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# Construction Engineering Formula Cheat Sheet

## Earthwork Construction and Layout

Basic Conversions
1 cubic yard = 27 cubic feet
Basic must know properties
Density of Water = 62.42 pounds per CF (pcf), 1,000 !"iter = 1,000#!\$
%
&cono\$ic 'au" Distance( )are Do*er up to %00 ft( +craper %00 , -00 ft( .ruc#s / -00 ft
&0ca1ation and e\$ban#\$ent
2enera" .rape*oida" For\$u"a3 4rea = (50!2 6 51 6 52 6 76 5(n81) 6 5n!2) 0 9
41erae end area :et5od = ; = ((41642)!2) < )
=ris\$oida" :et5od = ;p = )<(41644:642) ! 6
=yra\$id :et5od = ; = 4) ! %
>orro9 =it ;o"u\$es
Conica" +poi" =i"e = ;o" = (4b 0 ') ! %( D = (7.64; ! tan )
1!%
( ' = (D!2) tan (95ere 4b=base area(
'=pi"e 5ei5t(D=dia\$eter( = an"e of repose (de)
.rianu"ar +poi" >an# = ;o" = Cross section 4rea 0 ) ( > = (4;!() 0 tan )
1!%
( ' = (> 0 tan ) ! 2 ( ;= pi"e 1o"u\$e( >=
base 9idt5 ( ' = pi"e 5t( ) = pi"e "ent5 ( = an"e of repose (de)
Density of Water = ?
9ater
= :
9
!;
9

:oisture Content (9) = :
9
!:
s
Deree of +aturation (+) = ;
9
!;
1

.ota" or Wet Density of +oi" (?
9et
) = :!; 95ere :

= :
9
6 :
s (
; = ;
9
6 ;
s
6 ;
a
Density of +o"ids = :
s
!;
s

+pecific 2ra1ity = 2
s
= ?
so"ids
!?
9ater ( or =
:
s
!(;
s
< ?
9ater
)
=orosity (n) = ;
1
!;
t (
;
1
= ;o"u\$e of ;oids = ;
9
6 ;
a
( ;
t
= .ota" ;o"u\$e = ;
s
6;
9
6 ;
a

;oid @atio (e) = ;
1
!;
s

Dry Density of +oi" (?
dry
) = :
s
!;
Dry Density of +oi" (?
dry
) = ?
9et
! (169)( (?
dry
) = (?
9ater
<2
s
) ! (16(9!+)<2
s
)
(?
dry
)=(?
9ater
< 2
s
)!(16e)
+pecific 2ra1ity = +

