Sunteți pe pagina 1din 8

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine juridice, Nr.

1/2008


Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Juridical Sciences Series, No. 1/2008

127

FORME DE PROTECIE A STRINILOR
N ROMNIA


Lect. univ. Ina Raluca TOMESCU
Universitatea Constantin Brncui Trgu-Jiu


Abstract.
La migration, phnomne qui ne disparaissent
jamais, connatre les nouvelles fonctionnalits en
fonction de l'volution socio-politique du monde. Il est
ncessaire pour la politique de l'Etat sur les migrations
devrait tre mis jour en permanence en fonction des
nouveaux dveloppements rgionaux et phnomne
international et de devenir l'un des principaux
domaines d'tude pour les autorits comptentes en la
matire afin qu'il puisse tre atteindre les conditions
optimales pour maximiser les effets positifs de ce
processus et limiter les effets ngatifs pour le pays et,
implicitement, pour ses propres citoyens.

Reglementarea regimului juridic al
strinilor, a condiiilor de intrare, edere i
ieire a constituit o preocupare constant a
statelor lumii nc de la apariia primelor
tratate internaionale. n cel mai vechi tratat de
drept internaional cunoscut n istorie i care a
fost semnat n anul 1278 .e.n. ntre faraonul
Ramses al II-lea, din dinastia a XIX-a, i
Hattuil al III-lea, regele Hitiilor, se prevede
msura returnrii propriilor ceteni i grija
pentru tratamentul acordat strinilor. Astfel,
ntr-un articol special se arata c dac vreo
persoan va fugi din Egipt i va veni n ara
Hitiilor, regele Hitiilor nu-1 va reine n ara
lui, dar l va ntoarce n ara lui Ramses. De
asemenea, mpreun cu fugarii vor fi ntori
oamenii i avutul lor n ntregime. Dac vor
fugi din Egipt unul, doi, trei etc. oameni n
ara Hitiilor, ei trebuie s fie napoiai n ara
lui Ramses. Ei nii, avutul lor, soiile, copiii
i slugile vor fi adui nevtmai. i s nu-i
pedepseasc, s nu le strice ochii, buzele,
picioarele [1].
n epoca modern, introducerea
controalelor la frontier i a documentelor de
cltorie, ncepnd cu secolul al XIX-lea, n
Europa a creat un anumit numr de obstacole
fizice i juridice circulaiei persoanelor, astfel
nct intrarea, ederea i ieirea au devenit un
act juridic pe care indivizii nu-1 pot executa
fr autorizaie. Un studiu comparat al
regimului juridic al strinilor n marile sisteme

FORMS OF PROTECTING FOREIGNERS
IN ROMANIA


Assistant Professor Ina Raluca TOMESCU
Constantin Brncui University Trgu-Jiu


Abstract.
La migration, phnomne qui ne disparaissent
jamais, connatre les nouvelles fonctionnalits en
fonction de l'volution socio-politique du monde. Il est
ncessaire pour la politique de l'Etat sur les migrations
devrait tre mis jour en permanence en fonction des
nouveaux dveloppements rgionaux et phnomne
international et de devenir l'un des principaux
domaines d'tude pour les autorits comptentes en la
matire afin qu'il puisse tre atteindre les conditions
optimales pour maximiser les effets positifs de ce
processus et limiter les effets ngatifs pour le pays et,
implicitement, pour ses propres citoyens.

The regulation of foreigners juridical
status, entry conditions, staying and leaving
conditions has been a permanent concern of the
states of the world from the birth of the first
international treaties. In the oldest treaty of
international law known in the history and signed in
1278 B.C. between the pharaoh Ramses the 2
nd
,
from the 19
th
dynasty and Hattuil the 3
rd
, the king
of Hittites, it is provided the measure of returning to
their own citizens and the concern for the treatment
regarding foreigners. Therefore, in a special article
it was stipulated that if a persons runs away from
Egypt and comes to the Hittites country, the king
of Hittites shall not keep it into his country, but
return him to Ramses country. Also, together with
the runners, the people and their fortune shall be
returned entirely. If one, two, three etc people run
away to the Hittites country, they have to be
returned to Ramses country. They, their fortune,
their wives, children and servants shall be sent back
uninjured. They were not supposed to punish them,
injure their eyes, lips, legs [1].
In modern times, the introduction of border
controls and travel documents, beginning with the
19
th
century in Europe, created a number of
physical and juridical obstacles for persons
travelling, so that the entry, the staying and the exit
became a juridical act that individuals cannot
perform without authorization. A compared study

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine juridice, Nr. 1/2008


Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Juridical Sciences Series, No. 1/2008

