A General Theory of Strength for Anisotropic Materials
Stephen W. Tsai and Edward M. Wu Journal of Composite Materials 1971 5: 58 DOI: 10.1177/002199837100500106
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A General _{T}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{y} of _{S}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} for
Anisotropic Materials
STEPHEN _{W}_{.} _{T}_{S}_{A}_{I}
Air Force Materials
WrightPatterson AFB,
Laboratory
_{O}_{h}_{i}_{o} 45433
AND
EDWARD M. Wu
Washington University
St. _{L}_{o}_{u}_{i}_{s}_{,} Missouri 63130
(Received November _{1}_{4}_{,} _{1}_{9}_{7}_{0}_{)}
An
operationally
from
simple
strength
criterion for
anisotropic materials
tensors.
_{D}_{i}_{f}_{f}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{g}
present
is
_{d}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{l}_{o}_{p}_{e}_{d}
from
a scalar function of two
_{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h}
existing quadratic
_{a}_{p}_{p}_{r}_{o}_{x}_{i}_{m}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} of failure
_{r}_{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{r}_{e}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s}
surfaces, the
_{t}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{y}
_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{,}
satisfies the invariant
of coordinate _{t}_{r}_{a}_{n}_{s}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{m}_{a}_{}
_{t}_{a}_{k}_{e}_{s} into
treats interaction _{t}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{s} as
_{i}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{t} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{n}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s}_{,}
due to
positive
and
account the difference in
to account for different material
space,
shear data are shown to _{b}_{e} in
good agreement ^{w}^{i}^{t}^{h} ^{t}^{h}^{e} predicted ^{v}^{a}^{l}^{u}^{e}^{s} ^{b}^{a}^{s}^{e}^{d} ^{o}^{n} ^{t}^{h}^{e} present
strengths
_{n}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e}
stresses, and can be
symmetries,
measured
theory.
specialized
multidimensional
offaxis uniaxial and
and multiaxial stresses. The
pure
INTRODUCTION
FOR
THE PURPOSE of materials characterization and _{d}_{e}_{s}_{i}_{g}_{n}_{,} an _{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y}
simple strength criterion for filamentary composites is essential. Strength
is an elusive and _{a}_{m}_{b}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{o}_{u}_{s} term. It covers _{m}_{a}_{n}_{y} _{a}_{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{s} associated with
^{a}^{n}^{d} creep, ^{u}^{n}^{d}^{e}^{r} quasi
the failures _{o}_{f} materials such as _{f}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{u}_{r}_{e}_{,} _{f}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{e}
static or dynamic loading, exposed
_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{e}_{d} to uni or
_{t}_{o} inert or
_{u}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{,} etc. Failures of _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{e}_{s}
of independent and interacting
and microbuckling,
propagation. An operationally simple strength
_{p}_{l}_{a}_{i}_{n} the actual mechanisms of failures. It is
corrosive environments, sub
config
multiaxial _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{s}_{,} in 2 or 3dimensional _{g}_{e}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{c}
are further complicated by a
multitude
_{m}_{e}_{c}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{i}_{s}_{m}_{s} which include filament breaks
delamination, _{d}_{e}_{w}_{e}_{t}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g}_{,} matrix cavitation and ^{c}^{r}^{a}^{c}^{k}
criterion cannot _{p}_{o}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{b}_{l}_{y}
ex
intended _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y} as a useful tool
_{m}_{a}_{n}_{y} independent
which
for _{m}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{s} _{c}_{h}_{a}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{z}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{,} which determines how
strength components exist and how they are measured; ^{a}^{n}^{d} ^{f}^{o}^{r} design
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requires a
relatively simple method of estimating the _{l}_{o}_{a}_{d}_{}_{c}_{a}_{r}_{r}_{y}_{i}_{n}_{g} capacity
of a structure. There have been numerous _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} criteria in _{e}_{x}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{a}_{d}_{d}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{l}
ones are
frequently being proposed. ^{I}^{n} ^{t}^{h}^{e} ^{A}^{S}^{T}^{M}^{’}^{s} Composite ^{M}^{a}^{t}^{e}^{r}^{i}^{a}^{l}^{s}^{:}
various _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} criteria are used or _{a}_{l}_{l}_{u}_{d}_{e}_{d} _{t}_{o} _{b}_{y}
along material symmetry axes. Those _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h}_{s} are
Testing and Design [1],
_{n}_{e}_{a}_{r}_{l}_{y} one half of all the contributors. _{N}_{e}_{a}_{r}_{l}_{y} all of them _{a}_{g}_{r}_{e}_{e} with _{o}_{n}_{e} another with reference to _{t}_{h}_{e} _{p}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{i}_{p}_{a}_{l} _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h}_{s}_{;} _{i}_{.}_{e}_{.}_{,} those uniaxial and _{p}_{u}_{r}_{e}
shear test data measured
surface with the coordinate axes in _{t}_{h}_{e} stress
the intercepts of the failure
space. The disagreements among existing criteria usually
occur in the com
binedstress _{s}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{;} _{i}_{.}_{e}_{.}_{,} in the _{s}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{e} _{a}_{w}_{a}_{y} from the coordinate axes of the failure surface. Since reliable _{e}_{x}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{l} data in the combinedstress state
are _{e}_{m}_{e}_{r}_{g}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{r}_{a}_{p}_{i}_{d}_{l}_{y}_{,} it _{i}_{s}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{e}_{,} _{t}_{i}_{m}_{e}_{l}_{y} to examine the _{v}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{i}_{t}_{y} and _{u}_{t}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{t}_{y}
of _{e}_{x}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} strength criteria, and to propose a general theory.
