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UNIVERSITATEA DIN BUCURETI

DEPARTAMENTUL DE NVMNT LA DISTAN


CREDIS
ION IONESCU AUREL GHEORGHILA
FACULTATEA DE GEOGRAFIE


















Acest material este destinat uzulului studenilor Universitii
din Bucureti, forma de nvmnt la distan.
Coninutul cursului este proprietatea intelectual a
autorului/autorilor; designul, machetarea i transpunerea n
format electronic aparin Departamentului de nvmnt la
Distan al Universitii din Bucureti.














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INTRODUCERE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
CAPITOLUL I. DEZVOLTAREA MANAGEMENTULUI MODERN
1.1. coli contempo!ne "e #$n"ie m!n!#ei!l% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . &
1.2. Concepte 'i "e(inii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . )
1.*. E(icien+! m!n!#ement,l,i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-
1... M!n!#ement,l (imei /ecol,l,i 00I 'i pincipiile m!n!#ement,l,i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.5. C,lt,! o#!ni1!+ion!l% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.
CAPITOLUL II. 2UNC3IILE MANAGEMENTULUI
2.1. 2,nc+i! "e o#!ni1!e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-
2.2. 2,nc+i! "e coo"on!e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.
2.*. 2,nc+i! "e pe4i1i,ne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.*.1. Pe4i1i,ne! c! (,nc+ie !
m!n!#ement,l,i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
2.*.2. Po#no1! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *1
2.*.*. Pl!ni(ic!e! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *2
2.*... Po#!m!e! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *5
2... 2,nc+i! "e moti4!e 'i !nten!e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *5
2...1. Moti4!e! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *5
2...2. Anten!e! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *6
2.5. 2,nc+i! "e contol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-
CAPITOLUL III. PROCE7UL DECIZIONAL 8N MANAGEMENT
*.1. C!!ctei/ticile "eci1iei . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
*.2. Tipolo#ii !le "eci1iilo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .&
*.*. Elemente !le poce/,l,i "eci1ion!l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
*... Mo"ele "eci1ion!le . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-
*.5. Et!pele poce/,l,i "eci1ion!l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
*.&. 2!ctoii c!e in(l,en+e!1% poce/,l "eci1ion!l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
*.5. Pincip!lii p!'i 9n el!:o!e!
"eci1iilo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55
*.). E(ic!cit!te! "eci1iilo m!n!#ei!le . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5)
*.6. Deci1i! /t!te#ic% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
CAPITOLUL IV. CALITATEA DE MANAGER I ACTIVIT;3ILE MANAGERIALE
..1. Con/i"e!+ii #ene!le . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . &2
..2. Rol,ile 'i !ptit,"inile m!n!#e,l,i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . &2
..*. Compot!ment,l< competen+! 'i !,toit!te! m!n!#e,l,i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . &.
.... Pe/on!lit!te! m!n!#e,l,i. Tip,i "e m!n!#ei . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . &5
..5. 7til,i "e con",cee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . &&
..&. Acti4it%+i m!n!#ei!le . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5*
..5. 7t!te#ii m!n!#ei!le . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
CAPITOLUL V. METODE MODERNE DE CONDUCERE
5.1. M!n!#ement,l pin poiecte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . )1
5.2. M!n!#ement,l pin e=cep+ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ).
5.*. M!n!#ement,l pin o:iecti4e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . )6
*
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5... Meto"! "e con",cee pin 'e"in+% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
5.5. Meto"! "e con",cee pin po",/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
5.&. M!n!#ement,l pin "i!#no/tic!e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
5.5. M!n!#ement,l pin
"ele#!e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65
5.). M!n!#ement,l pin t!:lo,l "e :o" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6)
5.6. Meto"! "e con",cee pe :!1% "e e1,lt!te . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
5.1-. M!n!#ement,l :!1!t pe moti4!+ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
5.11. M!n!#ement,l :!1!t pe !:oele "eci1ion!l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-
.
>I>LIOGRA2IE 7ELECTIV; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-
5
ANE0E
1. Li/t! "oc,mentelo 9ntocmite "e po#!m,l
"iecto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-
6
2. 7!cinile con/ili,l,i con/,lt!ti4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
-
*. Acti4it!te! "e pe/on!l< 9n4%+%m$nt< /!l!i1!e< o#!ni1!e 'i potec+i! m,ncii . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1
.. Li/t! "oc,mentelo 9ntocmit% "e comp!timent,l pe/on!l< 9n4%+%m$nt< /!l!i1!e< o#!ni1!e
'i potec+i! m,ncii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
*
5. e( comp!timent pe/on!l< 9n4%+%m$nt< /!l!i1!e< o#!ni1!e 'i potec+i! m,ncii . . . . . . . . . . 11
.
&. Acti4it!te! "e potocol< po:leme !"mini/t!ti4 ? #o/po"%e'ti< /ecet!i!t 'i potec+i!
me"i,l,i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5
5. Acti4it!te! @,i"ic% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5
). e( cent, Ao(ici,B "e c!lc,lC !ti:,+ii< competen+e< e/pon/!:ilit%+i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
)
6. Cont!ct,l "e m!n!#ement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6
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INTRODUCERE
L,c!e! "e (!+% 9'i pop,ne /% pe1inte no+i,ni #ene!le le#!te "e 'tiin+! con",ceii
9ntepin"eii "e /e4icii< 9n #ene!l< 'i "e 9ntepin"ee! "e /e4icii t,i/tice< 9n /peci!l<
:!1$n",D/e pe teoiile !ct,!le 9n e4ol,+ie< "en,mite #eneic ? m!n!#ement. De/(%',!e!
celo cinci teme #ene!le !cope% no+i,nile (,n"!ment!le< pincipiile 'i (,nc+iile
m!n!#ement,l,i< 'colile e,opene 'i "in 9nte!#! l,me< pec,m 'i ,nele conti:,+ii om$ne'ti
9n !ce/t "omeni,.
M!n!#e,l contempo!n 'i /til,l "e con",cee /,nt "e14olt!te 'i 9nc!"!te 9n ipo/t!1e
eco#no'ci:ile 9n me"i,l economic !ct,!l< c, o tecee i/toic% le#!t% "e cele "o,% concepte 'i
c, 4i1,!li1!e! ,nei :o#!te tipolo#ii. In(om!+i! #ene!l% 9n 'tiin+! con",ceii e/te "e14olt!t%
9n mo" "eo/e:it pe tem! poce/,l,i "eci1ion!l l! ni4el,l (imei 'i pe pe1ent!e! pincip!lelo
meto"e mo"ene "e con",cee.
L,c!e! /e con/tit,ie c! ,n #Ei" "e in(om!e 'i in/t,ie ! ne/peci!li'tilo 9n "omeni,
!pel$n" l! ,n c!", #ene!l< "e/eoi p!tic,l!i1!t< concept,!li1!t 'i e=plicit!t "e no+i,ni c, o
l!#% cic,l!+ie 9n nen,m%!tele "omenii !le /e4iciilo< 9n t,i/m 'i come+ ? implicit. O
c,le#ee "e /t,"ii "e c!1 4D! complet!< 9n 4iito,l !popi!t< "eme/,l in/t,cti4 ? e",c!ti4 'i
"imen/i,nile etice !le poce/,l,i "e m!n!#ement.
Pincip!lii p!'i 9n l,!e! "eci1iilo< moti4!e! c! (,nc+ie ! m!n!#ement,l,i 'i c! /,pot
9n meto"ele mo"ene "e con",cee< p!tic,l!it%+ile c,lt,ii o#!ni1!+ion!le !le 9ntepin"eii
c! (,n"!ment !l m!n!#ement,l,i /,/+in "eci1i! /t!te#ic% 'i e(icien+! m!n!#ement,l,i 1ilelo
no!/te. I!t% n,m!i c$te4! #$n",i 'i c$+i4! p!'i e!li1!te 9n !ct,!l,l #Ei" 9ntocmit c! o
c,le#ee "e note "e c,/ 9ntD,n "omeni, !t$t "e comple= 'i "in!mic.
A,toii
5
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
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CAPITOL I
DE'VOLTAREA MANAGEMENTULUI MODERN
(.(. COLI CONTEMPORANE DE GNDIRE MANAGERIAL
M!n!#ement,l /e /it,e!1% "eD! l,n#,l peoc,p%ilo t!"i+ion!le ! 'tiin+ei o#!ni1!+iilo<
pecep,t% c! 'tiin+% ! :,nei #e/ti,ni< ! #e/ti,nii e(ic!ceF el 9'i (i=e!1% o (in!lit!te e/en+i!l
,tilit!% 'i cl! ope!+ion!l%. Am:i+i! /! e/te "e ! "e(ini cl! e#,lile< nomele< m!i m,lt<
peceptele c!e pemit o#!ni1!+iilo /% !tin#% o:iecti4ele pe c!e 'i leD!, pop,/ c, m!=im,m
"e e(ic!cit!te. El /e "i/tin#e 9n/% "e /implele p!ctici empiice 'i "e pimele (om,l%i !le
'tiin+ei o#!ni1!+iilo pintDo (om!li1!e m!i !ccent,!t%C "imen/i,ne! teoetic% 'i
concept,!l% e/te e/en+i!l% 9n m!n!#ement< c!e !e ten"in+! "e ! com:in! p!ctic! c, o
Gepe1ent!e ! e!lit%+ii c!e /e 4e! 'tiin+i(ic%G. E/te 4o:! "e G,n !n/!m:l, "e p!ctici...G
,n"e /e com:in! p!#m!ti/m,l 'i c,no!'tee! 'tiin+i(ic%G AH. P. NiocEeB.
L! ni4el,l (imelo pi4!te< m!n!#ement,l ! c,no/c,t o ten"in+% !ccent,!t% "e "ep%'ie
! c!"elo G#e/ti,nii ope!+ion!leG< (on"!t% pe o lo#ic! ! optimi1%ii "eD! l,n#,l !cti4it%+ii
coti"iene< pent, ! /e implic! 9n !m:i+i! "e ! !tin#e ,n Gm!n!#ement /t!te#icG< ce inte#e!1%
9ntDo /t!te#ie #lo:!l% ,n !n/!m:l, "e 4!i!:ileC poiectele con",ceii< me"i,l economic<
po/i:ilit%+ile 'i e/,/ele 9ntepin"eii< o:li#!+iile 'i pe/i,nile /oci!le< intene /i e=tene.
Ace!/t% #e/ti,ne /e (in!li1e!1% pintD,n !n/!m:l, "e "eci1ii /t!te#ice c!e /,nt
(olo/ite "eD! l,n#,l poce",ii "e !plic!e. D! (im! pi4!t% n, e/te /in#,,l mo"el
m!n!#ei!l po/i:ilF tot m!i m,lt /ecto,l nonDpo(it e/te cit!t c! ,n e=empl, "e m!n!#ement
"e /,cce/. Ace!/t% 4i1i,ne 4! "e4eni tot m!i comple=% pin !/imil!e! Gconte=telo
o#!ni1!+ion!leGC m!n!#ement,l n, e/te "e (!pt "ec$t ,n !n/!m:l, "e e#,li (o!te #ene!le
c!e /,nt /,/cepti:ile ! ,m! 4!i!nte "i(eite< 9n (,nc+ie "e o#!ni1!+i! 9n c!,1!.
Teoi! n,mit! ! Gcontin#en+eiG 9nce!c% /%Di i"enti(ice (omele /peci(ice "e
m!n!#ement< ce 4!i!1% ",p% con(i#,!+i! me"i,l,i< n!t,! o#!ni1!+iei 'i /t!te#iile ,m!te.
A/t(el< ,n /i/tem Gmec!nicG "e m!n!#ement< c!!ctei1!t "e e#,li (om!le 'i o cent!li1!e
p,tenic% A>,n/ 'i 7t!llIeB 4! (i m!i :ine !"!pt!t ,n,i me"i, /t!:il< 9n timp ce ,n /i/tem
Go#!nicG< 9n c!e e#,lile (om!le !, o impot!n+% m!i mic! i! "e/cent!li1!e! e/te m!i
!ccent,!t%< coe/p,n"e m!i :ine ,n,i me"i, in/t!:il.
M!n!#ement,l mo"en implic% ,n m!e n,m% "e !:ilit%+i 'i oient%i< "inte c!e m,lte
pe/,p,n !:ilit%+i le#!te "e /t!ti/tic%< ,tili1!e! teEnolo#iei in(om!+iei< cont!:ilit!te 'i
m!tem!tic%. M!n!#ement,l p,ne !ccent pe e1ol4!e! !+ion!l% ! po:lemelo 'i pe #$n"ie!
lo#ic%. C,m m!n!#ement,l implic% 9n mo" nece/! o!meni< e/te "e o m!e impot!n+%
"e+inee! "e !:ilit%+i inteDpe/on!le< !:ilit%+i "e ! l,c! c, in"i4i1ii< "! 'i c, ecEipe "e l,c,.
Pent, ! !4e! /,cce/< ,n m!n!#e te:,ie /% 9n"epline!/c% m!i m,lte ol,i 'i (,nc+ii.
Domeni,l m!n!#ement,l,i /e inte/ecte!1% c, ,n m!e n,m% "e "i/cipline D 'tiin+e
/oci!le< lo#ic%< (ilo1o(ie< m!tem!tic%< teEnolo#ie in(om!tic%< el!+ii inten!+ion!le< lin#4i/tic%
'i c,lt,%. Pent, ! (i :ine pe#%tit< 4iito,l m!n!#e !e ne4oie "e ,n :!#!@ :o#!t "e
c,no'tin+e "in "omenii 4!i!te 'i "e !:ilit%+i c!e /% 9i pemit% /% 9n"epline!/c% o /eie "e
(,nc+iiF to!te !ce/te! 9l 4o !@,t! /% 9'i 9m:,n%t%+e!/c% "in p,nct "e 4e"ee c!lit!ti4 "eci1iile 'i
!:ilit%+ile.
&
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Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
Oice /ociet!te /!, c,lt,% pe1int% "i4e/e (ome "e o#!ni1!+ii /oci!le< politice /!,
economice c!e nece/it% m!n!#ement 'i m!n!#ei. L! ni4el n!+ion!l< ol,l "e m!n!#ei 9l
9n"epline/c pe'e"in+ii< e#ii< c!ncel!ii etc.
7ociolo#,l 'i economi/t,l #em!n M!= Je:e ! ,m%it e4ol,+i! o#!ni1!+iilo "e l!
con",cee! "e/potic% p$n% l! :ioc!+iile mo"ene. O#!ni1!+iile< !"mini/t!te ini+i!l "e c%te
cl!/ele (!4oi1!te< !i c%o mem:i /e :,c,!, "e le#%t,i (!mili!le !4!nt!@o!/e< !, !@,n/ /%
(ie con",/e "e ,n #,p "e o!meni c!e /e :!1e!1% pe competen+ele lo 9n e1ol4!e!
po:lemelo. M!@oit!te! o#!ni1!+iilo occi"ent!le (,nc+ion!,< l! 9ncep,t,l /ecol,l,i !l 00D
le!< c! :ioc!+ii G!+ion!leG. No+i,nile e(eito!e l! m!n!#ement !, 9ncep,t /% /e "e14olte 'i
!, "e4enit /,:iecte "e cecet!e !:i! 9n !nii 16--.
Comple= 'i ,neoi "i4e#ent< !ct,l "e con",cee e/te "e(init "e e(ot,ile "ep,/e 9n
p!ctic! m!n!#ei!l% ! m!i m,lto "ecenii. Pe m%/,% ce con"i+iile economice 'i /oci!le /D!,
/cEim:!t< /D!, mo"i(ic!t 'i mo"!lit%+ile pin c!e m!n!#eii 9n+ele#e!, /% !@,te l! !tin#ee!
o:iecti4elo o#!ni1!+ion!le. Ce! m!i :,n% mo"!lit!te "e ! 9n+ele#e "e14olt!e! p!cticii
m!n!#ei!le !ct,!le e/te !n!li1!e! 'colilo "e #$n"ie m!n!#ei!l% !p%,te "e l! 9ncep,t,l
/ecol,l,i tec,t.
co!l! !+ion!l% "e #$n"ie m!n!#ei!l% ! !p%,t 9n pimele "ecenii !le /ecol,l,i !l 00D
le! 'i ! (o/t con",/% "e (!nce1,l Keni 2!Lol c!e 9n 161& ! p,:lic!t MM!n!#ement,l
#ene!l 'i in",/ti!lN. 2!Lol pi4e! m!n!#ement,l c! pe ,n /i/tem !+ion!l 'i con/i"e! c% 9n
oice !(!cee e/te ne4oie c! !cti4it%+ile< (ie ele teEnice< comeci!le< (in!nci!e< cont!:ile /!,
le#!te "e /ec,it!te< /% (ie con",/e pe :!1! ,no pincipii element!e !le m!n!#ement,l,i.
8n pe1ent< "omeni,l m!n!#ement,l,i n, m!i e/te "omin!t "e o /in#,% 'co!l% "e
#$n"ie m!n!#ei!l%. Peoc,p!e! !ct,!l% e/te !cee! "e ! ,ni(ic! 9ntDo pe/pecti4% coeent%
"i4e/ele !ccente pe c!e /e !=e!1% n,meo!/ele 'coli "e #$n"ie m!n!#ei!l% e=i/tente.
A/t(el< no,! 'co!l% contin,% o p!te ! t!"i+iei "e/cEi/e "e Keni 2!Lol< pin impot!n+!
!co"!t% (,nc+iilo m!n!#ement,l,i D !cti4it%+i c! pl!ni(ic!e!< o#!ni1!e!< 9n",m!e!<
coo"on!e! 'i contol,l< c!e c!!ctei1e!1% m,nc! ,n,i m!n!#e. 8n !ce!/t% 'co!l% "e
#$n"ie e/te incl,/% 'i ne4oi! "e ! /t,"i! ol,ile m!n!#e,l,i.
>!1!t% pe /t,"iile l,i K!OtEone< !ce!/t% 'co!l% 9nce!c% /% incl,"% e1,lt!tele
cecet%ilo !ct,!le "in 'tiin+ele compot!ment!le< 'i ! "!t n!'tee ,nei "i/cipline n,mit%
comportament organizaional. Accent,l c!"e pe /til,l m!n!#ei!l< pe m!n!#ement,l
p!ticip!ti4< m,nc! 9n ecEip%< "in!mic! #,p,l,i< compot!ment,l in"i4i",!l< moti4!e 'i
com,nic!e< 'i /e con/i"e% c% e/te nece/!% inte#!e! 9ntDo !:o"!e coeent% ! ,n,i m!e
n,m% "e cecet%i.
co!l! men+ion!t%< c!e ! !4,t ,n imp!ct p,tenic !/,p! m!n!#ement,l,i< /,/+ine c%
m!n!#eii te:,ie /% pi4e!/c% o#!ni1!+i! c! pe ,n /i/tem D ,n /i/tem "e/cEi/ c!e
inte!c+ione!1% c, me"i,l 'i c!e e/te !lc%t,it "in /,:/i/teme intene le#!te 9nte ele
A/,:/i/tem,l teEnic< /,:/i/tem,l /oci!l 'i /,:/i/tem,l !"mini/t!ti4B. O /cEim:!e /!, o
"ee#l!e ! ,nei p%+i "in /i/tem !(ecte!1% celel!lte p%+i. M!n!#eilo le e4ine ol,l "e !
!co"! !ten+ie int%ilo "in me"i,l e=teio Ale#i< e#lement%i< !co",i c, /in"ic!tele<
con"i+ii economice< o(et! "e (o+% "e m,nc% etcB< pec,m 'i ol,l "e ! c%,t! meto"e pin c!e
/% in(l,en+e1e me"i,l.
Un! "inte cele m!i ecente ten"in+e 9n #$n"ie! m!n!#ei!l% e/te !cee! "e ! pi4i
o#!ni1!+i! c! o c,lt,% /!, /,:c,lt,%. Ace/t c!", "e e(ein+% opee!1% o "i/tinc+ie 9nte
!/pect,l m!tei!l 'i !/pect,l im!tei!l !l c,lt,iiC !/pect,l m!tei!l incl,"e (!ctoii (i1ici
Acl%"ii< !/pect< ecEip!ment 'i teEnolo#ieB< 9n timp ce !/pect,l im!tei!l incl,"e 4!loile<
nomele< /im:ol,ile 'i /cop,ile c!e "e(ine/c mo",l 9n c!e o!menii ! te:,i /% t%i!/c% 'i
/% /e compote Acoect 'i #e'it< impot!nt 'i neimpot!ntB 'i i"enti(ic% /cop,ile pe c!e
o!menii le con/i"e% moti4!nte pent, ! m,ncii. Ace!/t% 'co!l% !ccent,e!1% nece/it!te!
,tili1%ii meto"elo c!ntit!ti4e 9n m!n!#ement< i"ee /,/+in,t% "e "e14olt!e! c!lc,l!to!elo 'i
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! ,no mo"ele m!tem!tice 'i /t!ti/tice comple=e. An,mite "omenii !le ,nei !(!cei
Acont!:ilit!te< (in!n+e< economieB /,nt !t$t "e comple=e 9nc$t n, pot (i /t%p$nite "ec$t pin
,tili1!e! "e mo"ele m!tem!tice. Pl!ni(ic!e!< pe4i1i,ne! 'i l,!e! "e "eci1ii :!1!te pe
!n!li1! !+ion!l% ! "!telo /,nt !/pecte impot!nte pent, !"ep+ii !ce/tei 'coli.
8n peio!"! 16&-D165- !ccent,l c%"e! pe 9ncec!e! "e ! "e/copei ,n /til "e
m!n!#ement ,nic< ,ni4e/!l e(ic!ce. De e=empl,< Do,#l!/ McGe#o con/i"e! c% m!n!#eii
pot (i cl!/i(ic!+i 9n (,nc+ie "e pecep+i! pe c!e o !, !/,p! o!menilo 'i "e compot!ment,l pe
c!e !ce!/t% pecep+ie 9l #enee!1%. E=i/t% "eci "o,% tip,i "e m!n!#eiC cei c, o pe/pecti4%
ne#!ti4% !/,p! o!menilo ATeoria XB 'i cei c, o pe/pecti4% optimi/t% ATeoria YB< !ce!/t% "in
,m% teoie (iin" con/i"e!t% ! (i cel m!i poti4it mo" "e ! con",ce. Ren/i/ LiIet 'i A:!E!m
M!/loO !, "e(init mo"!lit%+i ,ni4e/!le "e ! con",ce< 9n timp ce Joo"O!"< >,n/ 'i 7t!lIe
A9n M!e! >it!nieB< L!Oence /!, Lo/cE Al! K!4!"< 9n 7t!tele UniteB 9ncec!, /%
"emon/te1e c% /til,l "e m!n!#ement nece/! 9ntDo o#!ni1!+ie e/te in(l,en+!t "e /!cinile 'i
teEnolo#i! ,tili1!te. De e=empl,< poce/ele teEnolo#ice contin,e "e "imen/i,ni m!i< c,m !
(i cele ,tili1!te 9n !(in%iile "e petol< nece/it% ,n !lt tip "e m!n!#ement "ec$t cel ,tili1!t 9n
!teliee !,to "e mici "imen/i,ni. Tip,l "e m!n!#ement ,tili1!t "epin"e "e n!t,! /!cinilo<
"e tip,l "e o!meni implic!+i< "e c!",l tempo!l 'i "e o:iecti4e.
A:o"!e! /it,!+ion!l% /,/+ine c% n, e=i/t% ,n /til m!n!#ei!l ! c%,i e(icien+% /% (ie
,ni4e/!l%< 'i c% e/te ne4oie c! to+i (!ctoii /% (ie !n!li1!+i 9ntDo /it,!+ie "!t%< i! !poi (ie /% (ie
!le!/% o pe/o!n% c, ,n /til c!e /% /e poti4e!/c% /it,!+iei< (ie /% (ie in/t,i+i o!menii "in
p,nct "e 4e"ee m!n!#ei!l !/t(el 9nc$t /% %/p,n"% cein+elo /it,!+iei e/pecti4e.
(.). CONCEPTE I DEFINIRI
M!n!#ement,l e/te o (,nc+ie po(e/ion!l% c!e 9n/e!mn% ! con",ce< 9ntD,n conte=t "!t<
,n #,p "e pe/o!ne c!e !, "e !tin/ ,n o:iecti4 com,n< 9n con(omit!te c, (in!lit%+ile
o#!ni1!+iei "in c!e (!c p!te.
!B M!n!#ement,l e/te o me/eieC "eci o !cti4it!te p!ctic! ce e#,pe!1% ,n !n/!m:l, "e
e=peien+e< c,no'tin+e teEnice 'i el!+ion!le. N, e/te 4o:! !ici nici "e ,n poce/ !:/t!ct< nici
"e teoie. Ace!/t! me/eie !e< 9n !pot c, !lte me/eii< "o,! c!!ctei/tici popiiC
D /e e=ecit! c, 'i !/,p! !lto pe/o!ne Acol!:o!toi< /,peioi ie!Eici< cole#iB< ne(iin" "eci
o me/eie /olit!%F
D "!toit% !/pectelo /peci(ice e/te le#!t% "e p!ctic! popi,D1i/%< "e GteenG.
:B Ace!/t! me/eie con/t! 9n ! con",ce. GA con",ceG te:,ie pecep,t c! ,n temen
#eneic pent, ! "e/emn! "i(eite /til,i "e m!n!#ement c!e /,nt po/i:ile. Po!te /emni(ic! G!
"ii@!G< G! com!n"!G< G! coo"on!G< G! (!ce /% p!ticipeG< G! !nim!G. Temen,l e+in,t n, e/te
impot!nt pent, momentF cee! ce conte!1% e/te /en/,lC ! !4e! e/pon/!:ilit!te! ,nei ecEipe
c!e te:,ie /% !tin#% 9n com,n !n,mite o:iecti4e.
cB Me/ei! 9n c!,1% /e e=ecit% 9ntD,n conte=t "!tF e/te 4o:! !ici "e me"i,l economic<
politic< /oci!l< tip,l "e c,lt,% "omin!nt< ment!lit%+ile< t!"i+iile ce "etemin% !p!i+i! ,no
con/t$n#ei P opot,nit%+i /peci(ice. Ace/t conte=t e/te "!t. 7e po!te !c+ion! 9n i"ee! "e !D1
(!ce /% e4ol,e1e< /% /e mo"i(ice< "! te:,ie +in,t 9ntot"e!,n! cont "e e=i/tent! l,i< i!
p!ctic! m!n!#ei!l% te:,ie /% /e !"!pte1e 9n (,nc+ie "e e!lit!te! e=i/tent%.
"B M!n!#ement,l pe/,p,ne toto"!t% ! con",ce ,n #,p "e o!meniF n, te:,ie "eci
con(,n"!t m!n!#ement,l c, /impl,l (!pt "e ! !4e! ,n #,p "e o!meni 9n /,:o"ine.
eB M!n!#ement,l 4i1e!1% !tin#ee! 9n com,n ! ,no o:iecti4e con(ome c, (in!lit%+ile
o#!ni1!+iei. 8n !ce/t "omeni, /e 9nt$lne/c c$te4! elemente e/en+i!le !le m!n!#ement,l,i
p,:licC
D pent, ! !tin#e ,n o:iecti4 te:,ie< 9n pim,l $n"< /% !i ,n,l. A'! c,m /p,ne! (ilo/o(,l
cEine1 7,nDT19C GCel ce n, !e o:iecti4e n, i/c% /% le !tin#%G. Oi< 9ntDo o#!ni1!+ie<
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o:iecti4ele n, /,nt 9ntot"e!,n! cl! "e(initeF cEi! "!c% ele e=i/t! ,neoi l! ni4el,l
o#!ni1!+iei 9n !n/!m:l,< n, /,nt "i/poni:ile l! ni4el,l (iec%,i /,:D!n/!m:l,. E/te "eci
nece/! ,n e(ot "e ! e!li1! !ce!/t% Gt!n/cieeG.
D ,n !lt element "eo/e:it "e impot!nt /e e(e! l! /tim,l!e! !n/!m:l,l,i mem:ilo ecEipei
(!+% "e o:iecti4,l /t!:ilit< cEi! "!c% !ce'ti! !, ini+i!l o:iecti4e pe/on!le "i4e#ente< cEi!
op,/e.
Managementul tiin i art. Re1,lt!tele o:+in,te "e o o#!ni1!+ie "epin" "e
m!n!#e. M!n!#ement,l c! !cti4it!te "e con",cee ! ,n,i #,p "e pe/o!ne pent, !tin#ee!
,n,i o:iecti4 com,n pe/,p,ne 'i /e :!1e!1% pe e=peien+! 'i t!lent,l m!n!#e,l,i.
M,lt! 4eme /D! con/i"e!t c% e(icient! 9n !cti4it!te! m!n!#ei!l% e/te "etemin!t% 9n
mo" e=cl,/i4 "e c!lit%+ile pe/on!le !le !ce/t,i!< e=peien+! com:in!t% c, pe/pic!cit!te!<
oi#in!lit!te!< ene#i!< p,tee! "e ! con4in#e pe ceil!l+i c, ,',in+%< 9nce"ee! 9n /ine De !ici
i"ee! c! m!n!#ement,l e/te o art "eo!ece n, e=i/t% e+ete pe/t!:ilite pent, e1ol4!e!
,no /it,!+ii "i(icile 9ntDo o#!ni1!+ie< "e l,!e ! celo m!i poti4ite "eci1ii 9ntD,n conte=t
c!!ctei1!t "e m,lte oi "e !m:i#,it!te.
P!ctic! ne !!t% c% e,'it! m!n!#ei!l% e/te /en/i:il 9m:,n%t%+it% !t,nci c$n" pe
c!lit%+ile pe/on!le /e #e(e!1% 'i c,no'tin+e /peci(ice "e m!n!#ement. E4ol,+i! c,no'tin+elo
pi4ito!e l! m!n!#ement ne !!t% c% !ce/t "omeni, ! "o:$n"it !ti:,tele ,nei 'tiin+e<
"eo!ece ne !(l%m 9n (!+! ,n,i cop /i/tem!ti1!t "e c,no'tin+e< meto"e 'i teEnici c!e ,tili1!te
9n !cti4it!te! p!ctic% conti:,ie l! ce'tee! e(icien+ei !cti4it%+ii ,nei o#!ni1!+ii.
M!n!#ement,l e(icient n, e/te o !t% /!, o 'tiin+%< ci !t% 'i 'tiin+%< "eo!ece pe/,p,ne
,tili1!e! c!lit%+ilo pe/on!le pent, ! !"!pt! c,no'tin+ele< meto"ele< teEnicile /peci(ice l! ,n
conte=t "etemin!t. 8n p!ctic! "e (iec!e 1i ! ,n,i m!n!#e /e 9nt$lne/c !t$t !/pectele !ti/tice
Am!i e4i"ente l! /til,l "e m!n!#ementB c$t /i cele 'tiin+i(ice A9n "omeni,l inteDpe/on!l<
in(om!+ion!l< "eci1ion!lB.
7peci!li'tii !"mit c! t%/%t,i "e(initoii pent, m!n!#eiC
Q ",:l! po(e/ion!li1!e Ac,no'tin+e "in "omeni,l potec+iei copil,l,i 'i c,no'tin+e /peci(ice
"e m!n!#ement< 9n c!1,l "iectoilo "e 'coli< "e e=empl,BF
Q ce!ti4it!te! !cti4it%+ilo m!n!#ei!le< "eo!ece 9n !po=im!ti4 )-R "in c!1,i m!n!#e,l /e
con(,nt% c, /it,!+ii noi.
Ace/t l,c, e/te 9nc% ,n !#,ment 9n /pi@in,l i"eii c! m!n!#ement,l e/te !t% 'i 'tiin+%<
9n c!e cele "o,! !/pecte n, /e e=cl,". At,nci c$n" /e complete!1% 9n mo" !monio/
"etemin! e4ol,+ii po1iti4e l! ni4el,l ,nei o#!ni1!+ii.
Coninutul managementului. Din pe/pecti4! Goi1ont,iloG pe c!e le !:o"e!1%<
m!n!#ement,l con+ine doua domeniiC
Q management strategicC "omeni, "e !cti4it!te c!e poiecte!1% 'i pe#%te'te e4ol,+i!
o#!ni1!+iei A!c+i,ne pe temen me"i, 'i l,n#BF
Q managementul operaionalC "omeni, "e !cti4it!te c!e !/i#,! (,nc+ion!e!
coti"i!n% ! o#!ni1!+iei A!c+i,ne pe temen /c,tB.
A"e/$n",D/e o!menilo< "! 9n !cee!'i m%/,% peoc,p$n",D/e "e e/,/ele< meto"ele
'i in/t,mentele "e l,c, c!e pot (i !nten!te pent, !tin#ee! o:iecti4elo o#!ni1!+iei<
m!n!#ement,l !e doua componente "i/tincte< "! ne"i/oci!:ileC D Managementul Resurselor
Umane 'i Managementul Mijloacelor.
Inte/ect$n" "omeniile 'i componentele< e1,lt% cele patru zone !le m!n!#ement,l,iC
1B Managementul strategic al resurselor umane< c!e 9n/e!mn% /tim,l!e! e(icien+ei
po(e/ion!le ! mem:ilo ecEipei pin con",cee! poce/,l,i "e /cEim:!e ! /e4ici,l,i<
"e14olt!e! ,nei politici "e com,nic!e inten%< #e/ti,ne! /t!te#ic% ! competen+eloF
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2B Managementul strategic al mijloacelor< e/pecti4 "e(inie! op+i,nilo /t!te#ice
le#!te "e /t,ct,! o#!ni1!+iei< p!tenei< in/t,mente /t!te#ice "e !n!li1% ! conte=t,l,i 'i "e
pl!ni(ic!e< etc.F
*B Managementul operaional al resurselor umane< c!e epe1int% m!n!#ement,l
el!+ion!l A!nim!e! ecEipelo< con",cee! e,ni,nilo "e l,c,< ne#ociee< #e/ti,ne!
timp,l,i< com,nic!e! coti"i!n!BF
.B Managementul operaional al mijloacelor< c!e po!te (i "en,mit m!n!#ement,l
in/t,ment!l 'i c!e /e e(e% l! "eci1ie< "ele#!e< "e/ciee! (,nc+iilo pent, (iec!e
component% ! /e4ici,l,i p,:lic< coo"on!e! poiectelo etc.
Concluzii. 8n concl,1ie< oice m!n!#e te:,ie /% 9'i !/,me /!cini ope!+ion!le 'i
/t!te#ice. 8n c!1,l m!n!#eilo "e ni4el 1 Ae=C 'e(i "e cente "e pl!/!ment< 'e(i "e /e4icii etc
D c!e con",c o ecEip! 9n c!e n, m!i e=i/t% 'i !lte ni4ele intene "e con",ceeB /!cinile
!ce/to! /,nt pepon"eent ope!+ion!le< pe c$n" 9n c!1,l m!n!#eilo "e ni4el 2 A!cei
m!n!#ei c!e !, 9n /,:o"ine m!n!#ei "e ni4el,l 1 D e/te c!1,l "iectoilo "iec+iilo
@,"e+ene pent, potec+i! copil,l,iB "imen/i,ne! /t!te#ic! e/te nece/! /% (ie m,lt m!i
"e14olt!t%.
(.*. EFICIENA MANAGEMENTULUI
E4ol,+i!< po#e/ele (!ctoilo "e po",c+ie 'i< 9n /t$n/! le#%t,% c, !ce/te!< ! el!+iilo
economice /D! e(lect!t l! cont,!e! m!n!#ement,l,i c! o impot!nt% component% ! 'tiin+ei
'i p!cticii /oci!le pec,m 'i 9n /emni(ic!ti4e po#e/e 9n "omeni,l e(icien+ei /oci!le.
8n !:o"!e! 'i e=ecit!e! m!n!#ement,l,i< e/en+i!l,l e/te o:+inee! ,nei e(icien+e c$t
m!i i"ic!te< 9n pim,l $n" ! ,nei e(icien+e economice. M!n!#ement,l pe/,p,ne c!< pe :!1!
,no in(om!+ii< /% !"opte "eci1iile ce /e imp,n< /% ini+ie1e !c+i,nile nece/!e pent,
ope!+ion!li1!e! !ce/to! 'i< 9n (in!l< /% /e o:+in% e1,lt!tele "oite. C! !t!e< e=ecit!e!
(,nc+iilo m!n!#ement,l,i D pe4i1i,ne< o#!ni1!e< coo"on!e< !nten!e 'i contolDe4!l,!e<
e/te nece/! ! !4e! loc 9n con"i+iile !tin#eii ,no ni4el,i /,peio!e "e e(icien+%.
Le#%t,! o#!nic% ce e=i/t% 9nte m!n!#ement 'i e(icien+! /oci!l D economic% /e
m!ni(e/t% 9n e4ol,+i! /ociet%+ii< 9n ",:l, /en/C pe "eDo p!te pin "eci1ii 'i !c+i,ni "e
pe4i1i,ne< o#!ni1!e< coo"on!e< !nten!e 'i contol< m!n!#ement,l in(l,en+$n" (el,l 'i
"in!mic! e(icien+ei !t$t in /i/tem,l con",c%to< c$t 'i 9n cel con",/< i! pe "e !lt! p!te<
e(icien+! n, e/te ,n /cop 9n /ine< ci o mo"!lit!te ,tili1!t% 9n 9n"eplinie! o:iecti4elo< c,
con/,m,i e",/e "e e/,/e.
Elementele pe c!e /e (,n"!mente!1% coe/pon"en+! "inte m!n!#ement 'i e(icien+% /e
e(e% l! ,m%to!eleC
1. E=ecit!e! m!n!#ement,l,i ! ,m%it< 9n to!te /i/temele /oci!lD economice<
9n"eplinie! c!ntit!ti4% 'i c!lit!ti4% ! ,no o:iecti4e /t!:ilite 'i (,n"!ment!te "e "eci"ent,l
in"i4i",!l /!, "e #,p. C!lit!te! 'i e(ic!cit!te! m!n!#ement,l,i /D! conceti1!t "in !ce!/t%
pe/pecti4%< 9n (,n"!ment!e! i#,o!/! ! o:iecti4elo. Pe p!c,/,l "e,l%ii poce/,l,i "e
m!n!#ement< /e po!te inte4eni c, m%/,i pent, ! /top! /!, "imin,! ,nele con/,m,i
i"ic!te (!+% "e pe4e"ei< cee! ce "enot% impot!n+! m!n!#ement,l,i 9n to!te (!1ele !ce/t,i! D
pe4i1ion!l%< ope!ti4% 'i po/tDope!ti4%. Comen/,!e! pem!nent% ! e(ectelo 'i comp!!e!
lo c, e(ot,ile "ep,/e pent, ! e4i"en+i! e(icien+! !cti4it%+ilo con",/e< #!",l "e 9n"eplinie
! o:iecti4elo /t!:ilite epe1int% o t%/%t,! "e(initoie ! ,n,i m!n!#ement e(ic!ce< "in!micF
2. E(ot,ile om,l,i D i1ol!t /!, 9n #,p,i D !, ,m%it< pe to!te teptele i/toice !le
"e14olt%ii /ociet%+ii< o:+inee! ,n,i ni4el c$t m!i i"ic!t !l e1,lt!telo< c!e /%Di pemit%
/!ti/(!cee! nece/it%+ilo popii 'i "e14olt!e! /ociet%+ii. E(icien+! 'i ce'tee! /! !, con/tit,it
mo:il,l pincip!l !l !cti4it%+ii "e con",cee< cEi! "!c% 9n pimele /t!"ii !le e4ol,+iei
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Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
/ociet%+ii con'tienti1!e! lo e! ine=i/tent% /!, !4e! "imen/i,ni m,lt m!i e",/e (!+% "e et!p!
!ct,!l%. P%t,n"ee! 9n M1onele m!i (ie:in+iG !le ci4ili1!+iei !te/t% concepee! 'i
ope!+ion!li1!e! "e /t!te#ii "e "e14olt!e< o" !l ,n,i comple= poce/ "e m!n!#ement<
/t!te#ii ce ,m%e/c< "iect /!, ime"i!t< ce'tee! e(icientei economice. 2%% !"opt!e! ,no
"eci1ii coe/p,n1%to!e< (e1!:ile< e(ot,ile ,m!ne n, 'iD! (i #%/it o (in!lit!te< 9mpie"ic$n"
po#e/,l economic /i /oci!lF
*. Pincip!lele elemente pin c!e m!n!#ement,l ! in(l,en+!t ni4el,l 'i "in!mic!
e(icien+ei /e e#%/e/c 9n /,:/i/temele /!le D o#!ni1!toic< in(om!+ion!l< meto"olo#ic 'i
"eci1ion!l D 9n M/p!tele c%o! /e !(l% 9ntot"e!,n! "eci1iiF pin inteme"i,l lo om,l 'iD!
/t!:ilit o:iecti4e pe temen l,n#< me"i, 'i /c,t< 'iD! (i=!t pincip!lele mo"!lit%+i "e e!li1!e
'i e/,/ele nece/!e< pec,m 'i e1,lt!tele :ene(ice pent, el 'i /emenii l,i< o#!ni1!+i 9n
/t,ct,i /peci(ice (iec%ei et!pe "e "e14olt!e ! /ociet%+ii. 2,nc+ion!lit!te! m!i /c%1,t% !
,nei! "in componentele m!@oe !le m!n!#ement,l,i !(ecte!1%< m!i m,lt /!, m!i p,+in<
e(icien+! m!n!#ement,l,i 9n !n/!m:l,l /!, 'i e(icien+! o:+in,t% 9n /i/temele con",/e. De !ici
nece/it!te! ,nei !:o"%i /i/temice ! coel!+iei "inte m!n!#ement 'i e(icien+%< 9n (!4o!e!
/poiii !ce/tei! "in ,m%< con/i"e!t! "ept citei, (,n"!ment!l "e !peciee ! c!lit%+ii
m!n!#ement,l,i. Ampli(ic!e! e(icien+ei /oci!le "e l! ,n /i/tem economic l! !lt,l e/te
con/ecin+! (ie!/c% 'i ! ce'teii c!!cte,l,i 'tiin+i(ic !l m!n!#ement,l,i. Tecee! tept!t% "e
l! empii/m l! 'tiin+% 9n "omeni,l m!n!#ement,l,i /D! m!ni(e/t!t 9n /po,i !le e(icien+ei 9n
to!te /(eele /ociet%+ii< c, imp!ct po1iti4 !/,p! "e14olt%ii !ce/t,i!. A:o"!e! coel!ti4! !
m!n!#ement,l,i 'i e(icien+ei imp,ne elie(!e! 9n/%'i ! elementelo le#!te "e e(icient!
m!n!#ement,l,i.
E(icien+! m!n!#ement,l,i po!te (i !n!li1!t%< 9n !ce/te con"i+ii< "in doua unghiuriC
S Po!te (i e4i"en+i!t% pin pi/m! e(icien+ei "omeni,l,i con",/ D 9ntepin"ee<
loc!lit!te< /t!t< etc. O asemenea viziune pe"omin!nt% 'i< 9n :,n% m%/,% @,/ti(ic!t%< 9nt,c$t
c!lit!te! 'i e(ic!cit!te! m!n!#ement,l,i con"i+ione!1% "eci/i4 m%ime! 'i c!lit!te!
e1,lt!telo o:+in,te 9n "omeniile con",/e. M!n!#ement,l n, e/te ,n /cop in /ine< ci ,n
mi@loc "e ! (!cilit! pin inteme"i,l ,no "eci1ii coe/p,n1%to!e "e pe4i1i,ne< o#!ni1!e<
coo"on!e< !nten!e 'i contolDe4!l,!e 9n"eplinie! o:iecti4elo !/,m!te "e o o#!ni1!e
/ocioDeconomic%< "e /ociet!te 9n !n/!m:l,l /%,. De'i (o!te #e, /!, cEi! impo/i:il "e
c,!nti(ic!t< tot,'i in(l,ent! m!n!#ement,l,i !/,p! ce'teii e(icien+ei /,:/i/temelo con",/e
e/te /emni(ic!ti4%.
Un m!n!#ement c!lit!ti4 /,peio e/te e(icient 9n m%/,! 9n c!e e/te c!p!:il /%
"etemine o:+inee! ,no e1,lt!te /,peio!e< c, ,n con/,m e",/ "e e/,/e. Din p,nct "e
4e"ee m!tem!tic< "e14olt!e! economic% po!te (i e=pim!t% c! (,nc+ie "e (!ctoi economici
poten+i!li ApeB 'i "e e(ic!cit!te! con",ceii AEcB< !/t(elC D + f,-#.E$/. 8nte e(ic!cit!te!
con",ceii 'i e(icien+! !cti4it%+ilo con",/e AE!B< !pot,ile 9nt$lnite /,nt "e (om!C
Ec S E!< c$n" 9n /i/temele con",/e !p! ,nele "ee#l%i nepe4%1,te< in"epen"ente "e
/i/tem,l "e m!n!#ement "in inteio,l /!,F
Ec T E!< /it,!+ie e=plic!t% pin "e/(%',!e! !cti4it%+ilo con",/e 'i "e con",cee c, !cee!'i
inten/it!te ! e(ic!cit%+iiF
Ec U E!< c$n" 9n /i/temele con",/e !p! /po,i "e e(icien+% in"epen"ente "e con",cee.
S Pe de alta parte< e4!l,!e! e(icien+ei m!n!#ement,l,i /e e!li1e!1% pin elie(!e!
e(ectelo 'i e(ot,ilo l! ni4el,l /i/tem,l,i "e m!n!#ement 9n !n/!m:l,l /%, oi l! ni4el,l
pincip!lelo componente !le !ce/t,i!C /,:/i/tem,l o#!ni1!toic< in(om!+ion!l< meto"olo#ic
'i "eci1ion!l. E4ol,+i! /ociet%+ii omene'ti ! 9ne#i/t!t impot!nte /!lt,i 9n c!lit!te! 'i
e(ic!cit!te! m!n!#ement,l,i micoDm!coeconomic 'i /oci!l e(lect!te 9n ce'tee! mo:ilit%+ii
/t,ct,ilo o#!ni1!toice< !+ion!li1!e! /,:/i/temelo in(om!+ion!le< 9m:o#%+ie!
in/t,ment!,l,i "e con",cee pin concepee! 'i ,tili1!e! "e noi /i/teme< meto"e 'i teEnici
m!n!#ei!le< ce'tee! #!",l,i "e (,n"!ment!e ! "eci1iilo.
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(.0. MANAGEMENTUL FIRMEI SECOLULUI 11I 2
PRINCIPIILE MANAGEMENTULUI
L,me! /ecol,l,i 00I 4! (i< c, cetit,"ine< o l,me ! /cEim:%ii. 7cEim:!e! D /p,n
/peci!li'tii D e/te /in#,! con/t!nt%< /in#,! cetit,"ine ! !ce/t,i /ecol.
R!pi"it!te!< po(,n1ime!< imp!ct,l /cEim:%ii !/,p! (imelo D loc,l 9n c!e l,me! 9'i
con/,m% ce! m!i m!e p!te ! e(ot,ilo D n, ne m!i l!/% timp /% ne pe#%tim pent, !ce!/t%
pe/pecti4%< ci ne imp,ne /% tecem ime"i!t l! !"!pt!e< pent, c%< /p,n !cee!'i /peci!li'ti<
(im! /ec. 00I< c!e 9ncopoe!1% "e@! elemente !le /cEim:%ii D n, m!i e/te "o! o
pe/pecti4%< ci o e!lit!te.
2im!< cel,l! "e :!1% ! ,nei economii< e/te ,n /i/tem < 'i n, ,n,l o!ec!e < ci ,n /i/tem
economicoD/oci!l "e/cEi/< cel m!i comple= 'i m!i complic!t< 'i /,/! pincip!l! "e :,n,i<
/e4icii 'i :!ni c!e ne !/i#,! e=i/ten+!. Oi< e/te ,n l,c, !Eic,no/c,t 'i e/pect!t< 'i !n,me<
c% pincip!l! c!!ctei/tic% ! /i/tem,l,i e/te !,toe#l!e!< poce/,l "e impot!nt% c!"in!l%
pent, (im%< c!e< 9n linii #ene!le /e e!li1e!1% pin m!n!#ement.
D!c% l! !ce/te con/i"e!+ii #ene!le "e /inte1% m!i !"%,#%m opiniile ! "oi ep,t!+i
/peci!li'ti 9n "omeni, 'i !n,meC RicE!" 2!me D G M!n!#ement,l e/te ,n,l "inte (!ctoii
e/en+i!li c!e e=plic! "e ce e/te o t!! :o#!t! /!, /%!c! GF 'i Pete D,cIe(C MM!n!#ement,l
e/te pincip!l! c!le "e ce'tee economic% .G.. .GN, e=i/t% +%i :o#!te /!, /%!ce< ci +%i :ine
con",/e 'i +%i po/t con",/eG< !4em 9n im!#ine impot!n+! (,n"!ment!l! ! m!n!#ement,l,i.
7,:liniin" impot!nt! m!n!#ement,l,i< c! e/,/% ! "e14olt%ii< lite!t,! "e /peci!lit!te
e4i"en+i!1% ol,l po#e/,l,i 9n con",cee< /t!:ilin" (!pt,l c% po#e/,l /oci!l e/te o (,nc+ie
"epen"ent% "e m,nc%< pe#%tie! pe/on!l,l,i< (on",i 'i "ot%i< po#e/,l 9n con",cee 'i !l+i
(!ctoi.
Cele ! principii ale managementului en,n+!te "e 2!Lol /,ntC
1. "iviziunea muncii. 7peci!li1!e! !n#!@!+ilo Am,ncitoi 'i mem:i !i con",ceiiB< 9n
4e"ee! ce'teii e(icien+ei 'i 9m:,n%t%+iii e1,lt!telo.
2. #utoritate $i responsa%ilitate. Dept,l "e ! "! o"ine 'i p,tee! "e ! petin"e /,p,nee!.
*. "isciplin. G!",l 9n c!e !n#!@!+ii /,nt /,p,'i< 9'i "!, /ilin+!< 9'i con/,m% ene#i! 'i
mo",l 9n c!e /e compot% /,nt in(l,en+!te "e cei c!e 9i con",c.
.. Unitatea decizional. Nici o pe/o!n% n, te:,ie /% !i:% m!i m,lt "e ,n 'e(.
5. Unitatea direciei. O o#!ni1!+ie te:,ie /% !i:% ,n /in#, pl!n "e !tin#ee ! o:iecti4elo
A"e14olt!e! pincipi,l,i ,nit%+ii "eci1on!leB.
&. &u%ordonarea intereselor individuale interesului general. Peoc,p!e! (!+% "e o#!ni1!+ie
e/te m!i impot!nt% "ec$t peoc,p%ile in"i4i",!le.
5. Plata. A/i#,!e! compen/!+iilo coecte 'i /!ti/(%c%to!e pent, to+i<
ecompen/!e! competen+ei.
). 'entralizare. Con/oli"!e! (,nc+iilo m!n!#ei!le 9n !co" c, cic,m/t!n+ele "in me"i,l
9ncon@,%to !l o#!ni1!+iei.
6. (erarhie. Liniile "e !,toit!te te:,ie /% (ie cl! "e(inite "in/pe 4$(,l c%te :!1!
o#!ni1!+iei.
1-. Ordine. O!menii 'i m!tei!lele te:,ie /% /e !(le 9n loc,l poti4it l! moment,l poti4it< i!
o!menii te:,ie /% oc,pe po/t,l c!e li /e poti4e'te cel m!i :ine.
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11. Echitate. Loi!lit!te! !n#!@!+ilo te:,ie /% (ie 9nc,!@!t% pin t!t!ment,l @,/t< coect 'i
pin :,n%t!te.
12. &ta%ilitate. P%%/ie! o#!ni1!+iei "e c%te ,n n,m% m!e "e !n#!@!+i e/te "eopoti4%
c!,1! 'i e(ect,l ine(icienteiF o#!ni1!+iile :,ne /,nt cele c!e !, con",cei /t!:ile.
1*. (niiativ. Nece/it!te! ce%ii ,n,i pl!n 'i !/i#,%ii /,cce/,l,i !ce/t,i! 'i o(eie!
opot,nit%+ii /,:o"on!+ilo "e !D1 e!li1!.
1.. Esprit de corps. Com,nic!e! o!l% te:,ie (olo/it% pent, ! !/i#,! coe1i,ne! ecEipelo.
Pincipiile l,i 2!Lol !, (o/t< 9n mo" e4i"ent< ,tile 9n me"i,l in",/ti!l !l moment,l,i
e/pecti4. 8n pe1ent< 9n ci,"! (!pt,l,i c% ,nele "inte ele 9'i "o4e"e/c 9nc% !plic!:ilit!te!<
m,lte p! "ep%'ite.
Cecet%i m!i ecente !, "emon/t!t c% m!n!#ement,l epe1int% m!i m,lt "ec$t
poce/,l !+ion!l "e ,m!e p!/ c, p!/ ! ,no pincipii< !'! c,m 9l "e/ci!, teoeticienii l,i l!
9ncep,t. D. Ren/i/ LiIet< (o/t "iecto !l Cent,l,i "e 7,p!4e#Eee ! Cecet%ilo "e l!
Uni4e/it!te! "in MicEi#!n< ! !n!li1!t timp "e 25 "e !ni pincipiile m!n!#ement,l,i 'i leD!
/inteti1!t 9ntD,n,l /in#,< pe c!e 1D! n,mit pincipi,l el!+iilo "e /pi@inC G'onducerea $i
alte procese organizaionale tre%uie s )ie capa%ile s asigure pro%a%ilitatea ma*im ca+ ,n
toate interaciunile $i relaiile din cadrul organizaiei+ )iecare mem%ru+ ,n lumina trecutului+
valorilor+ dorinelor $i a$teptrilor sale+ s considere e*periena ca )iind suportiv $i c
aceasta ,i va dezvolta $i menine sentimentul valorii $i importanei propriei persoane- G AR.
LiIetB.
Oient!e! m!n!#ement,l,i c! 'tiin+% ! (o/t m!i p,tenic "e(init% 9n 7t!tele Unite "e
c%te 2e"eicI T!Llo< c,no/c,t c! p%inte !l m!n!#ement,l,i 'tiin+i(ic. T!Llo ! /,:lini!t
ne4oi! o:/e4%ii pe c!le empiic% Ae=!min!e! ,no (enomene e!leB< ! !n!li1%ii 'i
e=peiment%ii 'i con/i"e! c% m!n!#e,l,i 9i e4ine ol,l "e ! "e/copei ce! m!i :,n%
mo"!lit!te "e "e/(%',!e ! m,ncii /,: 9n",m!e! /!.
A:o"!e! l,i T!Llo ! (o/t !cee! "e ! !n!li1! (iec!e po/t 9n 4e"ee! i"enti(ic%ii
elementelo /!, mi'c%ilo "i/tincte c!e !lc%t,ie/c m,nc! (i1ic%. Um%to!e! /!cin% e!
!cee! "e ! o:/e4! mo",l 9n c!e !ce/te elemente p,te!, (i epoiect!te /!, mo"i(ic!te 9n !'!
(el 9nc$t /% (ie "e(init% ce! m!i :,n% /!, m!i !pi"% meto"% "e ! m,nci. L! :!1! !ce/to
cecet%i /t%te! !ccent,l p,/ pe e(icien+%.
O 4!i!nt% intee/!nt% ! t!Lloi/m,l,i e=i/t% 9nc%< 9n cecet!e! m!n!#ei!l%
contempo!n%. A/t(el< 9n en,n+!e! teoiei /!le :!1!te pe 9m:o#%+ie! po/t,ilo< 2e"eicI
Ke1:e# !n!li1e!1%< l! (el c! 'i T!Llo< elementele "e :!1% !le po/t,l,i. 8n/%< 9n timp ce
T!Llo "oe! /% (!c% m,nc! m!i /impl% Am!i m,lt% m,nc% 'i m!i p,+in e(otB< Ke1:e# ce"e!
9n c!!cte,l "e po4oc!e !l !n,mito !/pecte !le po/t,l,i< c!p!:ile /% 9i moti4e1e pe
m,ncitoi. An#!@!+ii c!e /imt c% po/t,l lo epe1int% o po4oc!e /imt c% 9'i !",c 9n mo" e!l
conti:,+i!< (!pt ce "etemin% ce'tee! 'i "e14olt!e! lo pe/on!l%. Ke1:e# ! (o/t pinte
pimii c!e !, /,:lini!t c% e/te nece/! c! m!n!#eii /% !co"e !ten+ie con"i+iilo element!e
"e m,nc%.
Po(e/o,l Elton M!Lo "e l! K!4!" ! (o/t ,#!t /% e!li1e1e o /eie "e /t,"ii pi4in"
po",cti4it!te! m,ncii l! ,1in! Je/ten Electic "in K!OtEone< 9n Illinoi/. Re1,lt!t,l
/t,"iilo K!OtEone ! "!t n!'tee 'colii "e #$n"ie m!n!#ei!l% n,mit% 'co!l! el!+iilo
,m!ne< c!e /,:lini!1% impot!n+! pe c!e el!+i! "inte con",cee 'i m,ncitoi o !e pent,
ce'tee! po",cti4it%+ii.
In4e/ti#!+i! ini+i!l% "e l! K!OtEone ! !n!li1!t e1,lt!t,l m,ncii !n#!@!+ilo 9n "i(eite
con"i+ii "e il,min!e. 8n !nii V2- l,min! electic% !:i! e! %/p$n"it%< i! comp!niile electice
/,/+ine!, c% m,ncitoii pot po",ce m!i m,lt 9n con"i+iile 9m:,n%t%+iii il,min!t,l,i.
Re1,lt!t,l /t,"i,l,i l,i M!Lo ! !%t!t 9n/% c% po",cti4it!te! m,ncii ce'te! in"i(eent "e
inten/it!te! l,minii.
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Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
An!li1!e! !ce/t,i /t,"i, ini+i!l ! "!t n!'tee temen,l,i e(ect,l K!OtEone. Cei c!e !,
!n!li1!t /it,!+i! !, o:/e4!t c% moti4,l pent, c!e po",cti4it!te! ce'te! e! (!pt,l c%
m,ncitoii /e /im+e!, p!te impot!nt% 9n e=peimentC ei m,nce!, m!i m,lt "!toit% (!pt,l,i
c% 'ti!, c% /,nt o:/e4!+i 'i c% e1,lt!t,l e=peiment,l,i "epin"e! "e ei. De l! "e/copeie!
!ce/tei e!c+ii to+i cei c!e e(ect,e!1% cecet%i :!1!te pe e=peimente 9nce!c% /% e4ite
!p!i+i! e(ect,l,i K!OtEone.
7D! ce1,t "e !/emene! c% po",cti4it!te! ce'te! "!toit% (!pt,l,i c%< pe peio!"!
"e/(%',%ii e=peiment,l,i< /til,l m!n!#ei!l /D! /cEim:!tC cei "in con",cee !co"!, o m!i
m!e !ten+ie m,ncitoilo.
7,peio,l ie!Eic ! (o/t "e !/emene! o:/e4!t 'i /D! /t!:ilit c% (!pt,l c% !"opt! ,n
!n,mit compot!ment (!+% "e mem:ii #,p,l,i e=peiment!l ! con",/ l! "e14olt!e!
/piit,l,i "e ecEip%. I!t% c$te4! o:/e4!+ii !le /t,"i,l,iC
1. e(,l Ao:/e4!to,l 'e(B e! pe/on!l intee/!t "e e,'itele (iec%ei pe/o!ne.
2. E! m$n", "e cee! ce (%ce! A9ne#i/t!e! pe(om!n+elo #,p,l,iB.
*. A !@,t!t #,p,l /% 9'i /t!:ile!/c% popiile con"i+ii "e l,c,.
.. A !co"!t (ee":!cI pi4in" pe(om!n+ele !(i'$n",Dle l! 4e"ee.
5. G,p,l e! m$n", "e e,'ite 'i e! /!ti/(%c,t "e intee/,l pe c!e cei "in !(!% 9l m!ni(e/t!,
(!+% "e e!li1%ile mem:ilo l,i.
&. Mem:ii #,p,l,i n, /im+e!, c% !, (o/t pe/!+i "e /cEim:!e.
5. 8n!inte "e ope!e! ,nei /cEim:%i< mem:ii #,p,l,i e!, con/,lt!+i.
). 8n c!",l #,p,l,i /D! "e14olt!t ,n /entiment "e 9nce"ee 'i c!n"o!e.
(.3. CULTURA ORGANI'AIONAL 4 FUNDAMENT AL MANAGEMENTULUI
C,lt,! o#!ni1!+ion!l% c,pin"e ,n !n/!m:l, "e 4!loi mo!le< pincipii< nome<
/im:ol,i 'i it,i c!eD'i t!n/mit 'i impim% me/!@,l !/,p! compot!ment,l,i !n#!@!+ilo< c,
implic!+ii "iecte !/,p! e(icien+ei< e(ic!cit%+ii 'i im!#inii 9ntepin"eii.
P. Moin con/i"e% c,lt,! o#!ni1!+ion!l% ,n /,:/i/tem !l 9ntepin"eii< c!e pin
meto"ele teoiei /i/temelo< po!te (i "i!#no/tic!t%< mo"el!t%< implement!t% 'i monitoi1!t%.
C,lt,! o#!ni1!+ion!l% epe1int% o !lten!ti4% pent, teEnicile "e m!n!#ement !+ion!le<
c!e n, #%/e/c tot"e!,n! /ol,+iile cele m!i !"ec4!te po:lemelo comple=e !le o#!ni1!+iei 'i
me"i,l,i< mo"elele !+ion!le "e(!4oi1e!1% 4!loile 'i implicit c,lt,! o#!ni1!+ion!l%< 9nte
/t!te#i! "e "e14olt!e< c,lt,! o#!ni1!+ion!l% 'i pe(om!n+ele e!li1!te "e 9ntepin"ee
A4e1i (i#. 1B e=i/t$n" o coel!+ie "iect% 'i e4i"ent%.
1.
S%r5%#65
R#u2%5
7t,ct,!
o#!ni1!toic%
7i/teme
m!n!#ei!le
Re/,/e
7cEim:%i
(i1ice
Poten+i!l,l
,m!n
C,lt,!
o#!ni1!+iei
Compot!ment,l
pe/on!l,l,i
7cEim:%i
intelect,!le
2i#. 1. Rel!+i! 7t!te#ie D C,lt,! o#!ni1!+ion!l% D Pe(om!n+%
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
C,lt,! o#!ni1!+ion!l% c! o (ontie% ! !+ion!lit%+ii e/te ce!t% c! ,n %/p,n/ l!
"eme/,ile o#!ni1!+iei 9n /cop,l e",ceii in/,(icien+ei c!p!cit%+ii co#niti4e ! in"i4i1ilo<
teoie c!e #!!nte!1% 9ntepin"eii o !n,mit% /t!:ilit!te 'i 9i pemite o !"!pt!:ilit!te l!
mo"i(ic%ile "in me"i,l inten 'i e=ten.
C,lt,! o#!ni1!+ion!l% A4e1i (i#. 2B e/te "etemin!t% "e tei c!te#oii "e (!ctoiC
D )actori centrali< /,nt "etemin!+i "e e/,/ele ,m!ne !le o#!ni1!+iei< (iin" epe1ent!+i "eC
W po(il,l 'i pe/on!lit!te! con",c%toiloF
W it,ile 'i /im:ol,ile /peci(ice in/tit,+ieiF
W com,nic!+i!.
D )actori manageriali c!e /,nt #ene!+i "e meto"ele 'i in/t,mentele "e l,c, m!n!#ei!leC
W /t!te#i!F
W /t,ct,ile 'i poce",ileF
W /i/temele "e con",cee.
D )actori de mediu< #ene!+i "e /t!e! o#!ni1!+iei 'i ! me"i,l,i e=teio. O /c,t% pe1ent!e !
!ce/to (!ctoi ele4% "imen/i,ne! 'i impot!n+! lo 9n m!n!#ement,l /t!te#ic 'i conti:,+i!
l! 4!lo!e! e1,lt!telo o:+in,te 9n ,m! "eme/,ilo e(ect,!te.
2i#. 2. 2!ctoii "etemin!n+i 9n c,lt,! o#!ni1!+iei
A. Pro)ilul $i personalitatea conductorului. M!n!#eii "e l! oice ni4el< pin
compot!ment,l lo< e=pe/ie ! pe/on!lit%+ii 'i ! pe#%tiii< #enee!1% 'i imp,n ,n tip 'i ,n
!n,mit #!" "e c,lt,%. Ment!lit!te!< i"e!l,ile< 4!loile !ccept!te< nomele "e mo!l%
9n/,'ite< compot!ment,l etic< pecep+i! 4iito,l,i< e1i/ten+! l! /cEim:%i< !,toit!te! 'i
(emit!te!< 9n /piit,l p!ticip!ti4< !/,m!e! i/c,ilo epe1int% (ome "e e=pe/ie "! 'i
/imptome pent, "etemin!e! ni4el,l,i "e c,lt,% o#!ni1!+ion!l%F
15
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B. Riturile $i sim%olurile. Et!pele !n#!@%ii< compot!ment,l 1ilnic !l !n#!@!+ilo<
it,!l,ile in/tit,+ion!li1!te< /im:ol,ile "e(initoii pent, im!#ine! 9ntepin"eii con/tit,ie o
:!1% impot!nt% 'i o:li#!toie 9n con/t,c+i! 'i c,lti4!e! c,lt,ii o#!ni1!+ion!leF
C. 'omunicaia. 7i/tem,l pin c!e in(om!+iile intene 'i e=tene /,nt ecep+ion!te<
pel,c!te< e4!l,!te 'i 4!loi(ic!te< con/t,c+i! e+elelo ie!Eice< cec,ile "e c!lit!te<
meto"ele "e /tim,l!e ! i"eilo 'i ! ino4%ii< epe1int% !c+i,ni "! 'i citeii pin c!e /e pot
"e(ini li:et!te! "e !c+i,ne 'i "eci1ie< o"ine!< p!ticip!e! 4ol,nt!% 'i col!:o!e! 9n
o#!ni1!+ie.
D. &trategiile. El!:o!e! 'i implement!e! ,nei /t!te#i pe/,p,ne no,t!te< ino4!e<
i/c< pe#%tie< pe(ec+ion!e< pe/e4een+%. Doc,mentele /t!te#iei te:,ie /% "e(ine!/c% 'i
/cEim:%ile /peci(ice l! ni4el,l e/,/elo ,m!ne pin /i/tem,l "e nome 'i 4!loi !ccept!te 'i
9n/,'ite "e !n#!@!+i c!e 4o !/i#,! e,'it! !c+i,nilo ce pe(i#,e!1% e!li1!e! o:iecti4,l,i.
E. &tructuri $i proceduri. 2ilo1o(i! "e o#!ni1!e< /t,ct,ile (,nc+ion!le 'i "oc,mentele
"e l,c, /peci(ice< competen+ele 'i ni4elele "e c,no'tin+e< #!",l "e "e/cent!li1!e< "ele#!e!
"e !,toit!te ele4% !tit,"ine! (!+% "e G4i!+! coti"i!n%G "! 'i (!+% "e ni4el,l "e implic!e 9n
!/i#,!e! peenit%+ii 9ntepin"eii.
F. Metodele de conducere. N!t,!< m%ime! 'i con+in,t,l /i/temelo "e pl!ni(ic!e<
:,#et!e< /!l!i1!e< contol< etc< pec,m 'i teEnicile "e con",cee epe1int% (!ctoi
#ene!toi "e c,lt,% c!e /,/+in e=i/ten+! 'i "e14olt!e! o#!ni1!+iei.
G. .actorii de mediu. C,lt,! o#!ni1!+ion!l% n, e/te "etemin!t% 9n tot!lit!te nici "e
me"i,l n!+ion!l /!, /ociet!l 'i nici "e me"i,l economic !l o#!ni1!+iei< i! 9ntepin"eile
/,:/ci, l! !n,mite 4!loi "omin!nte "in me"i,l c!e le 9ncon@o!%< (%% ! ope! /cEim:%i
m!@oe 9n popi! c,lt,%. 8n !t!e con"i+ii< mo"i(ic%ile economice< /oci!le< teEnice 'i
ecolo#ice "in me"i,l 9ncon@,%to te:,ie l,!te 9n con/i"e!e 'i #%/it% politic! ce! m!i
popice pent, !"!pt!e! (imei l! noile con"i+ii.
C, cetit,"ine< c,lt,! o#!ni1!+ion!l% e/te (om!t% "in e4i"en+e 9mp%t%'ite c!e
"iec+ione!1% compot!ment,l in"i4i1ilo 9n o#!ni1!+ie< c,lt,% c!e /e poiecte!1% 'i /e
con/t,ie'te pintD,n poce/ /i/temic< oient!t /pe e",c!e! 'i (om!e! contin,% ! 9nte#,l,i
pe/on!l !n#!@!t< 9n "oin+! "e ! e1ol4! "o,% "inte cele m!i impot!nte po:leme !le
o#!ni1!+ieiC !"!pt!e! l! me"i, 'i inte#!e! in"i4i",l,i.
2i#. *. Inte4en +iile 9n c,lt,! o#!ni1!+ion!l%
Oice 9ntepin"ee c!e (,nc+ione!1% !e o c,lt,% o#!ni1!+ion!l% /peci(ic%< 9n/% te:,ie
!n!li1!t "!c% !ce!/t! con/tit,ie ,n /pi@in e!l 9n e!li1!e! e(icien+ei 'i e(ic!cit%+ii<
p!!metii (,n"!ment!li !i m!n!#ement,l,i 'i !i o#!ni1!+iei. Deme/,l !e c! /,pot o
1&
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Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
!n!li1% p!!lel% ce /e e!li1e!1% 9nte /t!te#i! pop,/% 'i c,lt,! o#!ni1!+ion!l% c!p!:il% /% o
/,/+in%< e1,lt!tele o:+in,te imp,n$n" c!te#oii "e inte4en+ii "i(een+i!te. D!c% c,lt,!
o#!ni1!+iei coe/p,n"e o:iecti4elo /t!te#ice /t!:ilite pin politicile "e 4iito< o 9nte+inee 'i
/tim,l!e ! c,lt,ii e=i/tente A4e1i (i#. *B /e "o4e"e'te ! (i !c+i,ne! nece/!% 'i /,(icient%F
"!c% c,lt,! "e 9ntepin"ee n, m!i coe/p,n"e /t!te#iei pop,/e< pin meto"e 'i teEnici
/peci(ice /e 4o e(ect,! mo"i(ic%i< /e 4o coect! !n,mite elemente 'i epee c,lt,!le pent,
coel!e! c, noile cein+eF "!c% 9ntepin"ee! e/te no,%< !4em '!n/! /% n, #%/im nimic
ele4!nt 9n m!teie "e c,lt,% o#!ni1!+ion!l%< c,lt,! te:,ie ce!t% 'i "e14olt!t% pintDo /eie
"e !c+i,ni et!pi1!te< 9n c!e /e /t!:ile/c ipote1ele (,n"!ment!le< 4!loile (,n"!ment!le<
4!loile 9mp%t%'ite< nomele< e#,lile 'i compot!mentele in"i4i1ilo.
Cultura managerial suport al managementului strategic.
8n no+i,ne! "e c,lt,% m!n!#ei!l% /,nt c,pin/e c,no'tin+ele teEnice< economice<
/oci!le< in(om!+ion!le pec,m 'i !:ilit%+ile "e con",cee c!e (!cilite!1% 9n+ele#ee! ,no
/it,!+ii "e (!pt 'i cee!1% pemi/ele !nticip%ii "e14olt%ilo ,lteio!e !le 9ntepin"eii.
Ni4el,l c,lt,ii m!n!#ei!le c!!ctei1e!1% 9n :,n% p!te con",c%to,l 'i 9i /,/+ine
!c+i,nile ,lteio!e. Pent, M. Go"et c,lt,! m!n!#ei!l% e/te (oc!li1!t% 9n tei poli "e
!cti4it%+i 'i con/tit,ie ,n (!cto "etemin!nt 9n m!n!#ement,l /t!te#icC
Anticip!e!C pe/,p,ne !cti4it%+i pin c!e /e c,le# 'i /e (ilte!1% in(om!+iile. Ce!e!
,n,i /i/tem in(om!+ion!l c!p!:il /% pe4!"% 4iito!ele /cEim:%i "in me"i, con",ce l! o
/it,!+ie (!4o!:il% c!!ctei1!t% pin !/i#,!e! ,nei m!@e "e timp /,pliment!e c!e po!te (i
!loc!t% !n!li1ei 'i i"enti(ic%ii /ol,+iilo e(iciente.
Ac+i,ne!C epe1int% 9n c,lt,! m!n!#ei!l% !cti4it%+ile "e implement!e< "e p,nee 9n
p!ctic% ! /ol,+iei /t!te#ice !le/e< el,"$n" :ioc!+i! /!, /t,ct,ile (,nc+ion!le #e'it
con/t,ite. Lip/! ,no le#%t,i (,nc+ion!le coe/p,n1%to!e c!e /% e4ite :loc!@,l /ociolo#ic<
imo:ili/m,l /!, miopi! l! ten"in+ele 4iito,l,i< pot /% 9nt$1ie !c+i,ne! /t!te#ic% /!, cEi! /%
o !n,le1e.
Moti4!e!C mo:ili1!e! t,t,o !ctoilo pe/,p,ne !c+i,ni pin c!e pe/o!nele
implic!te 9n "e,l!e! /t!te#iei /% (ie in(om!te< i! "!c% n, /e po!te o:+ine !po:!e! 'i
p!ticip!e! 4ol,nt!% ! !ce/to!< e/te nece/! c! /% /e !/i#,e ne,t!lit!te! lo< e4it$n",D/e
/t%ile 'i /it,!+iile c!e ! con",ce l! m!i pe@,"icii. 8n m!n!#ement,l /t!te#ic to+i polii
c,lt,ii m!n!#ei!le /,nt l! (el "e impot!n+i< lip/! ,n,i! peiclit$n" e=i/ten+! ,nei e!le
c,lt,i o#!ni1!+ion!le 'i implicit '!n/ele "e e,'it% 9n "eme/,l /t!te#ic.
An!li1! /t!te#ic% ! competen+elo o#!ni1!+ion!le po!te (i e!li1!t% "intDo pe/pecti4%
m,lt m!i l!#% "ec$t ce! o(eit% "e !po!tele (in!nci!e o:li#!toii< "e in(om!+iile (,ni1!te
p%+ilo "e intee/e implic!te 9ntDo !(!cee /!, "e conto!lele "e ,tin% !le !cti4it%+ilo< l!#
!plic!te 9n (imele "in +!! no!/t%.
Pemi/ele "e l! c!e !m plec!t 9n cont,!e! i"entit%+ii (imei /e e#%/e/c 9nC
'alitate D o:iecti4,l e/te /!ti/(!cee!< l! cel m!i 9n!lt /t!n"!"< ! ne4oilo clien+ilo.
Responsa%ilitate D !/,m!e! %/p,n"eii (iec%,i mem:, pent, !tin#ee! e1,lt!t,l,i optim.
Reciprocitate D ,n :ene(ici, ecipoc e/te :ene(ici,l 9mp%+it.
E)iciena D (olo/ie! p$n% l! ep,i1!e ! oic%ei e/,/e< "e ! n, pie"e nimic 'i "e ! (!ce "o!
cee! ce /e (!ce :ine.
/i%ertate D ne4oi! "e li:et!te pent, ! coi ,n 4iito. E/te ne4oie "e po(it c! (im! /% %m$n%
li:e%. Ce!e! mo"!lit%+ilo "e po(it e o cein+% ! li:et%+ii "e !c+i,ne< c%ci pemite (imei /%D
'i contole1e "e/tin,l.
2im! /e e4i"en+i!1% pin 9mp%t%'ie! ,nei c,lt,ii popii< ce cee!1% ,n me"i,
(!mili!l< ,n m!n!#ement 4i1ion! 'i e/pon/!:il< ce /e :!1e!1% pe com,nic!e "e/cEi/% 'i
"iect%< e/pect< 9nce"ee< inte#it!te 'i one/tit!te.
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Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
V!loile 'i !tit,"ine! (imei< !l%t,i "e po(e/ion!li/m,l celo ce (ome!1% ecEip!
epe1int% cel m!i pe+io/ c!pit!l "e c!e "i/p,ne< cl%"in" !/t(el 9nce"ee! 'i loi!lit!te!
:ene(ici!ilo< c!e e4in n, o "!t% 'i !t!# 'i pe !l+ii.
2!im! 'i /,cce/,l ,nei comp!nii /e cl%"e/c c, t!lent< !ptit,"ini< e(ot,i 'i "etemin!e.
Conti:,+i! (iec%,i om e/te pent, (im% ,n in#e"ient nece/! me/,l,i 9n!inte !l !(!ceii.
De !cee! #i@! pimo"i!l% ! (imei e/te !cee! "e ! ce! o ecEip% (om!t% "in o!meni c!e 'ti,
! 9m:in! n, "o! c,no'tin+ele< e(ot,l 'i /im+,l e/pon/!:ilit%+ii< ci /% !",c% !l%t,i "e !ce/te!
coope!e! 'i ent,1i!/m,l ce$n" !n#!@!+ilo /% l,ce1e Mc, minte!< c, inim! /i c, m$inile
loN< !/t(el 9nc$t /% !tin#% /cop,lC ! pe/t! ,n /e4ici, m!i :,n< l! ,n pe+ competiti4< c!e /!
po!t% (i ,til ,n,i n,m% m!i m!e "e clien+i. De !cee!< !t$t pent, (im%< 9n /ine< c$t /i pent,
clien+ii ei< p!cticile "e !n#!@!e /,nt !/t(el concep,te 9nc$t /% !/i#,e ec,t!e! "e o!meni
c!e !, "oin+! "e ! e,'i.. O(eie! con"i+iilo pent, e,'it% ",ce l! n!'tee! /,cce/,l,i.
Re/,/ele ,m!ne /,nt /in#,ele e/,/e c!p!:ile /% po",c% 'i /% epo",c% to!te
celel!lte e/,/e !(l!te l! "i/po1i+i! ,nei (imei. Pin ,m!e< /,cce/,l /i #!",l lo "e
competiti4it!te< po#e/,l !ce/to!< "epin" tot m!i m,lt "e c!lit!te! e/,/elo ,m!ne< o!menii
con/tit,in" :,n,l cel m!i "e pe+ !l ,nei (ime .
Mo"el,l cont!ct,l,i "e me"iee ! (o+ei "e m,nc! pe c!e (im! 9l pop,ne p!teneilo
/%i e/te ,n,l concep,t ",p% pincipi,l (!iDpl!L. 8n !ce!/t% pe/pecti4%< pin cl!,1ele in/e!te
9n el< /! n, /e !:!t% "e l! nici ,n,l "in pincipiile "e etic! 9n "omeni,< 9n con"i+iile ce%ii
,n,i :ene(ici, ecipoc.
O o#!ni1!+ie implic! e(ot,l com:in!t !l ,no in"i4i1i. O ce'tee ! #!",l,i "e c,lt,%
o#!ni1!+ion!l% 9n c!",l (imei pe/,p,ne "eci< o /cEim:!e "e compot!ment l! ni4el
in"i4i",!l. 8n (in!l< cee! ce conte!1% e/te om,l. Nici o !(!cee< nici ,n po",c%to< nici o