128
de drept ale lumii contemporane evideniaz
fenomenul receptrii n sistemele naionale a
unor principii i norme de drept din legislaiile
naionale ale statelor cu economii dezvoltate,
care se confrunt cu un flux important de
strini migrai legal sau ilegal.
Aspectele negative sau pozitive ale
migraiei se reflect n modul n care
autoritile legislative din statele lumii au
neles s reglementeze condiiile de intrare,
edere i ieire ale strinilor, apatrizilor,
regimul refugiailor i azilanilor [2].
Imigrarea pe considerente umanitare,
pentru reunirea familiilor sau din motive
economice, pentru un loc de munc, a
determinat adoptarea unor norme de drept care
se regsesc n toate legislaiile naionale,
indiferent de sistemul de drept. In cel de-al
doilea mare sistem, common law, s-a dezvoltat
o nou ramur de drept, cunoscut ca
Immigration Law i care reglementeaz
regimul juridic al strinilor [3].
Analiza comparativ a regimului
juridic al strinilor n marile sisteme de drept
(romano-germanic, common law, religioase i
tradiionale) ne-a permis s constatm modul
n care fiecare stat sau comunitate de state i-
au dezvoltat legislaia n acest domeniu n
funcie de interesele naionale.
n Romnia a fost adoptat o politic n
domeniul imigraiei, iar anual, prin hotrre de
Guvern, se stabilete numrul permiselor de
munc ce pot fi eliberate strinilor pentru
ncadrarea n munc. Astfel, rile noilor
democraii n Europa Central i de Est, din
ri de emigrare devin treptat ri de imigrare a
strinilor din alte ri ale lumii. Extinderea
Uniunii Europene spre rile din Est va fi un
instrument care va ajuta aciunea de control al
micrii populaiilor n interiorul Europei. n
acelai timp, Uniunea European va avea
nevoie de un numr tot mai mare de strini
care s presteze munci mai umile i mai grele
pe care, chiar dac ar fi bine pltii, europenii
nu le vor mai face. Strinii vor fi integrai
printre europeni prin respectarea normelor de
convieuire n comun, a legalitii, dar i a
drepturilor egale.
n ara noastr, prin Legea nr.
122/2006 privind azilul n Romnia [4] a fost
stabilit regimul juridic al strinilor care
solicit o form de protecie n Romnia,
regimul juridic al strinilor beneficiari ai unei
forme de protecie n Romnia, procedura de
acordare, ncetare i anulare a unei forme de
protecie n Romnia, precum i procedura
pentru stabilirea statului membru responsabil
cu analizarea cererii de azil. Astfel, odat cu
of the foreigners juridical status within the great
law systems of the contemporary world highlights
the reception phenomenon within national systems
of developed economies countries, which are facing
an important flow of legally or illegally migrated
foreigners.
The negative or positive aspects of
migration are reflected in the way in which
legislative authorities in the world states have
understood to regulate the entry, staying and
leaving conditions for the foreigners, stateless
persons, the status of refugees and assailants [2].
Immigration for humanitarian reasons, for
reuniting the families or from economic reasons, for
a place to work, has caused the adoption of some
law regulations found in all the national legislations,
no matter their law system. Within the second great
system, common law, a new law branch has been
developed as Immigration Law which regulates the
foreigners juridical status [3].
The comparative analysis of the foreigners
juridical status within the great systems of law
(Romano-Germanic, common law, religious and
traditional) has allowed as to establish the way in
which every state or community of states have
developed their legislation in the field in accordance
with the national interests.
In Romania a policy in the field of
immigration has been adopted and annually,
through a Government resolution, it is established
the number of work permits to be issued for
foreigners for employment. Therefore, the countries
of the new democracies in Central and East Europe,
from immigrating countries they gradually become
immigration countries for foreigners from other
countries in the world. The extension of the
European Union towards the Eastern Countries
shall be an instrument helping the control action for
the populations movement inside Europe. At the
same time, the European Union will need more and
more foreigners to provide humble and hard works
that, even if better paid, Europeans would refuse to
carry them. Foreigners will be integrated among the
Europeans by complying with the regulations of
living together, legality, and equal rights.
In our country, through the Law no.
122/2006 regarding asylum in Romania [4] it is
established the juridical status of foreigners who
benefit from a form of protection in Romania, the
granting procedure, cancellation procedure for a

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine juridice, Nr. 1/2008


Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Juridical Sciences Series, No. 1/2008

