic (AMPc).
;e)area nore$!ne%r!ne! "a rece$tor!! ,.! 4n e(rana $o,t,!na$t!c. ,t!u"ea0. d!,oc!erea
,u(un!t./!! < a $rote!ne! = 1%!). #8>2. Su(un!tatea d!%u0ea0. 4n e(ran. $5n. c5nd ,e "ea). de o
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en0!. nu!t. adenilat ciclaza. Acea,t. en0!. tran,%or. ATP 4n AMPc +! %o,%at. AMPc
act!-ea0. a"t. en0!. ? protein kinaza ce %o,%or!"ea0. a"te $rote!ne. Pr!n ace,t ecan,!, cana"e"e
!on!ce ,e de,c!d 4n e(rana $o,t,!na$t!c..
@!). #8> ? Ac/!nea nore$!ne%r!ne! nece,!t. $rote!ne = ? "e)area nore$!ne%r!ne! "a rece$tor
112 duce "a d!,oc!erea $rote!ne! = 122. ;e)area ,u(un!t./!! < a $rote!ne! = "a en0!a aden!"at
c!c"a0a 1#2 act!-ea0. acea,t. en0!., duc5nd "a $roducerea de AMPc 142. AMPc act!-ea0. $rote!n
9!na0a 152, ce $oate de,c3!de cana"u" !on!c 1&2 +! $roduce a"te e%ecte.
2. SEROTONINA !"-#$DRO%ITRIPTAMINA, "-#T&
Seroton!na e,te ,!ntet!0at. d!n tr!$to%an trec5nd $r!ntr8un !ntered!ar 583!dro6!tr!$to%an.
S!nte0a nece,!t. 2 en0!e ? triptofan hidroxilaza +! decarboxilaza amino acizilor aromatici.
Seroton!na $oate %! "oca"!0at. 4n cre!er $r!n reac/!a /e,utu"u! cu -a$or!! de %ora"de3!d..
Seroton!na e,te con-ert!t. 4n &83!dro6!8#,4 d!3!drocar(o"!na care "a UA 1BC#D0n2 arat. o
%"uore,cen/. $utern!c. )a"(en8-erde.
Seroton!na e,te %o"o,!t. ca neurotran,!/.tor de neuron! a! c.ror cor$ ce"u"ar e,te "oca"!0at
4ntr8o anu!t. re)!une a %ora/!un!! ret!cu"ate. @unc/!!"e %!0!o"o)!ce atr!(u!te ,eroton!ne! !nc"ud
re)"area ,t.r!! de ,$!r!t, co$ortaentu"u!, a$et!tu"u! +! c!rcu"a/!e! cere(ra"e. 7dat. cu a$ar!/!a
;SD 1un 3a"uc!no)en $utern!c2 ce !ea0. ,tructura +! a,t%e" $ro(a(!" +! %unc/!a ,eroton!ne!,
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oaen!! de +t!!n/. au ,u,$ectat c. ,eroton!na e,te !$"!cat. 4n contro"u" ,t.r!! de ,$!r!t +!
eo/!!"or. Acea,t. ,u,$!c!une e,te con%!rat. de ac/!unea ed!caente"or ant!de$re,!-e Pro0ac,
Pa6!", Eo"o%t +! ;u-o6 ce ac/!onea0. ca !n3!(!tor! ,$ec!%!c! a! reacuu".r!! ,eroton!ne! 1,eroton!n
,$ec!%!creu$ta9e !n3!(!tor,2 1SSRI,2. Pr!n ("ocarea reacuu".r!! ,eroton!ne! 4n ter!na/!!"e
,!na$t!ce ace,te ed!caente au %o,t do-ed!te e%!c!ente 4n trataentu" de$re,!e!.
@unc/!!"e d!-er,e a"e ,eroton!ne! ,unt "e)ate de %a$tu" c. e6!,t. un nu.r are de rece$tor!