in/tit,+ie n, 4! !4e! /,cce/ (%% implic!e! tot!l% ! celo "in inteio. At,nci c$n"< 9n c!",l
,nei ecEipe< /e !@,n#e l! !moni1!e! !pot,ilo (iec%,i mem:,< /e !@,n#e l! ,n e1,lt!t.
Re1,lt!t,l (in!l !l !c+i,nilo ecEipei "e4ine !/t(el /,peio /,mei !pot,ilo in"i4i",!le. E/te<
po!te< ce! m!i in"ic!t! meto"! "e ! !@,n#e /! o:+inem cee! ce n,mim 4!lo!eDpl,/ 'i<
implicit< po(itDpl,/.
Poce/,l "e !n#!@!e !l /!l!i!+ilo te:,ie /% (ie o /,cce/i,ne meto"ic% "e e4enimente.
Ace/t poce/ 9ncepe ",p% "etemin!e! nece/it%+ii c! ,n /!l!i!t /% oc,pe ,n !n,mit po/t 'i /e
(in!li1e!1% c, !le#ee! c!n"i"!t,l,i c!e /!ti/(!ce cein+ele po/t,l,i e/pecti4< 9mp%t%'in"
pincipiile 'i 4!loile o#!ni1!+iei e/pecti4e.
O#!ni1!+i! e/te !lc%t,it% "in #,p,i "e o!meni< i! coo"on!e! 'i "iec+ion!e!
!ce/to! /pe !tin#ee! o:iecti4elo (i=!te con/tit,ie o p!te 9n/emn!t% ! m!n!#ement,l,i.
7,cce/,l (imei "epin"e "e m,l+i (!ctoi< "! n, m!i p,+in impot!nt e/te imp!ct,l
le!"e/Eip,l,i. Le!"e/Eip,l po!te (i 9n+ele/ c! ,n !ti:,t !l ,nei po1i+ii ie!Eice 9n
o#!ni1!+ie< o c!!ctei/tic% ! ,nei pe/o!ne< ,n poce/ "e mo:ili1!e 'i !nten!e !
pe/on!l,l,i 9ntDo !n,mit% "iec+ie< o c!p!cit!te "e mo:ili1!e /!, o c!te#oie "e
compot!ment.
Cultura organizaional n cadrul firmei
Concept 4i, "i/p,t!t 'i 9nc%c!t "e m,ltiple /emni(ic!+ii< c,lt,! o#!ni1!+ion!l% !e
meit,l "e ! !",ce 9n !ten+i! m!n!#ement,l,i o#!ni1!+iei impot!n+! (!cto,l,i ,m!n 'i !
(enomenelo i"entit!e 9n c!",l 9ntepin"eilo. L!n/!t pe l! 9ncep,t,l !nilo V)- 9n 7t!tele
Unite< c,lt,! o#!ni1!+ion!l% 'i< 9n #ene!l< c,lt,!li/m,l ! c,no/c,t o e=p!n/i,ne !pi"%<
!/t%1i con/tit,in" n,cle,l teoetic !l ,nei noi 'coli 9n 'tiin+! m!n!#ement,l,iC 'co!l!
m!n!#ement,l,i c,lt,!l. Din !ce/t moment< lite!t,! "e m!n!#ement ! 9ncep,t /%
pop,l!i1e1e (!pt,l c% e=celen+! ,nei o#!ni1!+ii e/te "!t% "e mo",ile com,ne pin c!e
mem:ii ei !, 9n4%+!t /% #$n"e!/c%< /% /imt% 'i /% !c+ione1e.
1)
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
C,lt,! o#!ni1!+ion!l%< epe1int% ,n comple= "e compot!mente< p!ctici 'i /i/teme "e
4!loi c!e !/i#,% 'i #,4ene!1% coe1i,ne! mem:ilo /%i. >!1ele c,lt,ii o#!ni1!+ion!le
/t!, 9n c,lt,! n!+ion!l% pent, c% e#,lile< nomele< 4!loile e#%/ite 9ntDo (im% 9'i !,
/o#inte! 9n e#,lile< nomele 'i 4!loile pomo4!te l! ni4el,l c,lt,ii n!+ion!le. C,lt,!
o#!ni1!+ion!l!< !'!"!< n, /e con(,n"% c, 4i1i,ne!< mi/i,ne! /!, /t!te#i! o#!ni1!+iei.
C,lt,! o#!ni1!+ion!l! 4i1e!1% c$te4! elemente con/tit,ti4eC e#,lile "e compot!ment<
nomele c!e /e "e14olt! 9n c!",l #,pelo "e m,nc!< 4!loile "omin!nte !"opt!te "e
o#!ni1!+ie pi4in" po",/ele< (ilo1o(i! c!e c%l%,1e'te politic! ,nei (ime (!+% "e p!teneii "e
!(!cei< e#,lile /t!:ilite 9ntDo o#!ni1!+ie pent, (,nc+ion!e! ei e(icient%< /piit,l 'i clim!t,l
ce c!!ctei1e!1% o#!ni1!+i! 9n me"i,l inten 'i 9n el!+iile c, me"i,l 9ncon@,%to.
2iec!e (im% !e popi! epe1ent!e i"entit!%< tot,'i ele n, /,nt ocolite "e con(lict.
Pl,!lit!te! 'i "i4e#en+! intee/elo /,nt tot !t$te! elemente p,t%to!e "e ten/i,ni 9n c!",l
(imei< cee! ce el!ti4i1e!1% con+in,t,l c,lt,ii o#!ni1!+ion!le.
L! :!1! no+i,nii "e c,lt,% o#!ni1!+ion!l! /t% !"e!e! in"i4i1ilo l! ,n poiect
mo:ili1!to. 2im! n, /e limite!1% "o! l! ,n /p!+i, "e m!ni(e/t!e ! ,no p!ctici< 4!loi 'i
it,!l,i colecti4e< ci ! mo:ili1! 'i (o+ele mem:ilo /%i 9ntD,n poiect c!e implic% !tin#ee!
,no o:iecti4e /t!te#ice. De !/emene!< no+i,ne! implic% !:o"!e! (imei c! o micoD
/ociet!te c!p!:il% /% in/tit,ie e#,lile (,nc+ion!ii ei /oci!le intene. Impot!n+! /t,"ieii
c,lt,ii o#!ni1!+ion!le e/te "!t% "e 4!len+ele p!ctice pe c!e le pe1int% !ce/t in/t,ment
,tili1!t< tot m!i "e/< 9n poten+!e! pe(om!n+elo (imei.
Di!#no/tic!e! "imen/i,nilo c,lt,ii pemite o:/e4!e! compot!ment,l,i ,m!n 9n
(im% 'i p,nee! 9n 4!lo!e ! e!lit%+ilo o#!ni1!+iei ele4!nte pent, (,nc+ion!e! !ce/tei!.
C,lt,! po!te conti:,i !t$t l! !"!pt!e! 9n (!+! me"i,l,i e=ten< "! 'i l! ne4oi! "e inte#!e
inten% pin !"een+! 9nte#,l,i pe/on!l l! o:iecti4ele /t!te#ice !le o#!ni1!+iei< coe1i,ne!
#,pelo "e m,nc% (iin" 4it!l% pent, (,nc+ion!e! e(icient% ! (imei. 7,nt cinci "imen/i,ni
/,(iciente pent, ! ele4! pincip!lele c!,1e !le 'oc,ilo 'i con(lictelo inteDc,lt,!le<
/,(iciente pent, ! intepet! compot!e! !n#!@!+ilo /i ! m!n!#ement,l,i 9ntD,n conte=t
c,lt,!l "!tC "i/t!nt! (!t! "e p,tee m!e P mic!< in"i4i",!li/m P colecti4i/m< (eminit!te P
m!/c,linit!te< ni4el,l i"ic!t P /c%1,t "e e4it!e ! incetit,"inii 'i !:o"!e pe temen l,n# P
/c,t.
Utili1$n" !ce/te "imen/i,ni p,tem i"enti(ic! cel p,+in "o,! pe/pecti4e tot!l "i(eite 9n
cee! ce pi4e'te !:o"!e! /it,!+iilo con(lict,!le. Mo"el,l c,lt,!l !meic!n e/te pin
e=celen+% con(lict,!l< c!!ctei1!t "e in"i4i",!li/m< !ccent,!e! !,tointee/,l,i 'i ,n p,tenic
"in!mi/m l! ni4el,l ment!lit%+ilo "!< 9n !cel!'i timp< "omin!t "e 4!loi(ic!e! "i(een+elo<
cont!"ic+iilo 'i ! conto4e/elo 9n :ene(ici,l "e14olt%ii.
N, !cel!'i l,c, /e po!te /p,ne "e/pe mo"el,l /,e"e1 'i cel @!pone1< c!!ctei1!te "e
,n #!" /c%1,t "e e!cti4it!te emo+ion!l%< con(omi/m< "epen"en+% (!+% "e nome 'i< 9n
#ene!l< "e ,n ni4el "e e#!lit!i/m ! 9nt$lnit 9n l,me. H!poni! 'i 7,e"i! con/tit,ie p,ncte "e
!t!c+ie pent, oice !n!li/t "eo!ece< pe :!1! pincipiilo etice< mo!le !"$nc 9n%"%cin!te 9n
me"i,l c,lt,!l< !, e,'it /% con/t,i!/c% !"e4%!t! p!ce /oci!l%< "e'i< l! ni4el,l el!+iilo
,m!ne Ge=cep+ion!li/m,lG !meic!n e/te "ep%'it "e !moni! 'i loi!lit!te! !t$t "e c!!ctei/tice
mo"el,l,i @!pone1 'i /,e"e1F e=empl,l o(eit "e !ce/te +%i "emon/te!1% 9nc% o "!t% c%
4!loile 'i nomele c,lt,!le te:,ie /% con/tit,ie pincip!le p,ncte "e epe 9n !n!li1!
me"i,l,i economic.
8n !pot c, "imen/i,nile c,lt,ii (imei< l! ni4el micoDeconomic< con(lict,l po!te (i
pi4it 'i c! o /,/% pincip!l% "e into",cee ! /cEim:%ii. D!c% men+inee! c,lt,ii e/te ,n
"eme/ el!ti4 ,'o pent, m!n!#ement,l ,nei (ime< m,lt m!i "i(icil% /e "o4e"e'te ! (i
/cEim:!e! c,lt,ii o#!ni1!+ion!le. Un mi@loc pi4ile#i!t "e po",cee ! /cEim:%ii 9l
epe1int% con(lict,l< pi4it c! poce/ con/t,cti4 "e /tim,l!e ! pe(om!n+elo
o#!ni1!+ion!le.
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Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
Compot!mentele 'i !tit,"inile /,nt "i(icil "e /cEim:!t cee! ce 9n/e!mn% c%
"imen/i,nile c,lt,ii /,nt in4!i!:ile pe o peio!"% 9n"el,n#!t% "e timp. P!ctic! m!n!#ei!l%
!!t% c% o#!ni1!+iile /e 9mpoti4e/c /cEim:%ii pin (o+% ! nomelo< ! o:i'n,in+elo 'i pin
i#i"it!te! /t,ct,ilo< cee! ce con",ce l! ,n p,tenic et!" (!+% "e noile con"i+ii "e pe pi!+%.
Nomele imp,/e "e c,lt,! (imei /t!:ile/c cee! ce e/te "e1i!:il /!, in"e1i!:il<
compot!mentele !"ec4!te /!, ne"oite 9ntDo (im%< 9n lip/! !ce/to! (iin" #!4 !(ect!t%
(,nc+ion!e! optim! ! (imei. Pe "e !lt% p!te< nomele pe1int% "e1!4!nt!@,l c% (!4oi1e!1%
!p!i+i! ,no !tit,"ini eto#!"e< "e e/pin#ee ! no,l,i< ! ino4!+iei< c, e(ecte ne#!ti4e 9n
pl!n,l e(icien+ei economice.
CAPITOL II
FUNCIILE MANAGEMENTULUI
Poce/,l "e m!n!#ement /e "e/(%'o!% contin,, 'i ne9nte,pt 9n c!",l o#!ni1!+iilo< el
"e:,te!1% o "!t! c, /t!:ilie! o:iecti4elo "e e!li1!t< contin,% c, el!:o!e! "eci1iilo 'i
t!/!e! /!cinilo 'i /e 9ncEeie o "!t! c, e!li1!e! !ce/to /!cini 'i< pin ele< ! o:iecti4elo.
Poce/,l "e m!n!#ement !e ,n c!!cte ciclic c,pin1$n" ,n comple= "e !cti4it%+i /peci(ice
"e/(%',!te "e c%te m!n!#ei. Pent, ! (!cilit! !c+i,ne! "e t!n/p,nee 9n p!ctic% ! !ce/to
!cti4it%+i "i4e/i(ic!te ! (o/t nece/!! o"on!e! !ce/to! 'i #,p!e! lo in (,nc+ii P !ti:,te "e
m!n!#ement< !ce/te! epe1ent$n" e/en+! m!n!#ement,l,i.
Cel c!e ! i"enti(ic!t 'i !n!li1!t poce/ele "e m!n!#ement pent, pim! "!t! ! (o/t
KenL 2!Lol< 9n c!",l lo "e(inin" cinci (,nc+ii pincip!leC pe4i1i,ne!< o#!ni1!e!<
com!n"!< coo"on!e! 'i contol,l. Din p,nct "e 4e"ee teoetic (,nc+i! "e m!n!#ement
c,pin"e m!i m,lte elemente c!e 9i "etemin! (om! "e m!ni(e/t!e. Ace/te elemente /,ntC
W #,p,l "e !cti4it%+i inte#!teF
W n!t,! !/em%n%to!e 'i inte"epen"en+! !ce/to !cti4it%+iF
W impot!n+! !cti4it%+ilo 9n !n/!m:l,l poce/,l,i "e m!n!#ementF
W epetiti4it!te! !c+i,nii "e/(%',!t% 9n c!",l (iec%ei !cti4it%+i.
8n (,nc+ie "e !ce/te elemente 'i :ine9n+ele/ "e con+in,t,l poce/,l,i "e m!n!#ement
p,tem #,p! !cti4it%+ile "e m!n!#ement 9n ,m%to!ele (,nc+iiC "e pe4i1i,ne< "e o#!ni1!e<
"e coo"on!e< "e moti4!e D !nten!e 'i "e e4!l,!e D contol.
).(. FUNCIA DE ORGANI'ARE
8n lite!t,! om$n% "e /peci!lit!te /,nt (om,l!te m!i m,lte !ccep+i,ni le#!te "e
con+in,t,l !ce/tei (,nc+ii "e o#!ni1!e. A/t(el Coneli, R,//, o "e(ine! c! Mtot!lit!te!
elementelo componente 'i ! el!+iilo "inte !ce/te!< /t,ct,!te 9ntD,n !n,mit c!",
o#!ni1!toic 9n c!e /e e!li1e!1% poce/ele "e con",cee ! !cti4it%+ilo o#!ni1!+iei
"e/(%',!te 9n 4e"ee! !tin#eii o:iecti4elo (i=!teG.
O !lt% !ccep+i,ne e/te ce! ! l,i O4i"i, Nicole/c,< c!e con/i"e% (,nc+i! "e o#!ni1!e
c! M!n/!m:l,l poce/elo "e m!n!#ement pin inteme"i,l c%o! /e /t!:ile/c 'i /e "elimite!1%
poce/ele "e m,nc% (i1ic% 'i intelect,!l% 'i componentele lo pec,m 'i #,p!e! !ce/to! pe
po/t,i< (om!+ii "e l,c, 'i !ti:,ie! lo pe/on!l,l,i< coe/p,n1%to !n,mito citeii
economice< teEnice 'i /oci!le 9n 4e"ee! e!li1%ii o:iecti4elo pe4i1ion!teG.
Ameic!nii KenL Mint1:e# 'i Ro:et XeitEe con/i"e!, c% (,nc+i! "e o#!ni1!e
pe/,p,neC M !loc!e! 'i "i/ti:,ie! e/,/elo ,m!ne 'i m!tei!le 9n com:in!+iile cele m!i
poti4ite pent, implement!e! pl!n,l,iG.
O#!ni1!e! con/tit,ie ,n mi@loc pent, e!li1!e! o:iecti4elo< "eci con+in,t,l 'i mo",l
"e m!ni(e/t!e /,nt con"i+ion!te "e c!!ctei/ticile /i/tem,l,i "e o:iecti4e !l (imei. De !ici
e1,lt% nece/it!te! 'i impot!n+! pent, o#!ni1!to "e ! "i/p,ne "e "e/ciei c$t m!i lo#ice<
2-
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
cl!e !le o:iecti4elo< i! pin inteme"i,l !ce/to! ",c$n" l! e!li1!e! lo. D!c% ponim "e l!
pemi/! c% o:iecti4,l pincip!l< (,n"!ment!l !l oic%ei (ime 9n economi! "e pi!+% e/te
o:+inee! ,n,i po(it m!=im< !t,nci 9n+ele#em nece/it!te! /,:o"on%ii oient%ii t,t,o
e/,/elo ,m!ne< in(om!+ion!le< meto"olo#ice !le o#!ni1!+iei pent, !tin#ee! l,i.
8n !ce/t conte=t /e "oe'te /,:liniee! i"eii c% 9n economi! om$ne!/c% e/te nece/!%
impim!e! ,nei noi optici 9n poiect!e! /i/tem,l,i "e o:iecti4e 9n /en/,l /it,%ii m!=imi1%ii
po(it,l,i 9n cent,l !ce/t,i /i/tem 'i plec$n" "e !ici 9ntDo !:o"!e pi!mi"!l% /% /e !/i#,e
(,n"!ment!e! "e o:iecti4e pent, to!te componentele o#!ni1!toice !le ,nit%+ii.
In/,(icient! (,n"!ment!e ! /i/tem,l,i "e o:iecti4e !l o#!ni1!+iei cee!1% "i(ic,lt%+i 9n
poce/,l "e "elimit!e ! poce/elo "e m,nc% c!e /e "e/(%'o!% 9n c!",l !ce/tei!.
8n le#%t,% c, p!tic,l!it!te! men+ion!t% /e con/t!t% o /t,ct,!e necoe/p,n1%to!e !
pe/on!l,l,i "e con",cee 'i "e e=ec,+ie pe po/t,i 'i (,nc+ii. 7e +ine m!i p,+in /e!m! "e
pe#%tie< "e e1,lt!tele m,ncii 9n poce/,l "e #,p!e ! !n#!@!+ilo pe po/t,i 'i (,nc+ii.
De !/emene! /e con/t!t% in/,(icient! coel!e ! /!cinilo< competen+elo 'i
e/pon/!:ilit%+ilo pe pe/o!ne peci1!te 9n "oc,mentele /t,ct,ii c, /!cinile< competen+ele
'i e/pon/!:ilit%+ile e!le pe c!e le !e (iec!e /!l!i!t l! loc,l "e m,nc%. In/,(icient! !"!pt!e
! con+in,t,l,i "oc,mentelo "e (om!li1!e ! /t,ct,ii l! cein+ele imp,/e "e poce/ele "e
e/t,ct,!e 'i pi4!ti1!e c!e !, loc 9n c!",l (imelo e/te ,n !lt !/pect p!tic,l!.
Peoc,p%ile e",/e pent, (olo/ie! timp,l,i "e m,nc%< pent, o nom!e
coe/p,n1%to!e ! !ce/t,i! con",c l! (ec4entele 9nte,pei c!e !p! 9n "i4e/ele (!1e !le
poce/elo "e po",c+ie /!, l! pel,n#ii ne@,/ti(ic!te !le !ce/to!.
7e con/t!t% "e !/emene! ,n #!" e",/ "e ecepti4it!te ! m!n!#eilo 'i e=ec,t!n+ilo
(!+% "e poten+i!lele /cEim:%i c!e /,nt !:/ol,t nece/!e pent, o#!ni1!e! e(icient% !
!cti4it%+ii.
8n con"i+iile pi4!ti1%ii 'i e/t,ct,%ii e/te nece/! ,n e(ot "e !"!pt!e l! /cEim:!e<
l! no,. 8n !ce/t /en/ /e con/t!t% o in/,(icient% c,no!'tee "e c%te m!n!#ei ! meto"elo 'i
teEnicilo c!e /% pemit% o "imen/ion!e @,"icio!/% ! /,p!(e+elo "e po",c+ie 'i o
4!loi(ic!e coe/p,n1%to!e ! /p!+iilo "i/poni:ile.
Poce/,l "e eteEnolo#i1!e /,/+in,t "e #,4en ! "ecl!n'!t po:leme 9n /en/,l c% o /eie
"e m!'ini< ,til!@e 'i in/t!l!+ii c!e !, int!t 9n "i(eite /ociet%+i n, /e pot !"!pt! /!, /e pot
inte#!< "! !, cEelt,ieli m!i< l! ecEip!mentele "e@! e=i/tente. A/t(el 9n ,nele (ime !, !p%,t
e!le po:leme "e o#!ni1!e ! !cti4it%+ilo 9n !ct,!lele con"i+ii.
Impot!n+! !ce/tei (,nc+ii "ec,#e "in con+in,t,l ei< 'i !n,me "in nece/it!te! /t!:iliii
mo",l,i 9n c!e o!menii l,ce!1% 9mpe,n% 9n c!",l o#!ni1!+iei pent, e!li1!e!
o:iecti4elo !ce/tei!< peci1!e! conti:,+iei (iec%,i! 'i "etemin!e! c%ilo "e !ti:,ie 'i
#,p!e ! l,c%ilo< /!cinilo pe po/t,i< comp!timente< (om!+ii "e l,c,.
A/t(el /e "e/pin" "o,% /,:"i4i1i,ni !le o#!ni1%iiC
W o#!ni1!e! "e !n/!m:l, ! /ociet%+ii comeci!le 'i e#iei !,tonome conceti1!te 9n /t!:ilie!
/t,ct,ii o#!ni1!toice 'i ! /i/tem,l,i in(om!+ion!l
W o#!ni1!e! pincipi!lelo (,nc+ii !le 9ntepin"eiiC cecet!e! D "e14olt!e!< po",c+i!
comeci!l%< (in!nci!Dcont!:il% 'i "e pe/on!l< m,lt m!i e=tin/% "ec$t pim!< "!c% l,%m 9n
con/i"e!e /peci(ic,l poce/elo "e e=ec,+ie 'i "e m!n!#ement !/,p! o#!ni1%ii< c! "e
!lt(el 'i 4ol,m,l !peci!:il "e m,nc% pe c!e 9l implic%.
O !lt% p!tic,l!it!te ! !ce/tei (,nc+ii e/te #!",l e",/ "e coel!e 9nte "etemin!e!
nece/!,l,i "e pe/on!l 'i pl!n,l "e m,nc% 9nte !cti4it%+ile "e !po4i1ion!e< po",c+ie 'i
4$n1!e c, con/ecin+e "inte cele m!i ne(!4o!:ile !/,p! co/t,ilo 'i implicit !/,p!
e1,lt!telo (in!nci!e (in!le.
Po:lemele o#!ni1!toice c, c!e /e con(,nt% 9ntepin"eile mici 'i mi@locii /,nt
(,n"!ment!l "i(eite "e cele c, c!e /e con(,nt% cele m!i. Peno/e A1656B ! /,:lini!t c%
M"i(een+ele "inte /t,ct,! 9ntepin"eilo mici 'i m!i /,nt !t$t "e e4i"ente 9nc$t e #e, /%
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Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
4e1i c% !ce/te! /,nt "o,% /pecii !le !cel,i!'i #en ... n, po+i "e(ini o omi"% 'i !poi /% (olo/e'ti
!cee!'i "e(ini+ie pent, ,n (l,t,eG.
Pent, 9ntepin"eile "e "imen/i,ni mici e=i/ten+! ,nei /t,ct,i (om!le n, e ne!p%!t
nece/!%. CEi! 9n !ce/te con"i+ii e nece/! c! (iec!e /!l!i!t /% !i:% :ine "elimit!te /!cinile
/!le 9n 9ntepin"ee. A:/en+! ,nei /t,ct,i o#!ni1!toice comple=e pemite o l,!e !pi"% !
"eci1iei 'i e!li1!e! "e com,nic!+ii e(ecti4e l! ni4el,l #,p,l,i "e m,nc%< pec,m 'i 9nte
!ce/t! 'i m!n!#ement.
O "!t% c, ce'tee! 9ntepin"eii !p!e nece/it!te! e=i/ten+ei o#!ni1%ii (om!le. 9n
!ce/t poce/< 9ntepin"ee! po!te c,no!'te ,m%to!ele et!pe o#!ni1!toice ALon#enecIe 'i
Mooe< 1661BC
W 9ntepin"ee! po!te (i comp,/% "intDo /in#,% pe/o!n%F
W 9ntepin1%to,l e=ecit% coo"on!e! !cti4it%+ilo l,c%toilo c!e e!li1e!1% !cti4it%+ile "e
:!1% !le 9ntepin"eiiF
W !p!e ,n ni4el inteme"i! ie!EicF
W et!p! o#!ni1%ii (om!le D (om!li1!e! m!n!#ement,l,i implic% "e/ciee! po/t,ilo<
e!li1!e! o#!ni#!mei< (,n"!ment!e! poce",ilo "e contol< el!:o!e! po#!melo "e
!c+i,ne.
8n #ene!l< 9n c!",l 9ntepin"eilo m!i /e m!ni(e/t% ,n poce/ "e e",cee !
/t,ct,ilo o#!ni1!toice :ioc!tice 9n (!4o!e! "e/cent!li1%ii< "e concepee ! ,no
/t,ct,i o#!ni1!toice /,ple< o#!nice< p,+in (om!li1!te< 9n c!e coope!e!< con/,lt!e! !, o
impot!n+% "eo/e:it%. 8ntepin"eile mici !(l!te 9n et!p! "e ce'tee /e !(l% 9n plin poce/ "e
ci/t!li1!e ! popiilo /t,ct,i o#!ni1!toice< c!e c!,t% /% %/p,n"% (le=i:ilit%+ii 'i
"in!mi/m,l,i< c!!ctei/tice 9ntepin"eilo mici 'i mi@locii.
8n "e(inie! o#!ni1%ii c! !ti:,t !l m!n!#ement,l,i e=i/t% p,ncte "e 4e"ee "i(eite. De
e=empl,< 9n 4eme ce ci:eneticienii 4%" o#!ni1!e! c! pe o !cti4it!te ce /e "e/(%'o!% 9n
!(!! poce/,l,i "e con",cee< K. 2!Lol /p,ne! M! o#!ni1! 9ntepin"ee! 9n/e!mn% ! o
!po4i1ion! c, tot ceDi e/te nece/! pent, :,n! ei (,nc+ion!eC m!teii pime< ,til!@e< :!ni<
pe/on!lG.
C! o e(lect!e ! p,nct,l,i "e 4e"ee poti4it c%,i! o#!ni1!e! epe1int% ,n poce/ "e
m,nc% pin inteme"i,l c%,i! /e cee!1% !t$t /i/tem,l< c$t 'i /t,ct,! /!< /e !(im%C
MO#!ni1!e!< c! (,nc+ie ! con",ceii< po!te (i "e(init% c! o !cti4it!te "e/(%',!t% "e o!meni 9n
4e"ee! ce%ii /t%ii "e o"on!e ! o:iecti4,l,i< pec,m 'i ! el!+iilo "inte o!meniG.
8n opini! l,i O. Nicole/c,< o#!ni1!e! "e/emne!1% M!n/!m:l,l poce/elo pin
inteme"i,l c%o! /e /t!:ile/c 'i "elimite!1% poce/ele "e m,nc% (i1ic% 'i intelect,!l% 'i
componentele !ce/to! Acon/,m,i< mi'c%i< timpi< ope!+ii< l,c%i< /!cini etcB< pec,m 'i
#,p!e! lo pe po/t,i (om!+ii "e m,nc%< comp!timente 'i !ti:,ie! lo pe/on!l,l,i<
coe/p,n1%to !n,mito citeii economice< teEnice 'i /oci!le< 9n 4e"ee! e!li1%ii 9n c$t m!i
:,ne con"i+ii ! o:iecti4elo pl!ni(ic!teG.
Re1,lt% "e !ici c% !ti:,t,l o#!ni1%ii 4i1e!1%C
W El!:o!e! /t,ct,ii o#!ni1!toiceF
W 8ntocmie! ,no (l,=,i inten!+ion!le !+ion!leF
W Utili1!e! complet% !t$t ! c!p!cit%+ii "e m,nc!< c$t 'i ! celol!lte e/,/eF
WDe(inie! ,no le#%t,i e(iciente 9nte comp!timente 'i ! ,n,i /i/tem "e el!+ii 9nte
9ntepin"ee 'i me"i,l /%, !m:i!ntF
W A/i#,!e! ,n,i #!" !+ion!l "e "ele#!e ! competen+elo "e e1ol4!e ! /!cinilo.
D!c% pl!ni(ic!e! e/te /peci(ic% 9n pincip!l ni4el,ilo ie!Eice /,peio!e< o#!ni1!e!
/e e#%/e'te l! to!te ni4el,ile "e con",cee Din !ce/t p,nct "e 4e"ee< p,tem /ep!! "o,!
ni4el,i pincip!le l! c!e /e e!li1e!1% o#!ni1!e!C
D organizarea de ansam%lu< e/pecti4 el!:o!e! /t,ct,ii o#!ni1!toice 'i ! /i/tem,l,i
in(om!+ion!l !l 9ntepin"eii. O#!ni1!e!< "in !ce/t p,nct "e 4e"ee< e/te e=ecit!t% "e
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con",cee! /,peio!% ! 9ntepin"eii 'i e/te o pemi/% (,n"!ment!l% ! 9n/e'i e(icien+ei
poce/,l,i "e con",cee 9n !n/!m:l,l l,i.
D organizarea compartimental !e "ept o:iecti4 pincip!l !",cee! (iec%,i
comp!timent "e m,nc%< pin mo:ili1!e! t,t,o e/,/elo "e c!e "i/p,ne< 9n /t!e "e !
e!li1! o:iecti4ele ce iD!, (o/t /t!:ilite pin pl!n,ile c,ente 'i po#!mele "e e=ec,+ie.
An!li1! /i/tem!tic% ! 9ntepin"eilo 'i< 9n mo" "eo/e:it< ! /i/tem,l,i "e con",cee
ele4% (,nc+iile m,ltiple 'i tot m!i impot!nte pe c!e le !e /t,ct,! o#!ni1!toic% 9n c!lit!te
"e /,:/i/tem o#!ni1!toic pincip!l.
Pin /t,ct,% o#!ni1!toic% 9n+ele#em !n/!m:l,l pe/o!nelo 'i comp!timentelo
9ntepin"eii< pec,m 'i !l el!+iilo "inte ele< pl!/!te 9ntDo con(i#,!+ie coeent% c!e
!/i#,% pemi/ele o#!ni1!toice !le !tin#eii o:iecti4elo pl!ni(ic!te.
De e#,l% /t,ct,! o#!ni1!toic% e/te comp,/% "inC
W &tructura de producie< "e(init% c! tot!lit!te! c!"elo "e con",cee 'i !
comp!timentelo "in c!",l 9ntepin"eilo 9n c!e /e po",c :,n,i 'i /e4iciiF
W &tructura )uncional< con/tit,it%< "in tot!lit!te! c!"elo "e con",cee 'i !
comp!timentelo 9n c!e /e "e/(%'o!% !cti4it%+i c, c!!cte (,nc+ion!l< "e pe#%tie 'i l,!e !
"eci1iilo 9ntDo o#!ni1!+ie.
Pincip!lele tip,i "e /t,ct,i o#!ni1!toice /e #,pe!1% pe "o,% citeii.
(. D,p% criteriul mor)ologic< c!e !tic,le!1% componentele /t,ct,iiC
D /t,ct,! ie!Eic%< /peci(ic% 9ntepin"eilo c!e "e/(%'o!% o !cti4it!te c, o e",/%
comple=it!te 'i c!!ctei1!t% pintD,n n,m% e",/ "e comp!timente c, 4oc!+ie !po!pe
e=cl,/i4 ope!+ion!l%< !i c%o 'e(i e=ecit% to!te /!cinile "e con",cee< (%% !@,to,l ,no
comp!timente (,nc+ion!leF
D /t,ct,! (,nc+ion!l%< c!e epe1int% o /ol,+ie "e t!n1it /pe tip,l (olo/it 9n pe1entF
D /t,ct,! ie!EicD (,nc+ion!l%< (olo/it% 9n pe1ent "e c%te (imele "e t!lie mi@locie 'i m!e<
c, o !cti4it!te e=tem "e comple=% 'i cEi! "e o :,n% p!te "in cele miciF
). D,p% citei,l specializrii activitilorC
D /t,ct,! !ntepenoi!l%< 9n c!e< 9n mo" /imil! /t,ct,ii ie!Eice< p!ton,l 9'i con",ce
"iect 9ntepin"ee!. Alte c!!ctei/tici !le ,nei !/t(el "e /t,ct,i /,ntC po!te !p%e! ,n,l /!,
"oi !"@,nc+i !i m!n!#e,l,i #ene!l c!e !/i#,% con",cee! ,no "ep!t!mente 9n (,nc+ie "e
"omeni,l 9n c!e 9'i "e/(%'o!% !cti4it!te! 9ntepin"ee! e/pecti4%.
D /t,ct,! (,nc+ion!l% e/te !"opt!t! "e ce! m!i m!e p!te "in 9ntepin"eile c!eD'i
"e/(%'o!% !cti4it!te! 9n /ecto,l te+i!. 8ntDo !/t(el "e /t,ct,% !p!< !l%t,i "e
comp!timentele ope!+ion!le< comp!timente (,nc+ion!le c!e !cope% (,nc+iile 9ntepin"eii.
D /t,ct,! m!tice!l%< c!e com:in%< 9n c!",l ,nei /t,ct,i (,nc+ion!le popi,D1i/e<
citeiile "e /peci!li1!e ! !cti4it%+ii men+ion!te m!i /,/.
O !:o"!e comple=% ! /t,ct,ii o#!ni1!toice imp,ne i"enti(ic!e! 'i "e(inie!
principalelor ei componenteC
Y (,nc+i! D e/te "e(init% "ept Mtot!lit!te! /!cinilo< 9n #ene!l omo#ene "in p,nct "e 4e"ee
!t$t !l n!t,ii c$t /i !l comple=it%+ii lo< pe c!e le !e "e 9n"eplinit ,n !n#!@!tN.
Po!te (iC "e con",cee< c, !ccent pe competen+e 'i e/pon/!:ilit%+i< "e e=ec,+ie< c,
competen+e 'i %/p,n"ei limit!te l! !cti4it!te! popie.
Y nom! ele con",cee /!, pon"ee! ie!Eic% D epe1int% n,m%,l "e pe/o!ne con",/e
nemi@locit "e ,n c!", "e con",ceeF
Y comp!timent,l D epe1int% Mtot!lit!te! !n#!@!+ilo /,:o"on!+i !cel,i!'i c!",< "e
con",cee 'i c!e e=ec,t! pem!nent m,nci peci/ "etemin!te< omo#ene /!,
complement!eG< ",p% c,m ,me!1%C
W comp!timente ope!+ion!le D c!e po",c 'i 4$n" :,n,i 'i pe/te!1% /e4icii.<
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W comp!timente (,nc+ion!le D 9n c!e /e pe#%te/c "eci1iile ce ,me!1% /% (ie !"opt!te l!
ni4el,ile me"ii 'i /,peio!e "e con",cee< 9n to!te "omeniile "e !cti4it!te "in
o#!ni1!+ieF
Y ni4el,ile ie!Eice D /,nt po1i+iile /,cce/i4e pe c!e le !, c!"ele "e con",cee 'i P /!,
comp!timentele coo"on!te "e ele (!+% "e !",n!e! #ene!l% ! !c+ion!iloF
Y el!+iile o#!ni1!+ion!le D epe1int% tot!lit!te! cont!ctelo ce !, loc 9n poce/,l m,ncii 9nte
/,:"i4i1i,nile /t,ct,ii o#!ni1!toice< pin inteme"i,l c%o! /e e!li1e!1% m!i !le/
t!n/(e,l "e in(om!+ii< c,m /,ntC
W el!+ii "e autoritate Z c!e con"i+ione!1% :,n! "e/(%',!e ! !cti4it%+ii 'i /e
9mp!t 9nC el!+ii ie!Eice< (,nc+ion!le 'i "e /t!t m!@o<
W el!+ii "e cooperare D c!e /e /t!:ile/c 9nte po/t,i /it,!te pe !cel!'i ni4el ie!Eic< "!
!p!+in$n" ,no comp!timente "i(eiteF
W el!+ii "e control D c!e /e n!/c 9nte comp!timentele /peci!li1!te "e contol 'i celel!lte
comp!timente "in c!",l 9ntepin"eiiF
W el!+ii spontane D c!e /,nt o con/ecin+% ! e=i/ten+ei< 9n o#!ni1!+ie< ! /t,ct,ii
in(om!te c!e 9n/o+e'te 9ntot"e!,n! /t,ct,! (om!l%.
Pent, ! /e p,te! peci1! mo",l "e o#!ni1!e 'i (,nc+ion!e ! (imei pin inteme"i,l
,nei epe1ent%i "et!li!te ! /t,ct,ii o#!ni1!toice /e ,tili1e!1% Regulamentul de
Organizare $i .uncionare a ,ntreprinderii ARO2B. Ace/t! c,pin"e ,m%to!ele p%+i
pincip!leC
D "i/po1i+ii #ene!le 9n c!e /e peci1e!1% !ct,l "e 9n(iin+!e< 9ne#i/t!t l! Re#i/t,l
Come+,l,i< "omeniile "e !cti4it!te< /t!t,t,l @,i"ic !l 9ntepin"eii etcF
D /t,ct,! 9ntepin"eii e(lect% 9n tot!lit!te comp!timentele 'i el!+iile "inte ele<
,nit%+ile ope!ti4e "e to!te tip,ile< incl,/i4 o#!ni#!mele !ce/to!F
D !ti:,+iile comp!timentelo 'i c!"elo "e con",cee epe1int%< "e !/emene!< o
component% impot!nt% ! RO2D,l,i. 7,nt tec,te !ici componen+! "i(eitelo o#!ne "e
con",cee< mo",l lo "e (,nc+ion!e< !ti:,+iile< e/pon/!:ilit%+ile< competen+ele
'i limitele lo< /it,!+iile in c%te e/te po/i:il% "ele#!e! "e !,toit!te etcF
D "i/po1i+ii (in!le< 9n c!e /e (!c peci1%i pi4in" o:li#!ti4it!te! !plic%ii R-2D
,l,i< mo"!lit%+ile "e complet!e /!, mo"i(ic!e ! !ce/t,i!.
Pincip!lele mi@lo!ce "e pe1ent!e ! /t,ct,ii o#!ni1!toice /,nt o#!ni#!mele.
2olo/ite pent, c,no!'tee! 'i !n!li1! /t,ct,ilo< /,nt< "e (!pt< o epe1ent!e concent!t% 'i
il,/t!t% ! /t,ct,ilo pin inteme"i,l c%/,+elo "ept,n#Ei,l!e Ac!e 4i1,!li1e!1% po/t,ile
"e con",cee 'i comp!timenteleB 'i !l liniilo "e "i(eite (ome.
Un ol "eo/e:it 9n poce/,l "e o#!ni1!e ! !cti4it%+ii 9ntDo 9ntepin"ee 9l !e )i$a
postului. E! c,pin"e "e e#,l% con"i+iile pe c!e te:,ie /% le 9n"epline!/c% oc,p!nt,l
po/t,l,i e/pecti4< el!+iile pe c!e le !e oc,p!nt,l po/t,l,i e/pecti4 c, !lte comp!timente
/!, (,nc+ii "in c!",l 9ntepin"eii men+ion$n",D/e c,i 9i e/te /,:o"on!t 'i pe cine
/,:o"one!1%< c, ce comp!timente /!, po/t,i col!:oe!1% pent, 9n"eplinie! pincip!lelo
l,i /!cini< limitele "e competen+% !le oc,p!nt,l,i po/t,l,i< men+ion$n",D/e "eci1iile ce int%
9n /!cin! !n#!@!t,l,i< pec,m 'i %/p,n"ee! /! (!+% "e #!",l "e 9n"eplinie ! !ti:,+iilo.
).). FUNCIA DE COORDONARE
2,nc+i! "e coo"on!e con/t% 9n !n/!m:l,l poce/elo "e m,nc% pin c!e /e
!moni1e!1% "eci1iile 'i !c+i,nile pe/on!l,l,i o#!ni1!+iei 'i !le /,:/i/temelo /!le< 9n c!",l
pe4i1i,nilo 'i /i/tem,l,i o#!ni1!toic /t!:ilite !nteio. C, !lte c,4inte< coo"on!e! e/te o
Mo#!ni1!e 9n "in!mic%G< ! c%ei nece/it!te e1,lt%< 9n pincip!l< "inC
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D "in!mi/m,l o#!ni1!+iei 'i !l me"i,l,i !m:i!nt< impo/i:il "e e(lect!t 9n tot!lit!te 9n
pe4i1i,ni 'i 9n /i/tem,l o#!ni1!toicF
D comple=it!te!< "i4e/it!te! 'i< p!+i!l< ine"it,l e!c+iilo pe/on!l,l,i 'i /,:/i/temelo
o#!ni1!+iei< ce ecl!m% ,n M(ee"D:!cIG ope!ti4< pem!nent< "e n!t,% /% !/i#,e coel!e!
!"ec4!t% ! "eci1iilo 'i ! !c+i,nilo !ce/to!.
Pent, !/i#,!e! ,nei coo"on%i e(ic!ce e/te e/en+i!l% e=i/ten+! ,nei com,nic%i
!"ec4!te l! to!te ni4el,ile m!n!#ement,l,i< pin com,nic!e 9n+ele#$n" t!n/mitee! "e
in(om!+ii 'i pecepee! inte#!l% ! me/!@elo con+in,te.
Din !n!li1ele e(ect,!te ! e1,lt!t c%< 9n pincip!l< coo"on!e! 9m:!c% "o,% (omeC
D :il!te!l%
D m,ltil!te!l%
8n #ene!l< coo"on!e! epe1int% ,n poce/ pin c!e ,n m!n!#e cee!1% 'i men+ine
!moni! 9nte !cti4it%+ile< o!menii 'i comp!timentele "e m,nc% pe c!e le !e 9n /,:o"ine< 9n
con"i+iile imp,l/,ilo (!ctoilo en"o#eni 'i e=o#eni< c!e "etemin% /cEim:%i /emni(ic!ti4e<
pent, ! e!li1! o:iecti4ele pop,/e 9n con"i+ii "e pe(om!n+e /,peio!e.
2,nc+i! "e coo"on!e "ec,#e "in nece/it!te! "e ! (!ce c! to!te e(ot,ile< to!te
!cti4it%+ile c!e /e "e/(%'o!% 9n "i(eite loc,i 'i ni4ele ie!Eice "intDo ,nit!te economic% /%
(ie 9n"ept!te /pe e!li1!e! o:iecti4elo pe/t!:ilite.
E=ecit!e! (,nc+iei "e coo"on!e "e c%te ,n m!n!#e pe/,p,ne "in p!te! !ce/t,i! ,n
e(ot "e c,no!'tee pi4in"C /t,ct,! pe/on!l,l,i "in /,:o"ine< po1i+i! !ce/t,i! 9n
o#!ni1!e! ,nit%+ii< /!cinile 'i !ti:,+iile (iec%,i po/t e=i/tent 9n /t,ct,! o#!ni1!toic%. De
!/emene!< !cti4it!te! "e coo"on!e /e "e/(%'o!% 9n con"i+ii nom!le n,m!i "!c% (iec!e
/,:o"on!t 9'i c,no!'te peci/ c$mp,l /%, "e !c+i,ne< "omeni, 9n c!e 9'i e=ecit% !ti:,+iile 'i
e/pon/!:ilit%+ile cic,m/ci/e po/t,l,i pe c!eD1 oc,p%.
M!ni(e/t!e! (,nc+iei "e coo"on!e n, po!te (i concep,t% (%% e=i/ten+! ,n,i /i/tem "e
com,nic!+ii !"ec4!t< ! ,n,i !n/!m:l, "e le#%t,i in(om!+ion!le l! /c!! 9nte#ii ,nit%+i
economice 'i ! (iec%,i comp!timent "in c!",l !ce/t,i!. Impot!n+! e=i/ten+ei ,n,i /i/tem
"e com,nic!+ii 9ntDo ,nit!te economic%< pent, e=ecit!e! (,nc+iei "e coo"on!e< e1,lt% "in
(!pt,l c%< pe !ce!/t% c!le< m!n!#e,l 9'i 9n+ele#e m!i :ine col!:o!toii 'i /e (!ce 9n+ele/ "e
!ce'ti!. E=ecit!e! (,nc+iei "e coo"on!e 9ntD,n clim!t (!4o!:il "e m,nc% !/i#,%
m!n!#e,l,i ,n pl,/ "e competen+% 9n !ce/t "omeni,.
8n e=ecit!e! (,nc+iei "e coo"on!e< m!n!#e,l,i i /e cee /% e/pecte !n,mite cein+e
c,m ! (iC ecEili:!e! /!cinilo 9nte /,:o"on!+iF !/i#,!e! ce'teii ni4el,l,i "e
competen+% ! /,:o"on!+iloF p!ctic!e! ,no meto"e "e m!n!#ement 'i poce"ee "e l,c,
!"!pt!te "i(eitelo c!te#oii "e pe/on!lF !plic!e! "ele#%ii "e !,toit!te 'i e/pon/!:ilit!te.
M!ni(e/t!e! 9n p!ctic% ! !ce/tei (,nc+ii ecl!m% p!c,#ee! ,m%to!elo et!peC
!B "etemin!e! /!cinilo< !ti:,+iilo< competen+elo 'i e/pon/!:ilit%+ilo in"i4i",!leF
:B /t!:ilie! /i/tem,l,i "e com,nic!+iiF
cB "etemin!e! /t!n"!"elo "e pe(om!n+% !le pe/on!l,l,iF
"B poiect!e! 'i e!li1!e! /i/tem,l,i "e le#%t,i 9nte comp!timentele "e m,nc%F
eB peci1!e! mo"!lit%+ilo "e moti4!e ! pe/on!l,l,i.
E=ecit!e! (,nc+iei "e coo"on!e pe/,p,ne e=i/ten+! ,no in/t,mente pe c!e
m!n!#e,l /% le ,tili1e1e 9n !cti4it!te! /!. Te:,ie toto"!t%< /% c,no!/c% e4ol,+i! "i(eitelo
poce/e 'i (enomene "in ,nit!te 'i mo",l "e ! !c+ion! !l pe/o!nelo !(l!te l! "i(eite ni4el,i
ie!Eice. 7e "e#!@%< "e !ici< nece/it!te! ,n,i /i/tem in(om!+ion!l c, o (,nc+ion!lit!te
iepo'!:il%< !pt /% !/i#,e (,ni1!e! in(om!+iei 9n timp optim.
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Coo"on!e! !cti4it%+ilo "intDo ,nit!te economic% /e e!li1e!1% /,: "o,% (omeC
:il!te!l%< e=ecit!t% 9nte ,n 'e( 'i ,n /,:o"on!t< 'i m,ltil!te!l%< m!ni(e/t!t% 9nte ,n 'e( 'i
m!i m,l+i /,:o"on!+i.
Coo"on!e! :il!te!l%< pin mo",l "iect 9n c!e /e e!li1e!1%< pe1int% !4!nt!@,l
e4it%ii !p!i+iei (ilt!@,l,i 'i ! "i/to/i,nii in(om!+iilo< i! m!n!#e,l !e po/i:ilit!te! /%
c,no!/c% ime"i!t e!c+i! cel,i pe c!e 9l coo"one!1%. De1!4!nt!@,l con/t% 9n !cee! c%
#enee!1% ,n con/,m m!e "e timp "in p!te! m!n!#eilo< c! ,m!e ! coo"on%ii (iec%,i
/,:o"on!t.
Coo"on!e! m,ltil!te!l% /e e!li1e!1%< m!i !le/< pin inteme"i,l ,no e,ni,ni 9n
!cel!'i timp< e!li1$n",D/e ,n poce/ "e com,nic!e c, m!i m,l+i /,:o"on!+i< cee! ce (!ce /%
/e e4ite "e1!4!nt!@,l pimei mo"!lit%+i "e e!li1!e ! coo"on%ii.
2iin" 4o:! "e ,n /i/tem "e el!+ii 9nte cel c!e coo"one!1% 'i /,:o"on!+ii /%i< "eci
9nte o!meni< c!lit!te! e!li1%ilo 9n !ce/t "omeni,< e(ectele o:+in,te< 4o "epin"e "e
t%/%t,ile m!n!#eilo 'i clim!t,l "e m,nc% ce!t 9nte componen+ii colecti4,l,i pe c!eD1
con",ce. D!t (iin" (!pt,l c%< e=ecit!e! (,nc+iei "e coo"on!e implic% 'i (!cto,l timp<
moment,l 9n c!e /e e!li1e!1% po!te /% in(l,en+e1e po1iti4 /!, n, "e/(%',!e! ,no !cti4it%+i<
e4it$n",D/e /!, n, io/ie! "e e(ot,i 'i "e timp< 9n !ce/t /en/< po!te /% !c+ione1e 'i ini+i!ti4!<
9n limitele e/pon/!:ilit%+ilo /!le< m!ni(e/t!t% "e c%te cel c!e /e !(l% 9n el!+ii "e coo"on!e
c, ,n m!n!#e. 7,nt "e/i#,< elemente c!e +in "e o !n,mit% /,ple+e 'i (le=i:ilit!te 9n mo",l
"e !c+i,ne ! componen+ilo "in ,nit!te.
Coo"on!e! e/te /t$n/ le#!t% 'i "e /til,l "e m!n!#ement !plic!t< "e o !n,mit% li:et!te
"e !c+i,ne !ti:,it% /,:o"on!+ilo< !/t(el 9nc$t /%D'i m!ni(e/te po/i:ilit%+ile ce!ti4e< m%in"
ope!ti4it!te! 9n "e/(%',!e! !c+i,nilo.
Coordonarea ntreprinderilor mici i mijlocii
8n $n",l (,nc+iilo m!n!#ei!le< coo"on!e! e/te (o!te pe1ent% 9n con",cee!
9ntepin"eilo mici 'i mi@locii< e=ecit!t% cEi! m!i m,lt "ec$t pe4i1i,ne! 'i o#!ni1!e! Din
p,nct "e 4e"ee in/t,ment!l /e ,tili1e!1% m,lt m!i p,+in t!:lo,ile "e :o"< #!(icele "e l,c,
/!, /cEemele "e coo"on!e ! !c+i,nilo. De !/emene!< 'e"in+! Am,lt ,tili1!t% 9n
9ntepin"eile m!iB e/te ,tili1!t% 9ntDo m!i mic% m%/,%. Pe"omin%< 9n /cEim: coo"on!e!
pin "i/c,+ii :il!te!le c, !n#!@!+ii. De !ici /e "e/pin"e concl,1i! c% o :,n% coo"on!e 9ntDo
9ntepin"ee mic% "epin"e (o!te m,lt "e c!lit!te! com,nic%ii. 8n #ene!l< !:ilit!te! "e !
com,nic! cl! e/te c,ci!l% pent, ,n :,n m!n!#ement.
Mo",l 9n c!e 9ntepin1%to,l !le#e /% pe1inte in(om!+i! e/te l! (el "e impot!nt c!
in(om!+i! 9n /ine. Di(eitele /it,!+ii 'i o:iecti4e nece/it% !:o"%i "i(eiteF "e e=empl,< /e
po!te !pel! l! /c,te 'e"in+e< 9nt$lnii :il!te!le 'i cEi! l! eDm!il< !ce/t! "in ,m% (o!te
,tili1!t 9n pe1ent c! mi@loc "e com,nic!e.
W e"in+ele. 7,nt m!i p,+in ,tili1!te "eo!ece com,nic!e! :il!te!l% e/te m!i l!
9n"em$n%. 8n pl,/< /e 'tie c% "o,% "in tei 'e"in+e e',e!1% 9n !tin#ee! o:iecti4elo pent, c!e
/!, "e/(%',!t 'i pe/te 5-R "in timp,l con/,m!t 9n 'e"in+e e/te i/ipit. Ace/te min,/,i pot
po4eni "in (!pt,l c% 9ntDo 9ntepin"ee mic% n, e=i/t%< "e e#,l%< pe/o!ne M/peci!li1!teG 9n
o#!ni1!e! ,nei 'e"in+e e(iciente. C! !t!e< /e po!te c! o:iecti4ele /% n, (ie cl! i"enti(ic!te<
pl!ni(ic!e! /% (ie "e1o#!ni1!t%< /% lip/e!/c% (ie contol,l< (ie poce",ile A/!, !ce/te! /% (ie
ine(icienteB< /% n, (ie "e/pin/e concl,1iile :,ne /!, !ce/te! /% n, (ie p,/e 9n p!ctic%.
Con/ecin+! e/te c% 9ntepin1%to,l D m!n!#e< !(l!t 9ntDo pem!nent% ci1% "e timp< /%
n, m!i "oe!/c% /% ec,#% l! 'e"in+e pent, ! coo"on! !cti4it!te! 9ntepin"eii /!le.
E/te e/en+i!l c% moti4,l pent, c!e /e +ine o 'e"in+% /% (ie cl! /t!:ilit. D!c% 'e"in+! n,
e/te cel m!i e(icient mo" "e com,nic!e< !t,nci n, te:,ie con4oc!t%. 8n pl,/< 9ntepin1%to,l
te:,ie /% (ie /i#, c%C
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Y o:iecti4ele /,nt e!li/te< cent!te pe po:leme 'i m%/,!:ileF
Y ,tili1e!1% ,n lim:!@ po1iti4< c,m ! (iC M/% "e14olt%mG< M/% "eci"emG< Mecom!n" P
ecom!n"%mG 'i m!i p,+in 4!i!ntele 4!#i pec,mC M/% "i/c,t%mG< M/% e=plo%mGF
Y 'e"in+! e/te :ine con",/%F
Y 'e"in+! /e +ine 9n loc,l poti4it Ac! m%ime< e/,/e< po/i:ile pet,:%i etcBF
Y 'e"in+! 9ncepe 'i /e temin% l! timpF
Y /e ,m%e'te o"ine! "e 1iF
Y /e "eci" !c+i,nile "e 9ntepin/ 'i /e c!"e "e !co" !/,p! poce",ilo "e ,m!t.
W 9nt$lniile :il!te!le pot (i poti4ite pent, e=plic!e! ini+i!ti4elo loc!le 'i "e
"e14olt!e 'i /% implice o!menii 9n e4enimentele ce ,me!1% /% /e po",c%. De !/emene!<
o(e% opot,nit!te! c! !n#!@!+ii /%D'i e=pime peoc,p%ile< /% (!c% /,#e/tii 'i /% p,n%
9nte:%i.
Pincip!lele !4!nt!@e !le 9nt$lniilo :il!te!le /,nt !cele! c%C
Y pot (i M!@,/t!teG 9n (,nc+ie "e ne4oile in"i4i",!leF
Y !, ,n imp!ct ime"i!t< !/i#,$n" ,n %/p,n/ 'i o /cEim:!e !pi"%F
Y /,nt c, "o,% /en/,iF
Y pot "i/ip! ne9n+ele#eileF
Y pot /poi !n#!@!ment,l !n#!@!+ilo.
Poten+i!lele "e1!4!nt!@e !le 9nt$lniilo :il!te!le /,nt !cele! c%C
Y pot con",ce l! /,p!D!ccent,!e! ,no po:leme loc!le /!, c!e n, meit% !ten+ieF
Y /,nt con/,m!to!e "e timpF
Y pot con",ce l! o !n,mit% o !n,mit% incon/i/ten+% "!c% e=i/t% (!4oiti/me /!, con(licte
pe/on!le.
W EDm!il,l. Po't! electonic% epe1int% ,n mi@loc poti4it "e com,nic!e !pi"% !
no,t%+ilo< con/t!nt 'i /im,lt!n ,n,i n,m% m!e "e o!meni. Po!te epe1ent! ,n mo"
coe/p,n1%to "e ! (,ni1! "!te into",cti4e !le ,nei noi ini+i!ti4e /!, !le ,n,i no, po#!m
c!e /% (ie ,lteio "e14olt!te 9ntDo 'e"in+%.
Pincip!lele !4!nt!@e !le eDm!ilD,l,i /,nt !cele! c%C
Y e/te !pi"F
Y pemite cont!ct!e! c, ,',in+% ! o!menilo oi,n"e /D! !(l!F
Y pemite o:+inee! ,n,i (ee"D:!cI !po!pe in/t!nt!ne,.
De/i#,< c! /%D'i !tin#% /cop,l< (iec!e te:,ie /% !cce/e1e ,n comp,te 'i /% !i:% ,n
minim "e pe#%tie pent, !/t! 'i< "e !/emene!< /% /e e4ite /,p!9nc%c!e! /i/tem,l,i.
).*. FUNCIA DE PREVI'IUNE
).*.(. Pr#!7un#5 $5 fun$8# 5 95n56#9#n%u:u
Acti4it!te! m!n!#ei!l! pe/,p,ne pe/pecti4!F e! 4i1e!1% 4iito,l< cee! ce 9n/e!mn%
timp. Doin+! om,l,i 9n #ene!l< ! con",c%to,l,i 9n /peci!l< "e ! "e/ci(! t!inele !/c,n/e !le
4iito,l,i ! "e4enit o nece/it!te "e to!te 1ilele. 2,n"!ment !l poce/,l,i m!n!#ei!l<
pe4i1i,ne! i"enti(ic!< cont,e!1% 'i /t!:ile'te ce ,me!1% /% /e (!c%.
Pe4i1i,ne! /D! n%/c,t 'i /D! "e14olt!t 9n timp "in nece/it!te! /poiii c!p!cit%+ii "e
!"!pt!e ! om,l,i l! m,t!+iile inte4enite 9n me"i,l e=ten< 9n /cop,l !/i#,%ii /,p!4ie+,iii
'iP/!, ce'teii /!le. Ace/te m,t!+ii !",c c, ele noi i/c,i 'iP/!, opot,nit%+i c!eD1 pot pl!/!
9n 1on! ce'teii< /t!#n%ii /!, cEi! ! 9ncet%ii e=i/tentei.
Pe4e"ee! /!, pe4i1i,ne! D c,m ! "e(initDo K. 2!Lol D 9n/e!mn% ! /on"! 4iito,l 'i !
9ntocmi< pe !ce!/t% :!1%< ,n po#!m "e !c+i,ni. Pe4i1i,ne! e/te temen,l cel m!i
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coe/p,n1%to /piit,l,i lim:ii om!neF in"i(eent "e oi1ont,l "e timp< /en/,l e/te cel "e !
pi4i 9n!inte.
Pe4i1i,ne! con/t% 9n !n/!m:l,l poce/elo pin inteme"i,l c%o! /e "etemin% 4iito,l
o#!ni1!+iei economice< ! componentelo /!le< /e (om,le!1% mo"!lit%+ile "e !c+i,ne 4e"ee!
e!li1%ii !ce/to!< 'i /e !loc% e/,/ele nece/!e.
C! pim! (,nc+ie m!n!#ei!l!< pe4i1i,ne! ,m%e'te /% !/i#,e !co"!e!
po/i:ilit%+ilo 4iito,l,i l! e!lit%+ile pe1ent,l,i 'i tec,t,l,i ei. 8n !ce/t /cop< e/te cEem!t% /%
mi@loce!/c% le#%t,% "e (on" "inte incetit,"ine 'i po/i:ilit%+i 'i /% p,n% "e !co" pe1ent,l
c, 4iito,l.
De/i#,< 4iito,l n, e/te pecepti:il c! pe1ent,l. El nD! (o/t nicio"!t%< 'i c, !t$t m!i
p,+in n, e/te 9n 1ilele no!/te< o",l !'tept%ii p!/i4e 'i nici !l p,ei 9nt$mpl%i. N, n,m!i
4iito,l e/te "iect le#!t "e pe1ent< "! el!+i! e/te 4!l!:il% 'i in /en/ in4e/. Pe1ent,l /e
"e14%l,ie 9n !"e4%!tele l,i /emni(ic!+ii 'i "imen/i,ni n,m!i poiect!t 9n 4iito. Pent, c%<
cee! ce "% /en/ 'i oient!e< cee! ce "iec+ione!1% Eot%$to !cti4it!te! "in pe1ent< /,nt
tocm!i @!lo!nele poiect!te 9n 4iito< o:iecti4e pe c!e ni le (i=%m 'i /pe c!e tin"em c,
pe/e4een+%.
C! "omeni, !l incetit,"inii< 4iito,l te:,ie #$n"it !4$n",D/e 9n 4e"ee ,m%to!ele
!/pecteC
Y c,no!'tee! !po(,n"!t% ! e!lit%+iiF
Y e=i/tent! ,no "!te cete< /,(icient "e 9n"el,n#!te c! 9ntin"eeF
Y elimin!e! "!telo c, c!!cte !cci"ent!l /!, con@,nct,!l< c, po:!:ilit!te mic! "e !p!i+ieF
Y oient!e! /pe !c+i,ne! "e o#!ni1!e ! pe1ent,l,i pe noi coo"on!te "e e4ol,+ieF
Y (olo/ie! concomitent% ! m!i m,lto meto"e "e pe4i1i,neF
Y i"enti(ic!e! (!ctoilo "etemin!n+i A! !n!li1! 9n !"$ncimeBF
Y con/i"e!e! !/pectelo c!ntit!ti4e 'i c!lit!ti4eF
Y pioit!te! !co"!t% temen,l,i l,n# (!+% "e temen,l me"i, 'i /c,t A! pi4i "ep!teBF
Y 4i1i,ne conte=t,!l%< /i/temic% A! pi4i c,pin1%toBF
Y concent!e !/,p! con"i+iei ,m!ne A! #$n"i l! omB.
Pe4i1i,ne! con/tit,ie ce! m!i impot!nt% (,nc+ie< pin e=ecit!e! c%ei! /e !nticipe!1%
e4ol,+i! con"i+iilo /ociet%+ii< pec,m 'i /t!e!< compot!e! 'i (,nc+ion!e! !ce/tei!.
E=ecit!e! (,nc+iei te:,ie /% !/i#,e i"enti(ic!e! ten"in+elo e=i/tente< pe(i#,!e!
poce/elo 'i (enomenelo ce 4o !4e! loc< /t!:ilie! o:iecti4elo "e e!li1!t 'i e/,/ele
nece/!e.
In"i(eent "e no+i,nile c!e /e (olo/e/c Ape4i1i,ne< po#no1%< pl!ni(ic!e< po#!m!e<
pe"ic+ie< poiec+ie< po/pecti4%< po#no/tic% etc.B p,tem t!#e ,m%to!e! concl,1ieC
pe4i1i,ne! 9n/e!mn% /t%p$nie! e(icient% ! comple=it%+ii poce/elo 'i (enomenelo< 9n mo"
o:iecti4< pec,m 'i e!li1!e! ,nei M(i'eG ! /t%ii "e (,nc+ion!lit!te pe :!1! c%ei! 4iito,l
"e4ine contol!:il.
8n !c+i,nile economice (!ctoii !le!toi /,nt n,meo'i. 7cop,l pe4i1i,nii e/te /%
limite1e ne/i#,!n+!< /% limite1e !p!i+i! (!ctoilo nepe4%1,+i. Ne/i#,!n+! 9n !cti4it!te 'i<
9n"eo/e:i 9n !ct,l "eci1ion!l e/te ,m!e! "e cele m!i m,lte oi ! lip/ei "e in(om!+ii.
E=peien+! "emon/te!1% c% nicio"!t% n, /e po!te !/i#,! c!ntit!te! "e in(om!+ii nece/!% 'i<
c, !t$t m!i p,+in c!lit!te! "oit!. 7i/tem,l in(om!+ion!l e/te /,p,/ ,no #ele 9ncec%i
"eo!ece /cEim:%ile /,nt e=tem "e !pi"e 'i /,4in pe m,ltiple pl!n,i< i! po/i:ilit%+ile "e
!c+i,ne /,nt n,meo!/e. 8n !/emene! 9mpe@,%i pe4i1i,ne! !e ,n m!e ol< !@,t!n",D1 pe
con",c%to /% n, (ie /,pin/ nepe#%tit< /% #$n"e!/c% cont!m%/,i pent, oice 4!i!nt%
4eo/imil%.
2in!l,l !cti4it%+ii "e pe4i1i,ne /e conceti1e!1% 9n /t!:ilie! pioit%+ilo. A 'ti ce
te:,ie /% (!ci m!i 9nt$i< ce /e cee !c,m< e/te e/en+i!l 9n !cti4it!te! m!n!#ei!l% l! oice ni4el.
Prioritile pot (i "etemin!te "eC
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Y ,#en+%C timp,l 9n c!e te:,ie "!t %/p,n/,lF
Y 9nt$iet!teC 9n c!",l ,no !c+i,ni le#!te lo#ic 9ntD,n l!n+ contin,,F
Y ten"in+! "e 4!i!+ieC cele c, 4!i!+ie !pi"% (!+% "e cele c, 4!i!+ie lent%< !4$n" 9n 4e"ee 'i
4ol,m,l "e 4!i!+ieF
Y impot!n+!C 9n c!",l ,n,i 'i l,n# "e !c+i,ni impot!n+! /,:iecti4% n, te:,ie /% "icte1e.
Trsturile ce c!!ctei1e!1% (,nc+i! "e pe4i1i,ne /,ntC
Y pece"e celel!lte (,nc+ii< (!pt impot!nt "e e+in,tF
Y p,ne 9n e4i"en+% nece/it!te! p!ctic%ii ,n,i m!n!#ement pe4i1ion!lF
Y pin e=ecit!e! ei /e !nticipe!1% e4ol,+i! con"i+iilo 9n c!e /e 4! !(l! economi!< pec,m 'i
/t!e!< compot!e! 'i (,nc+ion!e! !ce/tei!F
Y i"enti(ic% ten"in+ele e=i/tenteF
Y pe(i#,e!1% poce/ele 'i (enomenele ce 4o !4e! loc 9n 4iito pec,m 'i e/,/ele nece/!eF
Y e!li1e!1% o p,nte 9nte cee! ce e/te Ape1entB 'i ce 4! (i< ,n"e /e 4e! ! /e !@,n#e A4iitoBF
Y e/te /t$n/ le#!t% "e "eci1ie 'i contol etc.
M!n!#ement,l economiei ! pe/,p,/ 9ntot"e!,n! /piit "e pe4e"ee. 8n !ct,!l!
con@,nct,% (enomenele economice !, "e4enit !t$t "e comple=e 9nc$t ecl!m% n, n,m!i ,n
/impl, /imt !l pe/pecti4ei ci o !cti4it!te "e pe4i1i,ne !mpl%< pe/e4eent%< 'tiin+i(ic
o#!ni1!t% 'i "e/(%',!t%.
Structura viitorului. Viito,l pent, o#!ni1!+i! economic% /e pe1int% /,: (om! ,n,i
e4!nt!i< (o!te l!# "e po/i:ilit%+i. Ace/te! 9ntemein",D/e pe pl,!li/m,l po/i:ilit%+ilo #,p!te
9n @,,l ,nei ten"in+e (!c timitee c%te 4iitoi !lten!ti4i< 4iitoi po/i:ili. 2iec!e 9n/!< /e
pe1int% c! ,n /i/tem c, "in!mic% popie 9n inteio,l c%,i! oice /t!e po/i:il% epe1int% ,n
p,nct #ene!to "e !l+i 4iitoi. E/te !/t(el 4o:! "e o e4ol,+ie !:oe/cent%< (iec!e /i/tem "e
!ce/t tip c,pin1$n" elemente "etemin!te "e le#it%+i 'i elemente c!e /e pete!1% l! o e4ol,+ie
contol!t%.
O #,p!e ! M4iitoiloG e/te ,m%to!e!C
Y viitori posi%ili 'i viitori imposi%ili< l! c!e /e !@,n#e pin elemente /,p,/e le#it%+ilo
"e14olt%iiF
Y viitori dezira%ili 'i viitori indezira%ili< c! ,m!e ! elementelo ce /e pete!1% l! o e4ol,+ie
contol!t%.
Apeciee! com:in!t% ! elementelo "e le#it!te 'i ! celo "e e4ol,+ie contol!t% pemit
e4i"en+iee! 4iitoilo "e1i!:ili po/i:ili "e 4iitoii "e1i!:ili impo/i:ili /!,< c, !lte c,4inte< /%
/e "etemine /en/,l "oit 'i po/i:il 9n /cop,l e4it%ii ,no !c+i,ni 1!"!nice< ! ,no 4iitoi
"oi+i< "! e=cl,'i A,topiciB.
An!li1$n" po(il,l teoiilo mo"ene "e !pot!e l! 4iito ALocIe< Lei:nit1< X!En<
G!lt,n#< ALe/B 9n (,nc+ie "e le#%t,! "inte po:!:il< po/i:il 'i "e1i!:il 9n o#!ni1!+i!
economic% /e pot "i/tin#e tei mo",iC
D primul mo" pone'te "e l! nece/it!te! "e ! in(l,en+! e(icient /cEim:!e! !pi"% pin
/t%p$nie! /en/,l,i m,t!+iilo 'i !e l! :!1! "e4i1! Mce4! e/te 9n c,/ "e /cEim:!eG. 8n !ce!/t%
!ccep+i,ne "!tele tec,t,l,i 'i pe1ent,l,i "e/cEi" c!le! po/i:ililo 'i "inte !ce'ti!< !
po:!:ililoF
D al doilea mo" pi4e'te e(ot,ile "e ! (!ce c! po/i:ilii 'i po:!:ilii /% "e4in%
con4e#en+i c, "e1i!:ilii 'i !, c! "e4i1% Mce4! te:,ie /% /e /cEim:eG. 7e conceti1e!1% 9n
!nticip%i c, c!!cte pe"omin!nt nom!ti4< ,topii A4iito "oit< "! nee!li1!:ilB 'i e,topii
A4iito "oit 'i e!li1!:ilBF
D cel "eDal treilea mo"< /inte1% ! pimelo "o,%< pe/,p,ne ce!e! poiect,l,i pent,
el!+ion!e! po/i:il,l,i 'i po:!:il,l,i pe :!1! !le#eii neecEi4oce ! "e1i!:il,l,i< e/pecti4
pin ope!+ion!li1!e! op+i,nilo 4!loice. De4i1! e/te< 9n !ce/t c!1< Mce4! /e po!te /cEim:!G.
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Din cele pe1ent!te< e1,lt% c% oice in4e/ti#!+ie !/,p! 4iito,l,i o#!ni1!+iei
economice te:,ie /! c,pin"% o:li#!toi, "o,! elementeC
Y /p!+i,l< /!, !i! /! "e 9ntin"eeF
Y timp,l.
Din p,nct,l "e 4e"ee tempo!l< 4iito,l po!te (i pi4it c! ,n,l !:/ol,t A,n 4iito nele#!t
"e !=! timp,l,iB /!, c! ,n,l el!ti4. 8n cee! ce pi4e'te 4iito,l el!ti4 /!, limit!t< /peci!li'tii
"omeni,l,i /t!:ile/c ,m%to!ele et!peC 4iito pe1entF 4iito !popi!tF 4iito inteme"i!F
4iito 9n"ep%t!t.
Metodologia cercetrilor previzionale. Meto"olo#i! cecet%ilo pe4i1ion!le e/te /t$n/
le#!t! "e o:iect,l "e /t,"i, !l !ce/to!< o:iect c!e po!te (i pi4it P "e(init 9n "i4e/e mo",i.
Ce!e! 4iito,l,i< m!i !le/ pent, !#ent,l economic< e/te 9ntot"e!,n!< e1,lt!t,l ini+i!ti4elo<
in4en+iilo 'i ino4!+iilo.
7t,"iee! 4iito,l,i /e con/tit,ie c! o cecet!e 'tiin+i(ic% 9n m%/,! 9n c!e /e "i/p,ne "e
c,no'tin+e con(im!te "e/pe nomele 9n c!e /e 9n/cie !cti4it!te! economic% pent,
e!li1!e! !n,mito o:iecti4e. Din !ce/te moti4e< element,l mo"en !l /t,"ieii 4iito,l,i 9n
"omeni,l economic con/t% 9n in4e/ti#!+i! !/,p! pe/pecti4elo e!li1!t% c, !@,to,l
meto"olo#iei c,no!'teii 'tiin+i(ice. 7pe "eo/e:ie "e c,no!'tee! com,n%< c,no!'tee!
'tiin+i(ic% !co"% 4!l!:ilit!te en,n+,ilo contol!:ile.
7cop,l pincip!l !l /t,"iilo !/,p! 4iito,l,i 9n o#!ni1!+i! economic! 9l epe1int%
elimin!e!< pin !c+i,ni pe1ente< ! po/i:ilit%+ilo "e !c+i,ne li:e%< necontol!t%. Ace!/t! n,
9n/e!mn% c! pe4i1i,ne! 9nl%t,% nepe4%1,t,l< "! cel p,+in elimin%< 9ntDo !n,mit% m%/,%<
con/ecin+ele ne#!ti4e !le nepe4%1,t,l,i 'i lip/ei "e pe#%tie.
Pin Mmeto"olo#ie ! c,no!'teii 'tiin+i(iceG /e 9n+ele#eC
Y teoi! #ene!l% ! meto"elo "e c,no!'tee 'tiin+i(ic% 'i e#,lile "e (olo/ie ! loF
Y p!ctic! 'tiin+i(ic% "e (olo/ie ! !ce/to meto"e< 9n con(omit!te c, pincipiile 'i e#,lile
/t!:ilite.
8n #ene!l< o meto"! "e c,no!'tee e/te o m,l+ime o"on!t% "e ope!+ii "e c,le#ee<
pel,c!e 'i 4!loi(ic!e ! in(om!+iilo< (om,l!t% 9ntD,n lim:!@ /peci!li1!t pent, ,n
"omeni, /peci(ic!t.
C, !@,to,l ,nei! /!, m!i m,lto! "inte meto"ele "e /t,"iee ! 4iito,l,i /e po!te
con/tit,i ,n mo"el !l 4iito,l,i< mo"el c!e +ine cont "e ,nele popiet%+i !le /i/tem,l,i
oi#in!l. E/te 4o:! "e ce!e! ,n,i model0asemenea 'i n, "e ,n mo"el !"e4%!t A9n !cel!'i
timp !n!lo# 'i omolo# c, oi#in!l,lB. Meto"ele "e pe4i1i,ne /,nt 9n (on" mi@lo!ce "e
con/tit,ie ! ,no mo"eleD!/emene!.
A,tonomi1!e! cecet%ilo pe4i1ion!le ! coinci/ 'i in !cel!'i timp ! imp,l/ion!t
"e14olt!e! meto"olo#iei pe pl!n oi1ont!l< 9n /en/,l incl,"eii ! c$t m!i m,lte meto"e 'i
"omenii "e cecet!e< "! 'i 9n pl!n 4etic!l< 9n /en/,l pe(ec+ion%ii teoetice ! meto"elo
pent, t!t!e! !/pectelo /peci(ice /t,"ieii 4iito,l,i. 8n mo" #ene!l /,nt !ccept!te tei cl!/e
"e meto"eC
Y oient!te /pe cecet!e! 'tiin+i(ic% ! poce/elo 4iito!e Ae=t!pol!e !n!litic%< mo(olo#ic%<
/.!.BF
Y oient!te /pe /tim,l!e!< o#!ni1!e! 'i con",cee! poce/elo "e #ene!e ! no,l,i
Ameto"e "e ce!ti4it!teBF
Y mi=te Ameto"e 9n c!e 'tiin+i(ic,l< ipotetic,l 'i e,i/tic,l /e !me/tec% 9n popo+ii "i(eite<
,m%in" tot,'i !cel!'i /copC "e(inie! c$t m!i coect! ! elementelo "e ce!e ! 4iito,l,iB.
Detemin!e! ,nei tipolo#ii ! cecet%ilo pe4i1ion!le ! 9nt$mpin!t "i(ic,lt%+i #ene!te
9n pim,l $n" "e c!!cte,l "e 'tiin+% #ene!l% ! !ce/to in4e/ti#!+ii< i! 9n !l "oile! $n" "e
4i1i,ne! /i/temic% pe c!e /e (,n"!mente!1% cecet%ile e/pecti4e. Tipolo#iile pop,/e !, l!
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:!1% citeii c!e n, /!ti/(!c 9n tot!lit!te con"i+iile (om!le !le ,nei cl!/i(ic%i complete<
nee,'in" "in !ce!/t% c!,1% /% !copee tot /p!+i,l cecet%ilo pe4i1ion!le. C, to!te !ce/te!
ele /,nt !ccept!te c! in/t,mente "e l,c,< "e oient!e ! cecet%ilo< (iin" ec,no/c,t%
,tilit!te! lo.
Q K. X!En into",ce tei "imen/i,ni !le cecet%ii 4iito,l,i< (iec!e "in !ce/te!
con",c$n" l! "o,! 4!i!nte. 8n !ccep+i,ne! /!< oice /t,"i, po/pecti4 nece/it% tei op+i,ni
m!@oeC
!B !ltit,"ine! (!+% "e 4iito c!e po!te (iC
Y e=plo!ti4%< !"ic% /t,"i,l 4iito,l,i pe :!1! "!telo tec,te 'i pe1ente Ae=t!pol!e!
ten"in+eloBF
Y nom!ti4!< c! /ol,+ie ! po:lemelo pe1ent,l,i /i n, c! o e=ten/ie ! !ce/t,i!.
:B mo",l "e c,no!'tee ! 4iito,l,i< c!e po!te (iC
Y int,iti4%< !"ic% cecet!e! e/te :!1!t% pe :,n,l /imt< pe i"ei empiice< int,iti4eF
Y teoetic%< :!1!t% pe concepte 'i meto"e !:/t!cte< teoetice.
cB c!ile "e cecet!e ! 4iito,l,i< 'i !n,meC
Y /intetic%< !"ic% /t,"iee! 4iito,l,i ponin" "e l! !n!li1! 9nte#,l,i c%te p%+ile componenteF
Y mo(olo#ic% A!n!litic%B< t!t!e! e!li1$n",D/e plec$n" "e l! !n!li1! p%+ilo /pe 4i1i,ne!
9nte#,l,i.
Q Cecet%to,l no4e#i!n H. G!lt,n# #,pe!1% cecet%ile pe4i1ion!le 9n "o,! tip,iC
pe"icti4e 'i pe/cipti4e.
D 'ercetarea predictiv 0 pi4e'te 4iito,l c, p,tenice implic!+ii 9n tec,t 'i pe1ent< p,t$n" (i
l! $n",l ei "e tei tip,iC
o :!1!t% pe !n!li1! ten"in+eloF
o :!1!t% pe !n!li1! e4enimenteloF
o :!1!t% pe !n!li1! e4enimentelo "e #,p.
8n oice loc neD!m /it,!< p,nct,l "e plec!e 9l epe1int% !n!li1! "!telo tec,t,l,i 'i
pe1ent,l,i.
D 'ercetarea prescriptiv 0 pe/cie o:iecte 'i /ol,+ii "incolo "e e!lit!te! concet% P pe1ent%
'i 9nce!c% /% "e(ine!/c% ni4el,l !ce/t,i pe1ent pent, ! o:+ine e(ectele /cont!te.
L,$n" 9n con/i"e!e !ce/te intepet%i !le 4iito,l,i "! 'i !ltele pe c!e leD!m
pe1ent!t /e pot "i/tin#e tei tip,i "e cecet%i pe4i1ion!le c!e intee/e!1% o#!ni1!+i!
economic%< 9n (,nc+ie "e /cop,l "ecl!!t< 'i !n,meC
Y ,n"e e/te po/i:il /% !@,n#em[ C!e /,nt po/i:ilit%+ile pe c!e le !4em 'i c!e /,nt
po:lemele poten+i!le c!e pot !p%e![ Ace/t pim element ! con/tit,i te1! e/pecti4<
e=plo!t!e! po/i:il,l,iF
Y ,n"e inten+ion%m /% !@,n#em[ C!e /,nt o:iecti4ele pe c!e "oim /% le !tin#em[ Ace!/t!
! con/tit,i !ntite1!< e/pecti4< e=plo!e! "e1i!:il,l,iF
Y ,n"e ce"em c% 4om !@,n#e[ C!e /,nt c%ile cele m!i po:!:ile< m!i (!cile[ Ace!/t% ,ltim%
9nte:!e ! con/tit,i /inte1!< e/pecti4< e/tim!e! #!",l,i "e po:!:ilit!te.
8n opini! /peci!li'tilo< o tipolo#ie c,pin1%to!e 'i 4!l!:il% pent, cecet%ile
pe4i1ion!le n, /e e",ce l! ,n! /!, m!i m,lte cl!/i(ic%i< oient!te 9ntDo "iec+ie /!, !lt!.
Ace/te! te:,ie/c inte#!te !/t(el 9nc$t /% le po!t% c,pin"e pe to!te.
).*.). Pro6no75
Po#no1! epe1int% o e4!l,!e 'tiin+i(ic% ! e4ol,+iei c!ntit!ti4e 'i c!lit!ti4e !
o#!ni1!+iei economice 9n !n/!m:l,l /%,< ! componentelo !ce/tei! pent, o peio!"%
"elimit!t% pin oi1ont,l "e timp !le/. Po#no1! "e/cope% po/i:ilit%+ile "e !c+i,ne 9n 4e"ee!
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e!li1%ii o:iecti4elo ce pot (i 9n(%pt,ite 9n o#!ni1!+i! economic% 'i (,ni1e!1% (!ctoilo "e
"eci1ie /ol,+ii !lten!ti4e A4!i!nteB c, c!!cte /t!te#ic< epe1ent$n" c%i po/i:ile "e ,m!t<
(%% 9n/! ! !4e! ,n c!!cte impe!ti4.
Rol,l po#no1ei /e m!tei!li1e!1% pin !:o"!e! (enomenelo pe1ent,l,i 9n pe/pecti4!
t!n/(om%ilo po/i:ile "! 'i into",cee! 9n poce/ele "eci1ion!le ! ,no concent!te
elemente "e (,n"!ment!e 'tiin+i(ic%< c! e1,lt!t !l cecet%ii comple=e.
C!!ctei/ticile po#no1ei /,nt con/i"e!te ,m%to!eleC
Y "omeni,l "e !cti4it!te Ain/t,c+ie< teEnic< economic< e/,/e ,m!ne etcBF
Y o:iect,l "e e(ein+% Acon/,m,i< co/t,i etcBF
Y !i! "e c,pin"ee A1on!l< teitoi!l< n!+ion!l etcBF
Y #!",l "e !#e#!e An,m%,l componentelo< /,:"omeniilo !n!li1!te etcBF
Y oi1ont,l !le/ Ape/pecti4% l,n#% T 1-D*- !niF me"ie T 5D1- !niF /c,t% T 1D5 !ni etcBF
Y /i#,!n+! po#no1ei Aoice po#no1% pe1int% ,n !n,mit #!" "e incetit,"ineB.
8n el!:o!e! po#no1elo te:,ie e/pect!te ,m%to!ele cein+eC
Y "in !n!li1! (enomenelo 'i poce/elo economice /% /e /t!:ile!/c% po/i:ilele coel!+ii
e=i/tente 9n tec,t 'i /% /e i"enti(ice (!ctoii #ene!toi "e /cEim:%iF
Y (om,l!e! ,no ipote1e e!li/te< c!e /% epe1inte 4!i!nte !le poce/elo pe c!e /D!,
con/tit,it ipote1ele e/pecti4eF
Y i"enti(ic!e! conti:,+iei po#e/,l,i l! e4ol,+iile 4iito!e !le (enomenelo 'i poce/elo
economice l! c!e /e e(e%F
Y !/i#,!e! ,n,i ecEili:, "in!mic pem!nent 9nte o:iecti4ele 9n e4ol,+ie !4,te 9n 4e"ee! 'i
ni4el,l e/,/elo ,m!ne< m!tei!le< (in!nci!e 'i in(om!+ion!le implic!te 9n e!li1!e!
!ce/to!F
Y e(ect,!e! poiec+iilo e4ol,+iei 4iito!e ! (enomenelo 'i poce/elo economice ,m%ite 9n
mo" #lo:!l< comple= 'i m,ltil!te!l< e4i"en+iin",D/e "etemin%ile 'i implic!+iile
o#!ni1!toice< loc!le< 1on!le 'i n!+ion!le.
Un !/pect c%,i! te:,ie /% i /e !co"e !ten+ie "eo/e:it% e/te cel !l (i!:ilit%+ii po#no1ei
in(l,en+!t% "e c!!cte,l po:!:ili/tic !l !ce/tei! 'i "e (!pt,l c% e/te el!:o!t% 9n 4!i!nte.
V!li"it!te! po#no1ei /e 4ei(ic! pin m%/,! 9n c!e !ce!/t! /e t!n/(om% 9n pe4e"ei
"e pl!n 'i /e con(im% pe m%/,! e!li1%ii pl!n,l,i. Te:,ie +in,t< "e !/emene!< /e!m! "e
(!pt,l c! pe4e"eile ini+i!le !le po#no1ei /e mo"i(ic% pe m%/,! 9n!int%ii /pe oi1ont,l "e
timp pent, c!e ! (o/t /t!:ilit%.
G!",l "e /i#,!n+% ! po#no1ei< c!e 4!i!1% 9n (,nc+ie "e n,meo!/e elemente
Aoi1ont,l "e timp< meto"olo#i! ,tili1!t%< /(e! "e c,pin"ee etcB< /e e=pim% c, !@,to,l ,no
in"ic!toi c,m /,ntC !:!tee! me"ie< !:!tee! me"ie p%t!tic%< coe(icient,l "e "etemin!e etc.