129
intrarea n vigoare a Legii nr. 122/2006 [5],
legislaia romn n materia azilului folosete
termeni i expresii uniforme din dreptul
european [6], legea romn transpunnd astfel
Directiva Consiliului nr. 2001/55/EC privind
standardele minime de protecie temporar n
eventualitatea unui flux masiv de persoane
strmutate i msurile de promovare a balanei
de eforturi ntre statele membre n vederea
primirii unor astfel de persoane i suportarea
consecinelor, Directiva Consiliului nr.
2003/9/EC privind standardele minime pentru
primirea solicitanilor de azil, Directiva
Consiliului nr. 2003/86/EC privind dreptul la
reunificarea familiei i Directiva Consiliului
2004/83/EC privind standardele minime
pentru calificare i statutul cetenilor rilor
tere sau apatrizilor ca refugiai sau ca
persoane aflate n nevoie de protecie
internaional i coninutul proteciei acordate.
Astfel, potrivit legii romne, cererea de
azil este solicitarea fcut de ctre un cetean
strin sau apatrid n scopul obinerii proteciei
din partea statului romn.
Formele de protecie acordate de statul
romn, conform Legii 122/2006, cu
modificrile i completrile ulterioare, sunt:
statutul de refugiat, protecia subsidiar i
protecia temporar.
1. Statutul de refugiat este o form de
protecie recunoscut de statul romn
ceteanului strin sau apatridului care
ndeplinete condiiile prevzute n Convenia
privind statutul refugiailor, ncheiat la
Geneva la 28 iulie 1951, la care Romnia a
aderat prin Legea nr. 46/1991 pentru aderarea
la Convenia privind statutul refugiailor,
precum i la Protocolul privind statutul
refugiailor (art. 2, lit. g din Legea 122/2006).
Potrivit art. 4 din Legea 122/2006,
autoritile romne competente trebuie s
asigure accesul la procedura de azil oricrui
cetean strin sau apatrid, aflat pe teritoriul
Romniei ori la frontier, din momentul
manifestrii de voin, exprimat n scris sau
oral, din care s rezulte c acesta solicit
protecia statului romn, cu excepia situaiilor
prevzute expres de lege, fr discriminare,
indiferent de ras, naionalitate, etnie, limb,
religie, categorie social, convingeri, sex,
orientare sexual, vrst, handicap, boal
cronic necontagioas, infectare HIV sau
apartenena la o categorie defavorizat, de
situaia material, de statutul la natere ori de
statutul dobndit sau de orice alt distincie.
2. Protecia subsidiar este forma de
protecie acordat de statul romn ceteanului
strin sau apatridului pentru alte motive dect
cele prevzute de Convenia de la Geneva (art.
form of protection in Romania, as well as the
procedure for establishing the member state
responsible with the asylum request analysis.
Therefore, when enforcing the Law no. 122/2006
[5], the Romanian legislation on the matter of
asylum uses terms and expressions common in
European law [6], the Romanian law thus
transposing the Council Directive nr. 2001/55/EC
regarding the minimum temporary protection
standards in the event of a massive flow of moved
people and the measures for promoting the efforts
balance between the member states in order to
receive such persons and bear the consequences,
The Council Directive nr. 2003/9/EC regarding the
minimum standards for receiving asylum
applicants, Council Directive nr. 2003/86/EC
regarding the right to reunite the family and Council
Directive 2004/83/EC regarding the minimum
qualification standards and the status of citizens
from third countries or stateless persons or refugees
or as persons in need for international protection as
well as the content of protection.
Therefore, according to Romanian law, the
request for asylum is the application made by a
foreigner or stateless person for obtaining protection
from the Romanian state.
The forms of protection given by the
Romanian state according to the Law 122/2006, as
further amended and completed, are: the status of
refugee, subsidiary protection and temporary
protection.
1. The status of refugee is a form of
protection accepted by the Romanian state for the
foreigner or stateless person that meets the
requirements stipulated in the Convention regarding
the refugees status, concluded at Geneva on 28
th
of
July 1951, to which Romania adhered through the
Law no. 46/1991 for adhesion to the Convention
regarding the refugees status, as well as to the
Protocol regarding the refugees status (art. 2, letter.
g of the Law 122/2006).
According to the art. 4 of the Law
122/2006, competent Romanian authorities have to
provide access to the asylum procedure for every
foreigner or stateless person, being on Romanian
territory or at its border, from the moment of
revealing the will, in writing or orally, of which it
results that it requires the protection from the
Romanian state, except the situations expressly
stipulated by the law, without discrimination, no

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine juridice, Nr. 1/2008


Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Juridical Sciences Series, No. 1/2008