,eroton!ner)!c!: 58FT1, 58FT2, 58FT#, 58FT4, 58FT5, 58FT& and 58FT>. Ace,te c"a,e au %o,t
d!-!0ate 4n cont!nuare 4n ,u(c"a,e du$. cu arat. +! 4n tabelul -!.
Rece$tor!! 58FT1 ,unt de o(!ce! "oca"!0a/! 4n e(rana $re,!na$t!c.. E! ,unt cu$"a/! cu o
$rote!n. = duc5nd "a ,c.derea act!-!t./!! aden!"at c!c"a0e!. Act!-area ,!,teu"u! de c.tre 58FT
duce "a !n3!(!/!a $re,!na$t!c.. :n ,c3!(, rece$tor!! 58FT2 ,unt "oca"!0a/! $o,t,!na$t!c +! c3!ar
dac. e! ,unt 4ntr8un od ,!!"ar cu$"a/! cu o $rote!n. =, act!-area $r!n 58FT duce "a
de$o"ar!0area +! a,t%e" e6c!ta(!"!tatea ce"u"e! ,u(,!n$t!ce.
'.DOPAMINA DA2
Neuron!! care %o"o,e,c do$a!na dre$t neurotran,!/.tor ,unt nu!/! neuron! do$a!ner)!c!.
Neuron!! care au rece$tor! do$a!ner)!c! $e e(rana "or $o,t,!na$t!c. au %o,t !dent!%!ca/! 4n
/e,utu" ner-o, $o,torte. Ma! recent, "oca"!0area ace,tor rece$tor! a %o,t o(,er-at. 4n cre!eru"
-!u %o"o,!nd te3n!ca too)ra%!c. de e!,!e a unor $art!cu"e $o0!t!-e.
Cor$ur!"e ce"u"are a"e neuron!"or do$a!ner)!c! ,unt %oarte %rec-ente 4n ,!,teu" ner-o,.
A6on!! "or ,e $ro!ectea0. 4n d!%er!te ar!! a"e cre!eru"u! +! $ot %! 4$.r/!te 4n 2 ,!,tee: sistemul
dopaminer"ic ni"rostriatal !$"!cat 4n contro"u" otor, +! sistemul dopaminer"ic mezolimbic
!$"!cat 4n contro"u" eo/!!"or.
#istemul dopaminer"ic ni"rostriatal
Cor$ur!"e ce"u"are a"e sistemuuil dopaminer"ic ni"rostriatal ,unt "oca"!0ate 4ntr8o $arte a
cre!eru"u! nu!t. substan$a nea"r% deoarece con/!ne $!)ent e"an!c. Neuron!! d!n ,u(,tan/a
nea)r. tr!!t %!(re unu! )ru$ de nuc"e! nu!/! corpul striat. Ace,te re)!un! %ac $arte d!n nuc"e!!
(a0a"! ? a,e 4nt!n,e de cor$! ce"u"ar! neurona"! !$"!ca/! 4n !n!/!erea !+c.r!"or ,c3e"et!ce. E6!,t.
do-e0! c. (oa"a Par9!n,on $oate %! cau0at. +! de de)enerarea neuron!"or do$a!ner)!c! d!n
,u(,tan/a nea)ra. 'oa"a Par9!n,on e,te a 28a (oa". neuro8de)enerat!-. du$. A"03e!er +! e,te
a,oc!at. cu ,!$toe ca treoru" u,cu"ar, r!)!d!tate, d!%!cu"tate 4n !n!/!erea !+c.r!"or +!
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-or(!r!!. Pac!en/!! ,unt %rec-ent trata/! cu ;do$a +! !n3!(!tor! MA7 4n 4ncercarea de a ,$or!
tran,!,!a do$a!ner)!c..
#istemul dopaminer"ic mezolimbic
#istemul dopaminer"ic mezolimbic !$"!c. neuron! ce tr!!t a6on!! unor ,tructur! a"e
,!,teu"u! "!(!c 1%!). #8102. Do$a!na e"!(erat. de c.tre ace+t! neuron! $oate %! !$"!cat. 4n
co$ortaent.