).*.*. P:5nf$5r#5
Pl!ni(ic!e! epe1int% /t!:ilie! 'i (,n"!ment!e!< pe :!1! ,no /t,"ii 'i !n!li1e
e(ect,!te< ! o:iecti4elo 'i /!cinilo "e e!li1!e ! !ce/to!< pec,m 'i ! e/,/elo nece/!e
pe o peio!"! "etemin!t%< coe/p,n1%to!e c!!cte,l,i pl!n,l,i /t!:ilit Al,n!< time/ti!l<
/eme/ti!l< !n,!lB 9n 4e"ee! !/i#,%ii pemi/elo in"i/pen/!:ile !tin#eii o:iecti4elo (i=!te.
Pi4it% 9n !ce/t mo"< pl!ni(ic!e! (i=e!1% /!cinile ce ,me!1% ! (i 9n"eplinite "e c%te
o#!ni1!+i! economic% /!, componentele ei 'i in"ic% mi@lo!cele nece/!e !tin#eii +el,l,i. E!
e/te !/t(el o !cti4it!te m!n!#ei!l% nece/!% 'i pem!nent%. R%/p,n1$n" l! 9nte:%ile MCE[G<
MCU CINE[G<< o:iect,l pl!ni(ic%ii e/te o:+inee! e1,lt!t,l,i< ! e(ect,l,i "oit.
Pent, e!li1!e! ,nei pl!ni(ic%i @,"icio!/e 'i e/pon/!:ile 9n o#!ni1!+i! economic%
e/te nece/!%C
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Y c,no!'tee! 4iito!ei /t%i ! /i/tem,l,i economicF
Y /t!:ilie! pioit%+iloF
Y "e(inie! et!peloF
Y nom!e! !c+i,nilo pe et!peF
Y mo"el!e! /t%ii /i ! po#!m,l,i o#!ni1!+ieiF
Y el!:o!e! "e pl!n,iF
Y !loc!e! e/,/elo ,m!ne< m!tei!le< (in!nci!e 'i in(om!+ion!leF
Y t!n/mitee! pl!n,l,i e!li1!t.
Peio!"! "e pl!ni(ic!e "i(e% 9n (,nc+ie "e m!i m,l+i (!ctoiC "imen/i,ne! o#!ni1!+iei<
"omeni,l "e e(ein+%< /cop,ile ,m%ite /!, cEi! po1i+i! ie!Eic% pe c!e c!",l "e
con",cee o oc,p%. O pl!ni(ic!e i#,o!/% l! oice ni4el m!n!#ei!l pe/,p,ne p!c,#ee!
,m%to!elo et!peC
D !n!li1! "i!#no/tic 'i con'tienti1!e! opot,nit%+ilo A!t,D,i 'i /l%:ici,ni popii< "oin+e<
competi+ie etcF
D /t!:ilie! o:iecti4elo Ani4el,i< !c+i,ni< temeneBF
D (om,l!e! pl!n,l,i "e !c+i,ne pin e4!l,!e! pemi/elo A"etemin!e! me"i,l,i inten 'i
e=ten 9n c!e /e !plic% pl!n,lBF
D e4!l,!e! pl!n,l,i pin comp!!e! !lten!ti4eloF
D !le#ee! !lten!ti4eiF
D (om,l!e! ,no pl!n,i "e /pi@in A!cEi1i+ion!e! "e teEnic%< !po4i1ion!e! c, !limente<
ecEip!ment< c!:,!n+i< l,:e(i!n+i etcBF
D /t!:ilie! :,#etelo etc.
Po",/,l pl!ni(ic%ii e/te pl!n,l. 8n !cti4it%+ile economice< pl!n,l e/te ,n mi@loc c,
!@,to,l c%,i! /e (!ce !loc!e! e/,/elo< /e /t!:ile/c temenele "e 9n(%pt,ie ! o:iecti4elo 'i
/e !/i#,! :!1! in(om!+ion!l% "e ,m%ie ! e1,lt!telo.
Pl!n,l e/te "e/tin!t e!li1%ii 4iito,l,i po/i:il 'i "e1i!:il 'i e(lect% o:iecti4,l ,m%it
"e c%te o#!ni1!+i! economic% /!, componentele !ce/tei!< e/,/ele nece/!e pec,m 'i
temenele /t!:ilite.
Oi1ont,l "e timp pent, ,n pl!n e/te "e l! o l,n% l! * !ni< "et!liee! !ce/t,i! (iin"
in4e/ popo+ion!l% c, oi1ont,l. Pl!n,l !/t(el /t!:ilit !e ,n c!!cte o:li#!toi,.
7,cce/,l po:!:il !l ,n,i pl!n "epin"e "e m!i m,l+i (!ctoi 9nte c!eC
o comple=it!te!C c, c$t pl!n,l e/te m!i comple=< c, !t$t '!n/ele c! /% (ie 9n"eplinit /,nt m!i
mici. 7implit!te! pl!ni(ic%ii e/te o 4it,te 9n /ineF
o oi1ont,l "e pl!ni(ic!eC c, c$t ,n pl!n /e e(e% l! ,n timp m!i 9n"ep%t!t< c, !t$t e/te m!i
po:!:il /% 9nt$lne!/c% o:/t!coleF
o n,m%,l "e in"i4i1i implic!+iC c, c$t pl!n,l pi4e'te m!i m,l+i o!meni< /t,ct,i< c, !t$t
ce/te po:!:ilit!te! e'ec,l,iF
o 4,lne!:ilit!te! (!+% "e (!ctoii necontol!+iC oic,m !m pl!ni(ic!< 4o e=i/t! 9ntot"e!,n!
(!ctoi "e i/c 9n !(!! contol,l,i no/t,. C, c$t ,n pl!n e/te !(ect!t m!i po(,n"< c, !t$t e/te
m!i m!e 4,lne!:ilit!te! /! (!+% "e (!cto,l e/pecti4.
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2i#. .. Poce/,l "e el!:o!e ! pl!n,l,i
Oic$t "e /impl, ! (i< ,n pl!n te:,ie /% con+in% ,m%to!ele elemente< (ie 'i n,m!i 9n
minte! c!",l,i "e con",ceeC
!B 7cop,lC oice pl!n te:,ie /! !i:% ,n /cop "e 9n"eplinit. E/te e(ic!ce o "e/ciee
/ci/%< peci/% ! /cop,l,i< 9n!inte "e ! /e tece m!i "ep!te< cEi! "!c% pl!n,l e/te /impl,.
7ciin"< /e cl!i(ic% #$n"ie!< /e con/oli"e!1% !n#!@!e!. D!c% pl!n,l implic% m,l+i o!meni<
(om,l!e! /ci/% ! /cop,l,i e/te e/en+i!l%< pent, ! /e !/i#,! c% to!t% l,me! me#e 9n !cee!'i
"iec+ieF
:B O:iecti4eleC /,nt "e/ciei m!i "et!li!te !le mo",l,i 9n c!e 4! (i !tin/ /cop,lF
cB Acti4it%+ileC /,nt p!'i /!, elemente nece/!e pent, ! 9n"eplini /cop,l 'i o:iecti4ele.
Un pl!n /impl, po!te !4e! "o! ,n! /!, "o,% !cti4it%+i< 9n/! (iec!e te:,ie !n!li1!t% "in p!t,
p,ncte "e 4e"eeC
D e/pon/!:ilit!te!C (iec!e in"i4i" implic!t te:,ie /%D'i !/,me e/pon/!:ilit!te! c% !cti4it%+ile
4o (i ",/e l! c!p%t c,m te:,ieF
D /ec4en+!C !cti4it%+i c!e te:,ie (%c,te 9n!inte! !lto!F
D m!@! "e timpC e=i/t! 9nt$1iei 9n !cti4it%+ile in"i4i",!le [ Ce e(ect 4! !4e! "ep%'ie!
timp,l,i !/,p! celol!lte !cti4it%+i [
D e/,/eleC 4o (i "i/poni:ile !t,nci c$n" e/te ne4oie [ E=i/t% con(licte poten+i!le[
Un pl!n comple= 4! (i con/t,it in4!i!:il /,: (om! ,nei e+ele "e cone=i,ni lo#ice
9nte !cti4it%+i< /peci(ic$n" c!e te:,ie 9n"eplinit! 9n!inte c! celel!lte /% 9nce!p%F timp,l
pl!ni(ic!t< m!@! "e timp< e/,/ele nece/!e etc.
"B O!ele ce con+in ,n n,m% mic "e !cti4it%+i pot (i !lc%t,ite "e c!",l "e con",cee
Am!n!#eB 'i "e o!menii implic!+i. O!ele pent, pl!n,ile comple=e 4o (i "ei4!te "in e+e!.
D,p% ce ! (o/t /t!:ilit o!,l< po!te (i epe1ent!t #!(ic pintDo :!n"% "e c,lo!e /!, o
/cEem% G!ntt< 9n c!e< (iec!e !cti4it!te e/te (i#,!t% pintDo :!n"% "e c,lo!e poiect!t% pe o
!=% ! timp,l,i.
eB In"icii "e pe(om!n+% e=pim% "!c% m,nc! e4ol,e!1% con(om pl!n,l,i. 7,nt
c,no/c,+i 'i /,: n,mele "e M+inteG. Un contol e(icient imp,ne c! "!tele /% (ie colect!te "e
9n"!t% ce 9ncepe m,nc!. D!tele c!ntit!ti4e /,nt m!i ,'o "e (olo/it< "! ,neoi pot (i "i(icil "e
o:+in,t. D!tele c!lit!ti4e< /,: (om! !po!telo< /olicit% elimin!e! opiniilo /,:iecti4e 'i
ne(on"!te< m!i !le/ c$n" e/te 4o:! "e/pe compot!ment,l ,m!n. Colect!e! "!telo po!te (i
(%c,t% l! inte4!le e#,l!te /!, nee#,l!te< 9n (,nc+ie "e ,tilit!te! /olicit!t%.
(B Potec+i! pl!n,l,i n, e/te 9ntot"e!,n! l,!t% 9n con/i"e!e< "! po!te (i e=tem "e
4!loo!/%< meit$n" timp,l pie",t. Alc%t,in" ,n pl!n< c!",l "e con",cee 4! (!ce tot ce
po!te pent, !Dl pote@! 'i ! /e !/i#,! c% (,nc+ione!1% !'! c,m te:,ie. Potec+i! pl!n,l,i
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te:,ie /% 9nce!p% lo#ic pin con/i"e!e! (iec%ei !cti4it%+i impot!nte in p!te. D!c% e/te :ine
!plic!t%< pl!ni(ic!e! pe1int% !4!nt!@e m,ltipleC
Y "etemin% c!"ele "e con",cee /! #$n"e!/c% 9n 4iitoF o con",ce l! i"ic!e! pe(om!n+ei
o#!ni1!+ion!leF
Y (om,l!e! pl!n,ilo o:li#% c!"ele "e con",cee /% !moni1e1e o:iecti4ele c, e/,/ele 'i
temeneleF
Y o(e% o#!ni1!+iei economice c!p!cit!te! "e ! (!ce (!+% e4enimentelo ne!'tept!te<
"imin,$n" i/c,ile.
Ine(icien+! !cti4it%+ii "e pl!ni(ic!e e/te "etemin!t% 9n pincip!l "e ,m%to!ele c!,1eC
o p!c,#ee! "e(icit!% ! et!pelo "e pl!ni(ic!eF
o e4!l,!e! necoe/p,n1!to!e ! pemi/eloF
o (i=!e! "e(ect,o!/% ! peio!"ei "e pl!ni(ic!eF
o ten"in+! "e ! "! 9nt$iet!te po:lemelo c,ente (!+% "e cele "e pe/pecti4%F
o inc!p!cit!te! "e ! "e14olt! 'i !plic! /t!te#ii @,"icio!/eF
o necl!it!te! /cop,ilo 'i o:iecti4elo ,m%iteF
o 9nce"ee! e=ce/i4% 9n e=peien+%F
o lip/! /pi@in,l,i !"ec4!t "in p!te! c!"elo "e con",cee !(l!te 9n 4$(,l ie!Eiei /ociet%+ii
economiceF
o lip/! teEnicilo !"ec4!te "e contol /!, ! in(om!+iilo nece/!eF
o e1i/ten+! l! /cEim:%i etc.
Dep%'ie! !ce/to "i(ic,lt%+i 'i 9nl%t,!e! "e(icientelo /emn!l!te /e !/i#,% pin ce!e!
,n,i /i/tem "e pl!ni(ic!e e(ecti4%< c!e te:,ie /% %/p,n"% ,m%to!elo cein+eC
D pl!ni(ic!e! te:,ie /! pone!/c% "e l! 4$(F
D pl!ni(ic!e! te:,ie o#!ni1!t% Ae/pon/!:ilit%+i< temene ...BF
D "eme/,l "e pl!ni(ic!e te:,ie cl! "e(init 'i i#,o/ e/pect!tF
D o:iecti4ele< pemi/ele< /t!te#iile 'i politicile te:,ie com,nic!te cl!< (%% !m:i#,it%+iF
D c!"ele "e con",cee te:,ie /% p!ticipe l! !c+i,nile "e pl!ni(ic!eF
D pl!ni(ic!e! pe/,p,ne con'tienti1!e! 'i !ccept!e! /cEim:%ilo.
).*.0. Pro6r595r#5
Po#!m!e! con/tit,ie ! tei! mo"!lit!te "e e=pim!e ! pe4i1i,nii.
Po#!m!e! epe1int% poce/,l "e "e(!lc!e ! o:iecti4elo !ct,!li1!te !le /t,ct,ilo
o#!ni1!+iei economice 9n timp Al,ni< "ec!"e< /%pt%m$ni< 1ileB 'i 9n /p!+i, Acomp!timenteB
pec,m 'i coo"on!e! !cti4it%+ilo ce conc,% l! e=ec,t!e! po#!melo /t!:ilite.
Po#!m!e! "e(ine'te !/t(el c!",l nom!ti4 !l !nticip%ii pe temen /c,t< e/pecti4
n,!n+e!1% o:iecti4ele p$n% l! ni4el,l t,t,o e'!lo!nelo e=ec,ti4e. E! implic% "et!liile
pi4in" !loc!e! e/,/elo< peci1!e! e/pon/!:ilit%+ilo concete 'i ! temenelo "e e=ec,+ie.
O:iect,l po#!m%ii 9l po!te con/tit,i oice !cti4it!te "e/(%',!t% 9n /t,ct,ile
o#!ni1!+iei economice ce pe/,p,ne e!li1!e! ,no /!cini 'i l,c%i ce te:,ie p!c,/e intD
o o"ine lo#ic% 'i coo"on!te coe/p,n1%to. Po#!m!e!< c! !cti4it!te "e el!:o!e !
po#!melo e/te o et!p% 9n c!",l poce/,l,i m!n!#ei!l.
Po#!m,l D e1,lt!t !l po#!m%ii D e=pim% pe4e"ei comple=e< (,n"!ment!te
'tiin+i(ic< !le con+in,t,l,i< /en/,l,i 'i 4ol,m,l,i po/i:ilit%+ilo o#!ni1!+iei. 8n cele "in ,m%<
po#!m,l e/te o (om% "e pe4i1i,ne 'tiin+i(ic% ! /it,!+iei 4iito!e< ! compot%ii /!, e(ect,l,i
(enomen,l,i /!, poce/,l,i e/pecti4. Po#!m,l e/te ,n !n/!m:l, "e !cti4it%+i< "e l,c%i /!,
ope!+ii< e'!lon!te 9n timp< (iec!e !4$n" ",!t! /t!:ilit% 'i e/,/e !loc!te pent, e!li1!e!
o:iecti4,l,i. Oi1ont,l "e timp !l ,n,i po#!m e/te e",/< "e l! o "ec!"%< /%pt%m$n%< 1i etc.
E/te m,lt m!i "et!li!t "ec$t pl!n,l 'i pe1int% ,n ni4el i"ic!t cetit,"ine.
).0. FUNCIA DE MOTIVARE I ANTRENARE
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).0.(. Mo%!5r#5
Poce/ele c!e con/tit,ie con+in,t,l !ti:,t,l,i "e !nten!e /,nt "eo/e:it "e comple=e 'i
"e "elic!te< "eo!ece ele !, 9n 4e"ee "e/copeie! 'i 4!loi(ic!e! e/,/elo intene 'i e=tene
!le om,l,i c!eDl "etemin% /%D'i cEelt,i!/c% ene#i!. 7!cin! m!n!#e,l,i ? 9n c!lit!te "e
le!"e ? e/te "e ! i"enti(ic! 'i !cti4! moti4ele /!l!i!+ilo c%te o m,nc% pe(om!nt%.
7t,"iin",D/e compot!ment,l om,l,i 9n m,nc% /D! !@,n/ l! concl,1i! c% moti4!e! e/te
!lc%t,it% "in 2 m!i c!te#oii "e (!ctoiC
D moti4ele e/im+ite c! e=pe/ie ! ne4oilo ,m!ne. Ele /,nt pe/on!le< intene 'i cee!1%
!n,mite ten/i,niF
D /tim,lentele /!, (!ctoii moti4!+ion!li. Ace/te! /,nt e=tene pe/o!nelo 'i (!c p!te "in
me"i,l "e m,nc% ce!t "e m!n!#ement 9n /cop,l oient%ii 'i 9nc,!@%ii /!l!i!+ilo /pe o
m,nc% pe(om!nt%.
Poiect!e! ,n,i /i/tem e(icient "e moti4!e ! pe/on!l,l,i /e (!ce ponin"< 9n pim,l
$n"< "e l! c,no!'tee! /i/tem,l,i ne4oilo. \n #ene!l< /e !"mite c% "e'i om,l e/te o (iin+!
e=tem "e comple=%< i! ne4oile c!eDl e=pim% /,nt 'i ele (o!te "i(eite c! mo" "e o"on!e
'i inten/it!te ! e=pim%ii< !ce/te ne4oi pot (i c,pin/e 9ntD,n t!:lo, #ene!l. E=i/t% 9n
lite!t,% o m,ltit,"ine "e citeii "e cl!/i(ic!e 'i c!!ctei1!e ! ne4oilo ,m!ne< ce! m!i
,1,!l% (iin" ce! c!e le 9mp!te 9nC
!B nevoi )izice< de %az sau primare< c!e /t!, l! :!1! cein+elo 4ie+ii< !/i#,$n"
/,p!4ie+,ie! /peciei ,m!ne. Vit,!l< /,nt ,ni4e/!le pent, o!meni< "! !, o inten/it!te
4!i!:il% "e m!ni(e/t!eF
:B nevoi secundare sau socialeF /,nt m!i p,+in e=plicite< "eo!ece +in "e !/pi!+iile
p/iEice 'i intelect,!le. M,lte "inte ele /e "e14olt% l! m!t,it!teC /tim! "e /ine< /im+,l
"!toiei< !,to!(im!e! etc. C!!ctei1!e! lo "e c%te p/iEolo#i ! !%t!t c% !ce/te ne4oiC
D /,nt p,tenic in(l,en+!te 'i con"i+ion!te 9n m!ni(e/t!e! lo "e e=peien+% 'i me"i,l "e
m,nc%F
D /,nt e=tem "e 4!i!:ile c! tip 'i inten/it!te pent, o!meniF
D /,nt "etemin!te "e m,nc! 9n #,p m!i c,$n" "ec$t ce! in"i4i",!l%F
D n, /,nt 9ntot"e!,n! con'tienti1!teF
D in(l,en+e!1% compot!ment,l o!menilo.
Teoi! m!n!#ement,l,i ! 9ne#i/t!t< 9ncep$n" c, "eceni,l 5 !l /ecol,l,i 00< o /eie "e
concep+ii 9ncEe#!te c! mo"ele pi4in" moti4!+i!.
!B O -r9; $5%#6or# "e mo"ele /e :!1e!1% pe /t,"i,l ne4oilo.
Dinte !ce/te!< ce! m!i c,no/c,t% e/te teoria ierarhiei nevoilor< el!:o!t% "e M!/loO. Cele 5
c!te#oii "e ne4oi c,no/c,te c! #ene!l 4!l!:il 9n oice me"i, /,nt #,p!te 9nC
D ne4oi "e o"in e",/ D 9n c!e /e incl," ne4oile (i1ice 'i cele "e /ec,it!te 'i /i#,!n+%F
D ne4oi "e o"in 9n!lt D ne4oi /oci!le 'i "e !p!tenen+%< "e /tim% 'i "e !,toDe!li1!e.
8n #ene!l< mo"el,l ie!Eiei ne4oilo e/te :!1!t pe ,m%to!ele i"eiC
D n,m!i o ne4oie ne/!ti/(%c,t% in(l,en+e!1% compot!ment,l< (iin" p,tenic moti4!to!e.
Alt(el /p,/< /!l!i!+ii /,nt m!i moti4!+i 'i ent,1i!'ti pin cee! ce c!,t% "ec$t pin cee! ce !,
"o:$n"it F
D ie!Ei! ne4oilo me#e "e l! /impl, l! comple= F
D 9n c!1,l 9n c!e /!ti/(!c+i! n, e/te men+in,t% pent, o !n,mit% ne4oie< cEi! !(l!t% pe ,n
ni4el in(eio< e! po!te "e4eni "in no, pioit!%. 7pe e=empl,< o pe/o!n% c!e 'iD! /!ti/(%c,t
ne4oile ce +in "e /i#,!n+! m!tei!l% 'i !4!n/e!1% c%te ne4oile "e o"in /oci!l< 9n clip! 9n c!e
9'i p%%/e'te po/t,l "e+in,t po!te !4e! "in no, ne4oi "e /ec,it!te Ale#!te "e con"i+iile "e
pen/ion!e o(eite "e no,l po/t< "e pil"%B.
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Mo"el,l ie!Eiei ne4oilo con",ce l! o /eie "e concl,1ii c, implic!+ii "iecte !/,p!
m!n!#ement,l,iC
D !ce/t mo"el e/te #ene!l< p,t$n",D/e !plic! t,t,o me"iilo 'i< 9n mo" /peci!l< me"i,l,i
o#!ni1!+ion!l !l (imeiF
D "e'i mo"el,l il,/te!1% ne4oi #ene!le< !plic!e! l,i e/te e=tem "e "i(icil%< "eo!ece om,l
e/te ,nic!t c! pecep+ie 'i pe/on!lit!te. C! !t!e< pent, !cee!'i c!te#oie "e ne4oie el po!te
!'tept! "i(eite /!ti/(!c+ii o:+in,te c, !@,to,l ,nei m,ltit,"ini "e /tim,lenteF
D ,n! 'i !cei!'i ne4oie po!te "etemin! pent, ,n /!l!i!t o (,/t!+ie< 9n timp ce pent, ,n
!lt,l po!te con/tit,i o mo"!lit!te "e mo:ili1!e p$n% c$n" e/te /!ti/(%c,t%.
A/t(el /e e=plic% nece/it!te! ,nei moti4!+ii "i(een+i!le< #!",!le /i comple=e< ,tili1!te
9n c!",l m!n!#ement,l,i "e c%te le!"e.
Modelul %i)actorial el!:o!t "e 2. Ke1:e# 'i col!:o!toii /%i.
An!li1! e(ect,!t% "e !ce'ti p/iEolo#i !meic!ni pe ,n e'!ntion "e /peci!li'ti ? in#inei 'i
cont!:ili ? ! ele4!t e=i/ten+! ! "o,% c!te#oii "e (!ctoiC
1B. (!ctoi "e i#ien%< c!e pot "etemin! ne(eicie!< in/!ti/(!c+i! 9n m,nc%. Ei /,nt
e=teioi m,ncii< ne(iin" le#!+i "iect "e n!t,% 'i con+in,t,l !ce/tei!. Ap!+in me"i,l,i m,ncii
'i< 9n !ce!/t% c!te#oie< /e incl,"C /!l!iile 'i !lte c$'ti#,i< /ec,it!te! m,ncii Apoce",i "e
e4en"ic%i p!ctic!te 9n (im% 'i pi4ile#ii "e 4ecEimeB< con"i+ii "e m,nc% Al,min!<
tempe!t,!< 4entil!+ie etcB< politic! !"mini/t!ti4%< competen+! po(e/ion!l% ! /,peioilo<
el!+iile intepe/on!le c, /,peioii 'i cole#ii. Poti4it cecet%ilo ! e1,lt!t c% pe1en+! lo 9n
/ine c! 'i c!!cte,l lo (!4o!:il n, !",c /!ti/(!c+ie< 9n /cEim: "!c% /,nt ne(!4o!:ile po",c
in/!ti/(!c+ie.
2B. (!ctoii "e moti4!+ie con/tit,ie pim! c!,1% ! /!ti/(!c+iei 9n m,nc%. 7,nt intin/eci
m,ncii< "eo!ece +in "iect "e con+in,t,l ei 'i "e pe(om!n+ele ,m!ne. Po",c /!ti/(!c+ii
n,m!i c$n" /,nt pe1en+i< !:/en+! lo n, po",ce 9n/% in/!ti/(!c+ii. 8n !ce!/t% c!te#oie /e
c,pin" C pe(om!n+ele< ec,no!'tee! conti:,+iei 'i ! e(ot,l,i< e/pon/!:ilit%+ii A!/,m!e!
"e noi /!cini 'i o:li#!+ii< (ie pin "e14olt!e! po/t,l,i< (ie pin "ele#!eB< pomo4!e!< m,nc!
9n/e'i c! po/i:ilit!te "e !,toDe=pim!e 'i /!ti/(!c+ie pe/on!l% 'i po/i:ilit!te! "e14olt%ii c!
,m!e ! !c,m,l%ii "e c,no'tin+e 'i "e "e14olt!e "!toit% e=peien+ei 9n m,nc%.
Pe pl!n,l m!n!#ement,l,i< implic!+iile c!e "ei4% "in !"opt!e! !ce/t,i mo"el pot (i
e1,m!te !/t(elC
D ele4% /peci(ic,l moti4!+iei pi4in" me"i,l "e m,nc%F
D ,tili1!e! !ce/t,i mo"el con/t% 9n (!pt,l c% pemite i"enti(ic!e! 'i e4!l,!e! pe1en+ei celo
"o,% c!te#oii "e (!ctoi 9n 4e"ee! con/t,iii ,no /t,ct,i !"ec4!te !le moti4!+ieiF
D !ccent,l te:,ie p,/ 9n/% n, n,m!i pe pe1en+! ei 'i pe ni4el,l c!lit%+ii (!ctoilo 9nt,c$t
!:/en+! ni4el,l,i c!lit!ti4 po!te "! n!'tee ,n,i me"i, "e m,nc% pol,!t< #ene!to "e
in/!ti/(!c+ii.
Modelul realizrii nevoilor< el!:o!t "e D!4i" C. Mc Clell!n"< p,ne 9n e4i"en+% tei
ne4oi le#!te "e "e14olt!e! pin m,nc%C
D e!li1!e!< e=pim% "oin+! "e ! e=cel! /!, "e ! e!li1! o:iecti4ele c,pin/e 9n /et,i "e
/t!n"!"e. Ace!/t% ne4oie e/te in"i4i",!l%F
D p,tee!< c!e e=pim% "oin+! "e !Di contol! pe !l+ii /!, "e ! !4e! in(l,en+! !/,p! !lto!F
D !(iliee!< "oin+! "e pietenie< col!:o!e 'i el!+ii intepe/on!le.
Ultimele "o,% ne4oi /,nt oient!te intepe/on!l.
Din p,nct,l "e 4e"ee !l m!n!#ement,l,i< !"opt!e! ,n,i !/emene! mo"el !l moti4%ii
pe/,p,neC
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D (oc!li1!e! e(ot,ilo pent, i"enti(ic!e! 'i /elect!e! in"i4i1ilo c, o 9n!lt% c!p!cit!te "e
moti4!e pin e!li1%i. A:ilit!te! "e !D'i /t!:ili /cop,i 'i "oin+! "e ! "e+ine e/pon/!:ilit%+i
pot (i 4!loi(ic!te 9n me"i,l o#!ni1!+ion!l !l (imei< pin "ele#!e /!, 9m:o#%+ie! po/t,l,iF
D pe(omeii pot (i ime"i!t "epi/t!+i< e(ect,l m!tei!li1$n",D/e 9n ,tili1!e! c!p!cit%+ii 'i
t!lent,l,i lo.
:B. A "ou5 95r# $5%#6or# "e mo"ele !le moti4!+iei /,nt cele :!1!te pe studiul
comportamentului. 7e 9nce!c% !/t(el /% /e e=plice "e ce o!menii !le# ,n !n,mit
compot!ment pent, !D'i /!ti/(!ce ne4oile. Din !ce!/t% c!te#oie men+ion%mC
D mo"el,l /pe!n+ei. A,to,l !ce/t,i mo"el con/i"e% c% in"i4i1ii 4o e=!min! "i(eitele
/t!te#ii "e compot!ment ponin" "e l! ,m%to!ele pemi/eC ec,no!'tee! e(ot,l,i pent,
o:+inee! pe(om!n+eiF coel!e! pe(om!n+ei c, e1,lt!t,l "oitF mo",l 9n c!e e/te e4!l,!t
e1,lt!t,l "e /!l!i!t. Ace/t mo"el !e l! :!1% tei 4!i!:ileC 4!len+e in"i4i",!le<
ope!+ion!li1!e! 'i /pe!n+! "e ! (i ecompen/!t.
Pe pl!n m!n!#ei!l< !ce/t mo"el /e c!!ctei1e!1% pin (!pt,l c%C
D po!te (i ,'o ,tili1!t pent, ! in(l,en+! compot!ment,l o!menilo c,no/c$n",Dle "oin+ele 'i
"ii@$n",Dle compot!ment,l A"e e=empl, "!c% ,n /!l!i!t 9'i "oe'te ,n !n,mit e1,lt!t 'i
"i/p,ne "e competent! nece/!% pent, !Dl o:+ine< 4! !"opt! compot!ment,l ce,t "e 'e(,l
o#!ni1!+ieiBF
D m!n!#e,l te:,ie /% c,no!/c% 'i /% !plice ,m%to!ele e#,liC
] /% i"enti(ice c!e /,nt e1,lt!tele pecep,te 'i "oite "e /,:o"on!+i 'i /% le pe4!"%F
] com,nic!e! cein+elo le#!te "e compot!ment 'i ! e1,lt!telo c,4enite "e 9nc!"!e! 9n
!ce/t!. 7,:o"on!+ii te:,ie /% 'tie ce /e !"mite 'i ce n, /e !"mite 9n c!",l (imeiF
] o"!t% ce pe(om!n+! /t!:ilit% ! (o/t e!li1!t%< te:,ie !co"!t% ecompen/!F
] o:iecti4ele< ne4oile< "oin+ele 'i ni4el,l pe(om!n+elo in"i4i",!le /,nt "i(eite< i!
m!n!#e,l te:,ie /% "e+in% ,n /et "e ni4el,i !le pe(om!n+elo< !/t(el 9nc$t ele /% (ie
!cce/i:ileF
] /t!:ilie! mo",l,i 9n c!e /e (!ce pecep+i! (iec%,i in"i4i" 'i ! !:ilit!+ii "e ! /e "e14olt!
compot!ment,l "oit 'i "e ! o:+ine e1,lt!teF
D mo"el,l !n(o/%ii ? el!:o!t "e >.2.7Iinne< cent!t pe i"ee! c% m,lte "in
compot!mentele moti4!+ion!le /,nt 9n4%+!te. 7!l!i!+ii 9n4!+% ",p% ,n timp petec,t 9n c!",l
o#!ni1!+iei ce tip "e pe(om!n+% e/te !ccept!:il /!, n,. 8n4%+!e! 9'i !e %"%cinile 9n
e=peien+e !nteio!e. C! tip,i "e !n(o/%i !le moti4!+iei /,ntC pozitive Aecompen/eB<
negative Ape"ep/eB 'i ignorarea comportamentelor nepeci1!te Anici po1iti4e< nici ne#!ti4eB.
Con/ecin+ele !ce/t,i mo"el pe pl!n,l m!n!#ement,l,i pot (i /inteti1!te !/t(elC
D compot!ment,l moti4!t po!te (i "etemin!t pin 9n4%+!e! 4!loilo !ccept!te /!, n, "e
(im%F
D m!n!#e,l c!e "oe'te /% "e14olte ,n compot!ment moti4!t te:,ie /% (ie con'tient c%C
] e/te nece/!% peci1!e! o:iecti4elo 'i /!cinilo< !/t(el 9nc$t /% /e e4ite con(,1iileF
] ecompen/ele n, pot (i i"entice< ci "i(een+i!te 'i :!1!te pe pe(om!n+eF
] "e(icien+ele 9n ecompen/!e pot "etemin! mo"i(ic!e! compot!mentelo. D!c% ,n
m!n!#e 9'i l!,"% ,n /,:o"on!t pent, compot!ment,l /%, me"ioc,< !ce/t! /e po!te !(l!
9ntDo /t!e "e con(,1ie< nee,'in" /% 9n+ele!#% ce /e "oe'te "in p!te! l,iF
D mo"el,l ecEit!+ii< c!e /,/+ine c% o!menii /,nt in(l,en+!+i 9n !le#ee!
compot!ment,l,i in"i4i",!l "e ecompen/ele pimite /!, c!e ,me!1% ! (i pimite "e !l+ii.
Pone'te "e l! pemi/! c% o!menii /,nt moti4!+i "e "oin+! "e ! (i t!t!+i ecEit!:il 9n m,nc%.
O!menii "etemin% ecEit!te! pintD,n c!lc,l /impl,C ce e(ot li /e cee /% in4e/te!/c% 9n
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m,nc! (!+% "e ce /e !'te!pt% /% pime!/c% ",p% ce e(ot,l ! (o/t "ep,/. Re1,lt!t,l !ce/t,i
c!lc,l e/te comp!!t c, e1,lt!tele o:+in,te "e !l+i in"i4i1i /!, #,p,i. E=i/t% ecEit!te "!c%
e1,lt!tele /,nt ecEi4!lente.
A"opt$n" !ce/t mo"el moti4!+ion!l< m!n!#eii te:,ie /% con'tienti1e1e (!pt,l c%C
D moti4!+i! /!l!i!+ilo e/te !(ect!t% !t$t "e !:/ol,ti1!e!< c$t 'i "e i#no!e! ecompen/eloF
D /!l!i!+ii (!c pem!nent comp!!+ii !/,p! ecEit%+ii moti4!+iei< cee! ce in(l,en+e!1%
compot!ment,lF
D e/te nece/! ,n e(ot contin,, pent, ! /t!:ili 'i men+ine ,n /i/tem ecEit!:il "e
ecompen/!e ! m,ncii 9n c!",l (imei.
Mo"!lit%+ile concete pin c!e /e pot ope!+ion!li1! "i(eitele mo"ele !le moti4!+iei /,nt
!/t(el peci1!te 9n lite!t,%C
1B. Rede)inirea postului. Ace!/t% peoc,p!e cee o c,no!'tee 'i 9n+ele#ee ! c!lit%+ii 'i
!ptit,"inilo in"i4i",!le !le /!l!i!+ilo. C! p!ctici concete /e 9nt$lne/cC
D e=tin"ee! po/t,l,i< cee! ce pe/,p,ne ce'tee! n,m%,l,i 'i tip,ilo "e /!cini incl,/e.
Ace/t l,c, /e po!te e!li1! (ie pin ! cee m!i m,lt "in !cele!'i /!cini< (ie pin !"%,#!e!
!lto /!cini l! cele e=i/tente. I"ee! "e :!1% e/te 9n/% ! i"enti(ic! 'i ! t!t! "i(een+i!t in"i4i1ii
c!e "oe/c e=tin"ee! po/t,l,i< "eo!ece ,nii e/imt o /!ti/(!c+ie "in ! (i oc,p!+i tot timp,l
(%c$n" !cee!'i ope!+ie< 9n timp ce !l+ii n, /,pot% ,tin! 'i monotoni!F
D ot!+i! po/t,ilo< c!e pe/,p,ne !ti:,ie! tempo!% ! po/t,ilo "i(eitelo pe/o!ne.
7cop,l e/te ",:l,C pe "e o p!te< pent, ! e=cl,"e ,tin!< i! pe "e !lt% p!te pent, !
i"enti(ic! om,l poti4it l! loc,l poti4it. De/i#,< !ce!/t% ot!+ie n, po!te (i p!ctic!t% l!
ne/($'it< "eo!ece po4o!c% o /t!e "e po4i1o!t< !(ecte!1% mo!l,l 'i ",ce l! /c%"ee!
!n"!ment,l,i 9n m,nc%F
D 9m:o#%+ie! po/t,l,i< c!e pe/,p,neC
] "i(een+iee! /!cinilo !ti:,ite pin into",cee! "e /!cini noi 'i "i(eiteF
] !ti:,ie! ,no /!cini impot!nte 9n c!e tit,l!,l po!te "e4eni ,n e=petF
] !co"!e! !,toit%+ii 'i e/pon/!:ilit%+ii /,pliment!e nece/!e e!li1%ii /!ciniloF
] /t!:ilie! ,no el!+ii "iecte 9nte tit,l!,l po/t,l,i !/t(el mo"i(ic!t 'i /,peio,l /%,< pin
pe1ent!e! ,no !,toe4!l,%i peio"ice.
2B. 'rearea unui climat suporta%il. >!1!t pe (ilo1o(i! m!n!#e,l,i !/,p! m,ncii<
o!menilo 'i ! ol,l,i lo 9n c!",l o#!ni1!+iei< !/,p! pe(om!n+elo< pe(ec+ion%ii 'i !
el!+iilo intepe/on!le< clim!t,l epe1int% :!1! !c+i,nilo pin c!e /e implemente!1%
/t!te#i! moti4!+ion!l%.
).0.) An%r#n5r#5
Anten!e! 9ncopoe!1% !n/!m:l,l poce/elo "e m,nc% pin c!e /e "etemin%
pe/on!l,l o#!ni1!+iei /% conti:,ie l! /t!:ilie! 'i e!li1!e! o:iecti4elo pe4i1ion!te< pe
:!1! l,%ii 9n con/i"e!e ! (!ctoilo c!e 9l moti4e!1%. Anten!e! %/p,n"e l! 9nte:!e!C
MDe ce pe/on!l,l /ociet%+ii comeci!le /!, e#iei !,tonome p!ticip% l! /t!:ilie! 'i e!li1!e!
o:iecti4elo cic,m/ci/e !ce/tei![N.
Pin inteme"i,l (,nc+iei "e !nten!e< pe/on!l,l "e e=ec,+ie< c! "e !lt(el 'i m!n!#eii
/,nt implic!+i "iect< 9n pim,l $n"< l! /t!:ilie! o:iecti4elo ,nit%+ii economice< 'i< 9n !l
"oile! $n"< l! e!li1!e! !ce/to! pin !/imil!e! lo l! o:iecti4ele popii. 8n c!",l (,nc+iei
"e !nten!e /t!:ilim "o,% momenteC com!n"! 'i moti4!e!.
Pin com!n"% m!n!#eii e=ecit% in(l,en+% "iect% !/,p! /,:o"on!+ilo< 9n 4it,te!
!,toit%+ii c, c!e !, (o/t in4e/ti+i< !nten$n",Di< l! e!li1!e! /!cinilo 'i o:li#!+iilo c!e le
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e4in. 8n poce/,l "e com!n"% inte4in ,m%toii (!ctoiC m!n!#e,l c, !,toit!te! 'i
pe/on!lit!te! /!F c!"ele "e e=ec,+ie< e/pecti4 /,:o"on!+ii c, c!!ctei/ticile lo Apo(e/ie<
ni4el "e pe#%tie< 4ecEime 9n m,nc%BF /!cinile /!, po:lemele ce te:,ie e1ol4!te. Un ol
"eo/e:it 9n e!li1!e! poce/,l,i "e com!n"% 9l !e /til,l "e m,nc% !l m!n!#eilo<
pomo4!e! "e c%te !ce'ti! ! ,n,i /til "emoc!tic "e con",cee.
Un !l "oile! moment 9n e!li1!e! (,nc+iei "e !nten!e< "eo/e:it "e impot!nt< 9l
con/tit,ie< moti4!e! /!l!i!+ilo 9n "iec+i! e!li1%ii o:iecti4elo pe/t!:ilite. Repe1int%
mo"!lit!te! pin c!e /e inte#e!1% /!ti/(!cee! nece/it%+ilo 'i intee/elo in"i4i",!le !le
/!l!i!+ilo c, e!li1!e! o:iecti4elo 9ntepin"eii. Moti4!e!< 9n (,nc+ie "e mo",l "e
con"i+ion!e ! /!ti/(!c+iilo pe/on!l,l,i< "e e1,lt!tele o:+in,te< e/te po1iti4% /!, ne#!ti4%.
Motivarea pozitiv /e :!1e!1% pe !mpli(ic!e! /!ti/(!c+iilo pe/on!l,l,i "in p!ticip!e!
l! poce/,l m,ncii< c! ,m!e ! e!li1%ii /!cinilo !ti:,ite< 9n con"i+iile 9n c!e ni4el,l
/!cinilo o:li#!toii "e e!li1!t e/te !cce/i:il m!@oit%+ii e=ec,t!n+ilo.