130
2, lit. h din Legea 122/2006). Solicitantul
acestei forme de protecie nu ndeplinete
condiiile pentru recunoaterea statutului de
refugiat i cu privire la el exist motive
temeinice s se cread c, n cazul returnrii n
ara de origine, respectiv n ara n care i
avea reedina obinuit, va fi expus unui risc
serios [7] i care nu poate sau, datorit acestui
risc, nu dorete protecia acelei ri.
Protecia subsidiar nceteaz atunci
cnd mprejurrile care au condus la acordarea
ei au ncetat s existe ori s-au schimbat ntr-o
asemenea msur nct aceast form de
protecie nu mai este necesar.
Aceste dou forme de protecie,
statutul de refugiat i protecia subsidiar, pot
fi solicitate i de membrii de familie (aa cum
sunt prevzui de art. 2 lit. j), care se afl pe
teritoriul Romniei, cu condiia ca acetia s
nu se afle ntr-una din urmtoarele situaii:
a) au comis o infraciune contra pcii
i omenirii, o crim de rzboi ori o alt
infraciune definit conform tratatelor
internaionale relevante la care Romnia este
parte sau altor documente internaionale pe
care Romnia este obligat s le respecte;
b) au comis o infraciune grav de
drept comun nainte de intrarea pe teritoriul
Romniei;
c) au comis fapte care sunt contrare
scopurilor i principiilor enunate n
preambulul i n art. 1 i 2 din Carta
Organizaiei Naiunilor Unite;
d) constituie un pericol la adresa
ordinii publice i siguranei naionale ale
Romniei;
e) au instigat sau au fost complici la
svrirea faptelor menionate anterior.
3. Protecia temporar este o
procedur cu caracter excepional menit s
asigure protecia, n cazul unui flux masiv sau
al unui flux masiv [8] iminent de persoane
strmutate din ri tere care nu se pot ntoarce
n ara de origine, protecie practic imediat i
temporar unor astfel de persoane, n special
dac exist i riscul ca sistemul de azil s nu
poat procesa acest flux fr efecte adverse
pentru funcionarea sa eficient, n interesul
persoanelor n cauz i al altor persoane care
au nevoie de protecie. n cazul existenei unui
astfel de flux de persoane strmutate Romnia
poate propune Consiliului Uniunii Europene
emiterea unei decizii prin care s se constate
existenta acestuia, propunerea n care se va
realiza o descriere a grupurilor specifice de
matter the race, nationality, language, religion,
social category, sex, sexual orientation, age,
handicap, chronic uncontagious disease, HIV
infection or birth status, material status or the status
acquired through another distinction.
2. Subsidiary protection is the form of
protection given by the Romanian state to the
foreigner or stateless person for other reasons than
the ones provided by the Convention at Geneva (art.
2, letter h from the Law 122/2006). The applicant of
this form of protection does not comply with the
conditions for admitting the status of refugee and
there are grounded reasons to believe that, in case of
sending back to the origin country, in the country of
actual residence respectively, it will be exposed to a
serious risk [7] and cannot or does not want the
protection from that country due to this risk.
The subsidiary protection stops when the
circumstances leading to it ceased to exist or have
changed to such extent that this form of protection
is no longer necessary.
These two forms of protection, the status of
refugee and subsidiary protection, may be claimed
by the family members (as provided by the art. 2
letter. j), which is on the territory of Romania, on
condition that they are not in one of the following
circumstances:
a) have committed an offence against the
peace and humanity, a crime of war or another
offence defined according to the relevant
international treaties to which Romania is part of or
other international documents that Romania has to
comply with;
b) have committed a serious common
law offence before entering on Romanias territory;
c) have committed actions against the
purposes and principles expressed in the preamble
and in the art. 1 and 2 in the United Nations
Organizations Chart;
d) is a danger for the public order and
national safety of Romania;
e) have instigated or have been
accomplices to committing the aforementioned
offences.
3. Temporary protection is an exceptional
procedure meant to provide protection, in case of a
massive flow or of a imminent massive flow [8] of
persons coming from third countries and that cannot
return to their origin country, immediate and
temporary protection actually for such persons,

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine juridice, Nr. 1/2008


Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Juridical Sciences Series, No. 1/2008