< e = 2
s
< 9
=orosity (n) = e!(16e)
;oid @atio (e) = n!(18n)
;
Co\$pacted
= ;
>an#ed
(1 , +'@ABC42&)
;
)oose
= ;
>an#ed
(16+W&)))
+9e"" D = ((D> , D)) ! D)) 0 100 ( +9e"" = (D> , D))!D)
+5rin#ae D = ((DC , D>) ! D)) 0 100 ( +5rin#ae = (DC , D>)!D)
D) = Dry )oose unit 9t (pcf) ( D> = Dry >an# unit 9t (pcf) ( DC = Dry co\$pacted unit 9t(pcf)
;"oose = ;c (16+9"")!(18 +5rin#ae) ( ;ban# = ;c ! (18+5rin#ae)
+ite )ayout and Contro"
'ei5t of Anstru\$ent ('A) = Cno9n e"e1ation 6 >ac#si5t (>+)
.urnin =oint (.=) = 'ei5t of Anstru\$ent ('A) , Foresi5t (F+)
.riono\$etric )e1e"in &"e1ation at un#no9n "ocation = e"e1ation at #no9n 6 'A 6 (s"ope distance sin (an"e of
s"ope)) , distance fro\$ #no9n to un#no9n "ocation
.ra1erse 4rea3 :et5od of Coordinates .5e area is 4 = E (+u\$ of fu"" "ine products , +u\$ of bro#en "ine products)
&art59or# :ass Diara\$s
@isin section = cut( Fa""in section = fi""( *ero s"ope = \$o1in fro\$ cut to fi"" or 1ice 1ersa
Estimating Quantities and Cost
Quantity take-off methods
.renc5in3 >e carefu" to fu""y understand 95at t5e di\$ensions represent, Fse 5ori*onta" An8An and ;ertica" Gut8Gut
&sti\$atin H bric#s in 9a"" 3 net 9a"" (sf) = 2ross surface 4rea of Wa"" (sf) , 4rea of open surface (sf) t5en find
surface area of bric# 9it5 \$ortar (sf) (net 9a"" ! +4 of one bric#) 0 H ro9s = bric#s in 9a""
;o"u\$e of \$ortar per bric# = (\$ortar t5ic#ness)(bric# 9idt5)("ent5 6 5ei5t 6 \$ortar t5ic#ness)
>oard feet = .5ic#ness(in) 0 Widt5 (in) 0 )ent5 (in) ! 144
@ebar = W5en findin t5e nu\$ber of rebar bars in 9a"" = (t5e "ent5 of 9a"" ! spacin of bars) 6 1
Cost esti\$atin
&nineerin econo\$ics
=resent!Future ;a"ue3 F= =(16i)
n
or = = F! (16i)
n
(
i= (F!=)
1!n
, 1
+eries =ay\$ent 3 ==4I(16i)
n
8 1J!IA (16i)
n
J ( F=4I(16i)
n
8 1J!IiJ
Future!=resent ;a"ue and 4rit5\$etic radient3 F=2!iI((16i)
n
8 1)!i)8nJ ( ==2(i(16i)
n
8 iB 8 1)!(i
2
(16i)
n
J
Depreciation3
+trai5t )ine :et5od 3 Dn = (Anitia" Cost , +a"1ae ;a"ue)! B
+u\$ of t5e years Diit :et5od3 Dn = (n
2
6 n)! 2
Dec"inin ba"ance :et5od3 Dn = 2 0 (1!n)
Construction Operations and ethods
)iftin and @iin
+o"1e for Center of 2ra1ity3 40 = (41)(01) 6 (42)(02) 6 7 6 (4n)(0n) ( 95ere 4= .ota" 4rea
0 = distance to t5e Co2 in t5e 0 direction, 41 and 42 = 4rea!;o"u\$e or :ass( 01 and 02 = distance to t5e Co2