Motivarea negativ /e :!1e!1% pe !menin+!e! pe/on!l,l,i c, e",cee! /!ti/(!c+iilo
"!c% n, e!li1e!1% 9ntocm!i o:iecti4ele 'i /!cinile ep!ti1!te< !l c%o ni4el e/te (o!te
i"ic!t< in!cce/i:il 9n con"i+iile "!te ,nei p%+i !peci!:ile ! e=ec,t!n+ilo.
8n o#!ni1!+iile mo"ene /e (olo/e'te c, pioit!te moti4!e! po1iti4%< 9nt,c$t l! !cel!'i
4ol,m "e e/,/e (in!nci!e ,tili1!te pent, moti4!e< o p!te /en/i:il m!i m!e ! pe/on!l,l,i
o:+ine /!ti/(!c+ii "in p!ticip!e! l! poce/,l m,ncii< i! clim!t,l "e m,nc% 'i c,lt,%
o#!ni1!+ion!l% /,nt /,peio!e cee! ce #enee!1% e1,lt!te economice m!i.
C!!ctei/tic m!n!#ement,l,i 'tiin+i(ic e/te concepee! moti4%ii 'i ! !nten%ii pe :!1!
!'!Dn,mitelo /c%i moti4!+ion!le< !"ic% ! elementelo c!e pe1int% intee/ pent,
componen+ii o#!ni1!+iei< ! nece/it%+ilo !ce/to!< o"on!te 9n (,nc+ie "e /,cce/i,ne! 9n c!e
te:,ie !4,te 9n 4e"ee. Din /c%ile moti4!+ion!le con/i"e!te c, pec%"ee in lite!t,! "e
/peci!lit!te impot!nt% e/te ce! ! l,i M!/loO< c!e c,pin"e ,m%to!ele c!te#oii "e
nece/it%+iC (i1iolo#ice< /ec,it!te 'i /i#,!n+%< cont!cte ,m!ne 'i !(iliee l! #,p< /t!t,t /oci!l 'i
!,toDe!li1!e.
Pent, ! e!li1! o !nten!e e(ic!ce e/te nece/! c! poce/,l moti4%ii pe/on!l,l,i /% (ie
comple=< "i(een+i!l< #!",!l. C!lit!te! !nten%ii !e ,n ol "eo/e:it "e impot!nt pin !cee!
c%< 9ntDo m%/,% "eci/i4%< con"i+ione!1% conceti1!e! e(icient% ! (,nc+iilo ? pe4i1i,ne!<
o#!ni1!e! 'i coo"on!e! ? pec,m 'i e(ic!cit!te! contol,l,i D e4!l,%ii c!e ,me!1%
!nten%ii.
).3. FUNCIA DE CONTROL
Definirea controlului. 7peci!li'tii con/i"e% (,nc+i! "e contol c! (iin" ce! m!i
impot!nt% (,nc+ie ! m!n!#ement,l,i. Poce/,l contol,l,i e/te "eo/e:it "e comple= 'i<
!"e/e!< /e con(,nt% c, 9nte#,l m!n!#ement. 7e o:i'n,ie'te /% /e !(ime "e/pe o o#!ni1!+ie
/!, !lt! c% /e !(l% M/,: contolG< cee! ce 9n/e!mn% c% e/te cl! "e(init% /!, pl!ni(ic!t%< !e o
/t,ct,% !+ion!l% 'i /e "e,le!1% (%% po:leme in/ol,:ile.
Vi!+! "emon/te!1% c% l,c,ile n, /e pe1int% c$t,'i "e p,+in !'! 'i o#!ni1!+iile
!po!pe c% n, pot e=i/t! (%% contol. 8n cele ce ,me!1% 4om 9ncec! /% cl!i(ic%m c$te4!
!/pecte !le !ce/to (,nc+ii< "! te:,ie /% !(im%m cl! c% n, /e 4! p,te! o(ei o e+et% #ene!l
4!l!:il%< ,n mo" ,n!nim !ccept!t 'i /i#, "e contol pent, to!te tip,ile "e o#!ni1!+ii.
Ace/te e+ete 4o !p!e pe m%/,! teceii timp,l,i 'i !c,m,l%ii "e e=peien+% 9n "omeni,l
m!n!#ement,l,i.
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Pin contol /e 9n+ele#e monitoi1!e! !cti4it%+ilo< poce/elo< el!+iilo c, /cop,l "e !
!/i#,! c! ele /% /e "e/(%'o!e 9n con(omit!te c, pe4e"eile 'i "e ! coect! "e4i!+iile
ne#!ti4e "e l! pe4e"ei. Ace/t poce/ /e "e/(%'o!% "e c%te m!n!#eii "e "i(eite ni4ele
ie!Eice "! 'i "e c%te (iec!e in"i4i" l! po/t,l /%, "e l,c, 'i !e ,n c!!cte pem!nent.
Un !/pect e/en+i!l 9n "e(inie! contol,l,i con/t% 9n (!pt,l c% pin !cti4it%+ile /,p,/e
contol,l,i te:,ie 9n+ele/e cEi! 'i !cti4it%+ile "e contol. 8n /i/temele "e con",cee
ie!Ei1!te n, e/te "e !@,n/ /% /e !/i#,e monitoi1!e! 'i coec+iile !cti4it%+ilo "e :!1%< c,m
! (i cele pi4in" t!n/(om%ile teEnolo#ice< ci e/te !:/ol,t nece/! /% (ie contol!t 'i mo",l
9n c!e cei ce contole!1% !cti4it%+ile "e :!1% 9'i 9n"epline/c (,nc+i! "e contol popi,D1i/.
2ec4en+! contol,l,i 'i poce"eele "e monitoi1!e pot "i(ei pe teptele ie!Eice !le
/i/tem,l,i con",ceii< 9n/% /e men+ine l! (el "e impot!nt% nece/it!te! contol,l,i pe to!t%
4etic!l! con",ceii. 7,nt /,p,/e contol,l,i 'i e#l%ii n, n,m!i !cti4it%+ile "e l! c!p%t,l
l!n+,ilo "e com!n"% "in /t,ct,ile ie!Ei1!te< ci 'i /!cinile "e con",cee "ele#!te "in
4ei#% 9n 4ei#% pe 4etic!l! l!n+,ilo "e com!n"%.
M!n!#eii e(icien+i !/i#,% c! !c+i,nile pe c!e le e=ec,t% /% (ie coe/p,n1%to!e c,
o:iecti4ele pe4%1,te ! (i 9n"eplinite. Pe/on!l,l "e l! c!p%t,l l!n+,l,i "e com!n"% e/te
contol!t "!c% e=ec,t% coect po",/ele 'i /e4iciile l! c!e l,ce!1%< i! con",c%toii "e pe
4etic!l! con",ceii /,nt contol!+i "!c% !/i#,% 9n"eplinie! o:iecti4elo ce le /,nt (i=!te.
2iec!e m!n!#e 9'i contole!1% /,:!ltenii< te/t$n"< pin poce"ee /peci!le< e(ect,l contol,l,i
!cti4it%+ilo "e l! c!p%t,l l!n+,l,i "e com!n"%. E=i#en+! contol,l,i te:,ie /% (ie ,ni(om% pe
to!t% 4etic!l! con",ceii. M!n!#eii "e 4$( con/,m% m!i p,+in timp pent, contol< "!
(olo/e/c meto"e c!e !/i#,% !cee!'i e=i#en+% c, pi4ie l! contol c! 'i m!n!#eii "in lini!
9nt$i c!e monitoi1e!1% nemi@locit mo",l 9n c!e l,ce!1% m,ncitoii.
2,nc+i! "e contolDe#l!e c,pin"e !n/!m:l,l !c+i,nilo "e e4!l,!e ! e1,lt!telo< "e
/t!:ilie ! !:!teii !ce/to! "e l! o:iecti4e 'i i"enti(ic!e! c!,1elo c!e le #enee!1%< pec,m
'i !"opt!e! "e m%/,i c!e /% !/i#,e elimin!e! !:!teilo< men+in$n",D/e ecEili:,l "in!mic
!l o#!ni1!+iei.
Con(om l,i Ro:et MocIle< poce/,l "e contol e/te M,n e(ot /i/tem!tic (%c,t "e
m!n!#ement,l (imei pent, ! comp!! e1,lt!tele c, /t!n"!"ele< pl!n,ile /!, o:iecti4ele
/t!:ilite !/t(el 9nc$t /% "etemine "!c% e1,lt!tele coe/p,n" !ce/to /t!n"!"e 'i /% 9ntepin"%
"!c% e/te ne4oie< !c+i,ni coecti4e pent, c! e/,/ele ,m!ne 'i celel!lte e/,/e !le (imei /%
(ie (olo/ite 9n cel m!i e(icient 'i e(ic!ce mo" po/i:il 9n 4e"ee! 9n"epliniii o:iecti4elo
(imeiG.

Procesul de control pe/,p,neC
D /t!:ilie! /t!n"!"elo "e pe(om!n+%F
D m%/,!e! pe(om!n+elo e(ecti4eF
D comp!!e! pe(om!n+elo c, /t!n"!"ele 'i /t!:ilie! !:!teilo 'i ! c!,1elo !ce/to!F
D !"opt!e! 'i !plic!e! m%/,ilo "e coect!e ! !:!teilo ne"oite.
Componentele poce/,l,i "e contol /,ntC (!1! "e pl!ni(ic!e< /t!:ilie! o:iecti4elo<
el!:o!e! /t!n"!"elo< comp!!e! m%/,%toilo c, /t!n"!"ele< m%/,!e! pe(om!n+ei
!ct,!leF 9n c!1,l 9n c!e m%/,%toile coe/p,n" /t!n"!"elo /e contin,% !cti4it!te! contol!t%
i! 9n c!1,l c$n" !ce/te! n, coe/p,n" /t!n"!"elo /e !"opt% m%/,i coecti4e.
7t!n"!",l epe1int% o m%/,% et!lon (olo/it% pent, comp!!e! !lto 4!loi.
O:iecti4ele< nomele< nom!ti4ele< ni4el,l pl!ni(ic!t !l c!lit%+ii< epe1int% /t!n"!"e "e
pe(om!n+% c!e e=pim% ceD'i pop,ne o o#!ni1!+ie /!, o 4ei#% o#!ni1!toic% ! !ce/tei! /%
e!li1e1e 9ntD,n !n,mit oi1ont tempo!l.
M%/,!e! pe(om!n+elo pe/,p,ne e4!l,!e! e1,lt!telo o:+in,te "e (im% 'i 4ei#ile
ei o#!ni1!toice. M!n!#eii "e(ine/c o:iecti4ele comp!timentelo /t,ct,ii o#!ni1!+ion!le
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9n temeni /peci(ici (iec%,i!< "e e#,l% pin pl!n,ile "e !cti4it!te. Ace/te o:iecti4e "e4in
!/t(el /t!n"!"ele pe(om!n+ei. E=i/t% o:iecti4e (o!te #e, "e contol!t "in c!,1% c% implic%
e4!l,%i /,:iecti4e. C, to!te !ce/te!< ce! m!i m!e p!te ! !cti4it%+ilo pot (i "i(een+i!te pe
(!c+i,ni< pemi+$n" !/t(el /% (ie m%/,!te< i! m!n!#eii !, !ti:,+i! "e ! !(ect! !ce!/t%
"i(een+iee 'i ! "etemin! m%/,! 9n c!e (iec!e pe/o!n%< comp!timent conti:,ie l!
(,nc+ion!e! o#!ni1!+iei< t!n/(om$n" conti:,+i! 9n /t!n"!" "e pe(om!n+%. Rec,#ee! l!
"i4e/e m%imi /,:iecti4e po!te "etemin! "i/to/ion!e! el!+iei /t!n"!"Dpe(om!n+%
!",c$n" !tin#ee /eio!/% l! c!lit!te! poce/,l,i "e contol.
Comp!!e! pe(om!n+elo e(ecti4e c, /t!n"!"ele 'i /t!:ilie! !:!teilo 'i c!,1elo
!ce/to! e/te !c+i,ne! 9n c!",l c%ei! /e /t!:ile/c !:!teile "e l! /t!n"!"ele "e pe(om!n+% 'i
/e e4i"en+i!1% c!,1ele c!e !, #ene!t !ce/te !:!tei. E=i/t% !:!tei ne/emni(ic!ti4e c!e pot (i
tole!te< ele nein(l,en+$n" :,n,l me/ !l o#!ni1!+iei 'i !:!tei !l c%o e(ect in(l,en+e!1%
!tin#ee! o:iecti4elo. Ace/te! "in ,m% te:,ie limit!te 'i elimin!te pin !"opt!e! ,no
m%/,i "e e#l!e.
Coect!e! epe1int% !n/!m:l,l !c+i,nilo 9ntepin/e "e /,:iect,l con",c%to 9n
4e"ee! men+ineii /t!:ilit%+ii /i/tem,l,i.
eglarea !e l! :!1% mec!ni/m,l cone=i,nii in4e/e c!e epe1int% !c+i,ne! ie'iilo
!/,p! int%ilo pin inteme"i,l c%,i! /i/tem,l /e !,toe#le!1%< men+in$n",D'i /t!:ilit!te!.
7t!e! "e ie'ie ^ ! /i/tem,l,i e#l!t 7 e/te t!n/mi/% e#l!to,l,i R< c!e o t!n/(om%
9n /t!e! /! "e ie'ie _0. 7t!e! "e ie'ie ! e#l!to,l,i /e !"!,#% l! 4!lo!e! int%ii 0 !
/i/tem,l,i 7 'i /e o:+ine !/t(el o no,% /t!e "e int!e ! /i/tem,l,i 7< c!e e/te e#!l% c, 0 `
_0. Coec+i! int%ii /i/tem,l,i 7 "epin"e "e /t!e! "e ie'ie ^.
Dinte tip,ile "e /t!n"!"e ,tili1!te "e c%te m!n!#ei le men+ion%m pe ,m%to!eleC
/t!n"!"e "e po(it!:ilit!te< pi4in" po1i+i! pe pi!+%< "e po",cti4it!te< "e "omin!+ie pin
po",/e< pi4in" "e14olt!e! pe/on!l,l,i< !tit,"ine! /!l!i!+ilo 'i e/pon/!:ilit!te! /oci!l%<
c!e e(lect% ecEili:,l el!ti4 "inte o:iecti4ele pe temen /c,t 'i cele pe temen l,n#.
7t!:ilie! /t!n"!",l,i +ine "e ecEip! m!n!#ei!l%< "e 9nte#,l comple= m!n!#ei!l !l
!ce/t,i!.
M!n!#eii "e /,cce/ /cot 9n e4i"en+% to!te "omeniile impot!nte "in o#!ni1!+ie "e l!
c!e /e !'te!pt% e1,lt!te 'i /t!:ile/c /t!n"!"e coe/p,n1%to!e (iec%,i "omeni, 9n p!te.
D,p% ce !, (o/t "etemin!te e1,lt!tele 'i !, (o/t comp!!te c, /t!n"!"ele "e pe(om!n+%
/t!:ilite< ,m%to!e! et!p% ! poce/,l,i "e contol con/t% 9n 9ntepin"ee! ,no !c+i,ni
coecti4e< 9n c!1,l 9n c!e !ce/te! /e "o4e"e/c nece/!e. Ac+i,ne! coecti4% e/te o !cti4it!te
"e m!n!#ement c!e ,m%e'te /% p,n% "e !co" e1,lt!tele "in o#!ni1!+ie c, /t!n"!"ele "e
pe(om!n+%. Ac+i,ne! coecti4% /e (oc!li1e!1% !/,p! coect%ii #e'elilo "in o#!ni1!+ie c!e
!(ecte!1% e1,lt!tele o:+in,te "e !ce!/t!.
2i#. 5. 7cEem! :loc ! cone=i,nii in4e/e
.2
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
Un pim p!/ 9n el!:o!e! ,nei /t!te#ii "e 9ntepin"ee ! !c+i,nilo coecti4e 9l
epe1int% ec,no!'tee! po:lemelo D (!ctoi "in o#!ni1!+ie c!e con/tit,ie :!iee 9n c!le!
9n"epliniii o:iecti4elo o#!ni1!+iei.
Un !l "oile! p!/ 9l epe1int% ec,no!'tee! /impto!melo D /emne c!e ne "e14%l,ie c%
e=i/t% o po:lem%.
D,p% ce po:lem! ! (o/t i"enti(ic!t% 9n mo" coe/p,n1%to< !c+i,ne! coecti4% /e po!te
(oc!li1! pe ,n! /!, m!i m,lte "inte (,nc+iile m!n!#ement,l,i.
!ipologia controlului n management. 7i/tem!ti1!e! tip,ilo "e contol /e (!ce ",p%
p!t, citeiiC
D #!",l "e c,pin"ee !l poce/,l,i "e contolF
D ie!Ei1!e! contol,l,iF
D pon"ee! inte4en+iei ,m!ne 9n poce/,l contol,l,iF
D /it,!e! 9n timp ! moment,l,i contol,l,i (!+% "e moment,l !cti4it%+ii contol!te.
Metode" te#nici i instrumente specifice funciei de control $ reglare. Pent,
!+ion!li1!e! !c+i,nilo /peci(ice (,nc+iei "e contol /e ,tili1e!1% ,m%to!ele meto"e< teEnici
'i in/t,menteC meto"! "i!#no/tic%ii< meto"! contol,l,i ie!Eic "iect< meto"!
m!n!#ement,l,i pin :,#et< meto"! contol,l,i (in!nci!.
An!li1! "i!#no/tic epe1int% o in4e/ti#!e l!#% ! pincip!lelo !/pecte economice
teEnice< /ociolo#ice< @,i"ice 'i m!n!#ei!le. E! /e e(ect,e!1% 9n 4e"ee! i"enti(ic%ii
p,nctelo (ote 'i ! p,nctelo /l!:e !le !cti4it%+ii intene 'i e=tene ! (imei pec,m 'i !
c!,1elo c!e leD!, #ene!t 'i /t!:ilie! coec+iilo nece/!e. C,pin"e ,m%to!ele et!peC
D pe#%tie! !n!li1eiD"i!#no/tic c$n" /e "elimite!1% !i! /t,"i,l,i< /e /t!:ile/c "!tele "e
e(ein+%< /e !le# meto"ele "e c,le#ee< pel,c!e 'i /i/tem!ti1!e ! "!telo< /e 9ntocme'te
pl!n,l "e !c+i,neF
D in4e/ti#!+i! 'i !n!li1! pe/,p,ne c,le#ee! 'i /i/tem!ti1!e! "!telo< i"enti(ic!e!
/imptomelo /emni(ic!ti4e< p,nctele (ote 'i /l!:e pe "omenii< i"enti(ic!e! opot,nit%+ilo 'i
peicolelo !ce/tei! 'i "e elimin!e ! p,nctelo /l!:e 'i ! peicoleloF
D po/tD"i!#no/tic,l c$n" /e 9ntepin" ,m%to!ele !c+i,niC "i(,1!e! /t,"i,l,i el!:o!t c%te
con",cee! "e 4$( in"i4i",!l% 'i comp!timentele 4i1!te 9n /t,"i,< "i/c,t!e! 'i "e(initi4!e!
/t,"i,l,i< /t!:ilie! pioit%+ilo 9n !plic!e! "i(eitelo m%/,i< peci1!e! temenilo
'i e/pon/!:ilit%+ilo< !po:!e! /t,"i,l,i "e(initi4!t 'i ! po#!m,l,i "e implement!e !
!ce/t,i! "e o#!n,l in4e/tit c, competen+! "eci1ion!l%.
Pincip!lele teEnici 'i in/t,mente (olo/ite 9n el!:o!e! /t,"iilo "e !n!li1%D"i!#no/tic
/,nt ,m%to!eleC inte4i,l< cEe/tion!,l< o:/e4!e! "iect%< e=!min!e! "oc,mentelo<
!n!li1! (!ctoi!l%< "i!#no/tic!e! pe :!1% "e in"ic!toi 'i in"ici etc.
An!li1! "i!#no/tic pe1int% ,m%to!ele !4!nt!@eC
D (,ni1!e! in(om!+iilo 4!loo!/e !/,p! "ec!l!@elo (imei 'i !"opt!e! pe !ce!/t% :!1% !
,no m%/,i c!e /% ",c% l! elimin!e! /!, e",cee! "ec!l!@eloF
D oient!e! !c+i,nii m!n!#eilo !/,p! !/pectelo m!@oe !le !cti4it%+ii intene !
o#!ni1!+iei< c!e !/i#,% ce'tee! e(icien+ei !ce/tei!F
D (,ni1e!1% in(om!+ii 4!loo!/e !/,p! c!p!cit%+ii "e %/p,n/ l! opot,nit%+ile 'i peicolele
me"i,l,i !m:i!nt< cee! ce pemite !"opt!e! "e m%/,i pent, !"!pt!e! (imei l! cein+ele
me"i,l,i !m:i!nt e=tenF
D !/i#,% in(om!+iile nece/!e (,n"!ment%ii /t!te#iei< pl!n,l,i 'i ! m%/,ilo "e e"e/!e !
!cti4it%+ii (imei.
Contol,l ie!Eic "iect e/te !cel tip "e contol e=ecit!t "e (iec!e m!n!#e !/,p!
/!l!i!+ilo "in /,:o"ine! /!. 7e :!1e!1%< 9n pincip!l< pe o:/e4!e! "iect% 'i contol,l
"oc,mentelo pi4in" e!li1!e! "e c%te /,:o"on!+i ! o:iecti4elo 'i /!cinilo !ti:,ite.
.*
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
Ace/t contol< "e e#,l%< /e e(ect,e!1% ope!ti4 'i po/tDope!ti4. Contol,l ie!Eic "iect
4ei(ic% 'i e4!l,e!1% e!li1!e! /!cinilo !ti:,ite /,:o"on!+ilo pin (i'! po/t,l,i< pec,m 'i
! celo !ti:,ite oc!1ion!l 9n (,nc+ie "e po:lemele c!e !p! 9n poce/,l "e e!li1!e !
o:iecti4elo o#!ni1!+iei 'i ! 4ei#ilo ei o#!ni1!toice.
M!n!#ement,l pin :,#ete /e :!1e!1% pe contol,l e!li1%ii pe4e"eilo :,#etelo
9ntocmite l! ni4el,l (imei 'i ! 4ei#ilo ei o#!ni1!toice. Meto"! m!n!#ement,l,i pin
:,#ete pe/,p,ne con/tit,ie! 9n c!",l o#!ni1!+iei ! ,no cente "e #e/ti,ne inten% pent,
pincip!lele !cti4it%+iC !cti4it!te! ope!ti4% D !po4i1ion!e< po",c+ie 'i "e/(!cee< !cti4it!te!
"e in4e/ti+ii< !cti4it!te! "e cecet!eD"e14olt!e< !cti4it!te! /oci!l%< 'i "e #o/po"%ie !
(on",l,i "e loc,in+e< !cti4it!te! "e m!n!#ement #ene!l.
Contol,l (in!nci! 4i1e!1% !cti4it!te! "e !n/!m:l, ! o#!ni1!+iei 'i e4i"en+i!1%
pe(om!n+ele 'i /%n%t!te! (in!nci!% pec,m 'i '!n/ele !ce/tei! "e ! /,p!4ie+,i. Meto"!
contol,l,i (in!nci! !e l! :!1% in/t,mentele (in!nci!Dcont!:ileC
D :il!n+,lF
D contol "e po(it 'i pie"eeF
D /it,!+i! (l,=,l,i "e n,me!.
%ariere poteniale n calea unui control de succes. A'! c,m /e o:/e4% 'i "in co/t,i
n, e/te po",cti4 ! /e "e/(%',! ,n contol pe! e=ce/i4 c!e po!te #ene! 'i !lte e(ecte
ne#!ti4e. R!pot,l 9nce"ee P contol te:,ie optimi1!t 9n (,nc+ie "e n,meo!/ele 4!i!:ile
c!e inte4in 9n ec,!+i! contol,l,i "e /,cce/. Pent, ! e4it! :!ieele poten+i!le 9n c!le! ,n,i
contol "e /,cce/< m!n!#eii te:,ie /% !i:% 9n 4e"ee ,m%to!ele !/pecteC
D 2,/t!e! 'i mo!l,l /!l!i!+ilo. Mo!l,l /!l!i!+ilo tin"e /% (ie /c%1,t !t,nci c$n"
m!n!#eii e=ecit% ,n contol pe! e=ce/i4. 7!l!i!+ii "e4in (,/t!+i !t,nci c$n" pecep c%
m!n!#ement,l e/te pe! i#i" 9n #$n"ie 'i c% !ce/t! n, le o(e% li:et!te! "e c!e !, ne4oie
pent, ! (!ce o te!:% :,n%. Contol,l e=ce/i4 po!te ce! /,/pici,ni 9n $n",l /!l!i!+ilo
con(om c%o! !cti4it%+ile "e contol con/tit,ie "o! o t!ctic% pent, !Di pe/! /% m,nce!/c%
"in ce 9n ce m!i m,lt pent, ! /poi po",c+i!F
D 2om,l!e! !po!telo. 7!l!i!+ii pot pecepe c% m!n!#eii 9'i :!1e!1% !c+i,nile
coecti4e "o! pe !po!tele 9ntocmite "e comp!timente (%% /% +in% cont "e cic,m/t!n+e.
A/t(el ei /e pot /im+i pe/!+i /% (!l/i(ice !po!tele !/t(el 9nc$t !c+i,nile coecti4e c!e pi4e/c
,nit!te! lo /% n, (ie !t$t "e el!/tice. Ne !mintim 9nc% !po!tele e!li1!te "in!inte "e V)6 c!e
neD!, ce!t o im!#ine i"ilic% "e/pe e!li1%ile economiceF
D Pe/pecti4! mem:ilo o#!ni1!+iei. De'i conto!lele pot (i concep,te /% /e (oc!li1e1e
!/,p! ,no !/pecte el!ti4 e/t$n/e "in o#!ni1!+ie< m!n!#eii te:,ie /% i! 9n con/i"e!e
oice po/i:il% !c+i,ne coecti4% n, n,m!i 9n (,nc+ie "e !lte ,nit%+i !le o#!ni1!+ieiF
D Contol,l epe1int% ,n mi@loc /!, ,n /cop. Acti4it%+ile "e contol n, /,nt o:iecti4ele
poce/,l,i "e contolF ele /,nt< 9n pincip!l< mi@lo!ce pent, elimin!e! po:lemelo.
M!n!#eii te:,ie /% con'tienti1e1e pe p!c,/,l "e,l%ii poce/,l,i "e contol c% !t$t
c,le#ee! in(om!+iilo c$t 'i concepee! !po!telo pent, (!cilit!e! 9ntepin"eii !c+i,nilo
coecti4e /,nt !cti4it%+i c!e pot (i @,/ti(ic!te n,m!i "!c% !",c ,n !n,mit !4!nt!@ pent,
o#!ni1!+ie< !"ic% "!c% 4enit,ile o:+in,te "in e(ect,!e! lo "ep%'e/c co/t,ile loF
D 2oc!li1!e! contol,l,i pe !cti4it%+i /peci(ice o#!ni1!+iei. M!n!#eii te:,ie /% /e
!/i#,e c% "i4e/ele (!+ete !le poce/,l,i "e contol /,nt !"ec4!te !cti4it%+ii "e contol !4,t%
9n 4e"eeF
D Di(eite tip,i "e o:iecti4e !le o#!ni1!+iei. Contol,l po!te (i (olo/it pent, /cop,i
"i(eite c,m ! (i /t!n"!"i1!e! pe(om!n+elo< pote@!e! !cti4elo "in o#!ni1!+ie "e (,t,i
'i i/ip%< pec,m 'i /t!n"!"i1!e! c!lit%+ii po",/elo. M!n!#eii te:,ie /% e+in% c% poce/,l
"e contol po!te (i !plic!t ,n,i m!e n,m% "e !/pecte !le 4ie+ii "in o#!ni1!+ie 'i c%< "!c% /e
..
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
"oe'te c! o#!ni1!+i! /% o:+in% ,n !4!nt!@ m!=im "in contol< te:,ie /% p,n% !ccent,l pe
(iec!e "in !ce/te !/pecteF
D Ac+i,ni coecti4e 9ntepin/e l! timp. M!n!#eii !, ne4oie "e o !n,mit% peio!"% "e
timp pent, ! c,le#e in(om!+ii le#!te "e contol< ! concepe !po!tele nece/!e pe :!1!
!ce/to in(om!+ii 'i ! "eci"e ce !c+i,ni coecti4e /e pot l,! c$t m!i pompt po/i:il pent, ! /e
!/i#,! c% /it,!+i! 9n(%+i'!t% "e in(om!+iile c,le/e n, /D! mo"i(ic!t. D!c% !c+i,nile coecti4e
n, /,nt 9ntepin/e 9n timp ,til< o#!ni1!+i! n, 4! o:+ine nici ,n !4!nt!@ "in 9ntepin"ee! loF
D Pe1ent!e! mo",l,i "e "e/(%',!e ! poce/,l,i "e contol. M!n!#eii te:,ie /%
9ntepin"% !c+i,ni pent, ! /e !/i#,! c% o!menii c,no/c c, e=!ctit!te c!e /,nt in(om!+iile
"e c!e e/te ne4oie pent, ,n !n,mit poce/ "e contol< c,m 4o (i c,le/e 'i (olo/ite !ce/te
in(om!+ii pent, concepee! !po!teloF

CAPITOLUL III
PROCESUL DECI'IONAL N MANAGEMENT
Pent, o :,n% peio!"% "e timp m!n!#ement,l ! (o/t con/i"e!t o !"e4%!t% !t%< t!lent
9n/,'it pin 9n4%+!e! "in 9ncec%i 'i eoi. O 4!iet!te "e /til,i in"i4i",!le< "e/eoi :!1!te pe
ce!ti4it!te< !+ion!ment ,m!n< int,i+ie 'i e=peien+% !, (o/t (olo/ite 9n e1ol4!e! po:lemelo
"e !cel!'i tip< 'i !ce!/t! 9n "e(!4o!e! meto"elo c!ntit!ti4e 'i ! !:o"%ilo 'tiin+i(ice.
Comple=it!te! !(!ceilo 'i ! me"i,l,i "e "e/(%',!e ! !ce/to! ! ce/c,t 9n/% /im+ito 9n
,ltimele "ecenii. E=i/t% c$te4! c!,1e m!@oe c!e !, "etemin!t !ce!/t% ce'tee !
comple=it%+ii D n,m%,l "e /ol,+ii po/i:ile (o!te m!eF "i(ic,lt!te! pe1iceii con/ecin+elo pe
temen l,n# "!toit% ce'teii #!",l,i "e incetit,"ine< e(ectele eoilo 9n l,!e! "eci1iilo
pot (i "e1!/t,o!/e "!toit% comple=it%+ii ope!+iilo /i e!c+iei 9n l!n+ pe c!e o eo!e po!te /%
o c!,1e1e 9n "i4e/e /ecto!e !le ni4elelo mico /i m!coDeconomice.
Un! "in c!!ctei/ticile oic%,i /i/tem /ocioDeconomic< 9n c!",l c%o! /e 9n/cie 'i
(im!< o con/tit,ie (in!lit!te!< !"ic% ten"in+! "e ! e4ol,! 9n 4e"ee! e!li1%ii !n,mito
o:iecti4e. A"mi+$n" ,ni4e/!lit!te! le#ii entopiei< poti4it c%ei! 9n n!t,% o"ine! tin"e /% /e
t!n/(ome 9n "e1o"ine< 9n/e!mn% c! /t!e! entopic% e/te c!!ctei/tic% 'i /i/temelo /ocioD
economice. 8n !ce/te con"i+ii< /ociet%+ile comeci!le< c! /i/teme< te:,ie /% /e !"!pte1e
pem!nent in(l,entei ,no (!ctoi pet,:!toi D e=o#eni /!, en"o#eni D c!e /e op,n /!,
9n#e,ne!1% e!li1!e! o:iecti4elo pe/t!:ilite. Ace!/t! !"!pt!e< !,toe#l!e ! (,nc+ion%ii
(imei /e e!li1e!1% pin inteme"i,l !cti4it%+ii m!n!#eilo c!e 9n e/en+% epe1int% o
9nl%n+,ie "e "eci1ii inte"epen"ente.
Deci1i! con/tit,ie p,nct,l cent!l !l !cti4it%+ii "e m!n!#ement 9nt,c$t e! /e e#%/e'te 9n
to!te (,nc+iile !ce/t,i!< 'i m!i m,lt< inte#!e! (imei 9n c!",l me"i,l,i "epin"e "e c!lit!te!
"eci1iei. 8n !cel!'i timp< c!lit!te! poce/,l,i "eci1ion!l in(l,en+e!1% e",cee! co/t,ilo<
e(icien+! (olo/iii (on",ilo< ce'tee! po(it,l,i etc. Re(eito l! loc,l "eci1iei< 9n poce/,l "e
m!n!#ement< con/i"e%m c% !ce/t! n, epe1int% o (,nc+ie 9nt,c$t e1,lt!t,l poce/,l,i
"eci1ion!l /e conceti1e!1% 9n c!",l (iec%ei (,nc+ii ! m!n!#ement,l,i. A/t(el< 9n "omeni,l
.5
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
pe4i1i,nii< c! (,nc+ie ! m!n!#ement,l,i< e1,lt!t,l poce/,l,i "eci1ion!l /e conceti1e!1% 9n
4!i!nte "e /t!te#ie< "e pl!n /!, "e po#!m.

