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Lecture Notes 05/07/2005 Session 3

Textile fibre: Fibres may be defined as units of mater characterised by fineness, flexibility and a high ratio of
length to thickness. In order to be of us as textiles, the fibres must also have sufficiently high temperature
stability and a certain minimum strength, extensibility elasticity and moisture content. The length to thickness
ratio should be at least about 1000:1
Staple fibre: Fibres, Natural or man made, which are of fibres limited length are called staple fibre. The
natural staple fibres are variable in length while the man-made fibres have a much less variable Cut-Length
Filament: A fibre of indefinite length is called filament
Yarn: A product of indefinite length or substantial length and relatively small cross-section consisting of fibres
or one or more filaments and with or without twist
Continuous filament yarn: An assembly of one or more filaments run whole length of the yarn
Monofilament yarn: A yarn that consists of only one filament. It is normally thicker than an individual
filament in a multifilament yarn.
Multifilament yarn: A continuous filament yarn consisting of more than one filament.
Fabric: A manufactured assembly of fibres and/or yarns, which has substantial surface area in relation to its
thickness and sufficient mechanical strength and drapability.
Woven fabric: a fabric co9nsisting of yarns interlacing each other generally at right angles to each other. The
interlacing yarns are known as warp and weft.
Knitted fabric: A fabric made up of loops of one or more threads, the loops enmeshing with each other
Non-woven fabric: In general, a textile fabric structure made directly from fibre rather than yarn

Relationship among fibre, yarn and fabric structure and properties

The Chemical structure and the molecular arrangements in a fibre lead to its properties. The properties of a
fibre taken together with the structure of the yarn into on which it is made leads to yarn behaviour or yarn
properties. The yarn properties taken together with the structure of the fabric into which yarn is made leads to
the fabric behaviour or fabric properties. The fabric properties lead finally to the end use performance of the
fabric. It is thus possible to manufacture a fabric to meet a desired end use, by choosing the correct fibre, the
correct yarn and fabric structure. In case of man made fibre it is possible to chose also the correct monomer
and process conditions to get a fibre structure with the desired properties.

Introduction to Weaving : Refer Principles of Weaving Marks and Robinsion