Stud!! recente au deo,ntrat c. a"coo"u", a%eta!ne"e, coca!na, ar!3uana +! or%!na
$roo-ea0. act!-!tatea neuron!"or do$a!ner)!c! ce ,e ter!n. 4ntr8o re)!une $art!cu"ar. ?
nucleus accumbens.
Toate ed!caente"e %o"o,!te $entru a trata ,c3!0o%ren!a 1neuro"e$t!ce2 ac/!onea0. ca
anta)on!+t! a! ,u(t!$u"u! D2 a" rece$tor!"or do$a!ner)!c!. Ace,t "ucru ,u)erea0. c.
,u$raact!-!tatea ,!,teu"u! e0o"!(!c contr!(u!e "a ,c3!0o%ren!e.
@!). #810 ? C.! do$a!ner)!ce 4n cre!er ? A6on!! do$a!ner)!c! $.r.,e,c
,u(,tan/a nea)r. +! %ac ,!na$,. 4n cor$u, ,tr!at. Ace,ta e,te ,!,teu" n!)ro,tr!ata"
%o"o,!t 4n contro"u" otor. S!,teu" e0o"!(!c e,te !$"!cat 4n contro"u"
eo/!!"or.

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(. NOREPINEFRINA
Nore$!ne%r!na, ca +! Ac3 e,te %o"o,!t. ca neurotran,!/.tor at5t 4n SNC c5t +! ce" $er!%er!c.
S!nte0a $"ec. de "a %en!"a"an!n. trec5nd $r!n a! u"te ,tad!!.
&enilalanin% G Tirozin% G 'OPA G 'opamin% G (orepinefrin% ((A)
H )pinefrin% (A)
Inact!-area nore$!ne%r!ne! de c.tre MA7 +! C7MT trece de a,eenea $r!n
a! u"te ,tad!!.
Neuron!! ,!$at!c! a! SNP %o"o,e,c nore$!ne%r!na ca neurotran,!/.tor "a
,!na$,e"e "or cu u+c3!! nete0!, u+c3!u" card!ac +! anu!te )"ande. Anu!/!
neuron! d!n SNC %o"o,e,c de a,eenea nore$!ne%r!na dre$t neurotran,!/.torI
ace+t! neuron! $ar a %! !$"!ca/! 4n co$ortaentu" )enera" a" $er,oane!. Ace,t
"ucru ar e6$"!ca $o%ta !ndu,. de a%eta!ne, ce ,t!u"ea0. c.!"e $r!n care
nore$!ne%r!na e,te %o"o,!t. ca neurotran,!/.tor. A,t%e" de ed!caente de
a,eenea ,t!u"ea0. +! c.!"e SNP ce %o"o,e,c nore$!ne%r!na.
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".BIBLIOGRAFIE:
12 Con%. Un!-. Dr. Adr!an 7"teanu, Dr. A!ore" ;u$u, Neuro%!0!o"o)!e, Un!-er,!tatea J'a(e,
'o"Ka!L C"uM8Na$ocaI
22 '!o"o)!a o"ecu"ar. a ,ena"!0.r!! ce"u"are, Ed. A!u,, Cra!o-a, 1DD5, M. Cruce, Ro6ana
CruceI
#2 Aure" Arde"ean, Neuro(!o"o)!e, JAa,!"e =o"d!+L Un!-er,!tK Pre,,, 2010I
42 Adr!an 7"teanu, A!ore" ;u$u 120002. Neuro%!0!o"o)!a ,!,tee"or ,en0!t!-o,en0or!a"e. Pre,a
Un!-er,!tar. C"uMean., C"uM8Na$ocaI
52 ;ect. Un!-. Dr. Andre! C. M!u, Introducere !n neuro+t!!n/e, Cur,, See,tru" I,
Un!-er,!tatea J'a(e, 'o"Ka!L.
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