Crane se"ection erection and stabi"ity
Crane +tabi"ity3 Factor of +afety aainst topp"in = @esistin \$o\$ent ! .opp"in \$o\$ent
.opp"in :o\$ent = (Wei5t of )oad(W))) 0 (Distance fro\$ topp"in pt to )oad)())) 6 Wei5t of boo\$(W>) 0
Distance to Center of >oo\$()>)
@esistin :o\$ent = = (Wei5t of Counter Wei5t (WC)) 0 (Distance fro\$ topp"in pt to Counter9ei5t)()C) 6 Wei5t
of Crane >ody(W2) 0 Distance to Center of Crane >ody()2)
De9aterin and =u\$pin
&Kuip\$ent =roduction
Do*er3 .ota" .i\$e = L ! (= 0 B) 3 L = Luantity of \$ateria" to be \$o1ed( = = 5our"y production rate per do*er( B =
Bu\$ber of Do*ers
2rader3 .ota" .i\$e = (= 0 D) ! (+ 0 &)3 == nu\$ber of passes reKuired( D = distance tra1e"ed in eac5 pass, in \$i"es or
feet( + = speed of rader, in \$p5 or fp\$ (\$u"tip"y \$p5 by MM to con1ert to fp\$( & = efficiency factor
+craper3 .ota" ti\$e (5ours) = L ! = 0 B L = tota" 1o"u\$e to \$o1e(>CN), = = 5our"y production rate (>CN!5r), B =
nu\$ber of scrapers
)oader3 :a0i\$u\$ production rate ()CN per 5our) = 5eaped buc#et capacity 0 buc#et fi"" factor 0 60 \$inutes! "oader
cyc"e ti\$e (\$in) Bet production rate ()CN per 5our) = \$a0i\$u\$ production rate ()CN per 5our) 0 efficiency factor
&0ca1ator3 K = ((%600 sec!5our 0 > 0 & 0 =)! C) 0 ;o"u\$e Correction K = ;o"u\$e of soi" e0ca1ated and du\$ped in a
truc# by t5e e0ca1ator (CN!5r), > = >uc#et struc# capacity (CN), & = >uc#et efficiency factor, = = =roducti1ity factor,
C = Cyc"e ti\$e for O0 deree an"e and opti\$u\$ dept5
Co\$pactor3 =roduction (CCN per 5our) = (16.% 0 W 0 + 0 ) 0 &) ! B W = co\$pacted 9idt5 per pass (in feet), + =
co\$pactor speed(\$p5), )= co\$pacted "ift t5ic#ness(in), & = efficiency, B = nu\$ber of passes reKuired
Co\$pactor3 Co\$pactors reKuired = FD 0 +CF ! C= FD = a\$ount of fi"" de"i1ered ()CN per 5our), +CF = soi"
con1ersion factor ()CN3>CN), C= = co\$pactor production (CCN per 5our)
Du\$p .ruc#3 Bu\$ber of truc#s reKuired = 1 6 truc# cyc"e ti\$e (\$inutes) ! "oader cyc"e ti\$e (\$inutes)
=roducti1ity ana"ysis and i\$pro1e\$ents
.e\$porary &rosion Contro"
A;. +c5edu"in (17.-D3 P7 4fternoon Kuestions and 1!2 \$ornin)
< Construction +eKuencin
C=: Bet9or# 4na"ysis
4cti1ity .i\$e 4na"ysis
< @esource +c5edu"in
;. :ateria" Lua"ity Contro" and =roduction(10D3 4 4fternoon Kuestions and 1 \$ornin)
< :ateria" .estin (e. concrete, soi"s, asp5a"t)
We"din and >o"tin .estin
Lua"ity Contro" =rocess (L4!LC)
Concrete :i0 Desin 8 (LQ4)
;A. .e\$porary +tructures (12.-D3 P - 4fternoon Kuestions and 1 \$ornin)
For\$9or#
Fa"se9or# and +caffo"din
+5orin and @es5orin
Concrete \$aturity and ear"y strent5 e1a"uation
>racin
4nc5orae
Cofferda\$ (syste\$s for te\$porary e0ca1ation support)
Codes and standards (e.. 4\$erican +ociety of Ci1i" &nineers(4+C&%7), 4\$erican Concrete Anstitute(4CA %47), 4\$erican Forest and =aper
4ssociation , BD+, :asonry Wa"" >racin +tandard)
;AA. Wor#er 'ea"t5, +afety, and &n1iron\$ent (7.-D3 P% 4fternoon Kuestions)
G+'4 @eu"ations
+afety :anae\$ent
+afety +tatistics (e.., incident rate, &:@)
;AAA. Gt5er .opics (10D3 P4 4fternoon Kuestions)
.5ese topics are actua""y so\$e of t5e dept5 sections for t5e ot5er &nineerin \$odu"es. 4s you can see t5ere is a "ot of \$ateria" to study for Rust four
Kuestions t5at 9i"" be as#ed. .5ese t5ins are 9ort5 "oo#in o1er but A 9ou"dnSt spend to \$uc5 ti\$e studyin t5ese sections.
2round9ater and 9e"" fie"ds (2round9ater contro" inc"udin drainae, Construction De9aterin)
+ubsurface e0p"oration and sa\$p"in (dri""in and sa\$p"in procedures)
&art5 retainin structures (a. :ec5anica""y stabi"i*ed eart5 9a"", b. +oi" and roc# anc5ors)
Deep foundations (a. =i"e "oad test, b. =i"e insta""ation)