*.(. CARACTERISTICILE DECI'IEI
Deci1i!< component! pim!% ! /i/tem,l,i "eci1ion!l< con/tit,ie ,n element e/en+i!l !l
m!n!#ement,l,i< (iin" in/t,ment,l /%, /peci(ic "e e=pim!e. 8n (on"< ni4el,l c!lit!ti4 !l
con",ceii ,nei o#!ni1!+ii /e m!ni(e/t% pin "eci1iile el!:o!te 'i !plic!te. Deci1i! "e
con",cee epe1int% poce/,l "e !le#ee ! ,nei linii "e !c+i,ne 9n /cop,l e!li1%ii ,no
o:iecti4e< pin ! c%ei !plic!e /e in(l,en+e!1% !cti4it!te! ! cel p,+in ,nei !lte pe/o!ne "ec$t
"eci"ent,l AO. Nicole/c,< 166)B.
Deciziile manageriale< /pe "eo/e:ie "e "eci1iile #ene!le< /e e(e% l! mi/i,ne!<
/t!te#iile 'i politic! pe temen l,n# !le (imei< coo"on!e! pincip!lelo "omenii "e
!cti4it!te< !tin#ee! e(icien+ei "oite< /ol,+ion!e! 'i me"iee! con(lictelo< m%/,i "e m!=im%
impot!n+% pent, 4iito,l (imei. 8n p!ctic%< "eci1i! m!n!#ei!l% 9m:!c% "o,! (omeC actul
decizional /i procesul decizional. Act,l "eci1ion!l /e e(e% l! /it,!+ii "eci1ion!le "e
comple=it!te e",/%< c, c!!cte epetiti4 /!, 9n c!e 4!i!:ilele implic!te /,nt (o!te :ine
c,no/c,te "e c%te "eci"ent. Poce/,l "eci1ion!l implic% ,n con/,m m!e "e timp< pe
p!c,/,l c%ei! /e c,le# 'i !n!li1e!1% in(om!+ii< /e con/,lt% pe/o!ne 9n 4e"ee! cont,%ii
/it,!+iei "eci1ion!le< 9n e/en+! poce/,l "eci1ion!l con/t% 9ntD,n !n/!m:l, "e et!pe pin
inteme"i,l c%o! /e pe#%te'te< !"opt%< !plic% 'i e4!l,e!1% "eci1i! m!n!#ei!l%.
Pent, ! con",ce l! e!li1!e! o:iecti4elo /t!:ilite< "eci1iile m!n!#ei!le te:,ie /%
9n"epline!/c% o serie de criterii< "inte c!e cele m!i impot!nte /,nt con/i"e!te ,m%to!eleC
Q 2,n"!ment!e! 'tiin+i(ic% ! "eci1iei. Ace!/t! con",ce l! e4it!e! impo4i1!+iilo 'i !
/,:iecti4i/m,l,i 9n poce/,l "e l,!e ! "eci1iilo.
Q Le#!lit!te! "eci1iei. A"opt!e! "eci1iei te:,ie (%c,t% "o! "e c%te pe/o!ne c!e /,nt
in4e/tite c, "ept le#!l 'i 9mp,tenicie 9n !ce/t /en/.
Q Completit,"ine! "eci1iei. Deci1i! te:,ie /% c,pin"% to!te elementele nece/!e
9n+ele#eii coecte 'i implement%ii !ce/tei!.
Q Opot,nit!te! "eci1iei. E/te "e pe(e!t o "eci1ie :,n% l,!t% 9n timp ,til ,nei "eci1ii
(o!te :,ne l,!te c, 9nt$1iee.
Q E(icien+! "eci1iei. 7e ,m%e'te o:+inee! ,n,i e(ect c$t m!i :,n pent, ,n !n,mit
e(ot.
Q Coo"on!e! "eci1iei. 7e !/i#,% !/t(el c! "eci1iile pi4in" "i(eitele "ep!t!mente !le
o#!ni1!+iei /% (ie comp!ti:ile 9nte ele 'i /% con",c% l! e!li1!e! o:iecti4,l,i "e !n/!m:l, !l
9ntepin"eii.
*.). TIPOLOGII ALE DECI'IILOR
8n #ene!l< "eci1iile /,nt #,p!te 9n (,nc+ie "e m%/,! 9n c!e poce/,l "eci1ion!l po!te
(i epl!ni(ic!t< 9n "eci1ii po#!m!te 'i "eci1ii nepo#!m!te.
Tip,l "e "eci1ie C!!ctei/tici
Po#!m!te P 7t,ct,!te Repetiti4e< "e ,tin%< e#,li 'i poce/e
"eci1ion!le c,no/c,te< "e/eoi
!,tom!te< "e o:icei pe/,p,n lucruri
m!i "e#!:% "ec$t oameniF pot (i
.&
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
"ele#!te l! ni4ele in(eio!e !le
o#!ni1!+iei
Nepo#!m!te P Ne/t,ct,!te Noi< ne,tiniee< n, /,nt c,no/c,te< !,
,n #!" i"ic!t "e incetit,"ine< n, pot
(i "ele#!te l! ni4ele in(eio!e< pot
implic! lucruri< "! 9ntot"e!,n! implic%
oameni.
Ace/te "o,! c!te#oii te:,ie con/i"e!te c! "o,% e=teme !le "omeni,l,i "eci1ion!l. 8n
e!lit!te e=i/t% o /eie "e "eci1ii c!e po/e"% c!!ctei/tici "in !m:ele #,pe.
O !lt% cl!/i(ic!e ! "eci1iilo /e po!te (!ce 9n (,nc+ie "e #!",l "e c,no!'tee !i
"eci"ent,l,i e(eito l! e1,lt!t,l "i(eitelo !lten!ti4e. A/t(el< e=i/t% "eci1ii 9n con"i+ie "e
cetit,"ine< i/c 'i incetit,"ine.
8n c!1,l con"i+iilo "e cetit,"ine 'i i/c e=i/t% "i(eite teEnici "e optimi1!e< 9n/% 9n
c!1,l incetit,"inii< teoetic n, e=i/t% /,(iciente "!te pent, c! "eci1i! /% /e po!t% l,!. Moti4,l
con/t% 9n (!pt,l c%< pin "e(ini+ie< l,!e! "eci1iei 9n/e!mn% !le#ee! 9nte !lten!ti4e< i! "!c%
!ce/te! n, /,nt c,no/c,te< !le#ee! n, /e po!te (!ce. 8n p!ctic% 9n/%< "eci1i! /e i! pin
,tili1!e! !+ion!ment,l,i 'i ! in(om!+iilo "i/poni:ile< e/tim%ii 4!loilo 'i ! po:!:ilit%+ilo
"e !p!i+ie ! e1,lt!telo po/i:ile. A/t(el< p!ctic< incetit,"ine! /e t!n/(om% 9n i/c.
&ivelul tactic e/te inteme"i! 'i e!li1e!1% o com:in!e ! c!!ctei/ticilo celol!lte
"o,! ni4ele. L! ni4el,l /t!te#ic< "eci1iile /,nt m,lt m!i "epen"ente "e (!cto,l ,m!n 'i "e
@,"ec!t! ,m!n%. A/emene! "eci1ii /e :!1e!1% pe meto"! 9ncec%ii 'i eoii "!toit% #!",l,i
m!e "e incetit,"ine 'i !m:i#,it!te pec,m 'i "!toit% (!pt,l,i c% n, pot (i e=plo!te to!te
po/i:ilit%+ile. Ace/t tip "e poce/ "eci1ion!l /e n,me'te e,i/tic /i /e :!1e!1% pe Ge#,l!
"e#et,l,iG m!i "e#!:% "ec$t pe e#,li "e "eci1ie e=plicite.
L! ni4elele ope!+ion!le 'i t!ctice /D!, "e14olt!t /,pot,i (om!le pent, "eci1ii c,m !
(i< "e e=empl,< modelele de optimizare.
Alte cl!/i(ic%i !le "eci1iei i!, 9n c!lc,l citeii e(eito!e l! n,m%,l "e pe/o!ne c!e
p!ticip! l! !"opt!e! "eci1iei< peio"icit!te! el!:o%ii "eci1iei /i n,m%,l citeiilo
"eci1ion!le< ",p% c,m ,me!1%C
decizii unipersonale c!e /,nt (,n"!ment!te 'i el!:o!te "e o /in#,% pe/o!n%< c,
e(eie l! po:lemele c,ente !le o#!ni1!+ieiF
decizii de grup ! c%o (,n"!ment!e e/te o",l conl,c%ii ,n,i !n,mit n,m% "e
pe/o!neF
decizii periodice el!:o!te l! !n,mite inte4!le "e timpF
decizii aleatorii !"opt!te l! inte4!le nee#,l!te< #e, "e !nticip!t< nece/it!te!
(,n"!ment%ii lo (iin" "etemin!t% "e (!ctoi necontol!:ili Ae(ic!cit!te! lo "epin"e "eci/i4
"e poten+i!l,l "eci1ion!l !l "eci"ent,l,iBF
decizii unice c!e epe1int% ,n c!1 "e e=cep+ie< ne!4$n" pece"ent 'i c!e po:!:il n, /e
4o epet! nici 9ntD,n 4iito !popi!tF e(ic!cit!te! lo "epin"e "eci/i4 "e poten+i!l,l "eci1ion!l
!l "eci"ent,l,iF
decizii unicriteriale c!e pe/,p,n comp!!e! !lten!ti4elo pe :!1! ,n,i /in#,
citei,F
decizii multicriteriale 9n c!1,l c%o! "i(eitele !lten!ti4e /e comp!% pin !pot!e! l!
"o,% /!, m!i m,lte citeii.
8n me"i,l !ct,!l< !(l!t 9n pem!nent% /cEim:!e< poce/,l comple= !l l,%ii "e "eci1ii
"e4ine tot m!i "i(icil< "eci"en+ii (iin" con/t$n'i "e me"i,l 9n c!e !c+ione!1%. 2iec!e "eci1ie
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e/te l,!t% 9n me"i,l c!!ctei/tic ,nei o#!ni1!+ii 'i to!te "eci1iile pe/,p,n p!c,#ee!
c$to4! p!'i element!i.
8ntDo !lt% 4i1i,ne< /,nt i"enti(ic!te "o,% tip,i "e "eci1iiC programate 'i neprogramate.
Deciziile programate /,nt "eci1ii epetiti4e 'i "e ,tin%. 8n con"i+iile (ec4en+ei i"ic!te
! !p!i+iei ,nei !n,mite /it,!+ii< m!n!#e,l 9'i cee!1% ,n o:icei Ao e#,l%< o poce",%B pin
c!e 4! e1ol4! !ce!/t% /it,!+ie. O#!ni1!+iile !, politici /ci/e 'i ne/ci/e c!e !, ol,l "e !
/impli(ic! l,!e! "eci1iilo< "e ! economi/i timp 'i "e ! pemite o#!ni1!+iilo /% 9'i
coo"one1e 'i contole1e !cti4it!te!. Un e=empl, "e "eci1ie po#!m!t% 9l epe1int% "eci1i!
"e !n#!@!e l,!t% "e "ep!t!ment,l "e e/,/e ,m!ne !l ,nei o#!ni1!+ii.
Deci1iile po#!m!te /,nt cel m!i ,'o "e l,!t< "!toit% (!pt,l,i c% m!n!#eii !, l!
"i/po1i+ie o /eie "e e#,li< poce",i 'i politici. 8n l,!e! ,nei "eci1ii m!n!#e,l te:,ie /%
+in% 9n/% cont "e (!pt,l c% !ce/te pl!n,i /,nt !plic!:ile "o! 9n !n,mite con"i+ii.
Deci1iile "e ,tin% n, /,nt ne!p%!t /imple 'i /,nt impot!nte pent, o#!ni1!+ie. 8n
/it,!+i! 9n c!e o po:lem% !p!e 9n mo" epet!t 'i "!c% elementele ei pot (i "e(inite< pe4%1,te
'i !n!li1!te< !t,nci po!te (i "e(init% o "eci1ie po#!m!t% 9n le#%t,% c, po:lem! e/pecti4%.
Deciziile neprogramate /,nt "eci1iile l,!te 9n con"i+ii ne/t!:ilite /!, 9n /it,!+ii ,nice.
Pent, e1ol4!e! !ce/to po:leme n, e=i/t% poce",i pe/t!:ilite< (ie "!toit% (!pt,l,i c% n,
!, m!i (o/t 9nt$lnite< (ie pent, c% /,nt (o!te impot!nte 'i comple=e. Un e=empl, "e "eci1ie
nepo#!m!t% 9l con/tit,ie "eci1i! "e l!n/!e ! ,nei noi linii "e po",/e. Pe m%/,% ce ,n
m!n!#e ,c% 9n ie!Ei! o#!ni1!+ion!l%< "e4ine tot m!i impot!nt% c!p!cit!te! l,i "e ! l,!
"eci1ii nepo#!m!te< i! timp,l !loc!t l,%ii !ce/to "eci1ii ce'te 9n "etiment,l timp,l,i
!loc!t l,%ii "e "eci1ii po#!m!te< c!e epe1int% peoc,p!e! pincip!l% ! oc,p!n+ilo
ni4elelo m!n!#ei!le in(eio!e.
Un,l "inte factorii "e c!e /,nt in(l,en+!+i m!n!#eii 9n poce/,l "e l,!e ! "eci1iilo 9l
epe1int% gradul de incertitudine al rezultatelor (iec%ei !lten!ti4e "eci1ion!le (om,l!te. 8n
c!",l o#!ni1!+iilo< m!n!#eii i!, "eci1ii 9n condiii de certitudine+ risc sau incertitudine.
Decizii n condiii de certitudine. At,nci c$n" m!n!#eii 'ti, c, /i#,!n+% c!e /,nt
!lten!ti4ele 'i e1,lt!tele !/oci!te (iec%ei !lten!ti4e< /p,nem c% e=i/t% con"i+ii "e
cetit,"ine. 8n o#!ni1!+ii< 9n/%< /,nt p,+ine "eci1iile c!e /,nt l,!te 9n !/t(el "e con"i+ii<
"!toit% comple=it%+ii 'i n!t,ii /cEim:%to!e ! /ociet%+ii. Un concept i"e!l A!/em%n%to
o!ec,m cel,i "e conc,en+% pe(ect%B< con"i+i! "e cetit,"ine (,ni1e!1% ,n c!", !l e4!l,%ii
con"i+iilo "e i/c 9n l,!e! "eci1iei. G!",l 9n c!e ,n m!n!#e !e 9nce"ee 9ntDo !n,mit%
"eci1ie "epin"e "e #!",l "e cetit,"ine 9n c!e e/te l,!t% "eci1i! e/pecti4%. C, !lte c,4inte<
c, c$t e/te m!i /i#, ,n m!n!#e "e e1,lt!tele ,nei "eci1ii< c, !t$t 4! !4e! m!i m,lt%
9nce"ee l,$n" !ce! "eci1ie.
Decizii n condiii de risc. 7e !peci!1% c% e=i/t% con"i+ii "e i/c !t,nci c$n" te:,ie
l,!t% o "eci1ie pe :!1! ,no in(om!+ii incomplete. De'i in(om!+iile /,nt incomplete<
m!n!#eii !, po/i:ilit!te! /% c!lc,le1e po:!:ilit%+ile e4enimentelo< pec,m 'i !le
e1,lt!telo 'i co/t,ilo !ce/to!< /elect$n" !poi !lten!ti4! ce! m!i (!4o!:il%. Po:!:ilit%+ile
pot (i "etemin!te 9n mo" o:iecti4 "in "!te i/toice< /!, 9n mo" /,:iecti4< pe :!1! e=peien+ei
tec,te /!, ! int,i+iei. L,!e! "e "eci1ii pe :!1! po:!:ilit%+ilo epe1int% o c!!ctei/tic% !
m!n!#ement,l,i !ct,!l.
Decizii n condiii de incertitudine. 8n m,lte /it,!+ii m!n!#e,l,i 9i lip/e/c in(om!+iile<
"etemin!e! o:iecti4% ! po:!:ilit%+ilo c, pi4ie l! e4ent,!lele e1,lt!te "e4enin" !/t(el
"i(icil%. D!toit% comple=it%+ii l,mii !ct,!le< !ce!/t% /it,!+ie e/te "e/ 9nt$lnit% "e m!n!#ei<
.)
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moti4 pent, c!e :!1! l,%ii "eci1iei o epe1int% int,i+i! !ce/to!. 8nce"ee! 9n e,'it!
"eci1iei l,!te 9n !/t(el "e /it,!+ii e/te m!i mic%< "!toit% !:/en+ei "!telo i/toice.
8n poce/,l "eci1ion!l p,tem i"enti(ic! p!t, moti4e pincip!le !le e',%ii "eci1iilo< c,
!lte c,4inte /it,!+ii c!e pot (i n,mite capcane decizionaleC
D "ecizia ,n sine. Ace/t tip "e (!ctoi /e e(e% l! n!t,! ! cee! ce ,me!1% ! (i (%c,t< c!e
po!te #ene! po:leme tempo!e /!, c, c!!cte pem!nent.
D (ntuiia managerului. Unii m!n!#ei con/i"e% c% e,'it! 9n 4em,i #ele 4! (i
ecompen/!t% "e c%te o#!ni1!+ie< !l+ii !, ten"in+! "e ! n, l,! 9n con/i"e!e "ec$t !/pectele
c!e /e poti4e/c pecep+iei lo< !l+ii pot 4e"e! 9n o:/t!colele c!e !p! ,n e'ec pe/on!l< 9n
timp ce !l+ii 4o contin,! /% in4e/te!/c% timp 'i e/,/e< "!toit% 9nce"eii pe c!e o !, 9n
int,i+i! lo.
D Presiuni sociale. Uneoi m!n!#eii contin,% /% !plice o !n,mit% "eci1ie n, "o! pent,
c% e(,1% /% !"mit% c% !, e',!t< ci 'i "!toit% (!pt,l,i c% n, 4o c! !l+ii /% 4!"% c% !, "!t #e'
/!, c% /,nt incompeten+i.
D (neria organizaional. Cel m!i /impl, (!cto c!e /t% 9n c!le! en,n+%ii l! ,n !n,mit
c,/ "e !c+i,ne 9l epe1int% ine+i! o#!ni1!+ion!l% pe c!e o implic% poce",ile e=i/tente 'i
"i(ic,lt%+ile 9n 9ncec!e! "e ! /cEim:! o "eci1ie /t!te#ic%.
Pent, ! (i e(ic!ce< m!n!#eii te:,ie /% (ie c!p!:ili /% en,n+e l! "eci1iile #e'ite /!, l!
!cti4it%+ile c!e "ec,# "in !ce/te!.
8n #ene!l m!n!#eii /t!:ile/c o /eie "e o%iective. 7e cee!1% !poi planuri "e !c+i,ne 'i
politici pent, !tin#ee! !ce/to o:iecti4e< e=i/t$n" limite o#!ni1!+ion!le "!to!te m!i !le/
factorilor le#!+i "e poce/,l /t!:iliii !ce/to!< ",p% c,m ,me!1%C
1B /ipsa de ata$ament )a de o%iective. Un m!n!#e 9n"epline'te m!i m,lte ol,i D el
e/te 'e(< /,:o"on!t< p%inte< /o+ P /o+ie< mem:, !l ,nei com,nit%+i D 'i !e o:iecti4e
coe/p,n1%to!e (iec%,i! "inte !ce/te ol,i. Un con(lict 9nte o:iecti4ele ,n,i in"i4i" !p!e
!t,nci c$n" o:iecti4ele /!le n, /,nt 9n !co" c, cele o#!ni1!+ion!le< in"i4i",l pie1$n",D'i 9n
(in!l !t!'!ment,l (!+% "e ,nele "inte !ce/te!. Un m!n!#e n, 4! (i !t!'!t (!+% "e o:iecti4e
c!e int% 9n cont!"ic+ie c, popiile /!le intee/e.
2B 'on)lictul de o%iective. 9nte o:iecti4ele "i(eitelo ,nit%+i A"ep!t!mente< /ec+ii etc.B
!le !celei!'i o#!ni1!+ii pot !p%e! "e !/emene! con(licte< c!e /e 4o con/tit,i c! limite 9n
l,!e! "eci1iilo.
*B O%iective ,n schim%are. Ni4el,l l! c!e !, (o/t /t!:ilite "i(eitele o:iecti4e !le
o#!ni1!+iei 'i tip,l !ce/to! cee!1% po4oc%i "eo/e:ite pent, m!n!#ei. CEi! "!c%
o:iecti4ele #ene!le !le o#!ni1!+iei %m$n nemo"i(ic!te< o:iecti4ele /t!:ilite l! ni4el
(,nc+ion!l /e /cEim:% 9n timp.
.B 1alori. Poce/,l "eci1ion!l e/te in(l,en+!t "e !/emene! "e 4!loile pe/on!le !le
m!n!#e,l,i Ai"e!l,i !:/t!cte c!e mo"ele!1% mo",l "e #$n"ie 'i compot!ment,l
in"i4i",l,iB. 7D! o:/e4!t c% (imele :ine con",/e !, /i/teme "e 4!loi p,tenice 'i :ine
!tic,l!te< "eo!ece m!n!#eii c!e l,ce!1% 9n !ce/te (ime /imt ne4oi! /% !"opte !ce/te
4!loi pent, ! !4e! /,cce/ ATE. K. Pete/ 'i R. K. J!tem!nB.
Teoeticienii 'tiin+elo compot!ment!le !, i"enti(ic!t "o,% tip,i "e /et,i "e 4!loi.
Pim,l tip "e(ine'te ,n !n,mit compot!ment c! (iin" poti4it oic%ei /it,!+ii D valorile
instrumentale D 'i c,pin"e concep+ii c! cin/te!< i,:ie! 'i /,p,nee!. Pe "e !lt% p!te< valorile
)inale epe1int% ce"in+! c% o !n,mit% /t!e meit% e(ot,l "e ! te /t%",i pent, ! o !tin#e. De
e=empl,< ,n m!n!#e po!te con/i"e! c% meit% /% te /t%",ie'ti pent, ! !4e! in"epen"en+%
(in!nci!% i! !lt,l c% o (!milie (eicit% meit% to!te e(ot,ile. 2iec!e m!n!#e "e+ine 4!loi
in/t,ment!le 'i (in!le "i(eite< c!e le in(l,en+e!1% 9n mo" "i(eit "eci1iile.
Din ne(eicie< m,l+i m!n!#ei n, 9'i i"enti(ic% 9n mo" /i/tem!tic 4!loile 'i n, /,nt
peoc,p!+i /% le /t!:ile!/c% #!",l 9n c!e epe1int% pioit%+i. Un :,n p,nct "e 9ncep,t 9n
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Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
"e14olt!e! ,nei culturi orientate spre valori o epe1int% "ecl!!e! /ci/% ! eticii c, pi4ie
l! m!@oit!te! !/pectelo c, c!e /e con(,nt% m!n!#eii. E/te impot!nt% in(l,en+! pe c!e o
!, "i(een+ele c,lt,!le 9n poce/,l "eci1ion!l. Cecet%toii mo"eni /,nt intee/!+i "e
!n!li1!e! comp!!ti4% ! /til,ilo "e con",cee 'i l,!e ! "eci1iilo 9n "i(eite 1one !le l,mii<
!ce/te! epe1ent$n" o:iect,l "e /t,"i, !l managementului comparat.
*.*. ELEMENTE ALE PROCESULUI DECI'IONAL
Poce/,l "eci1ion!l e/te "e(init c! (iin" o /eie "e p!'i c!e 9ncep c, !n!li1! in(om!+iei<
contin,% c, /elect!e! "inte m!i m,lte !lten!ti4e 'i 4ei(ic!e! !lten!ti4ei /elect!te pe
po:lem! !(l!t% 9n /t,"i,.
8n oice poce/ "eci1ion!l "e m!n!#ement /e e#%/e/c ,m%to!ele elementeC
"ecidentul e/te epe1ent!t "e pe/o!n! /!, #,p,l "e pe/o!ne c!e ,me!1% /% !le!#%
4!i!nt! optim% "in cele po/i:ile. 8n c!1,l po:lemelo comple=e "eci1i! /e i! "e c%te ,n
#,p "e pe/o!ne< i! 9n c!1,l "eci1iilo c,ente< ope!ti4e "eci1iile /,nt l,!te "e o /in#,%
pe/o!n%. C!lit!te! "eci1iei "epin"e "e c!lit%+ile< c,no'tin+ele< !ptit,"inile "eci"ent,l,i.
Pro%lema decizional. Deci1i! /e !"opt% pent, /ol,+ion!e! ,nei po:leme "eci1ion!le.
8n !:/en+! po:lemei "eci1i! n, !e o:iect.
Mulimea variantelor decizionale po!te (i (init% /!, in(init%. C,pin"e tot!lit!te!
po/i:ilit%+ilo "e /ol,+ion!e ! po:lemei "eci1ion!le. De(inie! !ce/tei m,l+imi nece/it%
in(om!+ii "in inteio,l 'i "in !(!! o#!ni1!+iei< #$n"ie m!n!#ei!l% ce!to!e< con/,lt!e!
e=pe+ilo< e(ect,!e! "e cecet%i. 8n moment,l i"enti(ic%ii po:lemei "eci1ion!le< "eci"ent,l
con'tienti1e!1% e=i/ten+! m!i m,lto c,/,i "e !c+i,ne po/i:ile. El po!te c,no!'te !ce/te
!lten!ti4e pin implic!e "iect% /!, pin inteme"i,l !lto pe/o!ne. Ale#ee! 4!i!ntei
optime /e (!ce ",p% o /eie "e meto"e coe/p,n1%to!e mo"el,l,i m!tem!tic c!e
c!!ctei1e!1% /it,!+i! "eci1ion!l%.
Mulimea criteriilor decizionale incl,"e o /eie "e c!!ctei/tici pe :!1! c%o! /e
e4!l,e!1% 'i comp!% 4!i!ntele "eci1ion!le< 9n 4e"ee! !"opt%ii celei m!i !+ion!le "eci1ii.
M,l+ime! citeiilo "eci1ion!le e/te epe1ent!t% "e p,nctele "e 4e"ee !le "eci"ent,l,i c!e
i1ole!1% !/pecte !le e!lit%+ii economice 9n c!",l poce/,l,i "eci1ion!l. Citeiile "eci1ion!le
/e c!!ctei1e!1% pin m!i m,lte ni4el,i< coe/p,n1%to!e "i(eitelo 4!i!nte 'iP/!, /t%i !le
con"i+iilo o:iecti4e. L,!e! 9n con/i"e!e< 9ntDo /it,!+ie "eci1ion!l%< ! m!i m,lto citeii<
te:,ie /% /e (!c% +in$n" cont "e po/i:ilit!te! "i4i1%ii 'i #,p%ii citeiilo< pec,m 'i "e
popiet!te! "e inte"epen"en+% ! !ce/to!. De e=empl,< po(it,l po!te (i "i4i1!t pe po",/e<
/,:,nit%+i etc. De !/emene!< po(it,l 'i co/t,l pot (i #,p!te 9ntD,n citei, #lo:!l epe1ent!t
"e ent!:ilit!te. Do,% citeii /,nt in"epen"ente "!c% (i=!e! ,n,i o:iecti4 "in p,nct "e 4e"ee
!l ,n,i citei, n, in(l,en+e!1% /t!:ilie! ,n,i !lt o:iecti4< "in p,nct "e 4e"ee !l cel,i "eD!l
"oile! citei,. 9n m!n!#ement,l (imei pot (i ,tili1!te citeii "e tip,lC po(it< pe+< c!lit!te<
temen "e ec,pe!e ! in4e/ti+iei< ",!t! cicl,l,i "e po",c+ie< #!",l "e ,tili1!e ! c!p!cit%+ii
"e po",c+ie etc.
Mediul am%iant Acon"i+iile o:iecti4eB e/te epe1ent!t "e !n/!m:l,l con"i+iilo e=tene
c!e /,nt in(l,en+!te 'i in(l,en+e!1% "eci1i!< 9n me"i,l !m:i!nt /e pot m!ni(e/t!< pent, o
!n,mit% /it,!+ie "eci1ion!l%< m!i m,lte /t%i !le con"i+iilo o:iecti4e. Me"i,l !m:i!nt /e
c!!ctei1e!1% pintDo mo:ilit!te "eo/e:it%. 8n c!",l condiiilor interne /e o:/e4! o
pe(ec+ion!e ! pe#%tiii pe/on!l,l,i< pe(ec+ion!e ! /i/tem,l,i in(om!+ion!l< i! 9n cee! ce
pi4e'te condiiile e*terne< /e 9ne#i/te!1% mo"i(ic%i 9n le#i/l!+i! +%ii< mo"i(ic%i 9n el!+iile
(imei c, "i4e/e o#!ni/me.
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Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
Mulimea consecinelor c,pin"e !n/!m:l,l e1,lt!telo ce /D! o:+ine con(om (iec%,i
citei, "eci1ion!l 'i (iec%ei /t%i ! con"i+iilo o:iecti4e pin !plic!e! 4!i!ntelo "eci1ion!le.
7t!:ilie! con/ecin+elo e/te o !cti4it!te c!e n, /e e!li1e!1% 9ntot"e!,n! c, e=!ctit!te
"eo!ece n, /e c,no/c c, cetit,"ine c!,1ele ce ! "etemin! po",cee! lo. Con/ecin+ele pot
(i 9n (om% c!ntit!ti4% /!, c!lit!ti4%.
O%iectivele deciziei /,nt ni4elele pop,/e "e c%te "eci"ent pent, ! (i !tin/e 9n ,m!
implement%ii 4!i!ntei "eci1ion!le !le/e.
Utilitatea (iec%ei con/ecin+e ! "i(eitelo 4!i!nte /e e=pim% 9n !cee!'i ,nit!te "e
m%/,! c!e 4!i!1% 9nte - 'i 1< ,tilit!te! epe1ent$n" (olo/,l !'tept!t "e "eci"ent 9n ,m!
(!pt,l,i c% o !n,mit! con/ecin+! /e e!li1e!1%.
*.0. MODELE DECI'IONALE
Un mo"el po!te (i "e(init "ept o epe1ent!e 4!loo!/% 'i ,til% ! e!lit%+ii< c!e
/,pin"e !n,mite c!!ctei/tici !le !ce/tei! 'i le i#no% pe !ltele. 8n lite!t,! "e /peci!lit!te
/,nt i"enti(ic!te "o,% tip,i "e mo"ele (,n"!ment!leC pe/cipti4e 'i "e/cipti4e.
Modelele prescriptive sau normative /,nt mo"ele c!e /electe!1% !,tom!t ce! m!i :,n%
op+i,ne Ae=. po#!m!e! lini!%< !n!li1! co/t ? 4ol,m D po(it< teoi! "eci1ion!l% /t!ti/tic%<
teEnici "e !n!li1% ! in4e/ti+ieiB. Ace/te mo"ele /,nt :ine "e(inite 'i /t,ct,!te 'i t!te!1%
poce/,l "eci1ion!l c! pe ,n poce/ complet !+ion!l. Ele con/tit,ie teEnici "e optimi1!e c!e
pe/,p,n con"i+ii "e i/c /!, cetit,"ine.
Modelele descriptive ,m%e/c /% e=plice compot!ment,l e!l 9n c!",l poce/,l,i
"eci1ion!l. Poce/,l "eci1ion!l e/te m!i p,+in /t,ct,!t 'i n, e/te complet !+ion!l. 8n
p!ctic%< "eci"entii /impli(ic% (!ctoii implic!+i 'i< "!toit% "i(ic,lt%+ilo p!ctice< /,nt pe#%ti+i
/% !ccepte /ol,+ii /!ti/(%c%to!e m!i "e#!:% "ec$t /% pi!"% timp 'i e/,/e 9n 9ncec!e! "e !
#%/i optim,l teoetic.
*.3. ETAPELE PROCESULUI DECI'IONAL
M!n!#ement,l t!"i+ion!l /it,e!1% poce/,l "eci1ion!l 9n cent,l !cti4it%+ilo /!le.
E=i/t% m!i m,lte tip,i "e "eci1iiC /t!te#ice 'i c,ente< /t,ct,!te 'i ne/t,ct,!te<
"epen"ente 'i in"epen"ente. In"i(eent "e tip,l "e "eci1ie< ,n poce/ "e l,!e ! "eci1iilo
incl,"e< 9n #ene!l< p!t, et!pe ",p% c,m ,me!1%C
(denti)icarea pro%lemeiC e=!min!e! me"i,l,i pent, e4!l,!e! cic,m/t!n+eloF
"etemin!e! /it,!+iilo po:lem!ticeF /t!:ilie! n!t,ii 'i c!,1elo po:lemei.
2enerarea soluiilor alternativeC et!#ee! citicilo !",/e !lten!ti4eloF /tim,l!e!
#$n"iiiF o(eie! c$t m!i m,lto i"ei po/i:ileF com:in!e! /i 9m:,n%t%+ie! i"eilo.
Evaluarea $i selectarea alternativelorC e4!l,!e! (e1!:ilit%+ii< c!lit%+ii< !ccept!:ilit%+ii<
co/t,ilo< e4e/i:ilit%+ii 'i eticii.
(mplementarea $i monitorizarea soluiilor aleseC pl!ni(ic!e! !plic%ii /ol,+iiloF l,!e!
9n c!lc,l ! mo",l,i 9n c!e "eci1i! 9i !(ecte!1% pe ceil!l+iF "e14olt!e! mec!ni/melo
,m%to!e.
8n cele ce ,me!1% 4om "et!li! cele p!t, et!pe !le poce/,l,i "e l,!e ! "eci1iei.