BASIC ASSUMPTION
The basic _{a}_{s}_{s}_{u}_{m}_{p}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of our
strength
_{c}_{r}_{i}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{i}_{s} that there exists a failure
surface in the _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{}_{s}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{e} in the _{f}_{o}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w}_{i}_{n}_{g} scalar form:
_{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e} contracted notation is _{u}_{s}_{e}_{d}_{;} and _{i}_{,} _{j}_{,} k = _{1}_{,} _{2}_{,}
_{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} tensors ^{o}^{f} ^{t}^{h}^{e} ^{s}^{e}^{c}^{o}^{n}^{d} ^{a}^{n}^{d} ^{f}^{o}^{u}^{r}^{t}^{h} rank, respectively. Equation ( la )
in _{e}_{x}_{p}_{a}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{d} or _{l}_{o}_{n}_{g}_{}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{d} form is:
_{6}_{;} _{F}_{i} and _{F}_{~}_{,} are
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{a}_{r} _{t}_{e}_{r}_{m} _{i}_{n} _{u}_{i} _{t}_{a}_{k}_{e}_{s} _{i}_{n}_{t}_{o} _{a}_{c}_{c}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{t} internal _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{s} which can describe
the difference between _{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{} ^{a}^{n}^{d} negativestress ^{i}^{n}^{d}^{u}^{c}^{e}^{d} ^{f}^{a}^{i}^{l}^{u}^{r}^{e}^{s}^{.} ^{T}^{h}^{e}
_{q}_{u}_{a}_{d}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{c} terms Qi oj define an ellipsoid in the stressspace. ^{I}^{n} our ^{b}^{a}^{s}^{i}^{c} as
_{s}_{u}_{m}_{p}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} in _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} (1), we ignored higher order terms, e.g., term Fijk~i~,~k
in the _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} criterion is not practical from the operational _{s}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{d}_{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} be
_{c}_{a}_{u}_{s}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r} _{o}_{f} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{n}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} in a 6thrank tensor run _{i}_{n}_{t}_{o} the _{h}_{u}_{n}_{d}_{r}_{e}_{d}_{s}_{.} _{I}_{n} _{a}_{d}_{d}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{,} _{h}_{a}_{v}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{c}_{u}_{b}_{i}_{c} _{t}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{s}_{,} the failure surface becomes _{o}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{d}_{.}
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Several features of our _{p}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{e}_{d} _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} criterion are _{a}_{s} _{f}_{o}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w}_{s}_{:}
(1) ^{I}^{t} is a ^{s}^{c}^{a}^{l}^{a}^{r} equation ^{a}^{n}^{d} ^{i}^{s} automatically ^{i}^{n}^{v}^{a}^{r}^{i}^{a}^{n}^{t}^{.} Interactions
amont all stress components are independent material properties. In criteria
_{b}_{y} _{q}_{u}_{a}_{d}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{c} _{a}_{p}_{p}_{r}_{o}_{x}_{i}_{m}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} such as Hill’s _{[}_{2}_{]}_{,} interactions are fixed _{(}_{n}_{o}_{t}
_{i}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{)}_{.} In the maximum stress or _{m}_{a}_{x}_{i}_{m}_{u}_{m} _{s}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{i}_{n} _{c}_{r}_{i}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{,} _{s}_{i}_{x} _{s}_{i}_{}
_{m}_{u}_{l}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{e}_{o}_{u}_{s}_{l}_{y}_{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} are _{r}_{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{r}_{e}_{d} and interactions are not admissible.
(2) ^{S}^{i}^{n}^{c}^{e} strength components ^{a}^{r}^{e} expressed ^{i}^{n} tensors, ^{t}^{h}^{e}^{i}^{r} ^{t}^{r}^{a}^{n}^{s}^{f}^{o}^{r}^{m}^{a}^{}
tion relations and the associated invariants are well established. In
the transformation relations in terms of _{m}_{u}_{l}_{t}_{i}_{p}_{l}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{s}_{,} similar to those de
_{v}_{e}_{l}_{o}_{p}_{e}_{d} for the elastic stiffness _{[}_{3}_{]}_{,} are useful tools for the _{u}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{g}
of strength tensors.
(3) ^{T}^{h}^{e} symmetry properties ^{o}^{f} ^{t}^{h}^{e} strength ^{t}^{e}^{n}^{s}^{o}^{r}^{s} ^{a}^{n}^{d} ^{t}^{h}^{e} ^{n}^{u}^{m}^{b}^{e}^{r} ^{o}^{f} independent ^{a}^{n}^{d} ^{n}^{o}^{n}^{}^{z}^{e}^{r}^{o} components ^{c}^{a}^{n} ^{b}^{e} rigorously ^{d}^{e}^{s}^{c}^{r}^{i}^{b}^{e}^{d} ^{s}^{i}^{m}^{i}^{l}^{a}^{r}
particular,
to other wellestablished _{p}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{e}_{s} of _{a}_{n}_{i}_{s}_{o}_{t}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{i}_{c} _{m}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{s}_{,} such as the
elastic _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e} matrix. The number of _{s}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{i}_{a}_{l} dimensions and multiaxial stresses are determined _{b}_{y} _{s}_{e}_{l}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} the _{p}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{e}_{r} _{r}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e} of the indices _{a}_{m}_{o}_{n}_{g}
1 to 6. General _{a}_{n}_{i}_{s}_{o}_{t}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{y} and 3dimensional _{s}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{e} _{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t} no _{c}_{o}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{p}_{t}_{u}_{a}_{l}
di~culty.