131
persoane crora li se va aplica protecia
temporar, data la care protecia temporar
intr n vigoare i o estimare a scalei de
micri ale persoanelor strmutate.
Legea 122/2006 mai prevedea, ca
form de protecie acordat strinilor,
protecia umanitar temporar [9], care se
acorda n perioadele de conflicte armate, n
care Romnia nu era angajat, pentru
persoanele care proveneau din zonele de
conflict. Aceast protecie se acorda prin
hotrre a Guvernului, elaborat de Ministerul
Administraiei i Internelor, la propunerea
Oficiului Naional pentru Refugiai, n situaia
n care se constata sau existau informaii c
din zona de conflict urmeaz s fie nregistrat
un aflux masiv i spontan de persoane care au
nevoie de protecie. Odat cu dobndirea de
ctre Romnia a statutului de stat membru al
Uniunii Europene, prevederile referitoare la
protecia umanitar temporar au fost abrogate
conform art. 151 din Legea 122/2006.
Indiferent de forma de protecie
dobndit de un strin pe teritoriul Romniei,
acestuia i revin o serie de obligaii, n esen
fiind vorba de respectarea Constituiei
Romniei, a legilor i celorlalte acte normative
emise de autoritile romne; de a avea o
conduit corect i civilizat, de a respecta
msurile stabilite de organele romne
competente n materie de refugiai i de a
rspunde la solicitrile acestora; de a respecta
regulamentele de ordine interioar din centrele
Oficiului Romn pentru Imigrri, dac este
cazat ntr-un asemenea centru; de a evita
provocarea oricror stri conflictuale sau
incidente cu populaia ori comiterea unor fapte
ce pot intra sub incidena legii penale; de a se
supune regulilor privind regimul juridic al
strinilor, n msura n care legea nu dispune
altfel.
Pentru a putea obine protecie n
Romnia, strinii trebuie s urmeze procedura
ordinar prevzut de Legea 122/2006, n
urma manifestrii de voin exprimate n faa
autoritilor competente. Din momentul
manifestrii de voin, solicitantul de azil
beneficiaz de toate drepturile i obligaiile
prevzute de lege [10]. n situaia n care pe
parcursul desfurrii acestei proceduri,
funcionarul anume desemnat constat c
cererea este nefondat, c strinul, prin
activitatea sa i prin apartenena la o anumit
grupare, prezint un pericol pentru sigurana
naional ori pentru ordinea public din
Romnia sau c strinul provine dintr-o ar
especially if there is the risk that the system of
asylum cannot process this flow without side effects
for its efficient working, to other persons interest
who need protection. In the case of such a flow of
persons moved to Romania it may propose to the
Council of the European Union to issue some
decisions for establishing its existence, the proposal
for making a description of specific groups that
shall be applied temporary protection and shall be
enforced an assessment of the scale of persons
movements.
The Law 122/2006 also provided, as a form
of protection for foreigners, temporary
humanitarian protection [9], that was granted
during armed conflicts periods, in which Romania
was not engaged, for the persons coming from
conflict areas. This protection was granted through
Government resolution, issued by the Ministry of
Administration and Interior, at the proposal of the
National Office for Refugees, if there was
established that there was information that a
massive and spontaneous flow of persons was to be
registered from the area of conflict that may require
protection. Together with acquiring the status of
member state of the European Union by Romania,
the provisions regarding the temporary
humanitarian protection have been abrogated
according to the art. 151 from the Law 122/2006.
No matter the form of protection acquired
by a foreigner on the territory of Romania, he has
certain obligations, namely the compliance with the
Constitution of Romania, the laws and other
normative documents issued by Romanian
authorities; to have a decent and civilized
behaviour, to comply with the measures established
by Romanian bodies competent in the matter of
refugees and answer to its requirements; to comply
with the internal regulations within the centres of
the Romanian Office for Immigrations, if
accommodated in such centre; to avoid causing
conflictual states or incidents with the population or
committing offences that may go under the liability
of the penal law; to obey the regulations of the
foreigners juridical status, to the extent the law
stipulates otherwise.
For being able to get protection in
Romania, foreigners have to follow the ordinary
procedure stipulated by the Law 122/2006, after
expressing the will in front of competent authorities.
From the moment of expressing the will, the

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine juridice, Nr. 1/2008


Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Juridical Sciences Series, No. 1/2008