'. (dentificarea pro)lemei
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Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
Pim,l p!/ 9n l,!e! "eci1iei e/te i"enti(ic!e! po:lemei. Ace!/t! et!p! incl,"e tei p!'i
impot!n+iC
E*aminarea. Implic% monitoi1!e! /it,!+iilo pent, ! o:/e4!< cic,m/t!n+ele c!e pot
epe1ent! ,n /emn !l !p!i+iei ,nei po:leme. 8n !ce/t moment< m!n!#e,l e/te p,+in
con'tient "e (!pt,l c% /cEim:!e! me"i,l,i ! p,te! po4oc! o po:lem% /!, c% o /cEim:!e
e=i/tent% po!te epe1ent! o po:lem%.
'lasi)icarea. Imp,ne 9n+ele#ee! 'i 4ei(ic!e! /emnelo c!e in"ic% e=i/ten+! ,nei
"i(een+e /,:/t!n+i!le 9nte cee! ce e=i/t% 'i cee! ce /e "oe'te. 8n !ce/t moment<
m!n!#ement,l (imei po!te /t!:ili "!c% /it,!+i! epe1int% o po:lem% /!, n,< "e'i n, /e po!te
peci1! n!t,! po:lemei.
"iagnoza. Implic% !",n!e! in(om!+iilo 'i /peci(ic!e! n!t,ii 'i c!,1elo po:lemei.
2%% o "i!#no1% :ine (%c,t% n, /e po!te !@,n#e l! o "eci1ie optim%. 8n !ce!/t! (!1%< po:lem!
! te:,i /! (ie pi4it% "in p,nct "e 4e"ee !l "i/cep!n+elo 9nte /it,!+i! e=i/tent% 'i cee! ce /e
"oe'te< peci1$n",D/e c!,1ele c!e !, con",/ l! !ce!/t! /it,!+ie.
%. *enerarea soluiilor alternative
Ace!/t! et!p% con/t% 9n #%/ie! ,no /ol,+ii m!i :,ne "in p,nct "e 4e"ee c!lit!ti4< m!i
!le/ !t,nci c$n" /e "oe'te o:+inee! ,nei /ol,+ii ce!ti4e /!, no4!to!e. G%/ie! "e /ol,+ii
!lten!ti4e po!te (i (!cilit!t% pin meto"! :!in/tomin#< o teEnic% pent, 9m:,n%t%+ie!
ce!ti4it%+ii< c!e 9nc,!@e!1% mem:ii #,p,l,i /% pop,n% m!i m,lte /ol,+ii ine"ite pent, o
!n,mit! tem%< (%% ! le e4!l,!. 7e !plic! p!t, pincipii< ",p% c,m ,me!1%C
lB N, citic! i"eile 9n timp ce /e #enee!1% /ol,+ii !lten!ti4e. Citic! inEi:% #$n"ie!. De
!/emene!< "!c% /e conte/t% i"eile "e l! 9ncep,t< n,m%,l !ce/to! 4! /c%"e!.
2B G$n"e'te li:e. G%/e'te i"ei< cEi! "!c! /,nt "epl!/!te. De'i n, pot (i ,tili1!te< po!te
le "!, !lte i"ei celol!l+i.
*B O(e% c$t m!i m,lte i"ei po/i:ile. Un 4ol,m m!e "e i"ei ce'te po:!:ilit!te! c!
,nele "inte !ce/te! /% (ie /ol,+iile (in!le.
.B Com:in% 'i 9m:,n%t%+e'te i"eile o(eite. De m,lte oi< cele m!i :,ne i"ei i!, n!'tee
pin com:in!e! i"eilo o(eite "e ceil!l+i.
De'i :!in/tomin#D,l /e e!li1e!1% 9n #,p< pincipiile !nteio!e /e pot !plic! 'i
in"i4i",!l. M!n!#e,l 9'i note!1% o /eie "e /ol,+ii po/i:ile 'i 9nce!c% /% #%/e!/c% ,n 4ol,m
m!e "e i"ei pe c!e /% le com:ine pent, ! !@,n#e l! /ol,+i! (in!l%. 8n !ce!/t! et!p% !
poce/,l,i "e l,!e ! "eci1iei< ! te:,i /% /e #enee1e ,n n,m% m!e "e !lten!ti4e.
C. +valuarea i alegerea unei alternative
Ace!/t% et!p% implic% o !n!li1% !tent% ! !4!nt!@elo 'i "e1!4!nt!@elo (iec%ei
!lten!ti4e< 9n (,nc+ie "e & citeiiC (e1!:ilit!te< c!lit!te< !ccept!:ilit!te< co/t,i< e4e/i:ilit!te
'i etic%.
.eza%ilitatea. 7e e(e% l! !le#ee! !lten!ti4ei c!e po!te /,pot! to!te con/t$n#eile
o#!ni1!+ion!le D timp< :,#et< teEnolo#ie 'i politici. Alten!ti4ele c!e n, 9n"epline/c !ce/t
citei, te:,ie /% (ie elimin!te (%% !lte con/i"e!+ii.
'alitatea. Depin"e "e m%/,! 9n c!e !lten!ti4! e1ol4% e(ecti4 po:lem! con/i"e!t%.
Ace/t citei, 9nl!t,% !lten!ti4ele c!e epe1int% "o! o /ol,+ie p!+i!l%.
#ccepta%ilitatea. E/te 9n (,nc+ie "e #!",l 9n c!e cei c!e i!, "eci1ii 'i cei c!e 4o (i
!(ect!+i "e !ce/te! "oe/c /% le /,/+in%. Ace/t citei, e/te con/i"e!t c! (iin" (o!te impot!nt
pent, @,"ec!e! "eci1iilo.
'osturile. Incl," !t$t ni4el,l e/,/elo nece/!e< c$t /i po/i:ilele e(ecte ne"oite.
Temen,l "e Gco/t,iG< con/i"e!t !ici 9n /en/ l!#< /e e(e% n, n,m!i l! cEelt,ielile monet!e<
ci 'i l! !/pecte int!n#i:ile< c,m ! (i %1:,n!e! conc,en+ilo.
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Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
Reversi%ilitatea. 7e e(e% l! m%/,! 9n c!e po!te (i et!/% "eci1i!. Unii o:/e4!toi
con/i"e% c% impot!n+! ,nei "eci1ii n, /e m%/o!% pin /,m! "e :!ni implic!t%< ci pin
,',in+! c, c!e po!te (i et!/%. De e=empl,< c$n" Coc!DCol! Comp!nL ! 9nt$mpin!t
"i(ic,lt%+i 9n into",cee! noii /!le (om,le 9n !n,l 16)5< ! p,t,t /%D'i et!#% "eci1i!<
into",c$n" (om,l! 4ecEe Coc!DCol! Cl!//ic. 8n !/emene! c!1,i< !lten!ti4! !le!/% te:,ie
/! (ie !n!li1!t! !tent 9n!inte "e ! (i /elect!t%.
Etica. E/te ,n citei, c!e e4!l,e!1% m%/,! 9n c!e !lten!ti4! !le!/% e/te comp!ti:il%
c, e/pon/!:ilit%+ile /oci!le !le o#!ni1!+iei 'i /t!n"!"ele etice !le m!n!#eilo !ce/tei!.
D. (mplementarea i monitorizarea soluiilor alese
Pent, c! poce/,l "e l,!e ! "eci1iilo /% !i:% /,cce/< m!n!#eii te:,ie /% !co"e m,lt%
!ten+ie !ce/tei et!pe. E/te po/i:il /% /e i! o "eci1ie :,n% 9n pimele tei et!pe< i! poce/,l /%
e',e1e "!toit% "i(ic,lt%+ilo "in !ce!/t% et!p% (in!l%. Implement!e! /ol,+iei. Depin"e "e "oi
(!ctoi pent, ! !4e! /,cce/C pl!ni(ic!e! !tent% 'i l,!e! 9n con/i"e!e ! celo !(ect!+i "e
"eci1ie.
8n cee! ce pi4e'te pl!ni(ic!e!< p,tem peci1! c% /cEim:%ile minoe nece/it% pl!n,i
p,+in el!:o!te< 9n timp ce /cEim:%ile m!@oe pot cee e(ot,i /,pliment!e "e pl!ni(ic!e D
pl!n,i /ci/e< coo"on!e! !tent% ! ,nit%+ilo "in inteio,l 'i "in !(!! comp!niei< (on",i
/peci!le. De e#,l%< cel m!i "i(icil e/te /% et!#i o "eci1ie 'i cel m!i impot!nt e/te /%
pl!ni(ici o implement!e e(icient%.
8n cee! ce pi4e'te mo",l 9n c!e /,nt !(ect!+i cei c!e i!, "eci1i!< pent, ! 9n+ele#e
e!c+iile po/i:ile< 4om "! ,n e=empl,. A.C. P!ci(ic 7o,tEOe/t C!:le "in 7!n Die#o<
C!li(oni!< ! "eci/ /% p,n% !ccent,l pe /e4icii o(eite !t$t clien+ilo inteni A"in inteio,l
comp!nieiB< c$t /i e=teni< comp!ni! !loc$n" ,n timp con/i"e!:il pe#%tiii m,ncitoilo. O
p!te "in /cEim:!e con/t! 9n ! o(ei !n#!@!+ilo m!i m,lt! li:et!te 9n pe/t!e! /e4iciilo.
D!toit! pe#%tiii pe c!e !, pimitDo< m,ncitoii !, p,t,t /% implemente1e /cEim:!e! (%%
po:leme. Ace!/t! ! con",/ l! o ce'tee con/i"e!:il! ! pie+ei 'i ! po(it,ilo.
Monitoi1!e! /ol,+iei. E/te nece/!! pent, c! m!n!#eii /% /e !/i#,e c% !c+i,ne! /e
"e/(%'o!% !'! c,m ! (o/t pl!ni(ic!t% 'i c% po:lemele !p%,te 9n l,!e! "eci1iei !, (o/t
e1ol4!te.
Poce/,l "eci1ion!l e/te ,n poce/ "e el!:o!e ! "eci1iilo< con/tit,it "intDo /,cce/i,ne
"e (!1e pin c!e /e pe#%te'te< /e el!:oe!1%< /e !"opt% 'i /e implemente!1% "eci1i!. N,m%,l
!ce/to (!1e e/te "i(eit< 9n (,nc+ie "e tip,l "eci1iei. L! "eci1iile c,ente< c!e te:,ie /%
%/p,n"% ,no /it,!+ii /imple< /imil!e c, m,lte /it,!+ii !nteio!e< n,m%,l (!1elo poce/,l,i
"eci1ion!l /e e",ce l! minim,m< 9n /cEim: l! "eci1iile t!ctice 'i m!i !le/ l! cele /t!te#ice<
poce/,l "eci1ion!l "e4ine (o!te comple=< p!c,#e to!te et!pele 9n mo" /,cce/i4< c,
implic!+ii "eo/e:ite !/,p! 9nte#ii !cti4it%+i ! 9ntepin"eii.
CEi! "!c% l! ,nele "eci1ii c,ente< poce/,l "eci1ion!l /e /impli(ic% l! m!=im,m< e/te
nece/! tot,'i ! /e c,no!'te /t,ct,! complet% ! l,i< pent, c! o#!nele "e con",cee 'i
m!n!#eii "in 9ntepin"ei /% !c+ione1e c! !t!e !t,nci c$n" !, "e el!:o!t "eci1ii t!ctice 'i
/t!te#ice.
8ntDo !lt% 4i1i,ne< et!pele poce/,l,i "eci1ion!l /,nt ,m%to!eleC
'. Delimitarea i precizarea pro)lemei sau pro)lemelor ce tre)uie rezolvate.
2om,l!e! peci/% ! po:lemei elimin% e4ent,!lele 9ntepet%i ne"oite 'i 9n (,nc+ie "e
!ce/te! !c+i,ni c!e n, /e @,/ti(ic%. Peci1!e! coect% ! po:lemei< "elimit!e! "omeni,l,i 9n
c!e te:,ie /% inte4in% pemite 'i cont,!e! c, cl!it!te ! o:iecti4,l,i ce te:,ie !tin/. Deci<
/e "e/pin"e /cop,l 9nte#ii !c+i,ni c!e< l! $n",l l,i te:,ie /% (ie mo:ili1!to 'i pecepti:il
n, n,m!i pent, "eci"ent "! 'i pent, e=ec,t!n+i. Deci< (om,l!e! coect% ! po:lemei 'i< pe
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:!1! ei< /t!:ilie! c, peci1ie ! /cop,l,i< con/tit,ie o con"i+ie e/en+i!l% pent, c!lit!te!
"eci1iei.
%. Documentarea sau culegerea" selectarea i prelucrarea informaiilor necesare
lurii deciziilor. Pent, l,!e! oic%ei "eci1ii e/te nece/!% c,no!'tee! pe(ect% ! /it,!+iei<
(!pt c!e /e e!li1e!1% pintDo !n,mit% c!ntit!te "e in(om!+ii /,(icient "e complete 'i
/intetice< o:+in,te !t$t "in inteio,l 9ntepin"eii c$t 'i "in e=teio,l !ce/tei!. In(om!+iile
o:+in,te< epe1int%< "e (!pt< m!tei!l,l ce ne pemite /% !peciem /it,!+i! e!l% ! ,nit%+ii
e/pecti4e pent, ! p,te! l,! "eci1i! coe/p,n1%to!e 9n (,nc+ie "e n!t,! po:lemei ce te:,ie
e1ol4!t%. P!!lel c, in(om!+iile o:+in,te pintDo "oc,ment!e i#,o!/% "eci"ent,l< 9n
!ce!/t% et!p%< (!ce !pel 'i l! pop,neile< /ol,+iile pe c!e le pot "! /!l!i!+ii. 7,/ele
pincip!le "e (,ni1!e ! "!telo /,nt ,m%to!eleC /it,!+iile /t!ti/tice< /it,!+iile c!e
con/emne!1% "!tele "e contol< "!tele "e pl!n< "in cont!:ilit!te 'i pl!ni(ic!e (in!nci!%<
po#no1ele el!:o!te "e 9ntepin"ee /!, "e o#!nele t,tel!e< colec+iile "e le#i 'i !lte !cte
nom!ti4e< !Ei4! ,nit%+ii< l,c%ile "e /peci!lit!te< in4e/ti#!+iile "e teen.
C. Prelucrarea datelor colectate ,m%e'te /% /t!:ile!/c% e=!ctit!te! !ce/to!< #!",l "e
c,pin"ee ! po:lemei e/pecti4e< mo",l 9n c!e /e coele!1% "i4e/ele "!te. Deci e/te
popi,D1i/ o et!p% "e !n!li1% 'i pel,c!e ! in(om!+iilo c,le/e< ,n"e /,nt p,/e 9n e4i"en+%
!t$t !/pectele "e o"in c!ntit!ti4 c$t 'i c!lit!ti4 !le in(om!+iilo.
D. ,ormularea variantelor de decizie i analiza lor comparativ. Pe :!1! in(om!+iilo
'i ! po/i:ilit%+ilo concete "e c!e "i/p,ne 9ntepin"ee! 9n moment,l e/pecti4< 9n (,nc+ie "e
mo",l "e com:in!e ! !ce/to!< !p! m!i m,lte /ol,+ii< !lten!ti4e /!, mo"!lit%+i "e e!li1!e
! o:iecti4,l,i /!, "iecti4elo e=i/tente. L! /t!:ilie! !lten!ti4elo< o impot!n+% "eo/e:it%< 9n
/peci!l pent, elementele c!ntit!ti4e< o !e ,tili1!e! meto"elo /t!ti/ticoDm!tem!tice 'i !
teEnicii mo"ene "e "eci1ion!le. De !/emene!< ,n ol impot!nt 9l "e+ine poce/,l "e
/tim,l!e ! !cti4it%+ii "eci"ent,l,i pin "i(eite meto"e 'i teEnici. 8n !ce/t! et!p%< /!cin! celo
c!e /e oc,p% c, pe#%tie! "eci1iei e/te "e ! el!:o! to!te 4!i!ntele po/i:ile. At,nci c$n"
"eci1iile /,nt "eo/e:it "e impot!nte 'i /olicit% c,no'tin+e "e /tict% /peci!lit!te< e/te nece/!
c! 4!i!ntele el!:o!te /% (ie !4i1!te "e c%te /peci!li'ti /!, comi/ii "e /peci!li'ti "in
9ntepin"ee 'i "in !(!%.
+. 'legerea variantei optime a deciziei i apro)area acesteia. Din tot!lit!te!
4!i!ntelo< "eci"ent,l !le#e pe !cee! c!e 4! "! cele m!i :,ne e1,lt!te c, !cele!'i cEelt,ieli
"e e/,/e ,m!ne< m!tei!le 'i (in!nci!e. Ale#ee! 4!i!ntei optime /e (!ce pin "e1:!tee!
poiect,l,i "e "eci1ie "e c%te o#!n,l "e con",cee colecti4%< "!c% "eci1i! int% 9n
competen+! ,n,i !/emene! o#!n< /!, pin con/,lt!e! "eci"ent,l,i c, !l+i /peci!li'ti "in
,nit!te. De1:!tee! po!te ",ce l! 9m:,n%t%+ie! "eci1iei pin into",cee! ,no noi citeii "e
optimi1!e 'i< 9n !cel!'i timp< pe#%te'te pe to+i "eci"en+ii /%D'i !/,me %/p,n"ee! pi4in"
t!",cee! 9n (!pt% ! "eci1iei c!e /e n!'te. E4i"ent< l! !le#ee! 4!i!ntei optime< !1i /e
,tili1e!1% c, /,cce/ 4!i!ntele m!tem!tice.
,. ealizarea deciziei. E/te o et!p% "eo/e:it "e impot!nt% c!e te:,ie pe#%tit% c,
m,lt% !ten+ie. Deci1iile o"!t% el!:o!te 'i !"opt!te< te:,ie< 9n pim,l $n"< /% !@,n#% 9n timp
,til 'i 9n (om! lo !,tentic% "e l! o#!n,l con",c%to l! cel e=ec,ti4 'i< 9n !l "oile! $n"< pin
m%/,ile ope!ti4e ce /e i!, "e c%te o#!nele ecepto!e c, /pi@in,l "e con",cee< /% (ie
t!n/p,/e ime"i!t 9n p!ctic%. Pent, !ce!/t! /e 9ntocme'te ,n pl!n "e !c+i,ne ,n"e /,nt
peci1!te m%/,ile ce /e imp,n pent, e!li1!e! "eci1iei 'i /e conceti1e!1% %/p,n"eile 'i
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/!cinile ce e4in pe colecti4 "e m,nc% 'i pe/o!ne< pec,m 'i peio!"! "e timp /!, temenele
c$n" te:,ie e1ol4!t% (iec!e /!cin%. Ace/t pl!n "e !c+i,ne #ene!l po!te (i "et!li!t l! ni4el,l
colecti4elo "e m,nc% c!e pime/c /!cin! "e e!li1!e ! "eci1iei pintD,n pl!n "e m%/,i
o#!ni1!toice m,lt m!i complet 9n c!e /e peci1e!1% concet meto"ele 'i c%ile !le/e pent,
e!li1!e! "eci1iei< e/,/ele m!tei!le nece/!e< n,m%,l pe/o!nelo nece/!e 'i c!li(ic!e!
lo pent, e!li1!e! ,nei l,c%i /!, ! tot!l,l,i "e l,c%i ce /e imp,n< temen,l #ene!l 'i
temenele p!+i!le. 9n !ce/t pl!n "e m%/,i o#!ni1!toice /e incl,"e "e l! :,n 9ncep,t
o:iecti4,l /!, /cop,l #ene!l !l colecti4,l,i< !'! c,m e1,lt% el< /!, "ec,#e "in o:iecti4,l
#ene!l !l 9ntepin"eii.
Tot 9n !ce!/t% et!p% /e "etemin% 'i (omele 'i meto"ele "e contol pi4in" e=ec,t!e!
"eci1iei 'i e4!l,!e! e1,lt!telo.
Poce/,l "eci1ion!l< pent, ! "e4eni c$t m!i e(icient< /e ecom!n"% ! (i "ecl!n'!t c$t m!i
!po!pe "e moment,l !p!i+iei po:lemei ce te:,ie e1ol4!t%. In c!1,l !m$n%ii !ce/tei!<
e(ect,l /c!"e "e l! ,n !n,mit p,nct< e(icien+! 9ncepe /% co:o!e :,/c< cee! ce (!ce c! oice
"eci1ie l,!t% c, 9nt$1iee /% po!t% (i p,/% /,: /emn "e 9nte:!e. Et!pele poce/,l,i
"eci1ion!l< m!i :ine /p,/< "e,l!e! lo 9n o"ine! pe c!e !m pe1ent!tDo< n, e/te 9ntot"e!,n!
nece/!%< o"ine! lo n, e/te i#i"%. Deci"en+ii 9'i pot o#!ni1! m,nc! 9n con(omit!te c,
cein+ele "e :!1% !le poce/,l,i "eci1ion!l< c, /it,!+i! concet% c, c!e /e con(,nt%. I"e!l ! (i
c! to!te "eci1iile /% te!c% pin !ce/te et!pe< 9n/% !cti4it!te! p!ctic%< "e'i /e :!1e!1% pe
teoie< "e m,lte oi /e "e/(%'o!% i#no$n"Do. 9n oice c!1< m!n!#eii te:,ie /% !i:% ,n #Ei"
"e !c+i,ne< ,n mo"el "e l,!e ! "eci1iilo< pe c!e< 9n (,nc+ie "e /it,!+ii /% 9ncece /%D1
e/pecte< "eo!ece c!lit!te! "eci1iei 'i e(icien+! economic% e1,lt!t% pin !plic!e! ei< ce/c
!t,nci c$n" poce/,l "eci1ion!l /e "e/(%'o!% coect.
Poce/,l "eci1ion!l< 9n c!",l ,nit%+ilo economice< e/te ,n poce/ contin,,< (iec!e
"eci1ie conti:,in" !l%t,i "e ceil!l+i /tim,li l! "ecl!n'!e! ,n,i !lt poce/ "eci1ion!l. De (!pt<
!'! c,m !m m!i /,:lini!t< !cti4it!te! "e con",cee ! ,nit%+ilo economice po!te (i
c!!ctei1!t% /intetic c! o 9nl%n+,ie "e "eci1ii.
*.<. FACTORII CARE INFLUENEA' PROCESUL DECI'IONAL
Poce/,l "eci1ion!l e/te in(l,en+!t 'i "e o /eie "e (!ctoi !p!+in$n" me"i,l,i inten /!,
cel,i e=ten !l o#!ni1!+ieiC
'. Mediul internC
1B 'omponenta uman a organizaieiC tec,t e",c!+ion!l 'i !:ilit%+iF !:ilit%+i teEnice 'i
m!n!#ei!le !nteio!eF #!",l "e implic!e !l mem:ilo 'i !t!'!ment,l lo (!+% "e !tin#ee!
o:iecti4elo /i/tem,l,iF /til compot!ment!l intepe/on!lF e=i/ten+! "e (o+% "e m,nc%
,tili1!:il% 9n c!",l /i/tem,l,i.
2B 'omponenta )uncional $i a grupurilor de lucru organizaionaleC c!!ctei/ticile teEnice
!le ,nit%+ilo o#!ni1!+ieiF inte"epen"en+! ,nit%+ilo o#!ni1!+ion!le 9n !tin#ee! o:iecti4eloF
con(licte 9n c!",l ,nit%+ilo (,nc+ion!le 'i !l #,p,ilo "e l,c,F con(licte 9nte ,nit%+ile
(,nc+ion!le /!, 9nte #,p,ile "e l,c,.
*B 'omponenta nivelului organizaionalC o:iecti4ele 'i intee/ele o#!ni1!+ion!leF poce/,l "e
implic!e ! in"i4i1ilo 'i #,p,ilo 9n "ep,nee! "e e(ot m!=im 9n 4e"ee! !tin#eii
o:iecti4elo o#!ni1!+ion!leF n!t,! po",/,l,i /!, /e4ici,l,i o(eit "e o#!ni1!+ie.
%. Mediul e-ternC
1B 'omponenta clieniC "i/ti:,itoi !i po",/,l,i /!, /e4ici,l,iF ,tili1!toi popi,D1i'i !i
po",/,l,i /!, /e4ici,l,i.
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2B 'omponenta )urnizoriC (,ni1oi "e m!teii pimeF (,ni1oi "e ecEip!mentF (,ni1oi "e
/,:!n/!m:leF (,ni1oi "e (o+% "e m,nc%.
*B 'omponenta concureniC conc,en+i pent, (,ni1oiF conc,en+i pent, clien+i.
.B 'omponenta socio0politicC le#i/l!+i! c, pi4ie l! in",/tieF !tit,"ine! (!+% "e in",/ti!
e/pecti4% /!, po",/,l /%,F el!+i! c, /in"ic!tele.
5B 'omponenta tehnologicC 9n"eplinie! noilo cein+e teEnolo#ice !le in",/tiei 9n
po",cee! :,n,l,i /!, /e4ici,l,iF 9m:,n%t%+ie! /!, ce!e! "e noi po",/e pin
into",cee! noilo "e/copeii teEnolo#ice.
M!n!#eii e(icien+i /,nt !cei! c!e n, 9nce!c% /% e1ol4e to!te po:lemele c, c!e /e
con(,nt%< ci /,nt c!p!:ili /% "ele#e !lto! e/pon/!:ilit!te! l,%ii ,no "eci1ii< e1ol4$n" "o!
po:lemele c!e !, o in(l,en+% p,tenic% !/,p! !tin#eii o:iecti4elo o#!ni1!+ion!le. E/te
ne4oie "e ,n poce/ /i/tem!ti1!t "e l,!e ! "eci1iilo pent, e1ol4!e! /it,!+iiloDpo:lem%
nepo#!m!te "i(icile /!, comple=e.
*.=. PRINCIPALII PAI N ELABORAREREA DECI'IILOR
De'i con"i+iile 9n c!e /,nt l,!te "eci1iile /,nt 4!i!te< e=i/t% o /eie "e elemente
com,ne !le t,t,o "eci1iilo m!n!#ei!le. O "eci1ie epe1int% !le#ee! ,nei 4!i!nte "intDo
/eie "e !lten!ti4e. Poce/,l !+ion!l "e l,!e ! "eci1iilo con/t% "intDo /eie "e p!'i pe c!e
m!n!#eii 9i ,me!1%< (ie (om!l< (ie pe :!1! int,i+iei< 9n !le#ee! !lten!ti4ei con/i"e!te
optim%.
Ace'ti p!'i /,ntC i"enti(ic!e! po:lemei< #ene!e! "e /ol,+ii !lten!ti4e< /elect!e!
!lten!ti4ei celei m!i :ene(ice< implement!e! !lten!ti4ei !le/e 'i o:+inee! "e (ee":!cI 9n
4e"ee! e4!l,%ii e(ic!cit%+ii "eci1iei.
Pasul nt.i/ identificarea pro)lemei. Un! "inte "i(ic,lt%+ile pe c!e le i"ic% e1ol4!e!
"e po:leme o epe1int% i"enti(ic!e! coect% ! po:lemei. 7e 9nt$mpl% ,neoi c! m!n!#eii
/% /e #%:e!/c% /% !le!#% !lten!ti4e 9n!inte "e ! (i i"enti(ic!t po:lem! (,n"!ment!l%.
O%stacole ,n calea de)inirii corecte a pro%lemei. Po:lemele n, /,nt 9ntot"e!,n!
e4i"ente< 'i 9n c!le! i"enti(ic%ii lo pot /t! o /eie "e o:/t!cole< ! c%o "ep%'ie pemite
m!n!#eilo /% 4!"% c!e e/te c, !"e4%!t po:lem!. Pinte !ce/te o:/t!cole cele m!i 9nt$lnite
/,ntC
#cordarea de atenie e)ectelor< i! n, c!,1elo. Pe! (ec4ent /e 9nt$mpl% c! m!n!#eii
/% "e(ine!/c% po:lemele 9n temenii /imptomelo 'i n, 9n temenii c!,1elo.
Percepia selectiv. D!toit% (!pt,l,i c% (iec!e "inte noi "e+inem o /eie "e pecep+ii
:!1!te pe e=peien+! pe/on!l%< m!n!#eii !, !"e/e! ten"in+! "e ! "e(ini po:lemele 9n
temenii "ict!+i "e tec,t,l 'i in/t,ie! lo. Pent, ! "ep%'i o:/t!col,l pe c!e 9l con/tit,ie
pecep+i! /electi4%< m!n!#eii te:,ie /% i! 9n con/i"e!e m!i m,lte p,ncte "e 4e"ee 9n!inte
"e ! "e(ini po:lem!.
"e)inirea pro%lemelor prin soluii. Po:lemele te:,ie /% (ie "e(inite peci/< (%%
!/ociee! lo c, !n,mite /ol,+ii.
Poce/,l i"enti(ic%ii po:lemelo e/te e/en+i!l pent, /elect!e! celei m!i :,ne
!lten!ti4e. M!n!#eii e(icien+i c!,t% 9n pem!nen+% /% i"enti(ice oc!1iile 'i po:lemele c!e
!p! 9n me"i,. In !ce/t /t!"i, !l l,%ii "eci1iei m!n!#eii /e pot !@,t! "e ,n! "inte
,m%to!ele !:o"%iC
1. A:!tei "e l! pe(om!n+ele !nteio!e. D!c% e=i/t% ,n tip! /t!:ilit !l ni4el,l,i
/!ti/(%c%to "e pe(om!n+e 'i !ce/t! /e mo"i(ic%< m!n!#eii /,nt !let!+i "e !p!i+i! ,nei
po:leme.
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2. A:!tee! "e l! pl!n. Po:lem! /!, po:lemele pot (i /,#e!te "e !p!i+i! ,nei "i/cep!n+e
9nte pe(om!n+e 'i e1,lt!tele pe4%1,te.
*. Pimie! "e (ee":!cI. M!n!#eii pot "e/copei e=i/ten+! ,nei po:leme "in "i/c,+iile c,
(,ni1oii 'i clien+ii o#!ni1!+iei /!, c, /,:!ltenii /!, /,peioii lo ie!Eici.
.. Conc,en+!. Pe(om!n+ele o#!ni1!+iei "in c!e (!ce p!te m!n!#e,l 9n !pot c, cele !le
conc,en+ilo /%i epe1int% ,n in"ic!to !l e=i/ten+ei ,no e4ent,!le po:leme.
Pasul al 0$lea/ generarea de soluii alternative. O"!t% ce po:lem! ! (o/t i"enti(ic!t%< !l
"oile! p!/ 9n poce/,l "e l,!e ! "eci1iilo 9l epe1int% #ene!e! "e /ol,+ii !lten!ti4e. 9n
!ce!/t% (!1% ! poce/,l,i "eci1ion!l e/te e/en+i!l% ce!ti4it!te!.
O !:o"!e c!e pemite /tim,l!e! ce!ti4it%+ii 9n (!1! "e #ene!e "e /ol,+ii !lten!ti4e
o epe1int% :!in/tomin#,l. 9ntDo 'e"in+% "e :!in/tomin#< ,n n,m% "e in"i4i1i cEeie /,nt
!",n!+i c, /cop,l "e ! #ene! !:o"%i !lten!ti4e pent, e1ol4!e! ,nei po:leme "!te<
in"i(eent "e c$t "e nepoti4ite ! p,te! p%e! !ce/te !lten!ti4e. Un! "inte e#,lile
:!in/tomin#D,l,i o epe1int% (!pt,l c% n, /,nt pemi/e e4!l,!e! /!, citic!e! /,#e/tiilo<
!/t(el c% p!ticip!n+ii /e /imt li:ei /% 9'i e=pime p%eile. I"eile #ene!te 9n 'e"in+ele
:!in/tomin# epe1int% ,neoi !lten!ti4e impot!nte 'i "emne "e l,!t 9n /e!m% 9n poce/,l
"e l,!e "e "eci1ii.
8n c%,t!e! "e !lten!ti4e< "eci"en+ii /e con(,nt% c, o /eie "e con/t$n#ei c!e
limite!1% n,m%,l "e !lten!ti4e< 'i c!e pot (i c!,1!te "e e/,/ele (in!nci!e limit!te< "e
(!cto,l ,m!n "in o#!ni1!+ie< c!e po!te limit! po/i:ilit!te! "e implement!e ! !n,mito
!lten!ti4e< /!, "e (!cilit%+ile m!tei!le ne!"ec4!te. E/te impot!nt c! "eci"en+ii /% c,no!/c%
!ce/te con/t$n#ei< 9n !'! (el 9nc$t /% n, (ie con/,m!t 9n mo" in,til timp,l c, e4!l,!e! ,no
!lten!ti4e c!e n, /,nt 4i!:ile< 'i /% (ie elimin!t% po/i:ilit!te! c! !lten!ti4e /emni(ic!ti4e /%
n, (ie l,!te 9n c!lc,l "!toit% (!pt,l,i c% m!n!#eii n, c,no/c o:/t!colele pe c!e !ce/te
!lten!ti4e le pot 9nt$mpin!.
Pasul al 1$lea/ selectarea alternativei optime. D,p% i"enti(ic!e! /ol,+iilo !lten!ti4e<
!ce/te! te:,ie /% (ie e4!l,!te 'i comp!!te 9n temenii (e1!:ilit%+ii 'i con/ecin+elo lo. E/te
!poi !le!/% ce! m!i :,n% "eci1ie pent, o:iecti4ele o#!ni1!+iei.
7elect!e! !lten!ti4ei optime po!te p%e! ,n poce/ "e i"enti(ic!e ! !4!nt!@elo 'i
"e1!4!nt!@elo (iec%ei !lten!ti4e 'i "e !le#ee ! !lten!ti4ei pe(e!te /!, ! celei optime. Din
ne(eicie< !le#ee! e/te "i(icil% !t,nci c$n" "eci1i! e/te comple=% 'i implic% m!i #!"e "e
ne/i#,!n+% /!, i/c. I!t% c$te4! "inte !ce/te "i(ic,lt%+iC
1. Do,% /!, m!i m,lte 4!i!nte pot p%e! l! (el "e !t!cti4e. 8n !ce/te con"i+ii e/te ne4oie "e o
m!i !tent% !n!li1% 'i e4!l,!e ! !ce/to !lten!ti4e "e c%te "eci"ent.
2. E/te po/i:il c! nici o !lten!ti4% /% n, pemit% !tin#ee! 9n 9nte#ime ! o:iecti4,l,i /t!:ilit.
In !ce/te con"i+ii< e/te "e "oit implement!e! ! "o,% /!, cEi! tei !lten!ti4e.
*. 8n /it,!+i! 9n c!e nici ,n! "inte !lten!ti4e n, ! pemite !tin#ee! o:iecti4,l,i /t!:ilit<
e/te ne4oie "e o e4enie l! et!p! c%,t%ii "e !lten!ti4e.
.. Deci"ent,l po!te (i con(,1 "in c!,1! n,m%,l,i m!e "e !lten!ti4e !t!cti4e< (iin" ne4oie
9n !ce!/t% /it,!+ie "e o m!i !tent% comp!!e 'i e4!l,!e.
D!toit% (!pt,l,i c% m!n!#eii n, !, c,no'tin+% "e to!te !lten!ti4ele e=i/tente 'i "e
con/ecin+ele !ce/to!< ei pot !le#e pim! !lten!ti4% c!e le 4! "! impe/i! c% po!te e1ol4!
po:lem!.
Pasul al 2$lea/ implementarea soluiei alese. O"!t% ce ! (o/t !le!/% o !lten!ti4%<
te:,ie l,!te m%/,i "e implement!e! ! !ce/tei!< "eo!ece cEi! 'i ce! m!i :,n% "eci1ie c,
p,tin+% e/te in,til% "!c% n, e/te t!n/p,/% 9n p!ctic% 9n mo" e(icient.
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CEei! implement%ii e(iciente o epe1int% :,n! com,nic!e 'i pl!ni(ic!e! !c+i,nilo.
In"i4i1ii c!e /,nt !(ect!+i "e "eci1ie te:,ie /% (ie in(om!+i 'i te:,ie /% li /e /olicite /pi@in,l
pent, implement!e! pl!n,l,i. Re/,/ele te:,ie o:+in,te 'i !loc!te A9mp%+ite 9nte
"ep!t!mente 'i poiecte 9n !'! (el 9nc$t /% pemit% !tin#ee! o:iecti4elo o#!ni1!+ion!leB.
M!n!#eii /t!:ile/c :,#etele 'i pl!n,ile ope!+ion!le "et!li!te< pemi+$n" monitoi1!e!
po#e/elo. 7e !ti:,ie !poi e/pon/!:ilit!te! 9n"epliniii /!cinilo !n,mito "ep!t!mente 'i
pe/o!ne.
Implement!e!< "e'i ! (o/t i"enti(ic!t% c! et!p% "i/tinct% ! poce/,l,i "eci1ion!l< e/te
le#!t% "e to!te et!pele !ce/t,i! 'i epe1int% le#%t,! c, (iec!e "inte (,nc+iile m!n!#ei!le.
Pasul al 3$lea/ urmrire i evaluare. E4!l,!e! e/te o et!p% ! poce/,l,i "eci1ion!l
ne#li@!t% "e o:icei< "e'i epe1int% ,n element e/en+i!l. M!n!#eii e(icien+i 4o "oi
9ntot"e!,n! /% comp!e e1,lt!tele e!le c, cele pe4%1,te pent, ! 4e"e! "!c% po:lemele !,
(o/t e1ol4!te c, !"e4%!t. At,nci c$n" "eci1i! !le!/% n, p!e /% (,nc+ione1e< m!n!#e,l po!te
!4e! e!c+ii "i(eite. Po!te (i !"opt!t% 'i implement!t% ,n! "inte !lten!ti4ele i"enti(ic!te 9n
et!pele !nteio!eF m!n!#e,l po!te !le#e "e !/emene! /% !'tepte< con/i"e$n" c% n, ! (o/t
!co"!t /,(icient timp implement%ii pl!n,l,i. O !lt% e!c+ie pe c!e o po!te !"opt! m!n!#e,l
e/te !cee! "e ! "eci"e c% po:lem! ! (o/t #e'it i"enti(ic!t% "e l! 9ncep,t< 'i c% poce/,l l,%ii
"eci1iei te:,ie e9ncep,t. E4!l,!e! le pemite m!n!#eilo /% 9n4e+e "in e=peien+%<
ce/c$n",Dle !/t(el c!p!cit!te! "e ! l,! 'i implement! "eci1ii e(ic!ce. De !cee! !co"!e! "e
!ten+ie e4!l,%ii pemite e1ol4%ii "e po:leme /% "e4in% o !cti4it!te "in!mic% 'i contin,%
pent, m!n!#eii pe(om!n+i.
*.>. EFICACITATEA DECI'IILOR MANAGERIALE
M!n!#eii c, e=peien+% 'ti, c% e(ic!cit!te! ,nei "eci1ii e/te "etemin!t% "e "o,%
citeiiC c!lit!te! "eci1iei 'i !t!'!ment,l celo c!e te:,ie /% o implemente1e. C!lit!te!
"eci1iei e/te "etemin!t% "e mo",l 9n c!e e/te "e/(%',!t poce/,l "e l,!e ! "eci1iilo. O
"eci1ie "e c!lit!te c!e n, e/te implement!t% poti4it e/te 9n/% ine(ic!ce. Implement!e! e/te
"etemin% "e !t!'!ment< moti4 pent, c!e #!",l "e implic!e ! celo c!e 4o implement!
"eci1i! e/te 4it!l pent, /,cce/,l poce/,l,i "eci1ion!l.
M!@oit!te! m!n!#eilo /,nt con'tien+i c% "eci1iile /,nt l,!te pe :!1! ,no in(om!+ii
impe(ecte "e/pe e4enimentele 4iito!e. E4enimentele nepe4%1,te pot in(l,en+! cEi! 'i
e1,lt!tele celo m!i !tent #$n"ite "eci1ii. D!toit% (!pt,l,i c% 'ti, c% 4o (i e4!l,!+i "e c%te
/,peioi< p!tenei 'i /,:!lteni 9n (,nc+ie "e e(icien+! 'i e(ic!cit!te! "eci1iilo lo< m!n!#eii
/,nt "e o:icei ten/ion!+i 9n moment,l l,%ii "eci1iilo 'i implement%ii lo. Ace!/t% /t!e
"etemin% !tit,"ini "i(eite ",p% c,m ,me!1%C
(neria necontestat< !p!e !t,nci c$n" m!n!#e,l n, con/i"e% con/ecin+ele !c+i,nii /!,
!le "eci1iei c! (iin" (o!te m!i 'i pin ,m!e "eci"e /% n, (!c% nimic.
&chim%area necontestat< !t,nci c$n" m!n!#e,l "eci"e /% !c+ione1e "!toit% (!pt,l,i c%
!lt(el ! e=i/t! epec,/i,ni nepl%c,te 'i !"opt% pim! !lten!ti4% pe c!e o con/i"e% c!
implic$n" i/c,i minime.
Evitarea de)ensiv D !t,nci c$n" o po:lem% n, e/te e1ol4!t% !pi" 'i m!n!#e,l
9nce!c% /% e4ite con/ecin+ele e'ec,l,i pin e4it!e! /it,!+iei< !ce!/t% !tit,"ine /e n,me'te
e4it!e "e(en/i4%.
3ipervigilena D !t,nci c$n" inc!p!cit!te! "e ! #%/i o /ol,+ie e/te c,pl!t% c, ,n temen
limit%< m!n!#e,l e/te (o!te /te/!t 'i po!te "e4enii Eipe4i#ilent< "e"ic$n",D'i 9nte!#!
!cti4it!te ,nei /in#,e po:leme 'i e4it$n",Dle pe celel!lte.
Un m!e n,m% "e "eci1ii nece/it%< 9n e#!l% m%/,%< ni4ele i"ic!te "e c!lit!te 'i
implic!e. Ace/te "eci1ii /,nt "e o:icei e(ic!ce "!c% /,nt l,!te 9n grup.
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'vantaje i dezavantaje ale deciziilor de grupC
#vantajeC
1. 9n poce/,l "eci1ion!l "e #,p /,nt #ene!te m!i m,lte in(om!+ii 'i /,nt ,tili1!te m!i m,lte
c,no'tin+e.
2. 7,nt #ene!te m!i m,lte !lten!ti4e "eci1ion!le.
*. Implic!e! 9n !plic!e! "eci1iei (in!le 4! (i m!i m!e "in p!te! celo implic!+i.
.. 7e po!te !@,n#e l! 9m:,n%t%+ie! com,nic%ii< "!toit% (!pt,l,i c% m!n!#eii implic!+i 9'i
in(ome!1% /,:!ltenii 9n le#%t,% c, moti4ele l,%ii "eci1iei.
5. 9n /elect!e! !lten!ti4ei optime< #,p,ile pot (i m!i "i/p,/e /% 9'i !/,me i/c,i m!i m!i
"ec$t "eci"en+ii in"i4i",!li.
&. Ce'tee! ce!ti4it%+ii e1,lt!t% "in e=i/ten+! m!i m,lto !:o"%i 'i p,ncte "e 4e"ee
"i(eite.
5. 7,:!ltenii 9'i 9m:,n%t%+e/c c!p!cit!te! "e ! l,! "eci1ii.
"ezavantajeC
1. Poce/,l "eci1ion!l "e #,p ",e!1% m!i m,lt 'i pe/,p,ne "eci co/t,i m!i m!i.
2. D!toit% (!pt,l,i c% #,p,ile n, pot %/p,n"e pent, /,cce/,l implement%ii< !ce!/t%
!:o"!e po!te "etemin! !p!i+i! ,nei /it,!+ii 9n c!e nimeni n, e/te %/p,n1%to.
*. Mem:ii #,p,l,i pot (i pe/!+i /% !ccepte "eci1i! pe(e!t% "e m!@oit!teF "e !/emene!<
,n,l /!, m!i m,l+i mem:i pot "omin! #,p,l< e",c$n",Di e(ic!cit!te!.
.. Deci1iile "e #,p pot (i< 9n ,nele /it,!+ii< e1,lt!t,l compomi/,l,i /!, !l in"eci1iei ,nei
p%+i ! #,p,l,i.
5. In"i4i1ii pot 9ncepe /% ce!"% c% ! te:,i /% (ie implic!+i 9n to!te "eci1iile< incl,/i4 9n cele
c!e 9n mo" nom!l /,nt ,nil!te!le 'i imp,/e "in p!te! /,peioilo.
&. Po!te inte4eni (enomen,l n,mit G#$n"ie "e #,pG. G$n"ie! "e #,p !p!e !t,nci c$n"
mem:ii #,p,l,i !, o p,tenic% "oin+% "e con/en/ 'i coe1i,ne 'i /,nt m!i p,+in intee/!+i /%
!@,n#% l! ce! m!i :,n% /ol,+ie c, p,tin+%. Unele c!,1e !le #$n"iii "e #,p /,nt i1ol!e!
#,p,l,i (!+% "e in(om!+iile e=tene< e=i/ten+! ,n,i li"e p,tenic 'i "omin!nt 'i lip/! "e
poce",i "e c%,t!e poti4it% "e !lten!ti4e 'i !/i#,!e ! l,%ii 9n con/i"e!e ! t,t,o
p%eilo. M!n!#eii pot l,! m%/,i pin c!e /% e4ite !p!i+i! #$n"iii "e #,p. E/te nece/! c!
(iec!e mem:, !l #,p,l,i /% e4!l,e1e to!te !lten!ti4ele 'i /% i! 9n con/i"e!e !t$t
!4!nt!@ele< c$t 'i "e1!4!nt!@ele !ce/to!.
!e#nici de luare a deciziilor de grup
D!c% ! (o/t l,!t% "eci1i! "e implic!e ! m!i m,lto pe/o!ne 9n poce/,l "eci1ion!l< pot
(i (olo/ite c$te4! teEnici "e l,!e "e "eci1ii "e #,p. Ace/te teEnici /,nt #,p,l inte!cti4<
#,p,l DelpEi 'i #,p,l nomin!l. De'i /imil!e< (iec!e "inte !ce/te teEnici !, c!!ctei/tici
"e(initoii c!e le (!c m!i poti4ite pent, !n,mite /it,!+ii.
2rupurile interactive. Mem:ii ,n,i #,p inte!cti4 !, l! "i/po1i+ie o !#en"% 'i o
po:lem% "e e1ol4!t. A/t(el "e #,p,i i!, n!'tee 9n #ene!l 9n moment,l 9n c!e li"e,l
"e(ine'te po:lem! 'i /olicit% i"ei. Di/c,+iile /,nt ne/i/tem!ti1!te 'i neo#!ni1!te 'i con/t!,
"in en,n+!e! "e !lten!ti4e 'i e4!l,!e! !ce/to!. 7!cin! li"e,l,i e/te !cee! "e ! e1,m! l!
momente poti4ite< "e ! /e !/i#,! c% to+i mem:ii #,p,l,i p!ticip% 'i "e ! conti:,i c, i"ei.
7e !@,n#e "e o:icei l! con/en/< p%eile (in!le (iin" !"opt!te pin 4ot.
2rupul "elphi. TeEnic! DelpEi epe1int% o meto"% "e ce!e ! ,n,i con/en/ 9nte
opiniile ,no e=pe+i. 7olicit% e=pim!e! /ci/% ! ,n,i n,m% "e p%ei !le ,no e=pe+i c!e
conti:,ie 9n mo" in"i4i",!l. D,p% !",n!e! "e %/p,n/,i /ci/e pe /,:iect,l 9n "i/c,+ie< e/te
e!li1!t ,n e1,m!t !l p%eilo c!e e/te "i/ti:,it p!ticip!n+ilo. In ! "o,! ,n"%<
p!ticip!n+ii !, !4!nt!@,l "e ! c,no!'te p%eile e=pe+ilo 'i "e !D'i p,te! mo"i(ic! %/p,n/,l
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ini+i!l 9n l,min! noilo in(om!+ii. Ace/t poce/ !l e1,m%ii pop,neilo 'i e"i/ti:,iii "e
noi cEe/tion!e po!te contin,! p$n% /e !@,n#e l! ,n con/en/.
2rupurile nominale. TeEnic! #,p,l,i nomin!l ! (o/t ce!t% pent, ! /e !/i#,!
p!ticip!e! e#!l% ! mem:ilo #,p,l,i 9n poce/,l "eci1ion!l. Pent, 9ncep,t< m!n!#e,l
!",n% ,n n,m% "e o!meni 'i le e=plic% po:lem!. Mem:ii /,nt ,#!+i !poi /% /cie c$t m!i
m,lte !lten!ti4e< pe c!e le e=p,n pe $n". I"eile !/t(el e=plic!te /,nt 9n/ci/e pe ,n (lip cE!t
/!, pe o t!:l%< pent, ! p,te! (i 4i1,!li1!te. Di/c,+iile /,nt limit!te l! /imple cl!i(ic%i. D,p%
li/t!e! t,t,o !lten!ti4elo< !, loc m!i m,lte "i/c,+ii "e/cEi/e< 9n ,m! c%o! /e ec,#e l!
4ot. E/te !le!/% ce! m!i :ine pimit% "inte !lten!ti4e.
*.?. DECI'IA STRATEGIC
Deci1i! /t!te#ic% epe1int% !n/!m:l,l "e !c+i,ni c!e "etemin% /cEim:!e!
pincip!lelo oient%i !le (imei 9n ,m%to!ele "omeniiC in4e/ti+ii< "i4e/i(ic!e! po",/elo
'i /e4iciilo< pi!+!< (,1ion!e! e4ent,!l%< (in!n+!e! pe temen l,n#< /i/teme "e in(om!e<
con",cee< potec+i! me"i,l,i.
7t!te#i! epe1int% !n/!m:l,l mi/i,nilo 'i o:iecti4elo (imei pe "e o p!te< pec,m 'i
mi@lo!cele< politicile 'i pl!n,ile e/en+i!le pent, 9n"eplinie! !ce/to!. Deci1i! /t!te#ic% e/te
!cee! c!e !n#!@e!1% po(,n" 4iito,l (imei implic% cEelt,ieli /,:/t!n+i!le 'i /e "e/(%'o!% 9n
timp 9n"el,n#!t. Deci1i! /t!te#ic% !e 9n 4e"ee e(icien+!< 9n /cop,l o:+ineii "e pe(om!n+e.
Deci1i! /t!te#ic% 4i1e!1% 9n pincipi, "o,% "iec+iiC
!B po",/,l ,n"e "eci1i! pi4e'te limit!e! l! po",/< "e14olt!e! po",c+iei< l!n/!e! "e
po",/e noi< inte#!e! 9ntDo /eie "e po",/e !(l!te 9n !monte.
:B pi!+! ,n"e "eci1i! pi4e'te limit!e! l! clien+ii e=i/ten+i< "e14olt!e! clientelei< e=tin"ee!
!ce/tei! 'i 9n !lte 1one.
O:iecti4ele /t!:ilite pent, o (im% "e t,i/m /,ntC
W "e penet!e ! pie+eiF
W "e "e14olt!e ! po",/,l,iF
W "e "e14olt!e ! pie+eiF
W "e "i4e/i(ic!eF
Pent, 9n"eplinie! !ce/to o:iecti4e /e imp,n "eci1ii /t!te#ice< c,m ! (iC
!B Penetrarea pieei con/t% 9n 4$n1!e! "e m!i m,lte po",/e 'i /e4icii e=i/tente pe pie+ele
e=i/tente. Pent, ! p,te! 9n"eplini !ce/t o:iecti4 /e imp,n "eci1ii /t!te#ice pi4in" c!lit!te!
/e4iciilo t,i/tice< m!c! lo< po1i+ion!e! (imei "e t,i/m pe pie+ele t,i/tice. To!te !ce/te
"eci1ii /t!te#ice te:,ie /% con",c% l! e=i/ten+! ceeii 'i l! "e14olt!e! ei contin,%.
:B "ezvoltarea produsului con/t% 9n 9ncec!e! "e 4$n1!e ! noi po",/e 'i /e4icii t,i/tice pe
pie+ele e=i/tente. Pincip!lele "eci1ii /t!te#ice c!e /% !/i#,e "e14olt!e! po",/,l,i /,ntC
!"%,#!e! "e /e4icii complement!eF 9mp!cEet!e! po",/,l,i. Ace/te "eci1ii /t!te#ice
pi4in" "e14olt!e! po",/,l,i /e imp,n 9n /it,!+ii c!C
W pe pi!+% e=i/t% o conc,en+% m!eF
W c!lit!te! po",/elo 'i ! /e4iciilo o(eite "e 9ntepin"ee! e/pecti4% n, e/te ce! m!i
!t%#%to!eF
W #!m! po",/elo 'i ! /e4iciilo o(eite e/te e/t$n/%.
cB "ezvoltare pieei implic% 4$n1!e! po",/elo 'i /e4iciilo e=i/tente pe noi pie+e.
Pincip!l! "eci1ie /t!te#ic% c!e /% !/i#,e "e14olt!e! pie+ei e/te pomo4!e!.
"B "iversi)icarea epe1int% 4$n1!e! "e po",/e 'i /e4icii noi pe pie+e noi.

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Pincip!l! "eci1ie /t!te#ic% c!e /% !/i#,e "i4e/i(ic!e! e/teC /,/+inee! ,n,i 4ol,m
impot!nt "e p,:licit!te< !lt,l pent, po",/e 'i /e4icii c$t 'i pent, 1onele 9n c!e /e !(l%
noile pie+e.
Pin "eci1ii /t!te#ice /e !e 9n 4e"ee 9n"eplinie! o:iecti4elo "e m!Ietin# !le (imei
e/picti4e.
O:iecti4ele "e m!Ietin# te:,ie /% /!ti/(!c% ,m%to!ele cein+eC
W 7% (ie el!:o!te pent, (iec!e pi!+% +int% /elect!t%F
W 7% (ie e=pim!t% 9n temenii e1,lt!telo "oite 9n m!Ietin#F Ae=. Ce'tee! pon"eii pie+eiB
W 7% (ie e=pim!te n,meic !/t(el 9nc$t e1,lt!tele /% po!t% (i m%/,!te 'i e4!l,!te pent,
e4it!e! !pecieilo /,:iecti4eF
W 7% (ie el!:o!te pent, o !n,mit% peio!"% "e timp Ae=. 1i< /e1on< /e@,< m!i m,l+i !niBF
8n (,nc+ie "e /cop,l /!, +int! pop,/e< o:iecti4ele "e m!Ietin# /e pot #,p! !/t(elC
W O:iecti4e le#!te "e ce'tee! po(it,l,i Apo(il,l net /!, :,t< !t! po(it,l,i< ec,pe!e!
in4e/ti+iiloB.
W O:iecti4e "e pi!+%F
W O:iecti4e e(eito!e l! 4ol,m,l 4$n1%ilo Aci(! "e !(!cei< ",!t! /e@,,l,i< n,m% "e
9nnopt%i< n,m% "e t,i'ti< #!",l "e oc,p!e ! ,nei /t,ct,i "e pimie t,i/tic%B.
W O:iecti4e e(eito!e l! conc,en+% Ali"e "e pi!+%< pe(om!n+e 9n c!",l
,nei! /!, m!i m,lto pie+e< !t!#ee! ,no noi /e#mente "e pi!+%BF
W Alte o:iecti4e Apo1i+ion!e! (imei pe pi!+%< m%ci "e po",/e t,i/ticeBF
8n 4e"ee! ,m%iii /t!"i,l,i "e e!li1!e ! o:iecti4elo pop,/e< (im! te:,ie /%D'i
/t!:ile!/c% /t!n"!"ele "e pe(om!n+% c!e /% c,pin"% !t$t ni4el,l c,!nti(ic!t !l o:iecti4,l,i
"! 'i 4!loile pe c!e te:,ie /% le !tin#% 9n !n,mite et!pe.
Deci1i! /t!te#ic% e/te ,m!t% "e p!c,#ee! ,m%to!elo et!peC
W /t!:ilie! o:iecti4elo "e m!Ietin#F
W pl!ni(ic!e! "e m!Ietin#F
W !le#ee! c%ilo "e ,m!t 9n 4e"ee! !tin#eii o:iecti4eloF
W /t!:ilie! /t!te#iilo "e m!Ietin#.
Poce/,l "e tecee "e l! o:iecti4e "e m!Ietin# l! /t!te#ii "e m!Ietin# e/te pe1ent!t
e/en+i!li1!t 9n t!:el,l "e m!i @o/ 9n (,nc+ie "e temen,l "e e(ein+%< /t!te#i! "e m!Ietin#
po!te (i conceti1!t% c!C /t!te#ie "e pe+< "e po",/< "i/ti:,+ie< pomo4!e< "e pi!+%.
Aplic!e! /t!te#iei e/te e!li1!t% pin p!ctici "e m!Ietin# c!e l! $n",l lo epe1int%
!c+i,ni p!ctice pin c!e 9ntepin"ee! 9'i 4!loi(ic% 9n mo",l cel m!i e(icient poten+i!l,l
!"!pt$n",D/e l! pi!+% 'i oient$n",D/e /pe !tin#ee! o:iecti4elo /t!te#ice.
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Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
CAPITOLUL IV
CALITATEA DE MANAGER I ACTIVITILE MANAGERIALE
0.(. CONSIDERAII GENERALE
M!n!#ement,l epe1int% ,n /et "e !cti4it%+i c!e incl," pl!ni(ic!e! 'i l,!e! "eci1iilo<
o#!ni1!e!< con",cee! 'i contol,l< "iec+ion!te pent, o#!ni1!e! e/,/elo ,m!ne<
(in!nci!e< (i1ice 'i in(om!+ion!le c, !@,to,l c%o! /e e!li1e!1% +el,ile o#!ni1!+ion!le
9ntDo m!nie! e(icient% 'i e(ecti4%. Poce/,l "e m!n!#ement e/te ,n poce/ "e m,nc%. Ace/te
poce/e c!e /e "e/(%'o!% 9n oice tip "e o#!ni1!+ie ,m!n% /e 9mp!t< 9n !pot c, con+in,t,l
lo 'i c, e(ectele po",/e 9n "o,! #,pe "e :!1! 9nC procese de e*ecuie 'i procese de
management.
Poce/ele "e e=ec,+ie /e conceti1e!1% 9n !c+i,ne! (!cto,l,i ,m!n !/,p! (!ctoilo
m!tei!li c, !@,to,l !lto (!ctoi m!tei!li. Ele con",c l! o:+inee! "e :,n,i economice D
po",/e< /e4icii< in(om!+ii< l,c%i D c!e "!, con/i/ten+% o:iect,l,i "e !cti4it!te !l (imei.
Poce/ele "e m!n!#ement /,nt cele m!i impot!nte "eo!ece oient!e! 'i "e,l!e!
poce/elo "e e=ec,+ie con/t!, 9n !c+i,ne! ,nei p%+i ! (!cto,l,i ,m!n !/,p! celol!lte
poce/e 9n cee! ce pi4e'te pe4i1i,ne!< o#!ni1!e!< coo"on!e!< !nten!e! 'i contolD
e4!l,!e! !cti4it%+ilo. Poce/ele "e m!n!#ement /e e!li1e!1% "e c%te m!n!#ei c!e
epe1int% ,n #,p "e pe/o!ne Ao p!te ! /!l!i!+ilo 9ntepin"eiiB /peci!l 9mp,tenicite c!e
oiente!1% !cti4it!te! t,t,o /!l!i!+ilo /pe 9n"eplinie! 9ntocm!i ! o:iecti4elo pe/t!:ilite.
Poce/ele "e m!n!#ement pot (i "e(inite c! ,n !n/!m:l, "e inte4en+ii pin c!e
m!n!#e,l pe4e"e< o#!ni1e!1%< coo"one!1%< i! "eci1ii /i contole!1% !cti4it!te! /!l!i!+ilo
/%i 9n /cop,l e!li1%ii o:iecti4elo ,nit%+ii economice< 9n con"i+ii "e po(it!:ilit!te i"ic!t% 'i
"e ,tilit!te /oci!l%.
A/t(el< m!n!#e,l e/te o pe/o!n% !le c%,i !cti4it%+i pincip!le /,nt o p!te ! poce/,l,i
"e con",cee. El pl!ni(ic% 'i i! "eci1ii< o#!ni1e!1%< con",ce 'i contole!1% e/,/ele ,m!ne<
(in!nci!e< (i1ice /i in(om!+ion!le. El /e con(,nt% c, o 4!iet!te m!e "e /it,!+ii< m,ncin" 9n
me"ie &- "e oe pe /%pt%m$n%. D,p% cecet%ile l,i Mint1:e# timp,l "e l,c, ,tili1!t "e ,n
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Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
m!n!#e "e l! ,n ni4el /,peio e/te "e 56R pent, 9nt$lnii 'i 'e"in+e po#!m!teF 22R
pent, m,nc! "e :io,F 1-R pent, 9nt$lnii nepo#!m!teF &R con4o:ii tele(onice 'i *R
pent, in/pec+ii.
Un m!n!#e po!te e1ol4! ,nele po:leme "e con",cee "in m!i m,lte !m,i "e
!cti4it!te< /t%p$nin" ,n n,m% "e (ome< pincipii 'i meto"e "e con",cee c, c!!cte com,nC
c, !@,to,l lo m!n!#e,l e,'e'te e/pecti4 9'i con/t,ie'te ,n c!", poti4it "e l,c,<
"e14olt$n",D'i im!#in!+i! ce!to!e< int,i+i!< @,"ec!t!< inteli#ent!.
0.). ROLURILE I APTITUDINILE MANAGERULUI
Rol,ile 'i !ptit,"inile /,nt ,1,!l ce,te t,t,o m!n!#eilo An, conte!1% /peci!lit!te!
lo /!, ni4el,l ie!Eic pe c!e /e #%/e/c !ce'ti!B. Rol,ile m!n!#eilo implic% !n,mite
!:ilit!+i. Cecet%to,l !meic!n KenL Mint1:e# con/i"e! c% m!n!#eii @o!c% "i(eite ol,i
c!e /e 9mp!t 9n tei c!te#oiiC
' oluri impersonaleC
D "e (i#,!nt A"ine,i< t%iee! p!n#licii etcBF
D "e li"e 9n /tim,l!e! !n#!@!+ilo "e !D'i 9m:,n%t%+i !cti4it!te! A!n#!@!e!< pe(ec+ion!e! 'i
moti4!e! !n#!@%iiBF
D "e le#%t,% 9nte o!meni< #,p,i /!, o#!ni1!+ii Acoo"on!e! !cti4it%+iloB.
%. oluri informaionaleC
D monito Ac!,t% !cti4 in(om!+ii l! "i(eite loc,i "e m,nc!BF
D p,t%to "e c,4$nt At!n/mite in(om!+ii /pe e=teioB.
C. oluri decizionaleC
D 9ntepin1%toC ini+i!to 4ol,nt! !l /cEim:%iiF
D mo"e!toC e1ol4% con(licte 9nte /,:o"on!+i< #e4e etcF
D !loc!to "e e/,/eC !n!li1e!1% 'i /t!:ile'te e/,/ele< :,#et,lF
D ne#oci!to c, /in"ic!tele< !co",i pe temen l,n# c, clien+ii /!, (,ni1oii< !co",i "e
con/,lt!n+%< 9nte "oi /,:o"on!+i etc.
M!n!#eii c!e n, 'ti, /% @o!ce !ce/te ol,i< c!e n, m!ni(e/t% compot!mente !"ec4!te
ol,ilo !, #e,t%+i 9n !cti4it!te! lo. De e=empl,< ,n con",c%to c!e n, 'tie /%D'i 9n",me
col!:o!toii< c!e n, 'tie /! t!n/mit% in(om!+ii< c!e n, e/te ini+i!to "e !c+i,ni in #,p< c!e
n, 'tie /% e1ol4e con(licte 4! !4e! 9n !cti4it!te! /! :!iee "e netec,t< i! con",cee! 4! (i
ine(icient!.
Pent, ! !4e! /,cce/ ,n m!n!#e te:,ie /! !i:% !n,mite !ptit,"iniC
!. #%ilitai pro)esionale Ac,no'tin+e "e /peci!lit!teB. Un m!n!#e te:,ie /! !i:% c,no'tin+ele
nece/!e 9n po(e/i,ne! /! Ain#ine< (i1ici!n< cont!:ili etcB. El c!p%t% !ce/te c,no'tin+e pe c!le
(om!l% 'i /,nt nece/!e pent, con",c%toii "e l! ni4el,l in(eio "e con",cee.
:. #%ilitile interpersonale pe/,p,n c! m!n!#e,l /! !i:% !:ilit!te! "e ! com,nic! 'i ! /e
9n+ele#e c, #,p,i /!, c, pe/o!ne in"i4i",!le. M!n!#eii pl%c,+i !, m!i m,lt /,cce/ "ec$t
cei c, !:ilit!+i intepe/on!le /c%1,te. M!n!#eii c!eD'i ,mile/c /,:o"on!+ii !, m!i p,+in
/,cce/.
c. #%ilitile conceptuale "epin" "e c!p!cit!te! "e !:/t!cti1!e ! m!n!#e,l,i. El
te:,ie /! 9n+ele!#% el!+iile c!,1!De(ect "in o#!ni1!+ie 'i /% #$n"e!/c% "in p,nct "e 4e"ee
/t!te#ic.
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Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
". #%ilitatea pentru analiz $i diagnoz epe1int% !:ilit!te! m!n!#e,l,i "e ! i"enti(ic! cel
m!i !popi!t %/p,n/ l! o /it,!+ie. El te:,ie /% "e(ine!/c% po:lem!< /% "e/copee c!,1ele
po/i:ile 'i /% o e1ol4e.
Pent, m!n!#e,l "in 4$(,l ie!Eiei c,no'tin+ele "e /peci!lit!te /,nt m!i p,+in
impot!nte "eo!ece !ce'ti! con/,m% p,+in timp 9n !ce/t /en/< ei concent$n",D/e pe
po:lemele m!n!#ei!le "e l!#! pe/pecti4% !le o#!ni1!+iei. A/t(el< !ce'ti m!n!#ei te:,ie
/! !i:% !:ilit!+i concept,!le 'i "e !n!li1% 'i "e "i!#no1% "eo/e:ite.
Aptit,"inile m!n!#ei!le /e "o:$n"e/c pin e",c!+ie (om!l% 'i pin e=peien+%.
M!n!#eii c, cel m!i m!e /,cce/ po/e"% !ptit,"ini o:+in,te pe !m:ele c%i. Tot,'i< n,m!i
e",c!+i! teoetic% n, e/te /,(icient%< n,m!i c, e! nimeni n, po!te !@,n#e m!n!#e. E",c!+i!
(om!l% /e (!ce 'i pe p!c,/,l c!ieei< m!n!#e,l te:,in" /% /e pe(ec+ione1e peio"ic pin
c,/,i /peci(ice 9n (,nc+ie "e n!t,! con",ceii 'i "e ni4el,l !ce/t,i!. A/t(el< m!n!#e,l
te:,ie /% !i:% c!lit%+i (,n"!ment!leC c!p!cit!te intelect,!l%< e(ic!cit!te 9n con",cee<
"i/cen%m$nt< /piit ino4!to< e=pim!e coect%F 'i c!lit%+i 4oli+ion!eC ini+i!ti4%< int,i+ie<
(emit!te< pe/e4een+%< ne"epen"en+%< /t%p$nie "e /ine etc.
X.7.Allm!Le !(im! c% Gpent, ! (i ,n :,n con",c%to "e 9ntepin"ee te:,ie /% !i
/im+,l e/en+i!l,l,iG< !"ic%< 9ntDo /it,!+ie !n,me m!n!#e,l te:,ie /% "eci"% c!e e/te
po:lem! concet! c!e te:,ie e1ol4!t!. Ace/t /imt !l e/en+i!l,l,i te:,ie /!Dl !@,te 9n
/t!:ilie! coect% ! po:lemei ce te:,ie e1ol4!t% l! ,n moment "!t.
Un m!n!#e te:,ie /! (ie in /t!e /!D/i /tim,le1e col!:o!toii 9n !cti4it!te! pe c!e o
"e/(%'o!%. A/t(el te:,ieC
D /% (ie pent, col!:o!toii /%i ,n /,peio pent, !D'i meit! c!lit!te!F
D /% c,no!/c% 9nte!#! impot!n+% ! ol,l,i /%, "e /e(F
D /% 'tie /% o(ee tot,l 9n !ce!/t% (,nc+ieF
D /% "o4e"e!/c% ,n optimi/m !cti4< le#!t "e /im+,l e!lit%+iiF
D /e "e! "o4!"% "e o "o1% m!e "e 9nce"ee 9n /ineF
D /% (ie ,n om "e !c+i,ne< ,n e!li1!toF
D /%D'i (!c% /im+it% pe1en+! 9n mi@loc,l col!:o!toiloF
D /% 'tie /% l,ce1e 9n ecEip! "e con",cee.
De !/emene!< ,n :,n m!n!#e te:,ie /%Dl t!te1e pe (iec!e col!:o!to c, "emnit!te<
con/i"e!+ie /i e/pectC
D /% t!te1e pe (iec!e col!:o!to 9n mo" in"i4i",!lF
D /% !pecie1e 'i /%D'i m!ni(e/te /!ti/(!c+i! !t,nci c$n" col!:o!to,l m,nce'te :ineF
D /%D'i 9nc,!@e1e 'i /%D'i /,/+in% col!:o!toiiF
D /%D'i e/pecte pomi/i,nileF
D /% e/pecte c!le! ie!Eic% pe c!e /in#, ! in/tit,itDo< 9nt%in" !,toit!te! 'e(ilo ie!Eici
inteme"i!iF
D /%D'i ec,no!/c% #e'elile 'i /%D'i !/,me e/pon/!:ilit!te! pent, eleF
D /% n,D'i 9n/,'e!/c% i"eile !lto! 'i /% men+ione1e !pot,l (iec%,i! l! e,'it! com,n%F
D /% n, con/i"ee !"e4%!t "ec$t cee! ce pe1int% /i#,!n+% 9n !ce/t /en/F
D /% n, (ie /entiment!l 'i /% n, @,"ece pe !l+ii 9n (,nc+ie "e popi! pe/o!n% /!, "e c,m e!
9n!inte.
C!lit!te! pimo"i!l% ! ,n,i :,n m!n!#e e/te "e ! !nten! o!menii /% (!c% cee! ce
te:,ie pent, e!li1!e! o:iecti4elo pop,/e. Oice m!n!#e te:,ie /% 'tie c% p!ticip!e!
!n#!@!+ilo n, /e imp,ne ci /e c$'ti#%.
0.*. COMPORTAMENTUL. COMPETENA I AUTORITATEA MANAGERULUI
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Comportamentul m!n!#e,l,i !e o m!e impot!n+% pent, (om!e! ,nei !tmo/(ee
p/iEolo#ice< /%n%to!/e 9n colecti4,l "e m,nc%. Compot!ment,l con/t% 9n !n/!m:l,l
mo"!lit%+ilo "e e!c+ie ! o#!ni/m,l,i 9n inte!c+i,ne! !ce/t,i! c, me"i,l 9ncon@,%to.
Compot!ment,l (iec%ei pe/o!ne !e tei c!!ctei/ticiC e/te "etemin!t "e ee"it!te<
e",c!+ie< ment!lit!teF e/te "ii@!t 'i e/te moti4!t.
Din p,nct "e 4e"ee !l compot!ment,l,i /e 9nt$lne/c "o,! tip,i "e con",c%toiC
D ,n,l tradiional< c!e !"mone/te!1% /,:!lten,l< "% o"ine< p,ne pe+ pe !/pect,l (om!lF
D !lt,l modern< c!!ctei1!t pintDo +in,t% pieteno!/%F !ce/t! !peci!1% competen+!
/,:!ltenilo< /t!:ile'te /!cini 'i o:iecti4e 9n loc "e o"ine.
Competena e/te picepee! c,i4! "e ! /e pon,n+! !/,p! ,n,i l,c, pe temei,l ,nei
c,no!'tei !"$nci ! po:lemei e/pecti4e. Competen+! m!n!#e,l,i e/te o con"i+ie ! !,toit%+ii
'i o component% ! pe/on!lit%+ii. Competen+! ,n,i m!n!#e !e "o,% componenteC
D o competent% pro)esional< con/t$n" 9n G! 'ti /% (!ciG< incl,/i4 G! 'ti /% "eci1iG. E! /e
"o:$n"e'te pin e",c!+ie 'i /e ceti(ic% pin !te/t%i. E/te ie4oc!:il% 'i /e "e#!"e!1% 9n timp.
D ! "o,! competent! e/te ce! decizional< 'i con/t! 9n "ept,l "e ! "eci"e. E! /e
"o:$n"e'te pin inteme"i,l ,no !,toi1%i An,mii< in4e/tii< "ele#%i etcB po4enin" "e l!
(o,i /,peio!e< e! (iin" tempo!% 'i e4oc!:il%. E! con/tit,ie pincip!l,l element "e
con",cee "e c!e "eci"ent,l /e po!te /e4i pent, !D'i 9n"eplini 9n"!toiile< "! 'i pincip!l,l
!#,ment pent, ! (i (%c,t %/p,n1%to "e nee!li1!e! lo.
'utoritatea e/te ,n in/t,ment !l m!n!#e,l,i in"i4i",!l /!, colecti4. 8n /en/ l!# e! /e
pe1int% c! (iin" "ept,l< !:ilit!te! m!n!#e,l,i "e ! in(l,en+! o!menii "in /,:o"ine. E! /e
po!te "e(ini c! o (o+% impe/on!l% c!e e/te "!t% in"i4i1ilo 9n 4it,te! ,nei po1i+ii pe c!e o
oc,p% 9n o#!ni1!+ie. A,toit!te! e/te ,n concept /t$n/ le#!t "e p,tee< e! e=pim$n"
c!p!cit!te! in"i4i1ilo 'i #,p,ilo "e ! con4in#e /!, in(l,en+! concep+iile /!, !c+i,nile !lto
in"i4i1i /!, #,p,i< /!,< c, !lte c,4inte p,tee! e(lect% !:ilit!te! in"i4i",!l% /!, colecti4% "e
! (!ce pe !l+i o!meni /% (!c% ce ei n, 4o /% (!c%.
7peci!li'tii !, i"enti(ic!t /,/ele p,teii c!% con(e% e(icien+! m!n!#ei!l!.
Ace/te! /,ntC
D c!p!cit!te! "e ! ecompen/!F
D c!p!cit!te! "e /!nc+ion!F
D le#itimit!te! #ene!t% "e po1i+i! in"i4i1ilo /!, #,p,ilo 9n o#!ni1!+ie 'i "e ec,no!'tee!
"e c%te ceil!l+i ! !ce/tei po1i+iiF
D !t!cti4it!te!< p,/% 9n e4i"en+% "e c!lit%+ile ,nei pe/o!neF
D ce"i:ilit!te! c,no'tin+elo po(e/ion!le.
A,toit!te! pone'te "e l! p,tee< "! n, /e i"enti(ic% c, e!. A,toit!te! c,pin"e "ept,l
"e com!n"%< "e ! "eci"e< "e ! "! o"ine 'i "e ! contol! 9n"eplinie! !ce/to!. E! e(lect% 9n
pim,l $n" o:+inee! ,no "ept,i "e c%te o pe/o!n% Am!n!#eB 'i< in !l "oile! $n"< "oin+!
celol!l+i "e ! ec,no!'te !ce/te "ept,i< "e ! /e /,p,ne.
A,toit!te! m!n!#e,l,i po!te (i (om!l% Ao(ici!l%B< "ei4!t% "in po1i+i! ie!Eic%< pe
:!1! titl,l,i 'i ! (,nc+iei. E! "% "ept,l "e ! com!n"!< "e ! con/t$n#e< "e ! /!nc+ion!< !ce/te
"ept,i "ei4$n" "in le#i 'i nome. A,toit!te! m!i po!te (i 'i !,tentic%< !ce!/t! (iin" le#!t%
"e pe/on!lit!te! m!n!#e,l,i. E! in/pi% e/pect /pont!n< !ntene!1% /,:o"on!+ii (%%
con/t$n#ee< impim% "i/ciplin% 4ol,nt!%. A,toit!te! !,tentic% te:,ie /% "etemine
e=i/ten+! !,toit%+ii o(ici!le< 'i n, in4e/.
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Re/pon/!:ilit!te! p,ne 9n e4i"ent! o:li#!+i! mem:ilo ,nei o#!ni1!+ii "e ! 9n(%pt,i 9n ce!
m!i :,n% m!nie% po/i:il% o /!cin% /!, m!i m,lte /!cini ep!ti1!te. E! e/te /t$n/ le#!t% "e
!,toit!te 'i o:li#!+iile ce e4in 9n c!",l o#!ni1!+iei.
R%/p,n"ee! e/te o:li#!+i! "e ! %/p,n"e "e 9n"eplinie! /!, ne9n"eplinie! ,no /!cini<
!c+i,ni< !"ic% o:li#!+i! "e ! "! /ocote!l% c,i4! pent, !c+i,nile 9ntepin/e /!, pent, e'ec,l
!ce/to!. R%/p,n"ee! e/te /t$n/ le#!t% "e !,toit!te 'i e/pon/!:ilit!te< 9n/! to!te !ce/te
elemente te:,ie/c coel!te 9nte ele. 7,cce/,l ,n,i m!n!#e< in"i(eent "e te!pt! pe c!e /e
!(l% "epin"e "e pe/ti#i,l 'i /imp!ti! "e c!e /e :,c,! 9n (!t! o!menilo. Pe/ti#i,l /e
(ome!1% pin competen+! 'i +in,t! mo!l%. A,toit!te! /e c$'ti#! m!i #e,< "! /e po!te
pie"e (o!te ,'o. Pincip!lele c!,1e c!e pot conti:,i l! pie"ee! !,toit%+ii /,ntC /ete! "e
p,tee< /,p!!peciee! ne@,/ti(ic!t% ! 'e(ilo< timo!e! /,:o"on!+ilo< m,nc! /,pe(ici!l%.
N, e=i/t! !,toit!te (%% e/pon/!:ilit!te< (%% o:li#!+i! "e ! %/p,n"e "e !c+i,nile 9ntepin/e.
0.0. PERSONALITATEA MANAGERULUI. TIPURI DE MANAGERI
Pe/on!lit!te! 9n/emn% cee! ce e/te popi, ,nei pe/o!ne< (el,l "e ! (i !l c,i4!. Din
p,nct "e 4e"ee p/iEolo#ic /t,"i,l pe/on!lit%+ii ,m!ne coe/p,n"e celo tei "imen/i,ni !le
!ce/to!C tempe!ment< !ptit,"ini 'i c!!cte. Acti4it!te! "e con",cee /,p,ne /i/tem,l ne4o/
,no e=cit!+ii pem!nente< (iin" nece/!% men+inee! ,n,i ecEili:, 9nte poce/ele
(,n"!ment!le !le !cti4it%+ii /i/tem,l,i ne4o/ D e=cit!+i! 'i inEi:i+i!. Pe/on!lit!te! e/te n,
n,m!i cee! ce ce"e om,l "e/pe el< ci cee! ce e1,lt% "in (!ptele /!le.
Pe/on!lit!te! m!n!#e,l,i /inteti1e!1%C o l!#% c,lt,% #ene!l% "e /peci!lit!te< ,n
oi1ont (ilo1o(ic< /piit "e ce!ti4it!te< ne4oi! "e !,toDpe(ec+ion!e< +in,t% mo!l%. 2iec%,i
m!n!#e 9i e popie o !n,mit% m!ni(e/t!e ! pe/on!lit%+ii /!le< !ce!/t! (iin" mo"el!t% 9n
con(,nt!e! pem!nent% c, mem:ii #,p,l,i con",/. Ace!/t% con(,nt!e te:,ie /% !i:% ,n
c!!cte con/t,cti4 po1iti4 "eo!ece ,me!1% /% cee1e con"i+iile c!e /%Di pemit% /% i!
"eci1i! optim% 'i< "eo!ece /,cce/,l /!, in/,cce/,l !c+i,nilo 9ntepin/e /e %/($n# !t$t
!/,p! m!n!#e,l,i c$t 'i !/,p! colecti4,l,i /%,.
D,p% inten/it!te! m,ncii "ep,/e /e "i/tin# trei tipuri de conductoriC
D cel c!e (!ce tot,l /in#,< Eot%%'te 'i #$n"e'te pent, to+iF
D cel c!e n, (!ce nimic pe/on!l< to!te 9n"!toiile /!le tec$n",Dle 9n /!cin! /,:!lteniloF
D cel c!e (!ce n,m!i cee! ce e/te nece/!< i! /,:o"on!+ii m,nce/c c,m te:,ie.