(4) Knowing
the transformation relations we can _{r}_{e}_{a}_{d}_{i}_{l}_{y} rotate the ma
Fi to Fi’ and Fij to Fij&dquo; in Equation (1), or equivalently rotate
terial axes from
^{i}^{n} ^{t}^{h}^{e} opposite ^{d}^{i}^{r}^{e}^{c}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n} ^{t}^{o} _{c}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e} ^{t}^{h}^{e} applied ^{s}^{t}^{r}^{e}^{s}^{s}^{e}^{s} ^{f}^{r}^{o}^{m} oi ^{t}^{o} o/’ ^{w}^{h}^{e}^{n} ^{w}^{e} want to _{s}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{y} the offaxis or transformed _{p}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{e}_{s}_{.} Most _{e}_{x}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} criteria are
limited to _{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} _{o}_{r}_{t}_{h}_{o}_{t}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{i}_{c} materials. These criteria can _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y} be _{a}_{p}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{e}_{d}
_{b}_{y} _{t}_{r}_{a}_{n}_{s}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{m}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{t}_{h}_{e} external _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{s} _{t}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{e} material axes. Rotation of the material axes cannot be _{d}_{o}_{n}_{e} _{b}_{e}_{c}_{a}_{u}_{s}_{e} the transformations of the _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h}
criteria are not _{k}_{n}_{o}_{w}_{n}_{.}
_{(}_{5}_{)} _{B}_{e}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{i}_{n}_{v}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{n}_{t}_{,} _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{(}_{1}_{)} is valid for all coordinate _{s}_{y}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{m}_{s}
when it is valid for one coordinate _{s}_{y}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{m}_{.} Such _{v}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{i}_{t}_{y} holds for curvilinear
coordinates as well with _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y} _{m}_{i}_{n}_{o}_{r}
_{a}_{d}_{j}_{u}_{s}_{t}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s}_{.}
(6) Certain stability conditions are incorporated in the _{s}_{t}_{r}_{c}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} tensors.
The _{m}_{a}_{g}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{e} of interaction terms are constrained _{b}_{y} the _{f}_{o}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w}_{i}_{n}_{g} in
equality :
where _{r}_{e}_{p}_{e}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{d} indices are NOT summations for this _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{;} and _{i}_{,} _{~}_{=} _{1}_{,}
6. Fii is simply one of the diagonal terms. To be physically meaningful, all diagonal terms must be _{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{;} the offdiagonal
may ^{b}^{e} positive or negative depending on the nature
_{o}_{f} interaction terms
of the interaction but
in Equation (2). Geo
their _{m}_{a}_{g}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{e}_{s} are constrained _{b}_{y} the
inequality
_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y}_{,} this _{i}_{n}_{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{t}_{y} insures that our failure
stress axis. _{T}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{e} of the surface will be _{e}_{l}_{l}_{i}_{p}_{s}_{o}_{i}_{d}_{a}_{l}_{.}
surface will _{i}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{c}_{e}_{p}_{t} each
_{T}_{h}_{e} failure surface
cannot be openended like a hyperboloid. Equation _{(}_{2}_{)} _{m}_{a}_{k}_{e}_{s} ^{s}^{u}^{r}^{e} ^{t}^{h}^{a}^{t} ^{i}^{t}
^{w}^{i}^{l}^{l} not happen. The same positive
definite
requirement ^{o}^{f} Fi, ^{i}^{s} imposed ^{o}^{n}
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_{F}_{i}_{.} The _{d}_{i}_{s}_{p}_{l}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} of the _{e}_{l}_{l}_{i}_{p}_{s}_{o}_{i}_{d} due to internal stresses are such that
the _{o}_{r}_{i}_{g}_{i}_{n} remains in _{t}_{h}_{e}
ellipsoid.
_{(}_{7}_{)} _{F}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y}_{,} Gol’denblat and _{K}_{o}_{p}_{n}_{o}_{v} _{[}_{4}_{]} was one of the first to _{s}_{u}_{g}_{g}_{e}_{s}_{t}
the use of strength tensors and _{p}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{e}_{d} a general theory in the following
form:
He investigated a special case of
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{±} _{s}_{i}_{g}_{n} _{a}_{s}_{s}_{o}_{c}_{i}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{d} with _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{r}_{e} root is awkward. _{T}_{h}_{i}_{s}_{,} _{h}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{,} can
^{b}^{e} ^{e}^{l}^{i}^{m}^{i}^{n}^{a}^{t}^{e}^{d} by simple rearrangement ^{o}^{f} ^{t}^{h}^{i}^{s} special ^{c}^{a}^{s}^{e} ^{a}^{n}^{d} ^{w}^{e} ^{w}^{i}^{l}^{l} ^{h}^{a}^{v}^{e}^{:}
This relation is also more _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{d} than _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{(}_{1}_{)}_{.} The additional
term does not introduce _{a}_{n}_{y} more _{g}_{e}_{n}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{t}_{y}
than the linear and _{q}_{u}_{a}_{d}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{c}
are 6 linear and 21 _{q}_{u}_{a}_{d}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{c}
approximation of Equation
terms. We believe that our
_{(}_{1}_{)}_{;} i.e., there
approximation is operationally simpler and will be investigated in detail in this paper.
_{S}_{Y}_{M}_{M}_{E}_{T}_{R}_{Y} PROPERTIES
The _{s}_{y}_{m}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{y} properties
_{o}_{f} our
_{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} tensors follow well established
[6] properties of anisotropic ma
patterns
of the diffusion _{[}_{5}_{]} _{a}_{n}_{d} elastic
terials. For a triclinic material in _{3}_{}_{s}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{:}
We are assuming that both strength
_{i}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{t} strength components
If _{a} material has some form of
^{t}^{e}^{n}^{s}^{o}^{r}^{s} ^{a}^{r}^{e} symmetric. ^{T}^{h}^{e} ^{n}^{u}^{m}^{b}^{e}^{r} ^{o}^{f}
are 6 and 21 for Fi and Fij, respectively.
