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Topic 2a: Authority vs Power as applied to SC & PR Perspectives

Authority
o According to Henri Fayol, "Authority is the right to give orders and power to
exact (get) obedience."
o Authority is the right given to a manager to achieve the objectives of the
organisation. It is a right to get the things done through others. It is a right to take
decisions. It is a right to give orders to the subordinates and to get obedience
from them. A manager cannot do his work without authority.
o Authority always flows downwards. It is delegated from the top to the bottom.
A manager gets his authority from his position or post. He gets his authority
from the higher authorities. The lower and middle-level managers get their
authority from the top-level managers. The top-level managers get their
authority from the shareholders.
o Delegated authority - Process of transferring authority and creation of
responsibility between superior and subordinates to accomplish a certain task.
o Must be delegated with responsibilities (work tasks)
Delegatees must be responsible for their responsibilities
responsible obliged to fin the job & deliver the result to the best of
your ability
responsibilities assigned tasks/jobs
o Delegatee must be accountable for results of tasks To be answerable for your
action. To be justify for every actions.
o Managers have right to direct / command
Resulting behaviour? (compliance / obedience)
Power (define fully then explain characteristics)
o the ability of a person or a group to influence the beliefs and actions of other
people. It is the ability to influence events. Power can be personal power. A
person gets his personal power from his personality or from his expert knowledge.
Doctors, Lawyers, Engineers, Programmers, etc. get their power from their
expertise and professional knowledge. Power can also be legitimate or official
power. This power comes from a higher authority.
o Inherited with the position
o Cannot be delegated
o Instead of directing or commanding behaviour behaviour is influenced (why is
this better in PR perspective?)
Instead of compliance/obedience, buy-in and sharing of leaders vision is
achieved
Followers then belief in what they do. (empowerment)
Tasks are then carried out more willingly reflects in the quality of work
performance


Both authority and power are aimed at behavioural control of employees











The PR perspective tends to
control behaviour by addressing
the causes of behaviour by
influencing employees thought
and emotional processes [which
requires a deep understanding of
that person(s)]
This approach is more lasting as
individuals involved have altered
their thought and emotional
processes and are able to control
it by themselves
Use of influence usually leads to
belief
The SC perspective traditionally
controlled behaviour by
rewarding appropriate / desired
behaviour and punishing
inappropriate / undesirable
behaviour.
This approach is temporary as the
control factor is external (i.e. it is
not internalised and therefore
there is little belief in what they do)
An overuse of punishment may
lead to resentment


Behaviour
(effect) / (ends)

Physical &
Others

Thoughts

Emotions

All the above are means
(or affects / causes)

Organizational politics (related to PR perspective)

o Define what it is all about
Imbalance or uneven distribution of power
Informal approaches to gaining power through means other than merit or
luck
o Explain why it happens
o Struggle for power either directly or indirectly,
e.g., by being promoted, receiving a larger budget or other resources, or
gaining desirable assignments.
o Subjective standards of performance:
People often resort to organizational politics because they do not believe that the
organization has an objective and fair way of judging their performance and suit-
ability for promotion. Similarly, when managers have no objective way of differ-
entiating effective people from the less effective, they will resort to favoritism.
o What are the negative impacts
o Representative of the dark side of human conduct.
Organizational politics has been considered almost synonymous with
manipulation, coercive influence tactics, and other subversive and semi-
legal actions
led to the assumption that organizational politics contradicts the common
good of the organization and may damage performance at any level (i.e.,
individual, team,unit, or system)
o Divisiveness,
they can result in a lack of harmony and cooperation in the workplace.
The result can be employees who don't work well together simply because
they hold incompatible political viewpoints.

o How to handle organizational politics?
Strict chain of command
Build rships to empower followers
Build rships based on trust
Leader must be seen as fair and equitable (no favoritism)


Strategies and Tactics Aimed at Building Relationships. Much of organizational politics involves
building positive relationships with network members who can be helpful now or later. This network
includes superiors, subordinates, other lower-ranking people, coworkers, external customers, and
suppliers. The following are several representative strategies and tactics:
6. Provide Favors and Develop Ingratiation. A skillful leader always has a positive balance of
favors given, and can draw on that balance when something is needed in return.
7. Display Loyalty. A loyal worker is valued because organizations prosper more with loyal than
with disloyal employees. Blind loyalty--the belief that the organization cannot make a mistake--is
not called for; most rational organizations welcome constructive criticism. An obvious form of
loyalty to the organization is longevity, although its value varies.
8. Develop a Reputation as a Subject Matter Expert. Expertise is one of the major sources of
power. Others come to and ask help from an expert.
9. Rational Persuasion. Using this form of influence helps create an impression that you are
reasonable and fair, and also avoids creating resentment that can result from heavy-handed
influence tactics.
10. Manage Impressions of You. Impression management includes behaviors directed at
enhancing one's image by drawing positive attention to oneself. Although this can deal with
clothing and grooming, it also deals with deeper aspects of behavior, such as speaking well and
presenting one's ideas coherently. Another part of impression management is to tell people about
your success or imply that you are an "insider."
11. Bring in Outside Experts for Support. To help legitimate their positions, executives will often hire
a consultant to conduct a study or cast an opinion. One possible problem to avoid is that,
consciously or unconsciously, some consultants may slant things to support the executive's posi-
tion. This tactic would be considered unethical if the executive is intentionally seeking a non-
objective opinion.
12. Consult With and Ask Advice of Others. Consulting with others, even when not required, helps
build support for a decision or action. Consulting and asking advice on work-related topics builds
relationships with other employees. Asking another person for advice--someone whose job does
not require giving it--will usually be perceived as a compliment, and asking advice transmits a
message of trust in the other person's judgment.
13. Ask Satisfied Customers to Contact your Boss. A favorable comment by a customer receives
considerable weight because customer satisfaction is a top corporate priority. If a customer says
something nice, the comment will carry more weight than one from a coworker or subordinate.
14. Be Courteous, Pleasant, and Positive. It has been argued that courteous, pleasant, and
positive people are the first to be hired and the last to be fired (assuming they also have other
important qualifications).
15. Send Thank-you Notes to Large Numbers of People. One of the most basic political tactics,
sending thank-you notes profusely, is simply an application of sound human relations. Many
successful people take the time to send handwritten notes to employees and customers to help
create a bond with those people.
16. Flatter Others Sensibly. Flattery in the form of sincere, specific praise can be an effective
relationship builder. By being generous in your positive feedback and comments, you can build
relationships with work associates and make them more receptive to your ideas.
17. Develop Coalitions. Sometimes coalitions are initiated by less powerful actors who seek the
support of others. At other times they may be developed by the powerful to consolidate their
power. Whether formal or informal, confined to the organization or extended to include key
interests outside, coalitions and interest groups often provide important means of securing desired
ends.