8n (,nc+ie "e mo",l c,m ,tili1e!1% in(om!+iile 9n !cti4it!te! c,ent%< /e "i/tin# cinci
tip,i "e m!n!#eiC
1. Mo)ilul D c!e !",n% mee, in(om!+ii< "oc,ment$n",D/e mee,. 8n c!1,l
in(om!+iilo c!e /e peime!1% 9n timp n, !c+ione!1% p$n% n, l! !ct,!li1e!1%< i! 9n c!1,l
c$n" te:,ie /% "eci"% /p,ne c% n, "e+ine /,(iciente in(om!+ii.
2. Prudentul ? c!e /e "oc,mente!1% 'i 9n "omenii col!te!le. D!c% 9n c,/,l !c+i,nii
!p!e ce4! nepe4%1,t /e "e/c,!@e!1% pent, c% n, ! pe4%1,t !'! ce4!.
*. 4uctorul mi1e!1% tot,l pe o c!te< (iin",Di "e !@,n/ o in(om!e minim% pent, !
!c+ion!. Acti4it!te! /! /e comp,ne "in peio!"e !/cen"ente 'i e4e/,l lo.
.. (nocentul i#no% in(om!e! c! !cti4it!te peme#%to!e !c+i,nii. E'ec,ile /!le 'i
nec!1,ile picin,ite !lto! le /c,1% pin (om,l! M"e ,n"e e! /% 'ti, c%...N
5. +c#ili)ratul !peci!1% "e c$te in(om!+ii !e ne4oie pent, ! e!li1! o !c+i,ne c, i/c
e1on!:il< ",!t! in(om%ii (iin" coel!t% c, impot!n+! /cop,l,i. El !c+ione!1% mee,
con(om /it,!+iilo.
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Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
8n (,nc+ie "e pe/on!lit!te! lo e=i/t% '!/e tip,i "e con",c%toi Aporuncitor< agresiv<
ezitant< care se vrea %ine cu toi< care dore$te per)ormane< care dore$te succesulB< !ce/te
tip,i e#%/in",D/e 9n popo+ii "i(eite l! (iec!e pe/o!n%. A/t(el< e=i/t% con",c%toi c!e /,nt
!,toc!+i c!e< "e'i "e+in o pon"ee el!ti4 mic% 9n tot!l,l pop,l!+iei e,'e/c /% !tin#% ,n
pocent m!e 9n con",cee! "e 4$(. Con",c%to,l c!e e/te !#e/i4 !p!e c, o pon"ee mic%
9n tot!l,l pop,l!+iei< ne!4$n" '!n/e nici 9n ce! "e 4$(.
Cei c!e /,nt e1it!n+i< c, to!te c% !, o pon"ee "e 2-R "in tot!l,l pop,l!+iei< n, !,
'!n/e 9n con",cee< !tin#$n" "o! *R 9n con",cee! "e 4$(. Acel!'i pocent mic pent,
m,nc! "e con",cee 9l "e+in 'i m!n!#eii c!e 4o /% /e !i:% :ine c, to+i. Cei c!e "oe/c
/,cce/,l< "e'i "e+in o pon"ee mic% 9n tot!l,l pop,l!+iei "oe/c /,cce/,l c, oice pe+ 'i !@,n#
/% !i:% o pon"ee m!e 9n con",cee! me"ie< pon"ee c!e /e ",:le!1% l! ni4el,l con",ceii
/,peio!e. Cei c!e !, o pon"ee m!e !t$t 9n tot!l,l pop,l!+iei c$t 'i 9n con",cee! me"ie 'i
"e 4$( /,nt cei c!e "oe/c pe(om!n+e< (iin" c!!ctei1!+i pin /piit "e ini+i!ti4! 'i "oin+!
"e ! "e/(%',! !cti4it%+i "e c!lit!te.
0.3. STILURI DE CONDUCERE
7til,l m!n!#ei!l /!, /til,l "e con",cee in(l,en+e!1% e1,lt!tele !cti4it%+ii "e con",cee
'i e(icien+! 9nte#ii !cti4it%+i ! #,p,l,i con",/. E=i/t% m,lte !:o"%i !le !ce/t,i!< ,nele
p,n$n" !ccent pe !/pectele compot!ment!le< !ltele pe /t,ct,ile :!1!le !le pe/on!lit!+ii
om,l,i. E/te !:o"!t 'i "in pe/pecti4% "in!mic% ce e,ne'te l!t,! !tit,"in!l Dmoti4!+ion!l% 'i
ce! compot!ment!l%. 7til,l epe1int% (el,l popi, "e ! (i< "e ! /e compot! 'i "e ! !c+ion! !l
m!n!#e,l,i 9n poce/,l con",ceii.
&tilul managerial 4de condudere5 con/tit,ie mo",l concet "e e=ecit!e ! ol,l,i "e
m!n!#e< "e t!n/p,nee e(ecti4% 9n pl!n compot!ment!l ! e=i#en+elo ce "ec,# "in /t!t,t,l
"e m!n!#e< mo",l 9n c!e !ce/t! /e !pote!1% l! /!cini A"ei4!te "in o:iecti4ele
o#!ni1!+ion!leB< l! in"i4i1ii 'i #,p,ile c!e (!c p!te "in o#!ni1!+ie. 7til,l "e con",cee
e,ne'te 9ntD,n !n/!m:l, "in!mic t%/%t,ile 'i p!tic,l!it%+ile p/iEice 'i p/iEo D /oci!le !le
m!n!#eilo< compot!mentele !ce/to! 9n e=ecit!e! m!n!#ement,l,i 'i con"i+iile concete
9n c!e /e "e/(%'o!% !cti4it!te! "e m!n!#ement.
No+i,ne! "e M/til m!n!#ei!lN /D! imp,/ 9n m!n!#ement o"!t% c, teoiile /it,!+ion!le< l!
mi@loc,l !nilo 16&-< pin l,c%ile "e4enite cl!/ice !le l,i 2ie"le< R. LicIet< R. >l!Ie< H.
Mo,ton< D. McGe#o< c!e !, "e14olt!t i"ei m!i 4ecEi !le l,i M!1o< LeOin< R. Lippit< G.
JEite etc. Toto"!t% M/til,lN po!te (i con/i"e!t ,n !/pect !l con",ceii ope!+ion!le
AMle!"e/EipNB.
Impot!n+! c,no!'teii 'i e4!l,%ii /til,ilo "e con",cee "ec,#e "in m!i m,lte
con/i"eenteC
Q "!toit% e(ectelo pe c!e le !, /til,ile "e con",cee !/,p! me"i,l,i p/iEolo#ic< p/iEo
D/oci!l 'i el!+ion!l "in c!",l ,nit%+ilo economice 'i !/,p! e1,lt!telo !cti4it%+ii "e
po",c+ie< !/,p! po",cti4it%+ii.
Q "!toit% c!p!cit%+ii "e "i(,1i,ne ! /til,ilo "e con",cee< c!p!cit%+ii "e in(l,en+!e !
l,c%ilo "in ,nit!te! economic%.
Q "!toit% (!pt,l,i c% /til,l m!n!#ei!l po!te in(l,en+! oient!e! !cti4it%+ii 9nte#ii ecEipe "e
con",cee.
Q /til,l "e con",cee n, !e "o! o ele4!n+% pe/on!l% ci 'i ,n! o#!ni1!+ion!l%< !"ic%
in(l,en+e!1% ,nit!te! economic% 9n 9nte#,l ei.
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E=i/t! m!i m,lte cl!/i(ic%i 'i tipolo#ii ! cee! ce n,mim /til "e con",cee. 7D!, (olo/it
n,meo!/e citeii< "inte c!e !mintimC
!B ",p% mo",l "e l,!e ! "eci1iiloF
:B /i/tem,l "e 4!loi c!e oiente!1% !cti4it!te! m!n!#ei!l%F
cB e(icien+! /til,ilo "e con",cee.
!B Prima clasificare (olo/e'te "ept citei, mo",l "e l,!e ! "eci1iilo. A (o/t (%c,t% "e
X,t LeOin pe :!1! cecet%ilo 9ntepin/e 9n 16*6. Din !ce/t p,nct "e 4e"ee "i/tin#em tei
tip,i "e /til,i "e con",ceeC
#utoritar A!,toc!ticB< pe1int% ,m%to!ele c!!ctei/ticiC pepon"een+! "eci1iilo
impe/on!leF cent!li1!e! !,toit%+iiF p,nee! !ccent,l,i pe !,toit!te! (om!l%F m!n!#e,l
!e "ept "e "eci1ie 'i contol< i! /,:o"on!+ii /,nt /impli e=ec,t!n+iF 9nte!#! !cti4it!te "e
m!n!#ement e !=!t% pe /!ciniF /,:o"on!+ilo n, li /e e=plic% o:iecti4ele #ene!le ci "o! li
/e cee e=ec,t!e! 9ntocm!i ! Eot%$ilo l,!teF /!nc+i,nile /,nt (olo/ite (o!te "e/ pent,
coec+i! !:!teilo "e l! "eci1iile l,!teF n, /e !e 9n 4e"ee 'i cEi! /e ne#li@e!1% /piit,l
ce!to !l !n#!@!+ilo c!e 9n pem!nen+% te:,ie /% (ie 9n",m!+i< contol!+i< con/t$n'iF /e
(olo/e'te (ec4ent citic! !/p% ! /,:o"on!+ilo< 9n /cEim: !pecieile citice !le
/,:o"on!+ilo n, /,nt !ccept!teF el!+iile inte,m!ne /,nt con/i"e!te p,+in impot!nte. Ace/t
/til po!te (i (olo/it c, /,cce/ 'i po!te (i ,til "o! 9n !n,mite /it,!+ii< /pe e=empl, 9n c!1,l
,nei ,nit%+i milit!e 9n "i/po1iti4. 8n tec,t c!!ctei1! !cti4it!te! ,no (ome m!i 4ecEi "e
o#!ni1!e ! !cti4it%+ii economice< c!e e/te "e pil"! m!n,(!ct,!. 8n pe1ent e/te
incomp!ti:il c, /i/temele mo"ene< p!ticip!ti4e "e con",cee< "eo!ece !ce/t /til con",ce l!
in/!ti/(!c+ie 9n $n",l /,:o"on!+ilo 'i e1,lt!te ne#!ti4eC "el%/!e< !n"!ment /c%1,t<
p%%/ie! loc,l,i "e m,nc% 9n ,nele c!1,i.
"emocratic< c!e pe/,p,ne o m!e 9nce"ee 9n /,:o"on!+i< ! c%o c!p!cit!te ce!ti4%
e m,lt !peci!ti4%. E 9nc,!@!t% (om,l!e! "e /,#e/tii 'i pop,nei "in p!te! /,:o"on!+ilo.
7e 9nc,!@e!1% com,nic!e! pe 4etic!l% 'i oi1ont!l%< i! el!+iile inte,m!ne oc,p% ,n ol
(o!te impot!nt. O pioit!te e/te o#!ni1!e ,n,i clim!t "e m,nc% pl%c,t 'i !#e!:il. 7e
(olo/e'te pe l!# "ele#!e! "e !,toit%+i 'i %/p,n"eiF (o!te "e/ ,tili1!te /,nt 'i ecompen/ele
'i moti4!+iile. 7,:o"on!+ii /,nt in(om!+i pe l!# !/,p! o:iecti4elo ,nit%+ii 'i /,nt con/,lt!+i
9n po:lemele "e pe/pecti4%. M!n!#e,l /e :!1e!1% n, "o! pe !,toit!te! (om!l%< ci 'i pe
ce! pe/on!l%< "o:$n"it%. 7e ,m%e'te 4!loi(ic!e! competen+elo /!l!i!+ilo 'i "e14olt!e!
pe/on!lit%+ii !ce/to!. Ace/t /til e/te (o!te e(ic!ce< !",c$n" o m!e /!ti/(!c+ie 9n m,nc% 'i
conti:,ie l! ce'tee! intee/,l,i /,:o"on!+ilo pent, e!li1!e! /!cinilo. Pent, e(icien+!
/! e nece/! c! /,:o"on!+ii /% !i:% "epin"ei "e con",cee colecti4% 'i ,n ni4el i"ic!t "e
competen+% 'i e/pon/!:ilit!te.
/i%er A"e c%te ,nii !,toi n, e/te con/i"e!t popi,D1i/ ,n /tilB< /e c!!ctei1e!1% pintD
o lip/% tot!l% "e p!ticip!e ! m!n!#e,l,i l! !cti4it!teF #,p,l e/te l%/!t /% /e o#!ni1e1e
/in#, 'i pe/te tot "omne'te "e1o"ine! 'i !n!Ei!.

Ace!/t% cl!/i(ic!e ! (o/t "e14olt!t% 'i "e !l+i !,toi< c!e 'iD!, !",/ (iec!e conti:,+i!
pin !"%,#!e! ,no noi /,:tip,i. De e=empl,< N.R.2. Moie pe l$n#% cele tei tip,i "e :!1%
into",ce !lte teiC
D p!teni/t ? 9nte !,toit! 'i li:eF
D m!@oit! ? 9nte "emoc!tic 'i !,toit!F
D li:e c, "i/c,+ii ? 9nte "emoc!tic 'i li:e.
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H.A.C. >oOn 9mp!te /til,l !,toit! 9n tei /,:tip,iC !,toit! /tict< !,toit! :ine4oito
'i !,toit! incomplet< i! /til,l "emoc!tic 9n "o,% /,:tip,iC "emoc!tic !,tentic 'i
"emoc!tic p/e,"o"emoc!t.
:B ' doua clasificare /D! (%c,t pe :!1! /i/tem,l,i "e 4!loi c!e oiente!1% !cti4it!te!
m!n!#ei!l%. Di/tin#em o cl!/i(ic!e :i"imen/ion!l% 'i ,n! ti"imen/ion!l%.
1. clasi)icarea %idimensional pop,/% "e R. >l!Ie 'i H!ne Mo,ton 'i 9mp!te /til,ile
"e con",cee 9n (,nc+ie "e "o,% "imen/i,niC
D oient!e! m!n!#eilo /pe po",c+ieF
D oient!e! m!n!#eilo /pe pe/on!l.
7t!:ilie! /til,ilo "e con",cee ! (o/t e!li1!t% c, !@,to,l ,nei /cEeme #!(ice< ,n"e
pe !=,l oi1ont!l e m!c!t #!",l "e intee/ m!ni(e/t!t "e m!n!#e pent, po:lemele
po",c+iei i! pe !=,l 4etic!l #!",l "e intee/ m!ni(e/t!t "e m!n!#e (!+% "e po:lemele
,m!ne. A,toii !, pe1ent!t "o! 5 tip,i "in cele )1 "e po/i:ilit%+i 'i 4!i!nteC
Q /til c!!ctei1!t pintD,n intee/ m!e pent, po",c+ie 'i intee/ /l!: pent, po:lemele
,m!ne. E/te /peci(ic m!n!#eilo !,toit!i< intee/!+i "o! "e e1,lt!tele po",c+ieiF
/,:o"on!+ii /,nt "o! in/t,mente "e po",c+ie.
Q 7til c!!ctei1!t pin intee/ m!e pent, po:lemele ,m!ne 'i /c%1,t pent, po:lemele
po",c+iei. Pe"omin% ,n clim!t "e m,nc% !#e!:il< /!ti/(!c+iile pe/on!l,l,i /,nt m!i 'i
"e4in /cop 9n /ine. M!n!#e,l ,m%e'te /!ti/(!cee! pe/on!l,l,i.
Q 7til c!!ctei1!t pintD,n intee/ /l!: (!+% "e po:lemele po",c+iei 'i /l!: (!+% "e pe/on!l.
Pe/on!l,l /e oc,p% /in#, "e po:lemele p/iEo D /oci!le. M!n!#e,l e4it% con(lictele< e i1ol!t
(!+% "e /,peioi 'i /,:o"on!+i< /e peoc,p% "e el 'i "e 4iito,l /%,.
Q 7til c!!ctei1!t pin intee/ me"i, (!+% "e pe/on!l 'i po:lemele po",c+iei. M!n!#e,l
(olo/e'te pe/,!/i,ne!< e4it% con(lictele< +ine /e!m! "e /,#e/tiile pe/on!l,l,i.
Q 7til c!!ctei1!t pintD,n intee/ m!e (!+% "e po:lemele ,m!ne 'i !le po",c+iei.
M!n!#e,l (!4oi1e!1% p!ticip!e! /,:o"on!+ilo l! e!li1!e! po",c+iei 'i l,!e! "eci1iiloF
9nc,!@e!1% !cti4it!te! colecti4%< competen+eleF i! "eci1ii :,ne 'i o:+ine e1,lt!te (o!te :,ne
9n po",c+ie.
2. clasi)icarea tridimensional ! (o/t (%c,t% "e H. Re"!lin 'i !e 9n 4e"ee tei "imen/i,ni
!le m!n!#e,l,iC
D oient!e! m!n!#e,l,i /pe /!cin%F
D oient!e! m!n!#e,l,i /pe cont!cte ,m!neF
D oient!e! m!n!#e,l,i /pe !n"!ment Am!=imi1!e! po",cti4it!+iiB.
A/t(el< 9nt$lnim ,m%to!ele /til,i "e con",cee< e/pecti4 "e m!n!#eiC
Q :ioc!t,l ? oient!t /pe !n"!ment
Q ne#!ti4,l ? n, e oient!t /pe nici ,n! "in cele tei "imen/i,ni
Q !lt,i/t,l ? oient!t /pe cont!cte ,m!ne
Q !,toc!t,l ? oient!t /pe /!cin%
Q !,toc!t,lD:ine4oito ? oient!t /pe /!cin% 'i !n"!ment
Q pomoto,l ? oient!t /pe !n"!ment 'i cont!cte ,m!ne
Q e1it!nt,l ? oient!t /pe /!cin% 'i cont!cte ,m!ne
Q e!li1!to,l ? oient!t /pe cele tei "imen/i,ni
cB ' treia clasificare !e 9n 4e"ee citei,l e(icien+ei /til,ilo "e con",cee. A (o/t
(%c,t% "e /peci!li'ti (!nce1i< ce "i/tin# "o,% c!te#oii c, c$te 5 tip,i "e /til,i "e con",ceeC
1B Manageri cu stiluri e)iciente
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Q O#!ni1!to,l ? /e :!1e!1% pe o#!ni1!e !+ion!l% 'i peci/%F /,:o"on!+ii /e :,c,% "e
in"epen"en+% 'i (olo/e'te n,m!i e#lement%ile (om!le pent, ! e1ol4! e4ent,!lele po:leme
Q P!ticip!ti4,l ? "i/p,ne "e !,toit!te e!l%F pomo4e!1% m,nc! 9n ecEip%< (!cilit$n"
com,nic!e! 'i col!:o!e!
Q Re!li/t,l ? e/te tip,l "e m!n!#e c!e 9'i con/,lt% /,:o"on!+ii 'i p,ne !ccent pe ,n clim!t
"e m,nc% !#e!:il
Q 8ntepin1%to,l ? pomo4e!1% competen+!< :!1$n",D/e pe el!+ii ie!Eice cl!e 'i
!:o"e!1% 9n mo" "e/cEi/ con(lictele
Q M!=imin!li/t,l ? in/tit,ie ,n clim!t "e e=i#en+%< "% "i/po1i+ii @,"icio!/e !"ec4!te (iec!ei
/it,!+iiF e oient!t /pe /!cin%.
2B Manageri cu stiluri nee)iciente
Q >ioc!t,l ? :!1$n",D/e pe "iplome< titl,i 'i n, pe e1,lt!teF e=i/t% "eci1iile "elic!teF n,
!#e!1% pe/on!l,l c, m,lt% in(l,en+% 'i nici el!+iile inte,m!ne (o!te t!inice.
Q P!teni/t,l A"emo#o#,lB 4o:e'te m,lt "e "emoc!+ie< con",cee colecti4%< "! temenii
/,nt necl!iF ,neoi "% /!ti/(!c+ii /,:o"on!+ilo cEi! 9mpoti4! intee/elo 9ntepin"eii 'i
e4it% con(lictele c, !ce'ti!.
Q TeEnoc!t,l ? e intee/!t "e men+inee! po/t,l,i< !4$n" o compot!e !,toit!%<
"ict!toi!l%. Pe cei 9mpoti4! /! 9i 9nl%t,%.
Q Opot,ni/t,l ? /e (olo/e'te "e inti#i< compomi/,i 'i e peoc,p!t "o! "e c!ie! /!
pe/on!l%.
Q Utopi/t,l mo"en ? !e pe! m!e 9nce"ee 9n /,:o"on!+iF i! "eci1ii in/,(icient el!:o!teF
e1,lt!tele m,ncii /!le /,nt in/!ti/(%c%to!e< i! 9n ,nit!te "omne'te !n!Ei!.
8n MTEe E,m!n /i"e o( entepi/eN< /peci!li/t,l Do,#l!/ McGe#o pe1int% "o,%
concep+ii !/,p! n!t,ii ,m!ne 'i ! compot!ment,l,i (!cto,l,i ,m!n 9n o#!ni1!+ie. 7D!,
(olo/it "o,% teoii c, ,m%to!ele elementeC
Teoria X C
D (iin+! ,m!n% me"ie !e o !4e/i,ne (!+% "e m,nc% 'i c!,t% /% o e4ite pe c$t po/i:ilF
D "e !cee!< m!@oit!te! o!menilo te:,ie con/t$n'i< contol!+i< 9n",m!+i< !menin+!+i 'i
pe"ep/i+iF
D m!@oit!te! o!menilo e4it% !/,m!e! "e e/pon/!:ilit!+i.
Ace!/t% teoie e(lect% p,nct,l "e 4e"ee !"opt!t "e m!n!#eii !,toit!i.
Teoria Y C
D cEelt,ie! e(ot,l,i (i1ic 'i intelect,!l 9n m,nc% e tot !t$t "e n!t,!l c! 'i "i/t!c+i! 'i o"iEn!F
D om,l po!te e=ecit! !,tocon",cee 'i !,tocontolF
D om,l nom!l 9n4!+% 9n con"i+ii !"ec4!te n, n,m!i /% !ccepte e/pon/!:ilit!+i< "! /% 'i le 'i
!/,meF
D 9n con"i+iile 4ie+ii in",/ti!le mo"ene< poten+i!l,l intelect,!l !l (iin+ei ,m!ne e n,m!i
p!+i!l ,tili1!t.
Po(e/o,l J. O,cEi< !n!li1$n" /til,ile "e con",cee !le m!n!#eilo @!pone1i< 4ine c,
,m%to!e! complet!eC
Teoria 6 C
D con",c%to,l :,n implic% /!l!i!+ii l! con",ceeF
D /!l!i!+ii /,nt t!t!+i c! o (!milieF
D (iec!e /!l!i!t p!ticip% l! poce/,l "eci1ion!lF
D #!!nt!e! !n#!@%ii pe 4i!+%F
D to+i mem:ii conti:,ie l! e!li1!e! !celo!'i o:iecti4eF
D /!cinile /,nt otite 9nte /!l!i!+i< pent, ! e4it! plicti/e!l!< /peci!li1!e! e=tem% 'i
i#i"it!te!.
5-
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
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Ace!/t% teoie pomo4e!1% /til,l p!ten!li/t< ce 4i1e!1%C :,n%/t!e! t,t,oF l,c, 9n colecti4F
!/,m!e! e/pon/!:ilit%+ilo "e c%te /!l!i!+i 'i p!ticip!e! lo l! "eci1ii.
T!nnen:!,m 'i 7cEmi"t (olo/e/c "ept citei, "e "i(een+iee !,toit!te! m!n!#e,l,i
Ali"e,l,iB el!ti4% l! li:et!te! /,:o"on!+ilo. A/t(el< e=i/t% 5 tepte e/en+i!le !le
Mcontin,,mD,l,i /til,ilo "e con",ceeN< c!!ctei1!te pin ni4el,l "in ce 9n ce m!i /c%1,t !l
!,toit%+ii m!n!#e,l,i 'i ni4el,l tot m!i i"ic!t !l li:et%+ii /,:o"on!+iloC
D m!n!#e,l i! "eci1ii 'i le !n,n+%F
D m!n!#e,l i! "eci1ii 'i le M4in"eN A9nce!c% /% con4in#%BF
D m!n!#e,l pe1int% i"eile 'i in4it% l! 9nte:%iF
D m!n!#e,l pe1int% o pop,nee "e "eci1ie c!e 4! (i "e1:%t,t% "e c%te /,:o"on!+iF
D m!n!#e,l pe1int% po:lem!< !/c,lt% /,#e/tiile< !poi "eci"e !/,p! ! cee! ce e/te "e (%c,t
D m!n!#e,l "e(ine'te limitele 'i cee ecEipei /% "eci"%F
D m!n!#e,l pemite ecEipei /% "eci"% 9n limitele pe/ci/e "e ni4el,ile ie!Eice /,peio!e.

O !lt% tipolo#ie ! (o/t ce!t% "e P. Ke/eL 'i X. >l!ncE!"C
D /til,l M"iecti4N AMTELLNB pent, /,:o"on!+ii c!e n, 4o 'i n, pot /% e!li1e1e !cti4it%+ile
ce,teF m!n!#e,l M/p,neN ce te:,ie /% (!c% /,:o"on!+ii 'i contole!1% Ape c$t po/i:ilB
(iec!e !c+i,ne< (iin" cent!t pe /!cin%F
D /til,l Mt,to!lN AM7ELLNB pent, /,:o"on!+ii c!e n, pot< "! 4o /% e!li1e1e !cti4it%+ile
ce,teF m!n!#e,l M4in"eN /,#e/tii< "eci1ii< 9ncec$n" /% con4in#%< (iin" cent!t !t$t pe
/!cin%< c$t 'i pe el!+ii ,m!neF
D /til,l Mmento!lN AMPARTICIPATENB pent, /,:o"on!+ii c!e pot 'i 4o< "! n, 9n /,(icient%
m%/,% 'i !le c%o c!p!cit%+i 'i moti4!+ie m!i te:,ie "e14olt!teF m!n!#e,l Mp!ticip%N c,
/,#e/tii< /(!t,i< !@,to< "e (iec!e "!t% c$n" 9i /,nt ce,te< (iin" cent!t pe el!+ii ,m!neF
D /til,l M"ele#!toN AMDELEGATENB pent, /,:o"on!+ii c!e pot 'i 4o 9n /,(icient% m%/,%F
m!n!#e,l "ele!#% /,:o"on!+ilo !,toit!te! "e l,!e ! "eci1iilo< M"ecent$n",D/eN 'i (!+% "e
/!cin% 'i (!+% "e el!+iile ,m!ne.
D,p% !l+i !,toi< "e e=empl, D V. Voom 'i P. ^etton< !le#ee! /til,l,i "e con",cee
!"ec4!t te:,ie (%c,t% pe :!1! ,no citeii< c,m ! (iC
D e=i/ten+! ,no /t!n"!"e "e c!lit!te pent, "eci1ie< c!e implic% o m!i m!e cent!e pe
/!cin%F
D e=i/ten+! ,no in(om!+ii /,(iciente pent, o "eci1ie "e c!lit!te ? "e4ine po/i:il% "eci1ie
in"i4i",!l% ! m!n!#e,l,i< m!i !le/ 9n (,nc+ie "e /!cin%F
D ni4el,l "e /t!n"!"i1!e ! po:lemei< "eci1iile A/ol,+iileB /t!n"!"i1!te (!c /,pe(l,%
cent!e! pe el!+ii ,m!neF
D ni4el,l c,no!'teii 'i !l !co",l,i /,:o"on!+ilo el!ti4 l! o:iecti4ele o#!ni1!+iei ?
c,no!'tee! 'i 9mp%t%'ie! (,nc+iilo o#!ni1!+iei ce/c nece/it!te! cent%ii pe el!+iile
,m!neF
D po/i:ilit!te!Ppo:!:ilit!te! con(lict,l,i 9n ,m! !plic%ii ,nei !n,mite /ol,+ii /!, "eci1iiF
oient!e! pe el!+iile ,m!ne e/te optim% 9n !:o"!e! con(lictelo.
8n +!! no!/t% !, e=i/t!t c$te4! peoc,p%i 9n !ce/t "omeni,F men+ion%m 9n !ce/t /en/
cl!/i(ic!e! (%c,t% "e T. Ke/eniC
D m!n!#ei 4!loo'i c, oient!e :,n% 9n !pot c, /!cin! loF
D m!n!#ei 4!loo'i "! lip/i+i "e /tilF
D m!n!#ei me"ioci /!, inc!p!:ili "! c, /tilF
D m!n!#ei me"ioci lip/i+i "e /til.
51
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Pe :!1! cecet%ilo e(ect,!te "e c!"ele "i"!ctice "in 2!c,lt!te! "e 2ilo/o(ie ?
>,c,e'ti< "i/tin#em "o,% tip,iC !,toit! 'i coope!to< i! Ile!n! R,/,< I. R,/ 'i D.
7te#%oi, i"enti(ic% ,m%to!ele /til,i "e con",ceeC !,toit!< con/e4!nt< "emoc!t<
ecEili:!t 'i con/ec4ent "emoc!t.
,actori care influeneaz stilurile de conducere
Con",cee! e/te 4%1,t%C
!B C! o (,nc+ie ! pe/o!neiF o pe/o!n% 9n1e/t!t% 9nc% "e l! n!'tee c, c!lit%+i "eo/e:ite.
M!= Je:e 4o:e! "e/pe mo"el,l cE!i/m!ticC o!menii /e /,p,n !,toit%+ii cE!i/m!tice 9n
4it,te! ce"in+elo lo 9n c!lit%+ile pe/o!nei c!e e 9n1e/t!t% c, !ce/!t% !,toit!te.
8n 16.)< RALPK 7TOGDELL pe1int% po(il,l ,no con",c%toi !le c%o t%/%t,i /,nt
#,p!te 9n p!t, c!te#oii.
D 2!ctoi (i1ici 'i con/tit,+ion!liC 4$/t%< t!lie< #e,t!te< ene#ie< /%n%t!te etc.
D 2!ctoi p/iEolo#iciC inteli#en+%< oi#in!lit!te< int,i+ie< in/t,c+ie etc.
D 2!ctoi p/iEo/oci!liC "iplom!+ie< /oci!:ilit!te< pe/ti#i,< pop,l!it!te< etc.
D 2!ctoi /ociolo#iciC ni4el,l /ocioDeconomic< /t!t,t economic 'i /oci!l.
:B C! o (,nc+ie ! /it,!+iei Amo"el,l /it,!+ion!lB< p,ne !ccent pe c!!ctei/ticile #,p,l,i
con",/ 'i p!tic,l!it%+ile /it,!+iei 9n c!e /e e=ecit% con",cee!. P!ctic! m!n!#ei!l%
"emon/te!1% c% ,n :,n con",c%to !"opt% ,n /til "e con",cee "i(een+i!t 9n (,nc+ie "e
/it,!+i!Dpo:lem% pe c!e o !e "e e1ol4!t 'i "e po/i:ilit%+ile /,:!ltenilo /%i. 7til,l "e
con",cee /it,!+ion!l /e :!1e!1% !t$t pe /!cini Ao"ineB< c$t 'i pe con/,lt!e< l%/$n",Dle
col!:o!toilo /!, /,:!ltenilo po/i:ilit!te! "e !le#ee ! mo",l,i "e 9n"eplinie ! /!cinilo<
!m:ele /,cce"$n",D/e pe p!c,/,l !cti4it%+ii m!n!#ei!le 9n (,nc+ie "e n!t,! po:lemei 'i "e
po/i:ilit%+ile celo c!e ,me!1% /% o e1ol4e. Un,l "inte /,/+in%toii ,n,i !/t(el "e /til ! (o/t
ERNE7T MaKLEMAN< c!e !t!#e 9n/% !ten+i! !/,p! peicolelo< pe c!e le !/c,n"e
con",cee! /it,!+ion!l%C !:,1,l "e p,tee 'i "e(ec+i,nile "e com,nic!e A9n /en/,l c%
/,#e/tiile con",c%to,l,i pot (i intepet!te eon!t "e /,:o"on!+iB. C, to!te !ce/te! /til,l
/it,!+ion!l 9m:in% !4!nt!@ele /til,l,i !,toit! 'i !le cel,i p!ticip!ti4< "imin,$n" l! minim,m
"e1!4!nt!@ele !ce/to!.
cB C! o (,nc+ie mi=t%< ! pe/o!nei 'i ! /it,!+iei Amo"el,l mi=tB. Pe/,p,ne !"!pt!e!
pe/o!nei l! /it,!+ie< /t,ct,!e! 'i /t%p$nie! /it,!+iei. Pe/o!n! e t!t!t% c! po",/ !l
inte!c+i,nilo 'i el!+iilo ce /e /t!:ile/c 9nte #,p 'i m!n!#e.
2om!e! 'i "in!mic! /til,ilo "e con",cee /,nt in(l,en+!te "e ,m%to!ele c!te#oii "e
(!ctoiC
D 2!ctoi ce +in "e p!tic,l!it%+ile "e pe/on!lit!te< pe#%tie po(e/ion!l%< ni4el,l
moti4!+ion!l< pe#%tie 9n "omeni,l con",ceii 'i e=peien+%.
D 2!ctoi ce +in "e p!tic,l!it%+ile m,nciiC o#!ni1!e teEnolo#ic% ! m,ncii< "i4i1i,ne! m,ncii.
D 2!ctoi ce +in "e p!tic,l!it%+ile me"i,l,i /oci!lC tip,l ,nit%+ii< (ome "e o#!ni1!e< c,lt,!<
/t!ti(ic!e! /oci!l%< etc.
Personalitatea< poti4it "ic+ion!,l,i "e p/iEolo#ie e/te< M/,:iect,l ,m!n con/i"e!t c!
,nit!te :ioDp/iEoD/oci!l%< c! p,t%to !l (,nc+iilo epi/temice< p!#m!tice 'i !=iolo#iceN. An!
T,cico4 >o#"!n /,:lini!1% c% Mpe/on!lit!te! epe1int% /inte1! p!tic,l!it%+ilo p/iEoD
in"i4i",!le< 9n :!1! c%ei! ne m!ni(e/t%m /peci(ic< "eo/e:in",Dne ,n,l "e !lt,l.N
8n c!1,l m!n!#eilo< 9'i p,n !mpent! !/,p! /til,l,i "e con",cee p!ctic!t !t$t
tempe!ment,l 'i c!!cte,l< c$t 'i !ptit,"inile< cee! ce 9n/e!mn% c% e/te nece/!% o
in4e/ti#!+ie !mpl%< comple=% 'i po(,n"% !/,p! pe/on!lit%+ii ,n,i m!n!#e< pent, !Di p,te!
/,pin"e 'i in(l,en+! !cele c!!ctei/tici "e c!e "epin"< 9n ,ltim% in/t!n+%< pe(om!n+ele
o:+in,te 9n !cti4it!te! "e con",cee.
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Pregtirea con/tit,ie tot!lit!te! c,no'tin+elo< "epin"eilo 'i picepeilo nece/!e
9n"epliniii ,nei !cti4it%+i. E! incl,"eC pe#%tie! "e /peci!lit!te /!, po(e/ion!l%< c,lt,%
#ene!l% 'i c,no'tin+e "e con",cee. Ni4el,l pe#%tiii in(l,en+e!1% /til,l "e con",cee pe m!i
m,lte "iec+iiC
D Un m!n!#e c, o pe#%tie po(e/ion!l% /l!:% 4! opt! pent, ,n /til !,toit!< e4it$n" /%D'i
con/,lte col!:o!toii /!, 9ncon@,$n",D/e "e col!:o!toi 'i /,:!lteni incompeten+i.
D Un m!n!#e c, o pe#%tie po(e/ion!l% (o!te :,n% 4! 'ti /% !pecie1e c!p!cit%+ile
po(e/ion!le !le /,:o"on!+ilo< 9i 4! con/,lt!< 4! (!4oi1! pomo4!e! celo competen+i.
7ivelul motivaional ? moti4!+i! implic% tei t%/%t,i "e :!1%C oient!e /pe ,n /cop<
implic!e 9n e!li1!e! l,i 'i /t%",in+! pent, !tin#ee! l,i. Moti4ele c!e "etemin%
compot!mentele /,nt "i(eite 9nte ele 9n !pot c, inten/it!te!< ",!t!< e!li/m,l lo<
pon"ee! 'i coel!e!.
Organizarea tehnologic a muncii $i diviziunea muncii ? /til,ile "e con",cee 4o (i
"i(eite 9ntDo ,nit!te p,tenic "e14olt!t% /!, 9ntD,n! c, ,n ni4el e",/ "e 9n1e/t!e teEnic%<
(iec!e tip "e /ociet!te 4! (!4oi1! !n,mite /til,i 'i 4! cont!c!! !lte tip,i.
+ficiena stilurilor de conducere
8nte!#! ,nit!te e/te in(l,en+!t% "e /til,l "e con",cee p!ctic!t "e m!n!#eF /,nt 4i1!te
,m%to!ele "iec+iiC
D el!+iile p/iEoD/oci!le "in c!",l #,p,l,iF
D ni4el,l po",cti4it%+ii m,ncii 'i !l po",cti4it%+ii intelect,!le ! #,p,l,iF
D coe1i,ne! #,p,l,i 'i !tit,"inile mem:ilo #,p,l,iF
D moti4!+i! compot!ment,l,i /,:o"on!+iloF
D ni4el,l /!ti/(!c+iei pe/on!le ! mem:ilo #,p,l,i c, !cti4it!te! "e/(%',!t%.
8n !peciee! e(icien+ei /til,ilo "e con",cee /e +ine cont "e tei citeiiC
!B pon"ee! e(ectelo po1iti4e 'i ne#!ti4e !le /til,ilo "e con",cee 9n /t,ct,! #lo:!l% !
!cti4it%+ii "e con",ceeF
:B #!",l "e !"ec4!e ! /til,ilo "e con",cee l! p!tic,l!it%+ile /it,!+ieiF
cB con/ecin+ele e1,lt!te 9n ,m! p!ctic%ii 9n"el,n#!te ! ,n,i /til.
E(icien+! /til,ilo "e con",cee "epin"e "e p!tic,l!it%+ile m!n!#e,l,i 'i "e
p!tic,l!it%+ile /it,!+iei. Pent, c! ,n /til /% (ie e(icient te:,ie /% /e +in% /e!m! "eC
D (om,l!e! cl!% ! o:iecti4elo 'i /!ciniloF
D c,no!'tee! "e c%te m!n!#e ! e!lit%+ii "in ,nit!te! pe c!e o con",ceF
D e=i/ten+! ,n,i :,n /i/tem in(om!+ion!lF
D o#!ni1!e! !+ion!l% ! !cti4it%+ii "e m!n!#ement 'i ! timp,l,i "e c%te m!n!#eF
D 4i1!e! !/pectelo e/en+i!le< ! pioit%+iloF
D ,tili1!e! ,no teEnici 'i meto"e mo"ene "e con",cee< e4!l,!eF
D m!ni(e/t!e! ,nei !tit,"ini ecepti4e (!+% "e no,F
D /tim,l!e! ini+i!ti4ei< ce!ti4it%+ii 'i ! %/p,n"eii /,:o"on!+iloF
D 9m:in$n" 9n",m!e! 'i contol,l c, !,tonomie 'i in"epen"en+! /,:o"on!+iloF
D peoc,p!e! pent, e",c!e! 'i (om!e! /,:o"on!+iloF
D peoc,p!e! pent, ce'tee! ni4el,l,i moti4!+ion!l !l /!l!i!+ilo 'i pent, c,no!'tee!
te:,in+elo !ce/to!F
D o:iecti4it!te! !pecieilo (%c,te !/,p! /it,!+iei "in ,nit!te 'i !/,p! /,:o"on!+iloF
D m!ni(e/t!e! ,nei !tit,"ini ecEili:!te< optime (!+% "e /!cin%< (,nc+ie< in/tit,+ie 'i
/,:o"on!+iF
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D c!p!cit!te! "e !,tope(ec+ion!e ! /til,l,i "e con",cee.

0.<. ACTIVITI MANAGERIALE
Pincip!lele !cti4it%+i m!n!#ei!le< l! ni4el,l (imei /,nt #,p!te !/t(elC
A. 7e4ici,l "e /t!te#ii m!n!#ei!le< e/t,ct,!e 'i e!li1!e ! po#!m,l,i "iecto ?
t!:lo,l "e :o" !l con",ceii. E/te /,:o"on!t "iecto,l,i #ene!l !l /ociet%+ii 'i !e
,m%to!ele !ti:,+ii< e/pon/!:ilit%+i 'i competen+eC
D de)initivarea 'i e1ol4!e! po:lemelo le#!te "eC
1. m!Ietin#< conc,en+% pi!+% inten% 'i e=ten%F
2. !/imil!e! "e po",/e noi /!, /e4iciiF mo"eni1!e! po",/elo e=i/tente 'i
pe/ciee! "e m%/,i pent, /i/t!e! (!:ic%ii celo "ep%'ite teEnic
teEnolo#icF
*. "e14olt!e! in4e/ti+iilo 'i c!p!cit%+ilo "e po",c+ieF
.. !po4i1ion!e< col!:o%i< coope%i< /peci!li1%iF
5. pe/on!lC (om!e< pe#%tie< pe(ec+ion!e (o+% "e m,nc%F
&. :!l!n+% po(it D cEelt,ieliF "i!#!m! "e ent!:ilit!teF
5. !(!cei< cont!ct%i< temene "e li4!eF
). ,m%ie! po",/elo 'i /e4iciilo l! :ene(ici!iF (i!:ilit!te< menten!:ilit!te<
,tilit!te< ecl!m!+ii.
D corelarea programului de )a%ricaie < 9n (,nc+ie "e cont!cte< c, c!p!cit%+ile
e=i/tente ,1in!leF
D ,ntocmirea programelor de realizare a produselor (,nc+ie "e cein+e 'i temenele imp,/e "e
:ene(ici!iF
D ,ntocmirea gra)icelor de realizare a produselor coel!te c, !po4i1ion!e! teEnico D
m!tei!l%< c!p!cit%+ile "i/poni:ile< (on",l m!=im "e l,c, !l (o+ei "e m,nc%F
D corelarea livrrilor (,nc+ie 'i "e e4i1iile #ene!le< ep!!+iile 'i inte4en+iile !/,p! "ot%iiF
D urmrirea introducerii la termen < ! noilo po",/e 9n (!:ic!+ie 'i ! mo"eni1%ilo !",/e
celo "in po",c+i! c,ent%F
Durmrirea introducerii $i aplicrii tehnologiilor de v8r) 9n c!",l (!:icilo A/ec+iiloB "e
po",c+ieF
D urmrirea evoluiei productivitii muncii 'i elimin!e! c!,1elo pent, "e(icien+ele !p%,teF
D sta%ilirea costurilor de producie pe (iec!e (!:ic% A/ec+ieB 9n p!te 'i ,m%ie! 9nc!"%ii 9n
limit! (i=!t%F pop,nee "e m%/,i pent, e4it!e! "ep%'iilo ce ! !4e! locF
D sta%ilirea cotei de %ene)icii pe (iec!e (!:ic% A/ec+ieB (,nc+ie "e !pot,l net Am!nope%BF
D reactualizarea ta%loului de %ord pent, "iecto,l #ene!l c, elementele pincip!le !le 1ilei<
(,nc+ie "e /peci(ic,l /ociet%+iiF
D corelarea elementelor pe1ent!te 9n t!:lo,l "e :o" 'i e4i"en+iee! "i/(,nc+iiloF !n,n+!e!
pin con/iliei ! "iecto,l,i #ene!l "e/pe "e(icien+ele 1ileiF
D aplicarea deciziilor directorului pent, eme"iee! "e(icien+elo< pin con/ilieii teEnici 'i
/e4ici,l e!li1!e po#!m "iectoF
D in)ormarea conducerii societii c, necoel%ile 1ilei /!, cele pe4i1ion!le 9n 4e"ee!
!moni1%ii /!, elimin%ii pe4enti4e ! loF
D conlucrarea zilnic c, (!ctoii "e "eci1ie "in (!:ici< /ec+ii 'i /ecto!e pent, !plic!e!
Eot%$iloF
D ,ndeplinirea oricror atri%uii trasate de directorul general al societii comerciale.
Nee!li1!e! !ce/to !ti:,+ii !t!#e pen!li1%i !/,p! /!l!i,l,i.
5.
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
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B. Pincip!lele el!+iiC
pime'te t!n/mite
D !n,mite in(om!+ii "e !pot!e<
cont!cte "e col!:o!e pent,
(,ni1!e "e m!teii< m!tei!le<
pie/e< ,tilit%+iF
D cont!cte (eme /emn!te c,
cl!,1e< %/p,n/,l "e li4!e l!
com!n"%F
D /t!"i,l "e pe#%tie ! (!:ic!+iei
! e!li1%ilo po#!melo "e
po",c+ieF
D !moni1%i 'i po#!me< /!cini
"e o#!ni1!eF
D /it,!+i! cEelt,ielilo< coel%i<
in(om!+iiF
D in(om!+ii c, pi4ie l! c!lit!te<
(i!:ilit!te< menten!n+%F
D po#!m,l "e "ot%i 'i ep!!+ii
imo:ileF
D in(om!+ii pi4in" /t,"i,l pie+ei<
in(om!+ii< /it,!+i! li4%ilo<
pe+,ile 'i peten+iile
p!teneiloF
D cont!cte (eme e=pot ? impot
ce /e 4o coel! c, pl!n,l
"iectoF
D 4!lo!e! 9nc!/%ilo pent,
po",/ele li4!teF
D "oc,mente cont!:ileF
D in(om!+ii pel,c!teF
D in(om!+ii !/,p! pl!n,l,i "e
9nc!"!e 9n temenele "e
pe"!e ! poiectelo teEnico D
teEnolo#ice
D elemente "e /inte1% 'i "e
/t!ti/tic%F
D po#!me "e col!:o!eF
D po/pecte< pli!nte< cont!cte
(eme "e li4!eF
D !moni1!e! po#!m,l,i "e
li4%i c, c!p!cit%+ile e=i/tenteF
D po#!m,l "e o#!ni1!e<
cont!cte< necoel%i< "i/(,nc+ii<
lip/% !moni1!eF
D pl!n,l "e nom!e< potec+ie !
m,ncii 'i elementele "e
po",cti4it!teF
D :,#et "e cEelt,ieli< po#!m "e
(!:ic!+ieF
D p!!metii c!lit%+ii 'i (i!:ilit%+iiF
D meto"olo#ii "e pl!ni(ic!e 'i
,m%ie ! e!li1%ii pl!n,l,i
(o+elo "e m,nc% (,nc+ie "e
cein+eF
D po#!m,l "e potocol< ep!!+ie
imo:ile< "ot%i e"ilit!i
#o/po"%e'tiF
D po#!m,l "e !po4i1ion!t<
po#!m,l c, li4%ileF
D :!l!n+! e=pot ? impot pe
/otimenteF
D 4!lo!e! "e 4$n1!e !
po",/elo pent, >VCF
D "!te pent, !n!li1! economico ?
(in!nci!% pe :!1% "e :il!n+F
D "!te "e pel,c!e pe c!lc,l!to
0.=. STRATEGII MANAGERIALE
7t!te#i! e/te 'tiin+! 'i !t! "e ! "ecl!n'! to!te e/,/ele /ociet%+ii comeci!le pent,
!tin#ee! c, /,cce/ ! o:iecti4elo 'i /cop,ilo (i=!te.
G$n"ie! /t!te#ic% m!tei!l% "i/cene 'i "e(ine'te /cop,ile 'i o:iecti4ele pe temen
l,n# !le /ociet%+ii comeci!le 'i mi@lo!cele "e p,/ 9n ope% 9n 4e"ee! !tin#eii lo pec,m 'i
!loc!+iile "e e/,/e nece/!e. M!n!#e,l te:,ie /% "e(ine!/c% /cop,ile 'i o:iecti4ele
/ociet%+i comeci!le. 9n timp ce /cop,ile !, ,n /en/ m!i m,lt c!lit!ti4< "e pil"%< "e ! ce! ,n
clim!t (!4o!:il "e l,c,< "e14olt%ii pe/on!l,l,i 9n 4e"ee! ce'teii e(ic!cit%+ii 9nte#ii
!cti4it%+i ! 9ntepin"ei< o:iecti4ele /,nt m!i m,lt c,!nti(ic!:ile. G$n"ie! /t!te#ic%
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m!n!#ei!l% /e !plic% l! pl!n,ile 'i po#!mele "e "e14olt!e ! 9ntepin"eii 9n (,nc+ie "e
(o+ele e=tene c!eDi !(ecte!1% e,'it! pe temen l,n#.
7t!te#i! ,nei 9ntepin"ei 4i1e!1% 9n pincip!l /(e! "e po",/e 'i "e pie+e 9n c!e e/te
!n#!@!t% !ce!/t!< cee! ceDi o(e% m!n!#e,l,i !4!nt!@,l "e ! /e concent! !/,p! ,no "omenii
complet cont,!te !t$t pe pl!n,l !po4i1ion%ii c$t 'i !l "e/(!ceii po",/elo (imeiF 4ecto,l
"e ce'tee c!e in"ic% "iec+i! 9n c!e /e "e14olt% 9ntepin"ee!< oient!e! concet% !
/cEim:%ii /t!te#iceF !4!nt!@,l competiti4< p,/ 9n e4i"en+% "e c%te popiet%+ile /peci(ice !le
pie+elo 'i po",/elo c!e 4o !D/i#,! 9ntepin"eii o po1i+ie competiti4% /oli"%F /ine#i!<
c!e conceti1e!1% 'i m%/o!% c!p!cit!te! !ce/te! "e ! (!ce e(iciente 9nt%ile "e po",/e pe
pie+e.
Po#e/,l /ociet%+ii comeci!le implic% t!n/(om!e! 'i !"!pt!e! !ce/tei! l! noile
con"i+ii. M!n!#e,l e/te cEem!t /% (om,le1e /t!te#ie< !"ic% /% "etemine /cop,ile 'i
mi@lo!cele c!e 4o pemite e!li1!e! optim% ! !ce/tei !"!pt%i. Con'tient "e e/pon/!:ilit!te!
/!< !ce/t! e/te "!to /% cl!i(ice lini! /! "e !c+i,ne 9n !pot c, me"i,l< c, o:iecti4ele /!le 'i
c, e/,/ele !ce/t,i!.