_{s}_{y}_{m}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{y}_{,} we would _{e}_{x}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{t} that a number
of interaction terms will vanish. For _{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} _{o}_{r}_{t}_{h}_{o}_{t}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{i}_{c} materials, for ex
ample, the offdiagonal terms in Equation (5) ^{w}^{h}^{i}^{c}^{h} ^{a}^{r}^{e} F4, F5 ^{a}^{n}^{d} Fs ^{a}^{r}^{e}
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expected ^{t}^{o} ^{v}^{a}^{n}^{i}^{s}^{h}^{.} The
tween the normal _{a}_{n}_{d} _{s}_{h}_{e}_{a}_{r}
coupling be
strengths,
_{e}_{.}_{g}_{.}_{,} _{F}_{1}_{6}_{,}_{w}_{i}_{l}_{l} also vanish _{i}_{f} _{w}_{e} _{a}_{s}_{s}_{u}_{m}_{e}
^{t}^{h}^{a}^{t} ^{t}^{h}^{e} change ^{i}^{n} ^{t}^{h}^{e} sign of shear stress does not _{c}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{f}_{a}_{i}_{l}_{u}_{r}_{e}
stress. _{B}_{y} essentially the same reason
_{i}_{n}_{g}_{,} we can assume that _{s}_{h}_{e}_{a}_{r} _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h}_{s} for a specially orthotropic material are
all _{u}_{n}_{c}_{o}_{u}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{d}_{;} i.e., F4s == Fss = Fe4
 _{0}_{.} The _{c}_{o}_{u}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{g} between normal
strengths, however, are expected to remain. With these assumed symmetry
_{r}_{e}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{,} the number of _{i}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{t} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{n}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} reduced to 3 and _{9}_{,} _{r}_{e}_{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{}
pure shear and tensioncompression.
_{F}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e} 1. _{E}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{v}_{a}_{l}_{e}_{n}_{t} states of stress in
tively.
isotropic ^{m}^{a}^{t}^{e}^{r}^{i}^{a}^{l} ^{w}^{i}^{t}^{h} plane ^{2}^{}^{3} ^{a}^{s} ^{t}^{h}^{e} isotropic plane,
we can _{i}_{m}_{m}_{e}_{d}_{i}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{l}_{y} _{s}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{i}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{c}_{e}_{s} associated with this _{p}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e} are _{i}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{;}
For
transversely
We can also state that the two states of stress in _{F}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e} 1 are identical and
should _{y}_{i}_{e}_{l}_{d} identical failure _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{s}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{n}
The number of _{i}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{t} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{n}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} reduced to 2 and 5 for _{F}_{i} and _{F}_{~}_{~}_{,}
respectively. The number of nonzero _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{n}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} for _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} transversely iso
tropic
material remain as 3 and 9 as the case of specialorthotropy.
_{B}_{y} _{e}_{x}_{t}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{g} the relation of _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{(}_{6}_{)} and _{(}_{7}_{)} to the other two or
thogonal planes, ^{w}^{e} ^{o}^{b}^{t}^{a}^{i}^{n} ^{f}^{o}^{r} isotropic ^{m}^{a}^{t}^{e}^{r}^{i}^{a}^{l}^{s} ^{1} ^{a}^{n}^{d} ^{2} independent
_{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{n}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} for _{F}_{i} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{F}_{~}_{;}_{.} If internal stresses or _{B}_{a}_{u}_{s}_{c}_{h}_{i}_{n}_{g}_{e}_{r}_{’}_{s} effect is _{i}_{g}_{}
_{n}_{o}_{r}_{e}_{d}_{,} the _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y} _{F}_{i} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{n}_{e}_{n}_{t} will vanish. If a failure _{b}_{y} _{h}_{y}_{d}_{r}_{o}_{s}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{c} stresses
is assumed to be _{i}_{n}_{a}_{d}_{m}_{i}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{,} the _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{n}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} of _{F}_{~}_{,} become related _{b}_{y}
For _{i}_{s}_{o}_{t}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{i}_{c} materials, indices 1, 2 and 3 are identical, then _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{(}_{8}_{)}
becomes:
The _{t}_{h}_{r}_{e}_{e} shear _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{n}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} are also identical and _{b}_{y} virtue of _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{(}_{9}_{)}_{,} we obtain
_{T}_{h}_{u}_{s}_{,} for _{i}_{s}_{o}_{t}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{i}_{c} materials which
internal _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{s}_{,} the _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} tensors are:
are _{p}_{l}_{a}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} incompressible and zero
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For laminated _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{e}_{s}_{,} it _{m}_{a}_{y} be easier to deal with a failure _{c}_{r}_{i}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{o}_{n}
in terms of strain _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{n}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s}_{.} _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{(}_{1}_{)} can be rewritten as _{f}_{o}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w}_{s}_{:}
where Gi = Fm C.i
Gij ^{=} F~.n C.i Cn;
_{C}_{i}_{j} _{=} Elastic Stiffness Matrix
_{W}_{h}_{e}_{n} a _{s}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{p}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e} _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s} is _{a}_{p}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{e}_{d} _{t}_{o} the 12 _{p}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e}_{,} a triclinic material will _{a}_{p}_{p}_{e}_{a}_{r} as follows:
There are a total of 9 independent strength components. For specially ortho
_{t}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{i}_{c} materials,
we have 2 and 4 independent _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{n}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} for Fi and Fij, respectively.