132
sigur de origine, poate declana procedura
accelerat, cu excepia cererilor de azil ale
minorilor nensoii a cror soluionare se
realizeaz n termen de 3 zile de la declanarea
procedurii.
Cererea de azil, care se depune la
organele teritoriale ale Poliiei de Frontier
Romne dintr-un punct de control pentru
trecerea frontierei de stat, este naintat de
ndat structurii competente a Oficiului
Romn pentru Imigrri, care o analizeaz i
pronun o hotrre n termen de 3 zile de la
primire. Legea romn stabilete condiiile de
depunere a cererii de acces la o nou
procedur de azil i soluiile care pot fi date de
instana de judecat n cazul exercitrii cii de
atac. Strinul are dreptul de a rmne pe
teritoriul Romniei pn la pronunarea
instanei, hotrrea instanei prin care s-a
pronunat asupra plngerii strinului fiind
irevocabil.
Legea nr. 122/2006 stabilete i
procedura rii tere sigure [11], prin care
Oficiului Romn pentru Imigrri poate decide
retrimiterea strinului n ara ter sigur, pe
care a tranzitat-o anterior, i unde i s-a oferit
deja protecie, fr analizarea pe fond a cererii
sale. De asemenea, Oficiului Romn pentru
Imigrri poate decide s reprimeasc pe
teritoriul rii strini n situaiile n care
Romnia este declarat de statul solicitant ar
ter sigur pentru acetia. De la data aderrii
Romniei la Uniunea European, procedura
rii tere sigure nu se mai aplic n cazul
statelor membre ale Uniunii Europene ori al
altor state care au convenit printr-un acord
special participarea la mecanismul de
determinare a statului responsabil. Potrivit
acestui mecanism, unui solicitant de azil i se
poate refuza accesul la procedura de azil n
Romnia dac, n conformitate cu conveniile
sau directivele Uniunii Europene, un alt stat
este responsabil pentru examinarea cererii de
azil.
Persoana care a fost recunoscut ca
refugiat sau creia i s-a acordat protecie
subsidiar este protejat mpotriva expulzrii,
extrdrii ori returnrii [12] n ara de origine
sau n orice stat n care viaa ori libertatea sa
ar fi pus n pericol sau n care ar fi supus la
torturi, tratamente inumane ori degradante.
Totui, aceste persoane pot fi ndeprtate de pe
teritoriul Romniei dac exist motive
temeinice s fie considerate un pericol la
adresa securitii statului romn sau, fiind
condamnate pentru o infraciune grav printr-o
asylum applicant benefits of all the rights and
obligations provided by the law [10]. If during this
procedure, the officer expressly appointed
establishes the that the request is not grounded, that
the foreigner, through its activity and by belonging
to a certain group, is a danger for the national safety
or for the public order in Romania and that the
foreigner comes from a safe country of origin may
initiate the accelerated procedure, with the
exception of the asylum request for the minor
children not accompanied by anyone, whose
solution shall be made within 3 days from initiating
the procedure.
The asylum request, which shall be
submitted at the territorial bodies of the Romanian
Border Police from a point of control for passing the
state border, shall be immediately handed to the
competent structure of the Romanian Office for
Immigrations that analyzes it and sentences a
decision within 3 days from reception. The
Romanian Law establishes the conditions for
submitting the access application for a new
procedure of asylum in case of exercising the way
of attack. The foreigner is entitled to remain on
Romanian territory until the sentence is given, the
decision of the court through which the foreigner
complaint was irrevocable.
The Law nr. 122/2006 establishes the
procedure of the safe country [11], through which
the Romanian Office for Immigrations may decide
to resend the foreigner to the safe third country, he
passed through previously and where he had
already been offered protection, without analyzing
his request on the ground. Also, the Romanian
Office for Immigrations may decide to receive
foreigners again on the Romanian territory if
Romania is declared safe third country for then by
the applicant state. Since Romanias adhesion to the
European Union, the procedure of safe third country
has not applied for member states of the European
Union or to other states that have especially
mutually agreed to participate to the mechanism of
establishing the liable state. According to this
mechanism, an asylum applicant may be refused
the access to the asylum procedure in Romania if, in
compliance with the conventions or the directives of
the European Union, another state is responsible for
examining the request for asylum.
The person admitted as refugee or which
has received subsidiary protection is protected

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine juridice, Nr. 1/2008


Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Juridical Sciences Series, No. 1/2008