ENGINEERING STRENGTHS
The relations between _{e}_{n}_{g}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{g}
strengths and strength
tensors are
similar to those between _{e}_{n}_{g}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{g} constants and the _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{n}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} ^{e}^{l}^{a}^{s}^{t}^{i}^{c} compliance,typical ^{r}^{e}^{l}^{a}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n}^{s} ^{f}^{o}^{r} ^{t}^{h}^{e} ^{l}^{a}^{t}^{t}^{e}^{r} ^{a}^{r}^{e}^{:}
where E11 is the _{l}_{o}_{n}_{g}_{i}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{l} stiffness; _{G}_{1}_{2}_{,} the _{l}_{o}_{n}_{g}_{i}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{l} shear _{m}_{o}_{d}_{u}_{l}_{u}_{s}_{;}
Si,, the components of the compliance matrix. An important point that has
^{o}^{f}^{t}^{e}^{n} ^{b}^{e}^{e}^{n} ^{o}^{v}^{e}^{r}^{l}^{o}^{o}^{k}^{e}^{d} ^{i}^{s} ^{t}^{h}^{a}^{t} engineering ^{c}^{o}^{n}^{s}^{t}^{a}^{n}^{t}^{s} ^{a}^{r}^{e} ^{N}^{O}^{T} components ^{o}^{f}
a 4th rank _{t}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{o}_{r}_{;} while _{S}_{~}_{~} are _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{n}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} of such a tensor within a cor
rection factor caused _{b}_{y} use _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{e}_{d} _{n}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{.}
Like engineering constants,
engineering strengths
are those
strength
parameters which are relatively simple to measure in the _{l}_{a}_{b}_{o}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{o}_{r}_{y}_{.} Al
though they are not components of a tensor,
ponents
they
can be related to _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{}
of _{F}_{i} and _{F}_{i}_{j} _{t}_{h}_{r}_{o}_{u}_{g}_{h} relations which we will establish and which
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^{t}^{u}^{r}^{n} ^{o}^{u}^{t} ^{t}^{o} ^{b}^{e} ^{s}^{i}^{m}^{i}^{l}^{a}^{r} ^{t}^{o} ^{t}^{h}^{o}^{s}^{e} ^{i}^{n} Equation (15). ^{L}^{e}^{t} us, ^{f}^{o}^{r} example, _{i}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{e} a uniaxial tensile stress on a _{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{m}_{e}_{n} oriented _{a}_{l}_{o}_{n}_{g} the Iaxis. We can measure the tensile _{f}_{a}_{i}_{l}_{u}_{r}_{e} and _{d}_{e}_{s}_{i}_{g}_{n}_{a}_{t}_{e} the failure stress X. _{S}_{i}_{m}_{i}_{l}_{a}_{r}_{l}_{y}_{,} _{w}_{e}
can
experimentally obtain a uniaxial compressive strength along the same
call it X’. From these two _{s}_{i}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e} _{e}_{x}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s}_{,} we obtained two
axis and
engineering strengths
ponents Fl and F11
X and X’. _{T}_{h}_{e}_{y} can be related to the
strength com
through Equation (1) if we let i ^{=} 1 _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y}_{;} i.e.,
When
_{0}_{’}_{1} = _{X}_{,} _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{(} _{1}_{6} _{)} becomes
When _{0}_{’}_{1} = _{}_{X}_{’}_{,} _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{(}_{1}_{6}_{)} becomes
Solve Equations (17) and (18) simultaneously, we obtain
_{T}_{h}_{r}_{o}_{u}_{g}_{h} ^{u}^{n}^{i}^{a}^{x}^{i}^{a}^{l} ^{t}^{e}^{n}^{s}^{i}^{l}^{e} ^{a}^{n}^{d} compressive ^{t}^{e}^{s}^{t}^{s} imposed along ^{t}^{h}^{e} ^{2}^{} ^{a}^{n}^{d} ^{3}^{} _{a}_{x}_{i}_{s}_{,} we obtain
where Y and Y’ are the uniaxial tensile and _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{v}_{e} _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h}_{s} _{a}_{l}_{o}_{n}_{g} the _{2}_{}_{a}_{x}_{i}_{s}_{;} Z and _{Z}_{’}_{,} those _{a}_{l}_{o}_{n}_{g} the 3axis.
By imposing pure shear in the 3 orthogonal planes we can obtain
^{W}^{h}^{e}^{r}^{e} Q ^{a}^{n}^{d} Q’ ^{a}^{r}^{e} positive ^{a}^{n}^{d} negative pure ^{s}^{h}^{e}^{a}^{r} strengths along ^{t}^{h}^{e} ^{2}^{}^{3}
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_{p}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e}_{;} R and _{R}_{’}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{o}_{s}_{e} _{a}_{l}_{o}_{n}_{g} the 31 _{p}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e}_{;} and S and _{S}_{’}_{,} those _{a}_{l}_{o}_{n}_{g} the 12
plane.
We have _{t}_{h}_{u}_{s} far _{e}_{s}_{t}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{i}_{s}_{h}_{e}_{d} _{a}_{l}_{l} 6 _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{n}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} of _{F}_{i} and all the _{d}_{i}_{a}_{g}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{l}
components of F~,. The offdiagonal components are related to the interaction
of two stress _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{n}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} _{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} criterion. For _{e}_{x}_{a}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{,} the _{e}_{x}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{}
mental determinations of _{F}_{1}_{2} and _{F}_{i}_{g} _{r}_{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{r}_{e} combined stresses. _{S}_{i}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e} uni
axial or _{p}_{u}_{r}_{e} shear tests will not be sufficient. Most _{e}_{x}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} criteria
do not _{r}_{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{r}_{e} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{b}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{d} _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s} tests _{b}_{e}_{c}_{a}_{u}_{s}_{e} the interactions term such as
_{F}_{1}_{2} is assumed to be a _{d}_{e}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{t}
_{F} _{1}_{2} can be determined
by
an
_{q}_{u}_{a}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{t}_{y} or F16 is zero. _{S}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} component
infinite number of combined stresses; _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y} a few
_{s}_{i}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{b}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} will be discussed here. If we _{i}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{e} a biaxial tension such as
Substitute this _{s}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{b}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{d} stresses into _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{(}_{1}_{)}_{,} we obtain
_{S}_{o}_{l}_{v}_{i}_{n}_{g} for _{F}_{1}_{2}_{,} we obtain
I
,
^{W}^{e} ^{c}^{a}^{n} ^{d}^{e}^{t}^{e}^{r}^{m}^{i}^{n}^{e} F23 ^{a}^{n}^{d} F31 by imposing ^{b}^{i}^{a}^{x}^{i}^{a}^{l} ^{t}^{P}^{n}^{s}^{i}^{o}^{n} ^{o}^{r} compression ^{i}^{n}
the 23 and 31 planes,respectively.
_{M}_{a}_{n}_{y} Russian workers
recommend the use of 45degree specimens ^{f}^{o}^{r}
the determination of interaction terms such as _{F}_{1}_{2}_{.} This can be done _{b}_{y}
letting:

, 
,
_{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} U _{i}_{s} the tensile _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} of a _{4}_{5}_{}_{d}_{e}_{g}_{r}_{e}_{e} offaxis _{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{.} Note that
the combined stresses in _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}
of a _{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} orthotropic
uniaxial tensile stress
(27a) are _{a}_{p}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{e}_{d} to the symmetry ^{a}^{x}^{e}^{s}
is _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{v}_{a}_{l}_{e}_{n}_{t} to a
material. This state of stress
_{a}_{p}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{e}_{d} to a reference coordinate _{s}_{y}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{m} rotated 45
_{a}_{x}_{e}_{s}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{i}_{s} _{w}_{h}_{y} _{U} _{c}_{a}_{n} _{b}_{e} considered
must be exercised in the actual experiment
_{d}_{e}_{g}_{r}_{e}_{e}_{s} from the material symmetry
as an engineering strength.
of
loading a 45degree
Care
_{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{m}_{e}_{n} _{s}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{h}_{e}_{a}_{r} _{c}_{o}_{u}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{g} effect due to _{S}_{1}_{6}
_{(}_{1}_{)}_{,} we have
is minimized. _{B}_{y} _{i}_{n}_{t}_{r}_{o}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} ( 27a) into Equation
where _{F}_{l}_{s}_{,} _{F}_{2}_{s}_{,} and _{F}_{s} vanish because of the assumed _{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{a}_{l} orthotropy. ^{N}^{o}^{w}
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we can obtain _{F}_{1}_{2} _{b}_{y} this _{t}_{e}_{s}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t}
A similar relation for _{t}_{h}_{e}
compressive strength ^{U}^{’} of a ^{4}^{5} degree offaxis
unidirectional _{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{m}_{e}_{n} is as _{f}_{o}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w}_{s}_{:}
Then we can _{f}_{i}_{n}_{d}
By comparing Equation (27b) and (28b), we can derive the following rela
tions between U and U’ :
where _{T}_{1} is the first invariant of _{F}_{i} which will be shown in _{T}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e} I _{a}_{n}_{d} _{F}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e}
3 of this _{p}_{a}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{;} while _{t}_{h}_{e} difference _{o}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}_{}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{d} side of _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{(} _{2}_{9}_{b} _{)} is not invariant which can _{b}_{e} _{s}_{e}_{e}_{n} _{f}_{r}_{o}_{m} _{T}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e} _{I}_{I}_{.}
Let V and V’ be the positive and negative shear strengths of a 45degree
offaxis unidirectional _{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{,} then _{a}_{n}_{a}_{l}_{o}_{g}_{o}_{u}_{s} to the _{r}_{e}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} in _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}
_{(} _{2}_{7} _{)} _{t}_{h}_{r}_{o}_{u}_{g}_{h} _{(}_{2}_{9}_{)} for uniaxial stresses, we have
This state of _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s} is _{a}_{p}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{e}_{d} to the _{s}_{y}_{m}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{y} axes oriented at _{+}_{4}_{5} _{d}_{e}_{g}_{r}_{e}_{e}_{s}
from _{t}_{h}_{e}
positive
_{s}_{h}_{e}_{a}_{r} stress V. The same state of stress exists when a _{n}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{}
tive shear stress _{(} _{}_{V} _{)} is _{a}_{p}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{e}_{d} to a _{}_{4}_{5}_{}_{d}_{e}_{g}_{r}_{e}_{e} offaxis _{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{.} Substi
tuting Equation (30a) into (1), we have
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Then we can establish
Similarly, when
We have
From _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{(}_{3}_{0}_{b}_{)} and _{(} _{3}_{1}_{b} _{)} we can derive the _{f}_{o}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w}_{i}_{n}_{g} relations be
tween V and V’ :
All these relations are _{h}_{e}_{l}_{p}_{f}_{u}_{l} in _{d}_{e}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{n}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} of _{F}_{i}_{j} and their
^{t}^{r}^{a}^{n}^{s}^{f}^{o}^{r}^{m}^{e}^{d} _{q}_{u}_{a}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{e}_{s} ^{a}^{s} ^{w}^{e}^{l}^{l} ^{a}^{s} ^{t}^{h}^{e} ^{i}^{n}^{t}^{e}^{r}^{n}^{a}^{l} consistency ^{o}^{f} ^{t}^{h}^{i}^{s} present
_{t}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{y}_{.} From _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{(}_{2}_{9}_{b}_{)} and _{(}_{3}_{2}_{b}_{)}_{,} we can derive an invariant rela
tion :
_{W}_{e} will _{d}_{e}_{s}_{c}_{r}_{i}_{b}_{e} later in this _{p}_{a}_{p}_{e}_{r} how _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{n}_{e}_{n}_{t}
_{s}_{y}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{m}_{,} _{e}_{.}_{g}_{.}_{,} the graphiteepoxy
composite, can
_{t}_{o} _{s}_{a}_{y}_{,} _{F}_{1}_{2} is a _{v}_{e}_{r}_{y} sensitive
F12 for a _{g}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{n} composite
_{b}_{e} best determined. Suffice
and critical _{q}_{u}_{a}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{t}_{y} in this _{p}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{e}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{y} and
_{m}_{u}_{s}_{t} _{b}_{e} understood _{b}_{y} its users.