133
hotrre definitiv, constituie un pericol la
adresa ordinii publice din Romnia.
Strinul care pierde statutul de refugiat
(prin ncetare sau anulare), conform art. 98 i
art. 100 din Legea 122/2006, se supune
prevederilor legale privind regimul juridic al
strinilor n Romnia. n scopul armonizrii
legislaiei romne n domeniul azilului cu
legislaiile rilor membre ale Uniunii
Europene, Legea 122/2006 a extins posibi-
litatea acordrii, la cerere, a statutului de
refugiat i copiilor minori din cstoriile
ncheiate dup intrarea pe teritoriul Romniei,
din afara cstoriei sau adoptai de
beneficiarul principal al formei de protecie.
n prezent, Romnia a reuit s rezolve
n mare chestiunea reglementrii procedurii de
azil i a drepturilor de care se bucur
solicitanii de azil, refugiaii i persoanele care
au primit protecie subsidiar. Trebuiesc ns
dezvoltate n continuare forme specializate de
asisten din partea autoritilor pentru
integrarea n societate a strinilor care au
primit protecie n Romnia. Aceasta nseamn
derularea concret a unor programe de
pregtire profesional i sprijin concret pentru
gsirea unui loc de munc, a unei locuine etc,
dar i cursuri de pregtire a funcionarilor
publici privind comunicarea intercultural.
Refugiaii ar trebui n mod normal s
aib alt statut dect restul strinilor n ceea ce
privete dreptul de a obine cetenia romn
i asta datorit situaiei lor speciale. n acest
moment, refugiaii trebuie s atepte tot opt
ani [13] (sau cinci n cazul cstoriei cu un
cetean romn) pentru obinerea ceteniei
romne. Statisticile arat c n ultimii 15 ani,
numai circa 20 de refugiai au reuit s obin
cetenia romn. Prevederile articolului 34
din Convenia de la Geneva privind statutul
refugiailor spun c statele contractante vor
facilita, pe ct posibil, asimilarea i
naturalizarea refugiailor. Ele se vor strdui, n
special, s accelereze procedura de
naturalizare i de reducere, pe ct posibil, a
taxelor i costurilor acestei proceduri.

[1] I. Deak, Ph.L. Jessup, A Collection of Neutrality
Laws, Regulations and Treaties of Various Countries,
vol. I, Washington 1939, p. 210.
[2] G.S. Goodwin-Gill, International Law an Movement
of Persons between States, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1978,
p. 10.
[3] C. Vincenzi, D. Marrington, Immigration Law: The
Rules Explained, London. Sweet/Maxwell, 1992. p. 27.
[4] Publicat n M.onitorul Oficial nr. 428 din 18 mai 2006.
[5] A intrat n vigoare la 4 august 2006.Ulterior,
against expulsion, extradition or sending back [12]
to the origin country where its life or freedom might
be endangered or undergo tortures, inhuman or
degrading treatments. Still, these persons may be
alienated from Romania if there are solid reasons to
be considered a danger for the safety of the
Romanian state, being convicted for a serious
offence though an irrevocable resolution is a danger
for the public order in Romania.
The foreigner loosing the status of refugee
(through ceasing or cancellation), according to the
art. 98 and art. 100 of the Law 122/2006, shall be
regulated by the legal provisions regarding the
foreigners juridical status in Romania. For
harmonizing the Romanian legislation in the field of
asylum with the legislations of European Union
member states, the Law 122/2006 has extended the
possibility of granting, at request, the status of
refugee to the minor children coming from
marriages concluded after entering the Romanian
territory, outside the marriage or adopted by the
main beneficiary of the protection form.
At present, Romania has managed to solve
the problem of regulating the procedure of asylum
and the rights of the asylum applicants, refugees and
persons receiving subsidiary protection. Specialized
forms of assistance have to be developed next by
the authorities for integrating foreigners receiving
protection in Romania into the society. This means
actual development of professional training
programs and actual support for finding a job, a
place to live etc, as well as training courses for
public officers regarding intercultural
communication.
Refugees should normally have another
status in comparison with the rest of the foreigners
regarding the right to get Romanian citizenship and
this because their special status. Currently, refugees
have to wait eight years [13] (or five in the case of
marriage to a Romanian citizen) for getting
Romanian citizenship. Statistics indicate that for the
last fifteen years, only approximately 20 refugees
have managed to get Romanian citizenship. The
provisions of the article 34 from the Convention at
Geneva regarding the refugees status say that
contracting states shall facilitate, as possible, the
assimilation and naturalization and reduction, as
possible of taxes and costs for this procedure.

[1] I. Deak, Ph.L. Jessup, A Collection of Neutrality

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine juridice, Nr. 1/2008


Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Juridical Sciences Series, No. 1/2008