For _{a}_{n}_{i}_{s}_{o}_{t}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{i}_{c} material, strength component F16,which ^{i}^{s} ^{n}^{o} longer zero,
can be determined _{b}_{y} a tensiontorque combination; e.g.,
This is equivalent ^{t}^{o} letting ^{i} ^{=} ^{1} ^{a}^{n}^{d} ^{6} ^{i}^{n} Equation (1), ^{a}^{n}^{d} ^{w}^{e} ^{h}^{a}^{v}^{e}
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by rearranging,
This experiment can be readily performed by testing a tubular specimen with
the tube axis _{a}_{l}_{o}_{n}_{g} the Iaxis. _{C}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{n}_{e}_{n}_{t} _{F}_{2}_{6} can be determined _{b}_{y} _{i}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{t}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{}_{t}_{o}_{r}_{q}_{u}_{e} on a tubular _{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{m}_{e}_{n} with _{t}_{h}_{e} _{I}_{}_{a}_{x}_{i}_{s} _{a}_{l}_{o}_{n}_{g} the circumference
of the tube. Similar _{t}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{a}_{s}_{e} of biaxial _{t}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n} where the ratio and _{s}_{i}_{g}_{n}_{s}
of the two normal stresses _{m}_{a}_{y} be
from that _{o}_{f} _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{(}_{3}_{4}_{a}_{)}_{,} where
signs ^{w}^{i}^{l}^{l} pro
the ratio was _{u}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{y} and _{s}_{i}_{g}_{n}_{s} _{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{.} Different ratios
arbitrary, the tensiontorque combination
and/or
can also have ratios and _{s}_{i}_{g}_{n}_{s} different
vide additional determinations of the interaction terms. The redundant measurements can be used to establish the _{r}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e} of _{v}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{i}_{t}_{y} and _{a}_{c}_{c}_{u}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{y}
_{(}_{1}_{)}_{.} It the tube axis coincide
of our initial _{a}_{s}_{s}_{u}_{m}_{p}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{s}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{d} in
Equation
with the material _{s}_{y}_{m}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{y} _{a}_{x}_{i}_{s}_{,} _{e}_{.}_{g}_{.}_{,} the filament axis of a unidirectional
composite runs along the longitudinal direction of the tube, F16 in Equation
(34c) ^{m}^{u}^{s}^{t} ^{b}^{e} ^{z}^{e}^{r}^{o} ^{i}^{n} ^{t}^{h}^{i}^{s} specially orthotropic ^{o}^{r}^{i}^{e}^{n}^{t}^{a}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n}^{.}
_{Q}_{U}_{A}_{D}_{R}_{A}_{T}_{I}_{C} APPROXIMATIONS
Using the
framework and notation of our _{a}_{p}_{p}_{r}_{o}_{a}_{c}_{h}_{,} we can _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{a}_{r}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e}
existing quadratic
_{a}_{p}_{p}_{r}_{o}_{x}_{i}_{m}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} of the _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} criteria. The
specially
_{o}_{r}_{t}_{h}_{o}_{t}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{i}_{c} 3dimensional
stresses, can be ex
is limited to
forms of _{m}_{a}_{n}_{y}
Hill criterion _{[}_{2}_{]} which
body, with plastic incompressibility and without internal
pressed in the following forms:
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Since
the Hill criterion is obtained _{b}_{y}
generalizing
the Mises criterion, 3 in
teraction
terms become dependent on the diagonal terms. Such _{a}_{r}_{b}_{i}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{r}_{y}
generalization brought in only 6 independent strength components in Fi,
instead of 9. The Mises criterion can be recovered from _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{(}_{3}_{5}_{b}_{)} _{i}_{f}
we let
Then _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{(}_{3}_{5}_{b}_{)} becomes _{t}_{h}_{e} same _{a}_{s}
_{p}_{l}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{d} _{b}_{y} _{1}_{/}_{X}_{2}_{.} _{S}_{u}_{b}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{t}_{u}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} the latter result _{i}_{n}_{t}_{o} _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{(}_{1}_{)}_{,} _{w}_{e} _{h}_{a}_{v}_{e}
Equation
( llb ) with F11 re
or
^{S}^{o}^{m}^{e} ^{a}^{u}^{t}^{h}^{o}^{r}^{s} ^{h}^{a}^{v}^{e} ^{t}^{r}^{i}^{e}^{d} ^{t}^{o} generalize ^{t}^{h}^{e} quadratic approximation ^{d}^{e}^{}
rived from
_{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} (35b) _{b}_{y} introducing floating or adjustable constants
or interaction _{t}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{s} _{s}_{u}_{c}_{h} _{a}_{s} _{[}_{7}_{]}_{]}
for the offdiagonal
The use of constant &dquo;K&dquo; _{i}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{e}_{s} that _{F}_{1}_{2} is _{p}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{o}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{l} to a _{p}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{r} func
^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n} of the engineering strengths
earlier, the generalization
which is in _{g}_{e}_{n}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{l} not the case. As stated
of the Mises criterion to describe _{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{a}_{l} _{o}_{r}_{t}_{h}_{o}_{t}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{y}
^{l}^{a}^{c}^{k}^{s} analytic ^{f}^{o}^{u}^{n}^{d}^{a}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n}^{.} ^{F}^{u}^{r}^{t}^{h}^{e}^{r} generalization ^{f}^{r}^{o}^{m} ^{t}^{h}^{e} ^{f}^{o}^{r}^{m} ^{o}^{f} Equation
(35b) by means of adjustible constants of proportionality
necessarily
constants,
restrictive, if not erroneous, _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} criteria.
_{m}_{a}_{y} _{l}_{e}_{a}_{d} to un
The use of arbitrary
_{l}_{i}_{k}_{e} K _{i}_{n} _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{(}_{3}_{8}_{)}_{,} _{d}_{o}_{e}_{s} not insure internal _{c}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{y} and
^{i}^{n}^{v}^{a}^{r}^{i}^{a}^{n}^{c}^{e} ^{u}^{n}^{d}^{e}^{r} transformation, ^{a}^{n}^{d} may ^{v}^{i}^{o}^{l}^{a}^{t}^{e} ^{t}^{h}^{e} stability requirement
of Equation (2).