134
legea a fost modificat prin prin Ordonana de
Urgen nr. 55/2007 privind nfiinarea Oficiului
Romn pentru Imigrri prin reorganizarea Autoritii
pentru strini i a Oficiului Naional pentru Refugiai,
precum i modificarea i completarea unor acte
normative (M.Of. nr. 424 din 26 iunie 2007) i prin
Legea nr. 347/2007 pentru aprobarea Ordonanei de
Urgen a Guvernului nr. 55/2007 (M.Of.Nr.851 din 12
decembrie 2007).
[6] Cerere de azi l , solicitant de azil, procedura de
azil, protecia subsidiar etc.
[7] Conform art. 26 alin. 2 din Legea 122/2006, prin
risc serios se nelege: a) condamnarea la pedeapsa cu
moartea sau executarea unei astfel de pedepse; b)
tortura, tratamente sau pedepse inumane ori degradante;
sau c) o ameninare serioas, individual, la adresa
vieii sau integritii, ca urmare a violenei
generalizate n situaii de conflict armat intern sau
internaional, dac solicitantul face parte din
populaia civil.
[8] Prin flux masiv se nelege sosirea n Uniunea
European a unui numr mare de persoane strmutate
care vin dintr-o ar sau zon geografic specific,
indiferent dac sosirea lor n Uniunea European a
fost spontan sau ajutat (art. 2, lit. m din Legea
122/2006).
[9] Articolele 29-33 din Legea 122/2006.
[10] Conform art. 20-21 din Legea 122/2006.
[11] Sunt considerate ri tere sigure statele membre
ale Uniunii Europene, precum i alte state stabilite prin
ordin al ministrului internelor i reformei
administrative la propunerea Oficiului Romn pentru
Imigrri, cu respectarea urmtoarelor condiii: a) pe
teritoriile lor, viaa sau libertatea solicitantului nu
este i nu va fi ameninat, n sensul art. 33 din
Convenia de la Geneva; b) pe teritoriile lor
strinul nu risc s fie supus torturii sau
tratamentelor inumane ori degradante; c) n rile
respective strinului i se asigur protecie efectiv
mpotriva returnrii n ara de origine, n sensul
prevederilor Conveniei de la Geneva, precum i n
baza informrilor efectuate de naltul Comisariat al
Naiunilor Unite pentru Refugiai (UNHCR) cu
privire la practica aplicrii principiului returnrii.
[12] Cu excepia cazurilor prevzute de art. 44 din
Legea nr. 535/2004 privind prevenirea i combaterea
terorismului.
[13] Art. 8 din Legea nr. 21/1991a ceteniei romne,
modificat prin Ordonana de Urgen a Guvernului nr.
43/2003 pentru modificarea i completarea Legii
21/1991.






Laws, Regulations and Treaties of Various Countries,
vol. I, Washington 1939, p. 210.
[2] G.S. Goodwin-Gill, International Law for Movement
of Persons between States, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1978,
p. 10.
[3] C. Vincenzi, D. Marrington, Immigration Law: The
Rules Explained, London. Sweet/Maxwell, 1992. p. 27.
[4] Published in the Official Gazette no. 428 from 18
th
of
May 2006.
[5] Enforced on 4
th
of August 2006. Later on, the law was
altered through the Emergency Ordinance no. 55/2007
regarding the establishment of the Romanian Office for
Immigrations through the reorganization of the Authority
for foreigners and the National Office for Refugees, as
well as by altering and completing some normative acts
(M.Of. nr. 424 from 26
th
of June 2007) and through the
Law no. 347/2007 for approving the Government
Ordinance of Emergency nr. 55/2007 (M.Of.Nr.851 from
12
th
of December 2007).
[6] Asylum request, asylum applicant, asylum procedure,
subsidiary protection etc.
[7] According to the art. 26 par. 2 of the Law 122/2006,
through serious risk we understand: a) sentence to a death
penalty or executing such penalty; b) torture, inhuman or
degrading treatments or penalties; or c) a serious,
individual threat upon the life or integrity, due to the
generalized violence in cases of internal or international
armed conflict, if the applicant is part of civil population.
[8] Massive flow means the entrance into the European
Union of a high number of persons moved from a specific
country or geographic area, no matter whether their arrival
into the European Union was spontaneous or supported
(art. 2, lit. m of the Law 122/2006).
[9] Articles 29-33 of the law 122/2006.
[10] According to the art. 20-21 of the Law 122/2006.

[11] Safe third countries are considered the member states
of the European Union, as well as other states established
through the order of the ministry of interior and
administrative reform at the proposal of the Romanian
Office for Immigrations, by complying with the following
conditions: a) on their territories, the applicants life or
freedom is not and shall not be threatened, within the
meaning of the art. 33 in the Convention from Geneva; b)
on their territories the foreigner does not take the risk of
being subdued to torture or inhuman or degrading
treatments; c) in the respective countries the foreigner
receives actual protection against being sent back to its
origin country, within the meaning of the Convention at
Geneva, as well as on the basis of the information given
by the High Commisariate of the United Nations for
Refugees (UNHCR) regarding the practice of enforcing
the principle of sending back.
[12] Except for the cases provided by the art. 44 of the
Law nr. 535/2004 regarding the terrorism prevention and
fight.
[13] Art. 8 of the Law nr. 21/1991 of Romanian
citizenship, as altered though the Government
Emergency Ordinance nr. 43/2003 for altering and
completing the Law 21/1991.