In fact, when the strength
criterion based on _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{(}_{3}_{5}_{b}_{)} is _{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{}
to a unidirectional _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{e} with the _{l}_{o}_{n}_{g}_{i}_{t}_{u}_{}
ized to _{p}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e} stress _{a}_{p}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{e}_{d}
dinal _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} X in the 1direction, the two transverse _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h}_{s} are _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l}_{;}
^{i}^{.}^{e}^{.}^{,}
Y  Z = Transverse _{S}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h}
_{(}
_{3}_{9} _{)}
_{W}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{a}_{d}_{d}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{l} _{a}_{s}_{s}_{u}_{m}_{p}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{,} _{w}_{e} _{c}_{a}_{n} _{d}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{v}_{e} the oftenused _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} cri
terion
_{N}_{o}_{t}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{c}_{r}_{i}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{i}_{s} _{b}_{i}_{a}_{s}_{e}_{d}_{;} _{i}_{.}_{e}_{.}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{i}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} term contains _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y} the
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longitudinal strength. If we are not careful and apply the planestress
strength
running
criterion to
_{t}_{h}_{e} same unidirectional _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{e} but with filaments
_{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{2}_{}_{d}_{i}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{,} _{w}_{e} will obtain the _{f}_{o}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w}_{i}_{n}_{g} criterion:
_{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} latter _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} is not a correct _{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{z}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of the _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} tensor in Equation holds. For (35b) the same because _{r}_{e}_{a}_{s}_{o}_{n}_{,} the equivalent the _{p}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e}_{}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s} relation _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} of Equation criterion (39) cannot no longer be _{a}_{p}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{e}_{d} _{t}_{o} _{a} _{l}_{a}_{m}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{t}_{e} _{b}_{e}_{c}_{a}_{u}_{s}_{e} the _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} transverse to the _{p}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e} of the laminate is an _{i}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{t} engineering strength, entirely unrelated to the
inplaneengineeringstrengths.
TRANSFORMATION OF STRENGTH TENSORS
In order to _{g}_{a}_{i}_{n} insight into our strength criterion, it is helpful if we ex
amine the transformed _{p}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{e}_{s} of the _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} tensors. We will show graphically ^{t}^{h}^{e} ^{t}^{r}^{a}^{n}^{s}^{f}^{o}^{r}^{m}^{e}^{d} properties ^{o}^{f} ^{u}^{n}^{i}^{d}^{i}^{r}^{e}^{c}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n}^{a}^{l} graphiteepoxy ^{c}^{o}^{m}^{}
posites with the followingengineeringstrengths:
_{A}_{s}_{s}_{u}_{m}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{g}_{r}_{a}_{p}_{h}_{i}_{t}_{e} unidirec
tional composite is speciallyorthotrop
_{i}_{c} and under _{p}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e} _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{,} the _{p}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{i}_{}
pal strength components are:
_{F}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e} _{2}_{.} Direction of _{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} rotation
_{o}_{f} _{a} _{c}_{o}_{o}_{r}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{t}_{e} transformation about
the z or 3axis of a _{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}_{}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{d} _{s}_{y}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{m}_{.}
Where the _{r}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e} on F12 ^{i}^{s} imposed by ^{t}^{h}^{e} stability ^{c}^{o}^{n}^{d}^{i}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n} ^{o}^{f} Equation (2).
_{T}_{h}_{e} transformation relations of _{F}_{,} and _{F}_{~}_{,} in terms of _{m}_{u}_{l}_{t}_{i}_{p}_{l}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{s} are shown in tabular form _{b}_{e}_{l}_{o}_{w}_{,} where _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} _{9} is shown in _{F}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e} 2.
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_{T}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e} _{1}_{.} Transformation of _{F}_{i}
_{T}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e} II. Transformation of _{F}_{i}_{;}
Where
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The graphical representation of Fi’ and F{/ are shown in _{F}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e}_{s} 3 and 4,
respectively. Components F2’, F22’ and F2g can be obtained from Fi’, Fii and
FI6’,
respectively, _{b}_{y} _{c}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{0} in Tables I and II to  (9E 90), as shown
in the Figures.
The transformed _{p}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{e}_{s} shown in _{F}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e}_{s} 3 _{a}_{n}_{d} 4 _{a}_{r}_{e} _{t}_{y}_{p}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} _{o}_{f} _{2}_{n}_{d}
and 4th rank tensors. The invariants associated with this _{p}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{r} transfor
_{m}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{,} _{i}_{.}_{e}_{.}_{,} a rotation about _{t}_{h}_{e} _{3}_{}_{a}_{x}_{i}_{s}_{,} _{a}_{r}_{e} also shown _{a}_{s} _{h}_{o}_{r}_{i}_{z}_{o}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{l} lines. The solid lines _{r}_{e}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t} the _{u}_{p}_{p}_{e}_{r} bound of _{F}_{,}_{2}_{,} _{i}_{.}_{e}_{.}_{,} _{F}_{I}_{2} _{=}_{+}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{0}_{8}_{;} and the _{d}_{a}_{s}_{h}_{e}_{d} _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{s}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e} lower _{b}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{d}_{,} _{i}_{.}_{e}_{.}_{,} _{F}_{1}_{2} = .0008. The _{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{y} can _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y}
admit limited values of _{F}_{~} for the _{s}_{t}_{a}_{b}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{t}_{y} reason _{d}_{e}_{p}_{i}_{c}_{t}_{e}_{d} _{b}_{y} _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{(}_{2}_{)}_{,}
(42) and (44).
_{F}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e} 3. Transformation of _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} tensor _{F}_{i} for a
_{g}_{r}_{a}_{p}_{h}_{i}_{t}_{e}_{}_{e}_{p}_{o}_{x}_{y} composite system. Invariant Tl repre
_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{a}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{g}_{e} _{v}_{a}_{l}_{u}_{e} _{o}_{f} the area under the _{F}_{l}_{’} and
_{F}_{2}_{’} curves.
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_{F}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e} 4. Transformation of _{F}_{t}_{i} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{a}
graphiteepoxy _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{e}_{.} Solid
lines represent the upper bound of F12; dashed
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