+la)orarea strategiei manageriale
In"i(eent "e m%ime! /! /ociet!te! comeci!l% te:,ie /% (ie 9n m%/,% /%D'i conce!p% o
/t!te#ie popie. Pent, ! (om,l! /t!te#i!< m!n!#e,l te:,ie /% /t!:ile!/c% ,n mo"el 9n c!e
/% cl!i(ice componentele /t!te#iei /!leC
!B opot,nit!te! pie+eiF
:B competen+ele 'i e/,/ele 9ntepin"eiiF
cB "etemin!e! e/,/elo nece/!e pent, (iec!e et!p% /t,"i, 9n c!e pl!ni(ic!e! /e e=pim%
pin temeni "e m!teii pime< pe/on!l< po",/e (inite< /e4icii 'i !lteleF
"B c,no!'tee! moment,l,i 9n c!e (iec!e e/,/% e/te "i/poni:il%F
eB e/tim!e! timp,l,i nece/! e!li1%ii o:iecti4elo (iec%ei et!peF
@B (i=!e! "!telo peci/e pent, 9ncepee! 'i temin!e! (iec%ei et!pe.
Pent, !/emene ! po:leme m!n!#e,l po!te !pel! l! teEnic! ",m,l,i teEnic. In"i(eent
"e in/t,ment!,l c, c!e !c+ione!1%< m!n!#e,l e/te "!to /% in4e/ti#Ee1e 9n temeni
comple+i po:lem! ce'teii /ociet%+ii /!le comeci!le< !"opt$n" ,n compot!ment
9ntepin1%to.
Strategia dezvoltrii societii
In lite!t,! "e /peci!lit!te p,tem 9nt$lni n,meo!/e p,ncte "e 4e"ee pi4ito!e l!
concept,l "e /t!te#ie "e "e14olt!e ! 9ntepin"eii. 9n m!@oit!te! lo< !Dce/t concept e/te
"e(init c! !n/!m:l,l poce/elo "eci1ion!le "e !le#ee ! 4!i!ntelo optime !le o:iecti4elo
,nit%+ii 'i !le (!ctoilo "e c!e "epin"e !tin#ee! !ce/to o:iecti4e 9ntDo !n,mit% peio!"%.
Con",cee! /t!te#ic% e/te "i(een+i!t% "e con",cee! ope!ti4% 9n /t!te#i! "e14olt%ii
9ntepin"eii.
7t!te#i! "e "e14olt!e /e m!ni(e/t% 9n /ociet!te! comeci!l% pintDo 4!iet!te "e tip,i.
D,p% pioit!te! o:iecti4elo e=i/t% /t!te#ii economice< teEnice 'i teEnolo#ice< "e con",cee<
"e "e14olt!e ,m!n%< comeci!le. D!c% !4em 9n 4e"ee "in!mic! o:iecti4elo 4om e#%/i )n
!ce/t c!1 /t!te#ii "e men+inee< /t!te#ii "e ce'tee< !ce/te! "i ,m% (iin" :!1!te pe
!c,m,l!e 'i ino4!e. Un !lt citei, po!te (i ecepti4it!te! l! /cEim:!e c!1 9n c!e /t!te#iile
pot (i "e con/oli"!e< ini+i!ti4e< ino4!+ion!le. A"ic% !4em 9n 4e"ee tip,l o:iecti4elo !t,nci
/t!te#iile pot (i "e pi!+%< "e po",/< "e o#!ni1!e< in(om!+ion!le. N!t,! !:o"%ii
o:iecti4elo po!te con/tit,i ,n citei, "e cl!/i(ic!e< poti4it c%,i! /t!te#iile /e 9mp!t 9n
/t!te#ii o(en/i4e< "e(en/i4e 'i inte/ti+i!leF i! ",p% /(e! "e c,pin"ee 4om e#%/i /t!te#ii
#lo:!le 'i /t!te#ii p!+i!le.
5&
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
7t!te#i! "e "e14olt!e ! 9ntepin"ei c,pin"e ,m%to!ele elementeC o:iecti4ele<
meto"ele 'i !c+i,nile p!ctice "e o#!ni1!e 'i con",cee ! 9ntepin"eii< e/,/ele nece/!e.
O:iecti4ele /t!te#iei "e "e14olt!e ! /ociet%+ii comeci!le c,pin" /!cini e(ecti4e<
concete c!e ,me!1% /% /e e!li1e1e "e c%te !ce!/t! 9n c!",l ,n,i oi1ont "e timp<
coe/p,n1%to /t!te#iei.
2olo/in" meto"ele m!tem!ticii mo"ene 'i ! teEnicii "e c!lc,l 'i pe :!1! in(om!+iilo
o:+in,te pin "i!#no1% 'i po#no1%< m!n!#e,l tece l! mo"el!e! !po=im!ti4% ! con"i+iilo
4iito!e 9n c!e 4! (,nc+ion! /ociet!te! comeci!l%< pin c!lc,l,l e(icien+ei.
Meto"ele p!ctice "e o#!ni1!e 'i con",cee ! 9ntepin"ei /,nt "e !/emene!< elemente
!le /t!te#iei "e14olt%ii. Ele 4i1e!1% 9n mo" concet "iec+iile pe c!e te:,ie /% le ,me1e
9ntepin"ee! pent, e!li1!e! o:iecti4elo. C! meto"e !"ec4!te !ce/t,i /cop 4om e#%/i
/peci!li1!e po",c+iei< ino4!e! teEnolo#ic%< c,ceie! "e noi pie+e "e "e/(!cee<
"i4e/i(ic!e! po",/elo 'i /e4iciilo< pe(ec+ion!e! po(e/ion!l% !t$t ! c!"elo "e
con",cee c$t 'i ! /!l!i!+ilo.
2!ctoii c!e in(l,en+e!1% /t!te#iile "e "e14olt!e pot (i e4ol,+i! 'tiin+i(ic% 'i teEnic%
contempo!n% 'i c!e cee c! 9n poce/,l "e "e14olt!e /% /e pe4!"% into",cee! no,l,i 9n
/ociet!te! comeci!l%F /it,!+i! e/,/elo ene#etice< "e m!teii pime 'i m!tei!leF /it,!+i!
e/,/elo "e (o+% "e m,nc%< e/pecti4 e1i/ten+! /,: !/pect n,meic 'i c!lit!ti4< pec,m 'i
peoc,p%ile 4iito!e pent, "etemin!e! nece/!,l,i "e pe/on!l< mo",l "e ec,t!e<
/elect!e!< 9nc!"!e! 'i pe#%tie! po(e/ion!l% ! !ce/t,i!F pi!+! 'i e4ol,+i! !ce/tei!< ! c%ei
c,no!'tee nece/it% /t,"iee! temeinic% ! ceeii 'i o(etei< c,no!'tee! 'i /,p!4e#Eee!
pem!nent% ! lo pent, c! pe !ce!/t% c!le m!n!#e,l /% po!t% !"opt! "eci1ii coecteF politic!
p!teneilo inteni 'i e=teniF !"!pt!e! po",/elo 'i /e4iciilo l! cein+ele pie+ei 'i
con/,m!toilo "! 'i !4$n" 9n 4e"ee !tit,"ine! con/,m!toilo.
7t!te#i! m!i po!te (i "e(init% c! (iin" ,n !n/!m:l, !l mi/i,nilo 'i o:iecti4elo (imei<
pe "eDo p!te< pec,m 'i mi@lo!cele< politicile 'i pl!n,ile e/en+i!le pent, 9n"eplinie!
!ce/to!< pe "e !lt% p!te /t!te#i! 9ntepin"eii "e(ine'te (el,l !cti4it%+ilo pe c!e le 4o
"e14olt! 'i tip,l "e o#!ni1!+ie 9n c!e /e 4! con/tit,i pe 4iito. 7t!te#i! 9ntepin"eii
pop,ne "eci1ii 'i !c+i,ni 9n !le#ee! mi@lo!celo 'i !loc!e! e/,/elo nece/!e !tin#ee!
,no o:iecti4eC !ce!/t! /t!:ile'te cele m!i poti4ite o(ete pent, ceeile !le/e< c!e l! $n",l
lo coe/p,n" o:iecti4elo "e pi!+%.
Oient!e! /t!te#ic% c,pin"e 4i1i,ne! /t!te#ic% ! 9ntepin"eii mo"ene c!e e/te tot
m!i m,lt imp,/% "e con"i+iile 9n c!e !ce!/t! 9'i "e/(%'o!% !cti4it!te!. E/te 4o:! "e
con"i+iile intene c$t 'i "e cele e=teio!e. Viito,l /e implic% "in ce 9n ce m!i m,lt 9n 4i!+!
!ce/to!. Oient!e! "e pe/pecti4% n, pe/,p,ne 9n/% "o! ce'tee! ol,l,i pe4i1i,nilo 9n
(,n"!ment!e! "eci1iilo.
7t!te#i! "e pi!+% @,"icio/ /t!:ilit% te:,ie /% con",c% pin t!n/p,nee! ei 9n p!ctic% c$t
m!i !"ec4!t "e !pot,i 9nte 9ntepin"ee 'i pi!+%. 7t!te#i! "e pi!+% te:,ie /%
9nm%n,ncEe1e to!te (,nc+iile m!Ietin#,l,iC /t,"iee! cein+elo pie+ei< !"!pt!e! !cti4it%+ii
economice l! !ce/te cein+eb /!ti/(!cee! lo 'i o:+inee! ,nei e(iciente m!=ime epe1int%
coo"on!tele 9n/ele !le /t!te#iei "e pi!+%. 7t!te#i! n, te:,ie /% (ie "et!li!t% 'i "o! peci/% 'i
e!li/t%. O:iecti4ele 4o e=pim!< 9n temen ope!+ion!l Acot! "e pi!+%< 4ol,m "e 4$n1%i< ni4el
"e ent!:ilit!teB< pe(om!n+ele 4i1!te "e 9ntepin"ee.
T!ctic! "e m!Ietin# epe1int% mo"!lit!te! "e !plic!e ! /t!te#iei. 8nte /t!te#ie 'i
t!cticile !(eente te:,ie /% e=i/te o coe/pon"en+%. T!cticile /e !(l% 9n el!+ii "e /,:o"on!e
(!+% "e /t!te#ii. Re,nin" /t!te#iile 'i t!cticile !(eente< politic! "e m!Ietin# "e/emne!1% ,n
!n,mit /til popi, 9ntepin"eii. Do,% 9ntepin"ei pot !4e! !cele!'i o:iecti4e< "!
mo"!lit%+ile 'i c%ile concete l! c!e "ec,# pot (i "i(eite.
5)iective strategice
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O:iecti4ele /t!te#ice pot (i #lo:!le /!,P'i p!+i!le< i! c!!ctei/ticile !ce/to! po!te (i
"e m!=imi1!e< "e optimi1!e 'i "e /!ti/(!c+ie 9n (,nc+ie "eC /peci(ic,l pie+ei< moment,l
"e14olt%ii 9n c!e /e !(l% (im!< con@,nct,! (!ctoilo conc,en+i!li '.!.
Pincip!le o:iecti4e /t!te#ice !le ,nei 9ntepin"ei "e /e4icii pot (i ,m%to!eleC
!B "e14olt!e!< pinC ce'tee! po",c+iei< pe/t!+iei< !:o"!e! ,no noi pie+e< po",/e 'i
/e4icii noiF
:B "i4e/i(ic!e o(etei< pinC "e14olt!e! ,no "omenii col!te!le< !:o"!e! ,no noi "omenii
A!m:ele c! e1,lt!t !l cecet%iiBF
cB m!=imi1!e! po(it,l,i pinC !/i#,!e! e#!lit%+ii "inte 4enit,l m!#in!l 'i co/t,l m!#in!l<
!ct,!li1!e! pem!nent% ! co/t,ilo 'i pe+,ilo< i"enti(ic!e! ten"in+elo pie+ei /peci(ice 'i !
!pot,l,i ceeeDo(et%< c,no!'tee! pem!nent% ! pie+elo 'i po",/elo conc,ente.
7inteti1$n"< (!ctoii /t!te#ici pot (i ,m%toiiC 9ntepin"ee! c, e/,/e in/,(icient
4!loi(ic!teF conc,en+!< !n!li1$n" /e#mentele "e pi!+% pe c!e !c+ione!1% 'i mo",l 9n c!e
o:+ine m!i m,lte e1,lt!teF pi!+!< c,no/c$n",Di e4ol,+i! 'i ten"in+eleF e/,/ele ,m!ne<
contin,, !"!pt!te l! e=i#en+ele pie+ei /peci(iceF "i/ti:,+i!< 9n contin,% !"!pt!e l! cein+ele
pie+ei "e /e4iciiF e/,/ele (in!nci!e nece/!e e!li1%ii o:iecti4elo /t!te#ice c!e pot (i
popii< !t!/e< !/ociei< m%ii "e c!pit!l 'i !ltele.
Componentele strategiei
Pincip!lele componente !le /t!te#iei "e pi!+% /,nt ,m%to!eleC pi!+! po",/,l,i
Aconc,en+ii poten+i!li< po",/ele /imil!e< etcBF ni4el,l in4e/ti+iilo Acoe/p,n1%to op+i,nilo
"e ce'tee< "e men+inee /!, e/t$n#ee ! !cti4it%+iiBF /,:D/t!te#ii pent, (iec!e /ecto 4i1!t
Ape+< pomo4!e< "i/ti:,+ieBF c!p!cit!te! m!n!#ei!l% 'i mi@lo!ce "e /,/+inee ! /t!te#iei
!le/eF !loc!e! e/,/elo pe "iec+ii "e !D(!ceiF coo:o!e! e(ectelo /ine#ice A"e14olt!e!
,no !cti4it%+i "i(eite ce /e /,/+in ecipocB etc.
!ipuri de strategii
Pincip!lele /t!te#ii "e pi!+% /,nt ,m%to!eleC
W e=tin"ee! !cti4it%+iiC c! 4ol,m< !ie "e e(ein+% 'i !c+i,ne< /t,ct,% conco"!nt% c,
ceee! 'i c, /e1on!lit!te!F
W !le#ee! cel,i m!i (!4o!:il /e#ment "e !c+i,neC c! opot,nit!te ! pie+ei 'i c! /peci!li1!e
po/i:il% pent, (im%F
W "e14olt!e! "e !cti4it%+i complement!e po(il,l,iC pin "i4e/i(ic!e p!+i!l%< epo(il!e
tempo!%< !"!pt!e! l! noi teEnolo#ii< #%/ie! ,no noi /e#mente "e con/,m!toiF
W licEi"!e! p!+i!l% /!, tot!l%< 9n!inte c! tot,l /% (ie pie",t< !/t(el 9nc$t /% /e po!t% 9ncepe o
no,% !(!ceeF
W /t!te#i! "e penet!e ! pie+ei< pin con/oli"!e! po1i+iei !ct,!le !pel$n" l! ce'tee!
e(ecti4it%+ii 'i e(icien+ei pomo4%ii 'i "i/ti:,+iei A/poie! c!ntit%+ilo con/,m!te< (olo/ie!
m!i (ec4ent ! ,n,i po",/< 9nloc,ie! !ce/t,i! l! temene m!i /c,te< etcBF
W /t!te#i! "e e(om!e< !"ic% "e 9m:,n%t%+ii !le po",/elo 9n 4e"ee! /poiii 4$n1%iloF
W /t!te#i! "e 9nloc,ie< pin l!n/!e! "e /otimente noi< 9m:,n%t%+ite< 9n #lo:$n" teEnolo#ii
!"ec4!te po",/,l,iF
W /t!te#i! "i(een+ieii po",/elo 'i ce! ! /e#ment%ii pie+ei pent, "e14olt!e! ,no noi
4!i!nte /otiment!leF
W /t!te#i! e=tin"eii liniei po",/elo< c,pin1$n" "e14olt!e! "e noi poD",/e "e/tin!te
!celo!'i /e#mente "e pi!+% Ae=.C po",/e c,lin!e< po",/e electoniceBF
W /t!te#i! "i4e/i(ic%ii concentice< pin !t!#ee! "e noi /e#mente "e c,mp%%toi<
!"%,#$n" l! lini! !ct,!l% "e po",/e 4!i!nte noi< c!e o(e% 4!i!ntele /ine#etice Ae=.C
!limente 'i :%,t,i "ieteticeBF
5)
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Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
W /t!te#i! "i4e/i(ic%ii oi1ont!le< pin "e14olt!e! "e noi po",/e c!e ,tili1e!1% teEnolo#ii
"i(eite "e cele !le po",/elo !ct,!le Ae=.C !l%t,i "e !,tomo:ile< electonice "e (olo/in+%
9n"el,n#!t% /e o(e% c!lc,l!to!e electoniceBF
W /t!te#i! "i4e/i(ic%ii l!te!le< pin e!li1!e! "e po",/e noi c!e n, !, nici o le#%t,% c,
cele !ct,!le.
7t!te#iile !nticonc,en+i!le /,nt "e o(en/i4% A9n c!1,l ,n,i 9n!lt #!" "e !"!pt!eB<
"e(en/i4% A9n c!1,l ,no eo#!ni1%iB< "e "i(een+iee Apin "elimit!e! !cti4it%+ii 9n !pot c,
conc,en+!B 'i "e tole!n+% A",p% c!1B.
7t!te#iile 4i1$n" e/,/ele ,m!ne /,nt le#!te "e pe(ec+ion!e! contin,% ! pe/o!nelo
pin (o+elo popii 'i ecicl!e! c!"elo 9n ,nit%+i /peci!li1!te.
7t!te#iile (in!nci!D:!nc!e /,nt "!te "e (in!n+!e! pin 9mp,m,t,i< "in e/,/e
popii 'i pin coope!e etc.
7t!te#i! "e "i/ti:,+ie e/te epe1ent!t% "e c!n!lele "e "i/ti:,+ie 9ncopo!te Acon",/e
"e l! cent,B<!"mini/t!te Apo",cti4it!te! 'i "i/ti:,+i! /,nt coo"on!te pin p,tee!
economic% ! ,nei p%+i "in /i/temB 'i c!n!l cont!ct,!l A(ime c!e inte#e!1% /i/temele "e
po",c+ie 'i "i/ti:,+ie pe :!1e cont!ct,!le 9n /cop,l "e ! "o:$n"i economii m!i m!i /!, ,n
imp!ct m!i m!e !/,p! pie+eiB.
Di/ti:,+i! /e "e/(%'o!% "i(eit 9n c!1,i "i(eite 'i c,pin"e ,m%to!ele et!peC
1. O:iecti4ele c!n!l,l,i< inte#$n" "eci1i! c, pi4ie l! c!n!l,l "e "i/ti:,+ie 9n pl!n,l 'i
/t!te#i! "e !n/!m:l, ! m!Ietin#,l,i.
2. Con/t$n#eile !lc%t,iii c!n!l,l,i< ec,no/c$n" c% p!ctic op+i,nile c, pi4ie l! c!n!l,l "e
"i/ti:,+ie pot (i /e4e limit!te "e (!ctoi "e con/t$n#ee< c,m ! (iC "i/poni:ilit!te! ,no :,ni
inteme"i!i< /cEemele t!"i+ion!le !le (,nc+ion%ii c!n!lelo "e "i/ti:,+ie< c!!ctei/ticile
po",/,l,i< (in!n+ele comp!niei< /t!te#iile competiti4e 'i "i/pe/i! clien+ilo.
*. 7peci(ic!e! /!cinilo c!n!l,l,i< ec,no/c$n" c% ,n c!n!l e/te o /ec4en+% "e !cti4it%+i.
.. E4!l,!e! c!n!lelo !lten!ti4e< !"ic% ! n,m%,l,i "e p!'i /!, "e ni4ele ce te:,ie incl,/e
9n c!n!l< ! n,m%,l,i "e inteme"i!i ce ,me!1% ! (i !n#!@!+i< ! tip,l,i "e inteme"i!i 'i !
n,m%,l,i c!n!lelo "i/tincte "e ,tili1!t.
5. 7elect!e! c!n!l,l,i< /elect$n" 4!i!nt! c!e e/te ce! m!i :,n% c!e 9n copoe!1% cel m!i
:ine "eopoti4% !/pectele /c,te /!, l,n#i !le ,n,i c!n!l "e "i/ti:,+ie.
Cele m!i impot!nte 4!i!:ile ,tili1!te pent, ! cl!/i(ic! 'i pe4e"e! c!n!l,l "e
"i/ti:,+ie /,nt ,m%to!eleC m%ime! (imei A(im! (iin" m!i m!e !e popi,l c!n!l "e
"i/ti:,+ieB< m%ime! comen1ii me"ii A"!c% m%ime! comen1ii ce'te /e economi/e'te
"i/ti:,+i!B< comple=it!te! temicii "e c,mp%!e Ace'tee! impot!n+ei po",/,l,i /!,
/e4ici,l,i 'i ! "oin+ei "e c,mp%!e (!c m!i e(icient% "i/ti:,+i! "iect%B< /t!"i,l "in cicl,l "e
4i!+% !l po",/,l,i Apo",/ no,< 9m:,n%t%+it< po",/ !le c%,i 4$n1%i /,nt /c%1,teB< #!",l "e
/t!n"!"i1!e Am!i epe"e e/te 4$n",t "iect ,n po",/ comple= /!, ,nicB.
C!n!l,l "e "i/ti:,+ie !l (imei epe1int% :!1! pent, !lte politici "e m!Ietin#. Din
!ce/te moti4e< con",cee! 4! "oi /% e=ecite o #i@% /poit% 9n "eci1iile /!le c, pi4ie l!
/t!te#i! "e "i/ti:,+ie< loc!li1!e 'i lo#i/tic%. 7t!te#i! "e "i/ti:,+ie epe1int% "etemin!e!
celei m!i :,ne c%i 9n c!e (im! 9'i po!te c$'ti#! clien+ii.
Ampl!/!e! e+elei "e "i/ti:,+ie e/te (o!te impot!nt% "eo!ece compot% . "eci1ii
intecoel!teC /elect!e! "e m!Ietin#< n,m%,l p,nctelo "e 4$n1!e< loc!li1!e! 'i m%ime! 'i
!lte c!!ctei/tici !le m!#!1inelo. O (im% ceD'i pl!ni(ic% /% 9n(iin+e1e noi p,ncte "e 4$n1!e
te:,ie /% "etemine 9n ce 1on% ! pie+ei le 4! !mpl!/!. O 1on% ! pie+ei po!te (iC @,"e+,l< o!',l<
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/!t,l /!, o e#ine 9n c!e !ce/te p,ncte pot (i "e/cEi/e. Ace!/t% po:lem% po!te (i con/i"e!t%
o m!coDpo:lem%< /pe "eo/e:ie "e !le#ee! loc,l,i c!e e/te o micoDpo:lem%.
8n el!:o!e! p,nct,l,i "e 4$n1!e te:,ie /% /e +in% cont "eC "eci1i! "e /elect!e !
!mpl!/!ment,l,i< m%ime! !ce/t,i! 'i "eci1iile c!!ctei/tice. 7t,"iile !!t% c% el!+iile "inte
n,m%,l p,nctelo "e 4$n1!e 'i 9mp%+ie! pie+ei /,nt nelimit!te 'i< 9n #ene!l< 9n (om! liteei
7. Un n,m% mic "e p,ncte "e 4$n1!e #enee!1% p%+i mici "e pi!+%F c$n" n,m%,l p,nctelo
"e 4$n1!e ce'te< p%+ile "e pi!+% ce/c m!i epe"e p$n% "ep%'e/c !ce/t n,m%. Apoi< c,m
n,m%,l p,nctelo "e 4$n1!e contin,% /% ce!/c%< !t! "e ce'tee ! p%+ilo "e pi!+% 9ncepe /%
"e/ce!/c%. De'i p!te "e /,/ ! c,:ei po!te (i e=empli(ic!t% pin p,+ine c!1,i< p!te "e @o/
e/te :ine "oc,ment!t%. D!< "eo!ece 9mp%+ie! pie+ei te:,ie /% ecEi4!le1e c, n,m%,l
p,nctelo "e 4$n1!e< p!te! "e /,/ ! c,:ei po!te (i int,it%.
7t!te#i! /e4iciilo t,i/tice !e 9n 4e"ee ,m%to!ele elementeC
!B !#en+iile "e t,i/m !"mini/te!1% elemente t!n#i:ile !le /e4iciiloC in4e/ti+iile<
ecEip!ment,l< po",/,l t,i/ticF
:B concept,l "e /e4ici,C mo",l c,m ! "oi !#en+i! /% i /e !pecie1e /e4iciileF
cB /i/tem,l "e "i/ti:,+ie ! po",/,l,i t,i/ticF
"B competitoiiC !#en+ii 'i !l+i pe/t!toi c!e o(e% !cele!'i c!te#oii "e /e4iciiF
eB con/,m!toiiC :ene(ici!ii o(etelo "e /e4icii.
7t!te#i! /e4iciilo t,i/tice pe/,p,ne 'i el!:o!e! ,no /t!te#ii p!+i!leC
!B /t!te#i! #!mei "e /e4icii. O !#en+ie "e t,i/m po!te /%D'i e=tin"% /!, /%D'i e/t$n#% p!let!
/e4iciilo ",p% nece/it%+ile pe c!e le o(e% pi!+!F
:B /t!te#i! "e pe+,i 'i /e4iciiF
cB "i/poni:ilit!te! o(eteiC mo:ilit!te! 9n concepee! 'i e!li1!e! po",/elo t,i/tice 4!
"e/cin"e "in el!+i! "e col!:o!e /t!tonic% 9nte !#en+iile "e t,i/m 'i pe/t!toiF
"B /t!te#i! c!lit%+iiF
eB concept,l "e po",/ t,i/tic. Nici o !#en+ie n, i/c% l!n/!e l! 9nt$mpl!e pe pi!+% ! ,n,i
po",/ t,i/tic. Pe#%tie! pent, comeci!li1!e 9ncepe "in moment,l c$n" po",/,l 4! (i !pt
pent, ! (i comeci!li1!t.
Pl!n,ile /t!te#ice /e "i(een+i!1% "eci 'i "in p,nct "e 4e"ee !l p!tic,l!it%+ilo
po",/,l,i "etemin!t< 9n!inte "e to!te< "e /e1on!lit!te! !cti4it%+ii t,i/tice< "e ",!t! cicl,l,i
"e 4i!+% !l po",/,l,i 'i "e con"i+iile 9n c!e po",/,l ce!t 4! p,te! (i 4!loi(ic!t.
In pl!n,ile /t!te#ice !le noilo po",/e< m!n!#ement,l !#en+ilo "e t,i/m te:,ie /%
incl,"% ,m%to!ele /ec+i,niC
D loc!li1!e! con/,m,l,i /e4iciilo A+!!< 1on!< /t!+i,niiBF
D "imen/i,nile c!p!cit%+ii ecepto!e "e c!e po!te "i/p,ne o !#en+ie "e t,i/mF
D contol,l ope!+i,nilo "e "e,l!e ! /e4iciilo.
)-
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
CAPITOLUL V
METODE MODERNE DE CONDUCERE
Acti4it%+ile "in /(e! /e4iciilo /,nt c, pec%"ee 9n"ept!te c%te e=teio< c%te
clientPcon/,m!to< c! 'i /pe celel!lte componente !le me"i,l,i economic 9n c!",l c%o!
9ntepin"ee! D in"i(eent "e "imen/i,ne D 9'i "e/(%'o!% !cti4it!te!. 9n !ce/t conte=t< pent,
!tin#ee! o:iecti4elo "oite< e/te ,tili1!t ,n 9nte# !/en!l comple= "e meto"e< teEnici 'i
in/t,mente "e con",cee< poce",i "eci1ion!le< in(om!+ion!le 'i o#!ni1!toice ce 4o p,ne
9n mi'c!e (!ctoii ,m!ni< m!tei!li 'i (in!nci!i 9n 4e"ee! !tin#eii e1,lt!telo peconi1!te
"e c%te con",c%to.
8n m!n!#ement< meto"! epe1int% m!nie! 9n c!e con",cee!< c, !@,to,l ,n,i
comple= "e in/t,mente< poce"ee 'i teEnici< 9'i e=ecit% in(l,en+! !/,p! (!ctoilo ,m!ni<
m!tei!li 'i cEi! (in!nci!i< 9n /cop,l ,nei (olo/ii !+ion!le ! !ce/to! 9n poce/,l m,ncii< 9n
/cop,l o:+ineii e1,lt!telo peconi1!te.
Meto"ele 'i teEnicile "e con",cee /,nt cl!/i(ic!te ",p% n,meo!/e citeii Amo",l "e
!plic!e< "omeni,l "e ,tili1!e< o:iect,l ,m%it< c!!cte,l !ce/t,i!BF "inte !ce/te!< cel m!i
impot!nt /e !peci!1% c% e/te cel !l /(eei "e !plic!:ilit!te< c!e le #,pe!1% 9nC
S Metode generale de conducere D 4i1e!1% !n/!m:l,l poce/,l,i "e con",cee oi m!i m,lte
(,nc+ii< /e pot !plic! 9n to!te "omeniile "e !cti4it!te< !t$t l! ni4el,l 9ntepin"eii< c$t 'i !l
/,:"i4i1i,nilo !ce/to!. Din $n",l !ce/to!< !mintimC con",cee! pin o:iecti4e< pin
po",/< pin e=cep+ii< pin :,#ete< pin /i/teme< pin poiecte< pin con/en/ etc.
S Metode $i tehnici speci)ice c!e /e !plic% 9n c!",l ,nei (,nc+ii< c, o /(e% "e !plic!:ilit!te
m!i e/t$n/%< e=.C teEnici /ociometice< teEnici !n!lo#ice< teEnici "epo1it!e etc.
)1
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
3.(. MANAGEMENTUL PRIN PROIECTE
8n concepee! 'i e!li1!e! poce/,l,i "e m!n!#ement inte4in o /eie "e mo"i(ic%i
menite /% !/i#,e concepee! 'i !/imil!e! !pi"% 'i e(icient% "e noi po",/e< teEnolo#ii. 8nte
elementele no, !p%,te /e "et!'e!1% /i/tem,l m!n!#ement,l,i pe :!1% "e poiect. 8n mo"
(ie/c< "e(inie! m!n!#ement,l,i pin poiecte D pe/c,t!t M.P.P. D implic% /t!:ilie! 9n !ce/t
conte=t ! con+in,t,l,i no+i,nii "e poiect. Pin poiect /e "e/emne!1% ,n !n/!m:l, "e poce/e
"e m,nc%< 9n m!e p!te c, c!!cte ino4!+ion!l< "e n!t,% "i(eit%< ! c%o e!li1!e ,m%e'te
9n"eplinie! c, /,cce/ ! ,nei mi/i,ni comple=e< c, o /peci(icit!te i"ic!t%.
C!!ctei/ticile e/en+i!le !le ,n, poiect /,nt ,m%to!eleC
D e1,lt!t,l (in!l !l ,n,i poiect e/te o ,nit!te /!, ,n n,m% mic "e ,nit%+i< 9n opo1i+ie c,
po",c+i! "e m!/% /!, "e /eie m!e c!!ctei1!te pin c!ntit%+i !peci!:ile "intD,n po",/ !l
#!mei /otiment!leF
D 9n #ene!l< n, e=i/t% "ec$t ,n c,mp%%to 'i ,n :ene(ici! (in!l pent, po",/,l ! c%,i
e!li1!e /e ,m%e'te pin poiect< /it,!+ie !"ic!l "eo/e:it% "e ce! e=i/tent% in c!1,l
po",c+iei "e m!/%< /ei! m!e< mi@locie /!, mic%F
D m!tei!le 'i po",/ele ,tili1!te /,nt (o!te "i4e/i(ic!tele "e ,n"e e1,lt% nece/it!te! c!<
(ec4ent< pe p!c,/,l poiect,l,i /% /e e(ect,e1e cecet%i !plic!ti4e !le c%o e1,lt!te /e
inte#e!1% 9n !n/!m:l,l poiect,l,i 9n c,/ "e e!li1!eF
D "i4e/i(ic!e! 'i comple=it!te! po:lemelo implic% !pot,l ,n,i n,m% m!e "e /peci!li'ti
"e "i(eite /peci!lit%+i c!e< 9n mo" o:i'n,it< 9'i "e/(%'o!% m,nc! 9n m!i m,lte
comp!timenteF
D /pe "eo/e:ie "e po",c+i! c,ent%< "e14olt!e! ,n,i poiect e/te tempo!%< ,n o:iecti4
m!@o epe1ent$n",Dl 9n/%'i e",cee! l! m!=im,m ! ",!tei "e e!li1!eF
D "!t% (iin" impot!n+! e/,/elo ,m!ne< m!tei!le 'i (in!nci!e implic!te "e e!li1!e!
poiect,l,i e/te nece/!% /t!:ilie! 9n !4!n/< c$t m!i "et!li!t%< ! ope!+i,nilo 'i temenelo "e
e=ec,t!eF no,t!te! 'i "i4e/it!te! po:lemelo< "i(ic,lt%+ile teEnice 'i e/tic+iile tempo!e
(!c e=tem "e "i(icil% 9ntocmie! "e pl!n,i /!, po#!me e!li/te "et!li!te pe temen l,n#
<me"i, 'i cEi! /c,t< cee! ce /e e(lect% 'i 9n nece/it!te! !"!pt%ii lo 9n (,nc+ie "e e4ol,+i!
e!li1%ii poiect,l,iF
Dcon/t,ie! ,no (ome o#!ni1!toice tempo!e ce (,nc+ione!1% p!!lel c, /t,ct,!
o#!ni1!toic% "e :!1! ! 9ntepin"eii.
Deci< M.P.P. po!te (i "e(init c! ,n /i/tem "e m!n!#ement c, o ",!t% "e !c+i,ne
limit!t%< cel m!i !"e/e! c$+i4! !ni< concep,t 9n 4e"ee! /ol,+ion%ii ,no po:leme comple=e<
"! "e(inite peci/< c, ,n p,tenic c!!cte ino4!+ion!l< c!e implic% !pot,l ,nei l!#i #!me "e
"i4e'i /peci!li'ti< "in /,:"i4i1i,ni o#!ni1!toice "i(eite< inte#!+i intDo e+e! o#!ni1!toic%
!,tonom%.
Mo"!lit%+ile o#!ni1!toice c, !@,to,l c%o! /e ope!+ion!li1e!1! M.P.P. "epin"e
/en/i:il "e o /eie "e 4!i!:ile< c,m ! (iC !mplo!e! poiect,l,i< no,t!te! poiect,l,i<
peio!"! "e e!li1!e ! poiect,l,i< n,m%,l 'i poten+i!l,l pe/on!l,l,i (imei< "i/ti:,+i!
/peci!li'tilo 9n /,:"i4i1i,nile o#!ni1!toice< c!!ctei/tice clim!t,l,i "e m,nc%<
pe/on!lit!te! m!n!#e,l,i "e poiect. 8n (,nc+ie "e c!!ctei/ticile o#!ni1!+ion!le pincip!le<
!ce/te! /e pot "i4i1! in tei c!te#oiiC
!B Management pe %aza de proiect cu responsa%ilitate individual
8n e/en+%< !ce/t! /e c!!ctei1e!1% pin !ti:,ie! 9nte#ii e/pon/!:ilit%+i pent,
"e,l!e! poiect,l,i ,nei /in#,e pe/o!ne< c!e !/i#,% 9nte!#! m,nc% "e coo"on!e.
Pent, e!li1!e! poiect,l,i< m!n!#e,l !ce/t,i! /e /pi@in% pe e/pon/!:ilii "e/emn!+i c,
)2
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Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
e(ect,!e! !c+i,nilo implic!te 9n comp!timentele ,nit%+ii. Un !t!e mo" "e o#!ni1!e !
M.P.P. pe1int% !4!nt!@ele e",ceii l! minim,m ! cEelt,ielilo c, pe/on!l 'i (olo/iii
e=peien+ei m,ncitoilo 'i /peci!li'tilo (imei.
Uneoi 9n/%< pe/on!l,l p,/ l! "i/po1i+ie 'i comp!timentele n, /,nt 9ntot"e!,n! "e
c!lit!te coe/p,n1%to!e< c,no/c,t% (iin" ten"in+! c! 'e(ii /% /e "i/pe/e1e c, pioit!te "e
pe/o!nele m!i p,+in pe#%tite /!, in/,(icient "e /$#,incio!/e. Alt "e1!4!nt!@ con/t% 9n
ne"e#e4!e! coe/p,n1%to!e ! pe/on!l,l,i implic!t 9n e!li1!e! poiect,l,i "e e(ect,!e
/!cinilo pece"ente< "e ,n"e 'i po:!:ilit!te! !peci!:il% ! ne#li@%ii e=ec,t%ii /!cinilo
!(eente poiect,l,i.
:B Management pe %aza de proiect cu stat major. 8n c!1,l !ce/tei mo"!lit%+i
o#!ni1!toice "ii@!e! !n/!m:l,l,i !c+i,nilo implic!te "e e!li1!e! poiect,l,i e/te
!/i#,!t% "e m!n!#e,l "e poiect< 9n col!:o!e c, ,n colecti4 ce /e oc,p% 9n e=cl,/i4it!te "e
!ce!/t! po:lem%. Pent, e(ect,!e! celol!lte !c+i,ni /e !pele!1% l! !@,to,l /peci!li'tilo "in
comp!timent,l (imei "e/emn!+i 9n pe!l!:il "e con",cee! !ce/tei!. C!lit!te! e1,lt!telo
o:+in,te "epin"e 9ntDo m%/,! !peci!:il% "e competen+! colecti4,l,i /peci!l con/tit,it pent,
M.P.P.
cB Management pe %aza de proiect mi*t D epe1int%< e4i"ent< o 9m:in!e ! pece"entelo
tip,i "e M.P.P.< c,m,l$n" 9ntDo !n,mit! m%/,% !t$t !4!nt!@ele c$t /i "e1!4!nt!@ele !ce/to!.
L! (el c! 'i in pece"ent! mo"!lit!te o#!ni1!toic%< M.P.P. mi=t e/te ,tili1!t c, o (ec4en+%
i"ic!t% 9n 9ntepin"eile "in +%ile "e14olt!te< c,pin1$n" ,m%to!ele (!1e "e e!li1!eC
D De(inie! #ene!l% ! poiect,l,i< cee! ce incl,"e < 9n pincip!l pe1icee! o:iecti4elo
,m%ite< /t!:ilie! !mpl,%ii poiect,l,i 'i /,:"i4i1i,nilo o#!ni1!toice implic!te 9n
e!li1!e! /!< e4i"en+iee! 1onelo "elic!te ,n"e te:,ie !c+ion!t c, p,"en+% 'i (om,l!e!
citeiilo "e !peciee ! e1,lt!telo (in!leF
D De/emn!e! m!n!#e,l,i poiect,l,i< ! e/pon/!:ilit%+ilo /,:colecti4elo componente
'i ! celol!lte pe/o!ne c!e 4o p!ticip! l! e!li1!e! poiect,l,iF
D De(inie! o#!ni1!toic% ! poiect,l,i< ce /e e(e% l! /t!:ilie! tip,l,i "e o#!ni1!e
,tili1!t< 9ntocmie! li/tei pincip!lelo /!cini< competen+e /i e/pon/!:ilit%+i pent, m!n!#e,l
poiect,l,i 'i componen+ii colecti4,l,i "e e!li1!e ! !ce/t,i!< /t!:ilie! m%imii /i
componentei /t!t,l,i m!@oF
D Pe#%tie! clim!t,l,i pent, implement!e! M.P.P. pin pe1ent!e! no,l,i /i/tem 'i !
!4!nt!@elo /!le t,t,o componen+ilo comp!timentelo implic!teF o !ten+ie m!@o% /e !co"%
"i/c,t%ii c, 'e(ii /,:"i4i1i,nilo o#!ni1!toice !le 9ntepin"eii 9n 4e"ee! con4in#eii lo
"e ,tilit!te! poiect,l,i 'i "e nece/it!te! /pi@iniii e!li1%ii l,iF
D 7t!:ilie! mo"!lit%+ilo "e contol ce 4o (i ,tili1!te pe p!c,/,l e!li1%ii poiect,l,i
"i(een+i!t< pent, 4ei(ic!e! timpilo "e e=ec,+ie< ! cEelt,ielilo 'i ! e1,lt!telo p!+i!le 'i
(in!leF
D Implement!e! M.P.P. pin tecee! l! e!li1!e! o:iecti4elo pe4%1,te 'i e=ecit!e!
/!cinilo< competen+elo 'i e/pon/!:ilit%+ilo cic,m/ci/e p!ticip!n+ilo l! poiectF
D E4!l,!e! peio"ic% ! /t!"i,l,i e!li1%ii poiect,l,i !"opt$n" m!/,ile coecti4e 'i
po(il!ctice nece/!e 'i !pel$n" l! moti4!+iile po1iti4e 'i ne#!ti4e 9n (,nc+ie "e nece/it!+i.
Con",c%to,l /i/tem,l,i "e m!n!#ement pe :!1! "e poiect e/te con(,nt!t c,
,m%to!ele /it,!+ii m!i "elic!teC
!B in/t!:ilit!te o#!ni1!toic%< 9nt,c$t !t$t el< c$t /i /,:o"on!+ii /%i oc,p! po/t,i c, c!!cte
tempo!F
:B itm,l !pi" 9n c!e /e /,cce" "eci1iile< m,lte ,nice 'i impe4i1i:ileF
cB implic!+ii m!i 'i c, e1,lt!te concete< ime"i!te !le "eci1iilo e/pecti4eF
)*
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"B /t%ile ten/ion!te c!e !p! 9nte pe/on!l,l inte#!t 9n poiect 'i ceil!l+i componen+i !i
(imei ce n, p!ticip% nemi@locit l! e!li1!e! l,i.
De !ici e1,lt! nece/it!te! c! pe/o!n! c!e oc,p% po/t,l "e m!n!#e "e poiect /%
po/e"e o c!p!cit!te "e1icion!l% "eo/e:it%< ",:l!t% "e !:ilit!te i"ic!t% 9n ! ce! 'i 9nte+ine
el!+ii ,m!ne :,ne< 9n con"i+iile ,no intee/e p!+i!l "i(eite 'i !le ,n,i itm !l /cEim:%ilo
!let< 'i "e c!p!cit!te! "e ! l,c! 9n mo" e(icient 9n ecEip%.
7i/tem,l "e m!n!#ement pe :!1% "e poiecte pe1int% m,ltiple !4!nt!@e< 9n /peci!l
!pot!te l! po:lemele c, ,n tot m!i pon,n+!t c!!cte comple= 'i ino4!+ion!l< c, c!e
9ntepin"ee! contempo!n% e/te con(,nt!t%.
Pincip!lele limite !le ,tili1%ii M.P.P. /,ntC "i(ic,lt!te! !moni1%ii e+elei
o#!ni1!toice !(eente poiect,l,i c, /t,ct,! o#!ni1!toic% ! 9ntepin"eii< ce'tee!
(ec4en+ei 'i inten/it%+ii /it,!+iilo con(lict,!le 9n ,nit!teF "i(ic,lt!te! "e/copeiii "e m!n!#ei
"e poiect :,ni 'i ! con4in#eii lo /%D'i !/,me i/c,ile implic!te.
8n Rom$ni!< ,tili1!e! !ce/t,i /i/tem mo"en "e m!n!#ement /e !(l! 9ntDo (!1%
incipient%. Pomo4!e! !ce/t,i /i/tem po!te conti:,i /emni(ic!ti4 l! !ccele!e! into",ceii
po",/elo 'i teEnolo#iilo l! noi< 9n economi! om!ne!/c!< l! eteEnolo#i1!e! pe :!1% "e
citeii economice ! /ociet%+ilo comeci!le 'i e#iilo !,tonome< 4!loi(ic$n" mec!ni/mele
/peci(ice economiei "e pi!+!.
3.). MANAGEMENTUL PRIN E1CEPIE
Definirea" particularitile i potenialul managementului prin e-cepie
To!te meto"ele "e m!n!#ement< "! m!i !le/ cele c, c!!cte #ene!l< !, !p%,t 'i /D!,
"i4e/i(ic!t pent, ! /impli(ic! !cti4it!te! m!n!#ei!l%< concomitent c, ce'tee! e(icien+ei
!ce/tei!< 9n con"i+iile ,no m,t!+ii impot!nte 9n 4i!+! 9ntepin"eii 'i me"i,l 9n c!e !ce!/t!
(,nc+ione!1%< c,m /,ntC ce'tee! comple=it%+ii 9ntepin"eilo 'i ! "imen/i,nilo !ce/to!F
itm,l tot m!i !let !l /cEim:%iloF me"i,l t,:,lent< #ene!to "e incetit,"ini 'i i/c,i "in
ce 9n ce m!i (ec4ente etc.
Meto"ele "e m!n!#ement 4in /% compen/e1e /olicit%ile "in ce 9n ce m!i impot!nte !le
m!n!#eilo< o(ein" (iec!e ,n !n,mit /i/tem A,n c!",B /peci(ic pent, /impli(ic!e!
!cti4it%+ii "e con",cee.
C!",l /peci(ic !l (iec%ei meto"e #ene!le "e m!n!#ement n, e=cl,"e
complement!it!te! lo< !ce!/t! 9n/! te:,ie 9n+ele!/% coect 9n /en/,l c%C
W 9n c!",l !celei!'i ,nit%+i economice /!, o#!ni1!+ie n, pot (,nc+ion! concomitent "o,%
meto"e #ene!le "e m!n!#ement A"e e=empl,C M!n!#ement,l pin o:iecti4e 'i
m!n!#ement,l pin e=cep+ieF m!n!#ement,l pin o:iecti4e /!, m!n!#ement,l pin e=cep+ie 'i
m!n!#ement,l pin :,#ete etc.B 'i c, !t$t m!i m,lt n, pot (i ,tili1!te m!i m,lte meto"e
#ene!leF
W "o! conceptele "e :!1% !le ,no meto"e pot (i !/oci!te !lto meto"e 'i 9nc!"!te 9n /i/tem,l
!ce/to! A"e e=empl,C concept,l "e Ge=cep+ieG 9n m!n!#ement,l pin o:iecti4e /!, 9n
m!n!#ement,l pin :,#eteF concept,l "e Go:iecti4eDcEeieG 9n m!n!#ement,l pin :,#ete /!,
m!n!#ement,l pin poiecte etcB.
Concept,l "e m!n!#ement pin e=cep+ie ! !p%,t ",p% cel "e m!n!#ement pin o:iecti4e
'i cEi! ",p% "e(initi4!e! Aconcept,!l%B ! meto"ei c, !cee!'i "en,mie. 7D! /im+it ne4oi! "e !
).
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/e #%/i ,n !lt citei, c!e /% /te! l! :!1! /impli(ic%ii !cti4it%+ii m!n!#ei!le< (%% ! "e(ini
A"elimit!B ! pioi ceDi impot!nt 'i ce n,.
O:iecti4ele< e/t$n/e c! n,m%< pot "e4eni 9n !n,mite c!1,i #ene!to!e "e i/c,i<
"!c% !le#ee! ! (o/t #e'it%< oi /D! /c%p!t ,n,l /!, m!i m,lte !/pecte impot!nte. De
!/emene!< te:,ie !4,t 9n 4e"ee (!pt,l c% m!n!#ement,l n, /e po!te limit! l! poiec+ii pe
peio!"e 9n"el,n#!te "e timp< te:,in" /% c,pin"% 'i !cti4it%+ile ope!ti4e< c,ente.
Concept,l "e m!n!#ement pin e=cep+ie ! !p%,t c! %/p,n/ l! 9nte:%ile c, pi4ie l!
po/i:ilit%+ile "e /impli(ic!e ! m,ncii "e con",cee 9n con"i+iile ce'teii comple=it%+ii 'i
"imen/i,nilo 9ntepin"eilo 'i ! Ge=plo1ieiG "e in(om!+ii 9n to!te "omeniile "e !cti4it!te 9n
to!te (,nc+iile m!n!#ement,l,i.
Pim! l,c!e "e e(ein+% "in lite!t,! "e /peci!lit!te 9n c!e /,nt "e/ci/e concept,l 'i
meto"! "e Gm!n!#ement pin e=cep+ieG con/i"e%m c% e/te ce! ! l,i >ittel Le/te R..
Concept,l 'i meto"! "e m!n!#ement pin e=cep+ie !, c,no/c,t o pe(ec+ion!e contin,%<
l! c!e 'iD!, !",/ conti:,+i! ,n n,m% m!e "e /peci!li'ti< con/i"e$n",D/e c% ,n! "inte cele
m!i impot!nte conti:,+ii e/te ce! ! /peci!li'tilo "e l! Ac!"emi! >!" K!1:,# AGem!ni!B<
c!e< 9n el!:o!e! GMo"el,l,i K!1:,#G< !, p,/ :!1ele ,n,i /i/tem oi#in!l "e "ele#!e !
!,toit%+ii.
Poti4it m!i m,lto opinii m!n!#ement,l pin e=cep+ie e/te ,n /i/tem "e i"enti(ic!e 'i
com,nic!e c!e in(ome!1% P /emn!le!1% con",c%to,l,i c$n" e/te nece/!% inte4en+i! /! 'i
c!e %m$ne in!cti4 P t!ce c$n" !cti4it%+ile /e "e/(%'o!% nom!l 'i inte4en+i! n, e/te
nece/!%. Ace/t mo" "e "e(inie 9l con/i"e%m "o! p!+i!l coect< 9nt,c$t %/p,n"e l!
9nte:!e!C c$n" e/te nece/!% inte4en+i![ E! n, "% in/% %/p,n/ l! 9nte:!e!C cine te:,ie /%
inte4in%[< c!e e/te l! (el "e impot!nt% c! pim! "!c% l,%m 9n con/i"e!e (!pt,l c% e=i/t%
m!i m,l+i m!n!#ei< /it,!+i l! ni4el,i ie!Eice "i(eite.
Pop,nem ,n mo" "e "e(inie 9n c!e /% /e "e! ,n %/p,n/ l! !m:ele 9nte:%i "e m!i
/,/< "e(ini+ie c!e< e4i"ent< po!te 'i e! /% (ie !men"!t%C GM!n!#ement,l pin e=cep+ie e/te ,n
/i/tem "e "i4i1i,ne ! !cti4it%+ii m!n!#ei!le< "e i"enti(ic!e 'i com,nic!e ! /it,!+iilo c$n"
inte4en+i! m!n!#eilo e/te nece/!%< 'i c!e pemite toto"!t% c! inte4en+i! /% (ie (%c,t% "e
c%te ,n m!n!#e /it,!t l! ,n ni4el ie!Eic 9n !pot c, impot!n+! po:lemei 'i po/i:ilit%+ile
"e inte4en+ie G.
Con/i"e%m c% n, !t$t mo",l "e "e(inie e/te !/pect,l cel m!i impot!nt. M,lt m!i
impot!nt% e/te c,no!'tee! elementelo e/en+i!le ce c!!ctei1e!1% meto"!< pe1ent!t% 9n
contin,!e.
W M!n!#ement,l pin e=cep+ie pe/,p,ne 9n e/en+% c! in(om!+iile /% /e e(ee n,m!i l!
o:iecti4ele c!e n, !, (o/t e!li1!te< i! (iec!e m!n!#e pime'te n,m!i !cele in(om!+ii c!e
coe/p,n" po1i+iei /!le ie!Eice 'i inte4ine n,m!i 9n !ce/te c!1,i.
W 8n c!",l m!n!#ement,l,i pin e=cep+ie to!te po:lemele /!, /it,!+iile /e 9mp!t 9n "o,%
c!te#oii "e c!1,i "en,mite c!1,i nom!le 'i c!1,i e=cep+ion!le.
C!1,ile nom!le /,nt con/i"e!te /it,!+iile 9n c!e m%imile "e ie'ie P e!li1%ile
coe/p,n" c, o:iecti4ele P m%imile pl!ni(ic!te /!, pe1int% !:!tei c!e /e 9n/ci, 9n limitele
con/i"e!te !"mi/i:ile. In !ce/te /it,!+ii inte4en+i! n, e/te nece/!% /!, !ce!/t! /e e!li1e!1%
"e c%te con",c%to,l "e l! ni4el,l "e :!1% !l poce/,l,i /!, !cti4it%+ii.
C!1,ile e=cep+ion!le /,nt con/i"e!te /it,!+iile 9n c!e m%imile "e ie'ie P e!li1%ile !,
!:!tei /emni(ic!ti4e "e l! o:iecti4ePm%imile pl!ni(ic!te< c!e "ep%'e/c limitele con/i"e!te
!"mi/i:ile. 9n !ce/te c!1,i< col!:o!to,lPm!n!#e,l "e l! ni4el,l "e :!1% e/te "e1le#!t "e
o:li#!+i! "e ! /ol,+ion! po:lem!< "e4enin" nece/!% inte4en+i! "in p!te! ,n,i m!n!#e "e
l! ,n ni4el ie!Eic /,peio.
Determinarea cazurilor e-cepionale
)5
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Oic!e ! (i 4!i!nt! "e e!li1!e ! m!n!#ement,l,i pin e=cep+ie< /e p,ne po:lem! pe
:!1! c%o citeii ,me!1% ! (i "e(inite c!1,ile nom!le pe "e o p!te 'i c!1,ile e=cep+ion!le
pe "e !lt% p!te. M%imile pl!ni(ic!te n, pot (i l,!te "ept ni4el,i "e comp!!+ie< 9nt,c$t
!:!teile ! p,te! (i (o!te n,meo!/e< i! !4!nt!@,l e1,lt!t "in e",cee! n,m%,l,i "e
inte4en+ii /D! "imin,! con/i"e!:il.
Dept citeii !"ec4!te 'i c!e coe/p,n" concep+iei mo"ene "e m!n!#ement /,nt
con/i"e!te m%imile pelimin!te< /,: (om! ,no m%imi pl!ni(ic!te 'i ! ,no tole!n+e
"in!inte /t!:ilite< !'! c,m e1,lt% "in (i#. &.
2i#. &. 7cEem! pi4in" "etemin!e! ni4el,l,i pelimin!t
,n"eC
7pl D ni4el,l pl!ni(ic!t< m%ime ce /e !tin#e 9ntD,n n,m% e",/ "e c!1,i< cel m!i !"e/e! el
e/te "ep%'it /!, n, /e !tin#e.
9 t D tole!n+e 9n pl,/ A ` tB 'i 9n min,/ ADtB ce "elimite!1% ni4el,l p$n% l! c!e "in p,nct "e
4e"ee !l m!n!#ement,l,i e!li1%ile !, !cee!'i /emni(ic!+ie c! 'i e!li1!e! pl!n,l,i.
7pr D ni4el,l pelimin!t /e "etemin% c, el!+i!C 7pr 0 7pl 9 t.
M!n!#ement,l pin e=cep+ie /e c!!ctei1e!1% 'i pin !cee! c% pincipi,l "ele#%ii "e
!,toit!te /e !plic% 9ntDo m!nie% /peci(ic%C n, ,m%e'te "ele#!e! /!cinilo P
com!n!#ement,l pin e=cep+ie< competen+elo c%o! m!n!#e,l n, le m!i (!ce (!+%< ci
pel,!e! "e l! /,:o"on!+i "o! ! !celo po:leme pe c!e !ce'ti! c, mi@lo!cele "e c!e
"i/p,n n, le pot e1ol4!.
M!n!#ement,l pin e=cep+ie !/i#,% con"i+iile c! !ten+i!< timp,l 'i ene#i!
m!n!#eilo "e l! ni4el,ile /,peio!e /% (ie concent!te !/,p! po:lemelo impot!nte
A"e1i"e!t !l t,t,o m!n!#eilo< #e, "e !tin/ 9n p!ctic%B pin "e#e4!e! "e e1ol4!e!
n,meo!/elo po:leme c,entePope!ti4e< c!e e4in col!:o!toilo.
Metoda i etapele de operaionalizare a managementului prin e-cepie
Aplic!e! /i/tem!tic% 'i contin,% ! m!n!#ement,l,i pin e=cep+ie 9n to!te "omeniile "e
!cti4it!te 'i l! to!te ni4el,ile ie!Eice nece/it% 9nt,nie! pe!l!:il% ! ,m%to!elo con"i+iiC
W m!n!#ement,l te:,ie /% !ccepte "ele#!e! "e /!cini< com!n!#ement,l pin e=cep+ie 'i
%/p,n"ei /,:!ltenilo< pe c$t po/i:il p$n% l! ni4el,l "e c!e !ce/te! !p!+in< poti4it n!t,ii
loF
W "eci1iile 'i !c+i,nile col!:o!toilo te:,ie /% (ie con",/e pe :!1% "e "iecti4e< c!e /% e4ite
e#lement%ile i#i"eD:ioc!tice 'i /% /e e(ee 9n /peci!l l! mo",l "e compot!ment pe/on!l<
pent, ! /e e4it! m!ni(e/t!e! (enomen,l,i "%,n%to c,no/c,t /,: "en,mie! "e Ge#oi/m
loc!lGF
W e=i/ten+! ,n,i /i/tem in(om!+ion!l /i#, 'i e(ic!ce< :!1!t pe pel,c!e! !,tom!t% ! "!telo<
c!p!:il /% p!ticipe l! to!te (!1ele poce/,l,i m!n!#ei!l< /% po!t% "etemin! c, peci1ie
!:!teile "e l! ni4el,ile pelimin!te 'i /% !pote1e m!n!#eilo 9n timp optim c!1,ile
e=cep+ion!le ",p% e#,lile pe/t!:ilite.
)&
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Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
8n cee! ce pi4e'te et!pi1!e! !cti4it%+ilo implic!te 9n poce/,l "e m!n!#ement e=i/t% 9n
lite!t,! "e /peci!lit!te opinii "i(eite< "! n, "i4e#ente< pe c!e le p,tem #,p! 9n "o,%
c!te#oii.
O prim grup de opinii !e l! :!1% concep+i! l,i >ittel< L.R. c!e !"mite e=i/ten+!
Anece/it!te!B ! '!/e et!peC m%/,!e! ni4el,iloF poiec+i! 9n 4iitoF /elec+i! citeiiloF
o:/e4!e! e!li1%iloF comp!!e! e!li1%ilo c, 4!loile pe4i1ion!leF l,!e! "eci1iei
A!c+i,ne!B. Ace/t mo" "e et!pi1!e ! poce/,l,i "e m!n!#ement e/te con/i"e!t c! (iin"
coe/p,n1%to peio!"ei 9n c!e /i/tem,l in(om!+ion!l :!1!t pe pel,c!e! !,tom!t% ! "!telo
A/i/tem in(om!ticB e! p,+in implic!t< 9n "e,l!e! !cti4it%+ilo (iin" nece/!% inte4en+i!
(ec4ent% ! ope!to,l,i ,m!n.
'ea de a doua grup de opinii con/i"e% !+ion!l% #,p!e! !cti4it%+ilo poce/,l,i "e
m!n!#ement 9n p!t, et!pe A(!1eBC /t!:ilie! 4!loilo pl!ni(ic!te Ape4i1ion!leBF (i=!e!
A/t!:ilie!B tole!n+eloF comp!!e! e!li1%ilo c, ni4el,l pl!ni(ic!t Apelimin!tBF l,!e!
"eci1iilo Atecee! l! !c+i,neB. Ace!/t% et!pi1!e +ine /e!m! "e po/i:ilit!te! "e implic!e !
pel,c%ii !,tom!te ! "!telo< c!e /e "o4e"e'te 'i po!te (i (o!te m!e.
Sta)ilirea mrimilor 6valorilor7 planificate
E/te et!p! pin c!e /e 9n"epline'te (,nc+i! "e pl!ni(ic!e ! m!n!#ement,l,i 'i /e
e!li1e!1% ",p% meto"olo#i! c,no/c,t%< !"!pt!t% l! /peci(ic,l ,nit%+ii economice.
M!n!#ement,l pin e=cep+ie 9n con"i+iile ,tili1%ii pe /c!% l!#% ! pel,c%ii !,tom!te
! "!telo n, imp,ne nici ,n (el "e e/tic+ii N,m%,l in"ic!toilo pin c!e /e m%/o!%
!cti4it%+ile po!te (i oic$t "e m!e< con(om !lto cein+e. De !/emene!< #!",l "e "et!liee
A"e(!lc!eB ! pl!n,l,i po!te me#e p$n% l! cele m!i mici elemente /t,ct,!le Am!'ini< loc,i
"e m,nc%< (om!+ii "e l,c,B< l! ni4el "e po",/e< /,:!n/!m:le< epee /!, (!1e !le poce/,l,i
"e (!:ic!+ie< i! 9n timp pl!ni(ic!e! 'i po#!m!e! /e pot e!li1! pe oice inte4!l< !n<
time/t,< l,n%< "ec!"%< 1i< /cEim:< o% 'i cEi! ,nit%+i "e timp m!i mici 9n c!",l liniilo 9n
(l,= c, itm e#lement!t. 7in#,! cein+% /peci(ic% e/te !cee! c! to+i in"ic!toii ,tili1!+i /% (ie
c,!nti(ic!+i< ope!e! c, in"ic!toi c!lit!ti4i (iin" po/i:il% n,m!i 9n ,ltim! et!p%.
!oleranele i limitele a)aterilor considerate admisi)ile
Pent, to!te !cti4it%+ile ce /e "e/(%'o!%< pent, (iec!e in"ic!to ,m%it 9n p!te< pot
inte4eni !:!tei m!i m!i /!, m!i mici (!+% "e /it,!+i!Dpl!n e!li1!t%. Po:lem! e/en+i!l% c!e
/e i"ic% /e e(e% l! /t!:ilie! !:!teilo c!e /,nt !"mi/i:ile< 9n!inte c! !cti4it!te! "e/(%',!t%
/% n, m!i po!t% (i con/i"e!t% nom!l%.
D!c% !:!teile !"mi/e /,nt /t$n/e< /e !@,n#e c! 'i 9n c!1,l con/i"e%ii ni4el,l,i
pl!ni(ic!t c! ni4el "e comp!!+ie< l! ,n n,m% "e e=cep+ii !t$t "e m!e< 9nc$t meto"! n,D'i m!i
p,ne 9n 4!lo!e !4!nt!@ele pi4in" e",cee! n,m%,l,i "e inte4en+ii !le ni4el,l,i "e
con",cee /,peio. M%/,! op,/%< "e ! /t!:ili !:!tei !"mi/i:ile c$t m!i l!#i< po!te con",ce
l! /it,!+ii "e ne/e/i1!e ! m!n!#eilo< !t,nci c$n" inte4en+i! lo e/te !:/ol,t nece/!%.
7t!:ilie! 4!loii !:!teilo Atole!n+eloB n, /e po!te (!ce ",p% e#,li #ene!l 4!l!:ile<
9nt,c$t !ce/te! te:,ie /% +in% /e!m! "e ,m%to!eleC
W c, c$t !cti4it!te! e/te m!i impot!nt% pent, !tin#ee! o:iecti4,l,i cent!l pl!ni(ic!t !l
9ntepin"eii< limitele tole!n+elo te:,ie (i=!te c, m!i m,lt% pec!,+ieF
W tole!n+ele c!e /e e(e% l! G"omeniiDcEeieG te:,ie /% (ie el!ti4 /t$n/e< "!t (iin" (!pt,l c%<
cEi! ,nele !:!tei mici< pot !4e! o in(l,en+% "eci/i4% !/,p! e!li1%ii o:iecti4,l,i #ene!lC
W c, c$t "omeni,l "e !cti4it!te pe1int% m!i p,+ine p,ncte "e cont!ct c, celel!lte /ecto!e "e
!cti4it!te 9n c!",l /i/tem,l,i #ene!l< c, !t$t tole!n+ele pot (i m!i m!i.
De e#,l%< te:,ie into",/e tole!n+e :il!te!le A!t$t pent, !:!teile ne#!ti4e< c$t 'i
pent, cele po1iti4eB "in ,m%to!ele con/i"e!+iiC
W !:!teile /emni(ic!ti4e po1iti4e pot ",ce l! "e/copeie! ,no e1e4e nec,no/c,teF
)5
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
W "! tot l! (el "e :ine pot (i con/i"e!te c! e=tem "e citice 9n le#%t,% c, !:!teile ne#!ti4e
po",/e 9n !lt loc< te:,in" cecet!te inte"epen"en+ele po/i:ile A"e e=empl,< "ep%'ie!
e!li1%ilo c!ntit!ti4e l! ,n ,til!@ /e po!te o:+ine pin nee/pect!e! e#im,ilo teEnolo#ice<
c, con/ecin+e ne#!ti4e !/,p! ,1,ii ,til!@,l,i< con/,m,l,i "e /c,le 'i c!lit%+ii epeeloB.
Mo"elele !le/e te:,ie /% i! 9n con/i"e!e "!te pi4in" ni4el,l !:!teilo 9n peio!"ele
!nteio!e< e/pecti4 (ec4en+! 'i ni4el,l !ce/to!.
Compararea nivelului realizat cu cel preliminat i sta)ilirea cazurilor e-cepionale
8n c!1,l e=i/ten+ei ,n,i /i/tem in(om!+ion!l :!1!t pe pel,c!e! !,tom!t% ! "!telo<
ope!+iile !ce/tei et!pe pot (i pel,!te inte#!l "e c%te !ce/t!. Con/i"e!m c% !/pectele "e
(on" pi4in" !ce!/t% et!p% /e e1,m% l! 9ne#i/t!e! e=!ct% Ac$t m!i (i"el%B ! ni4el,l,i
e!li1%ilo 'i /t!:ilie! "e/tin!t!,l,i c!1,ilo e=cep+ion!le.
E=!ctit!te! in(om!+iilo pi4in" m%imile e(ecti4e e/te "eo/e:it "e impot!nt% pent,
e4it!e! c!1,ilo "e G!l!m% (!l/%G /!, G!l!m% !t!t%G< !m:ele (iin" "%,n%to!e poce/,l,i "e
m!n!#ement.
GAl!m! (!l/%G !e loc !t,nci c$n" !n,mite !:!tei< eon!t /t!:ilite< /,nt pe1ent!te "ept
c!1,i e=cep+ion!le 'i "ecl!n'e!1% !c+i,ni in,tile !le m!n!#eilo.
GAl!m! !t!t%G !e loc !t,nci c$n" !:!tei /emni(ic!ti4e /,nt pe1ent!te "ept c!1,i
nom!le< /i/tem,l Gt!ceG< i! inte4en+i! nece/!% ! m!n!#ement,l,i n, !e loc.
8n ce pi4e'te /t!:ilie! "e/tin!t!,l,i c!1,ilo e=cep+ion!le 'i t!n/mitee!
in(om!+iilo< /e c,no/c p!t, mo"!lit%+iC
!B T!n/mitee! 9n :loc ! c!1,ilo e=cep+ion!le l! to!te ni4el,ile ie!Eice "in
"omeni,l "!t. E/te ,n mo" (ec4ent ,tili1!t !,nci c$n" n, /e :ene(ici!1% "e ,n /i/tem
in(om!+ion!l e(icient 'i "e ,n /i/tem !+ion!l "e "i4i1i,ne ! m,ncii m!n!#eilo.
Genee!1% ,n,l "in ,m%to!ele "e1!4!nt!@eC
W !mpli(ic!e! ne@,/ti(ic!t% ! !cti4it%+ilo "e !n!li1%< "e /t!:ilie ! /ol,+iilo 'i "e inte4en+ie<
m!n!#eii "e l! to!te ni4el,ile ie!Eice oc,p$n",D/e "e /ol,+ion!e! !cel,i!'i c!1F
W !p!i+i! po/i:ilit%+ii c! "e ,n c!1 e=cep+ion!l /% n, /e oc,pe nici ,n,l "in m!n!#eii
in(om!+i< (iec!e ce1$n" c% ceil!l+i 4o /ol,+ion! po:lem!.
:B T!n/mitee! c!1,ilo e=cep+ion!le "o! l! pim,l ni4el ie!Eic. 9n !ce/t /i/tem
%m$ne l! l!tit,"ine! m!n!#e,l,i "e l! ni4el,l "e :!1% c%,i! "inte m!n!#eii /it,!+i pe ,n
ni4el ie!Eic /,peio /%Di /olicite /pi@in 9n /ol,+ion!e! po:lemei.
De'i e4it% "e1!4!nt!@ele t!n/miteii 9n :loc< pe1int% ne!@,n/,ile popii< c!e /e
m!tei!li1e!1% 9n lip/! "e ope!ti4it!te 9n /ol,+ion!e! c!1,l,i. 7e /c,#e o m!e peio!"% "e
timp c, (!1ele /,cce/i4eC 9ncec!e! m!i 9nt$i "e ! /ol,+ion! /in#, po:lem!< !pel!e! !:i!
!poi l! /pi@in,l ,n,i! "inte /,peioi< !n!li1! "e c%te !ce/t! ! po:lemei 'i #%/ie! /ol,+iei<
p,t$n" /% !p!% 'i /it,!+ii "e in"i/poni:ilit!te ! ni4el,l,i ie!Eic /,peio etc.
cB In(om!e! m!n!#eilo "e/pe c!1,ile e=cep+ion!le pe :!1! /cEemei cein+ei "e! l,!
m%/,i. 7cEem! cein+ei "e ! l,! m%/,i e/te ,n /i/tem< o teEnic%< pin c!e m!n!#eii "e l!
"i(eite ni4el,i ie!Eice /,nt in(om!+i 9n !pot "e impot!n+! po:lemeiAm%ime! !:!teiiB
'i po/i:ilit%+ile "e /ol,+ion!e 9n 4it,te! (,nc+iei ce o 9n"epline/c.
"B Pe1ent!e! 'i 4i1,!li1!e! c!1,ilo e=cep+ion!le. E=i/t% o m,ltit,"ine "e po/i:ilit%+i
"e pe1ent!e ! in(om!+iilo "e/pe c!1,ile e=cep+ion!le 'i 4i1,!li1!e! !ce/to!< "e/ci/e 9n
"i4e/e l,c%i "e /peci!lit!te c,m /,ntC G!(ic,l G!nttF Di!#!m! peio"ic%F 7cEem! cein+ei
"e ! l,! m%/,iF R!po!te pi4in" e=cep+iileF Di!#!mele "e ten"in+% 'i "e comp!!+ie 9nte
ten"in+e '.!.
M!@oit!te! "inte !ce/te! !, (o/t ,tili1!te 'i !, coe/p,n/ cein+elo peio!"ei "in!inte!
,tili1%ii pe /c!% l!#% ! pel,c%ii !,tom!te ! "!telo. 8n con"i+iile 9n c!e /i/temele
in(om!tice !/i#,% ce! m!i m!e p!te ! /i/tem,l,i in(om!+ion!l m!n!#ei!l 'i ! e=i/ten+ei !
))
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
n,meo!/e /i/teme "e /pi@in ! m!n!#ement,l,i AMI7 DM!n!#ement In(om!tion 7L/tem/B<
m,lte "in poce"eele !mintite !nteio n, m!i !, /,(icient% ele4!n+%< ele te:,in" /% (ie
9nloc,ite c, cele o(eite "e teEnolo#i! in(om!+iei.

Cazurile e-cepionale i intervenia managerului
Pe :!1! in(om!+iilo "in !pot,l pi4in" e!li1%ile< m!n!#eii !, o:li#!+i! "e ! !n!li1!
c!1,ile e=cep+ion!le 'i "e ! inte4eni 9n /ol,+ion!e! !ce/to!. Pent, o !n!li1% complet%
(iec!e m!n!#e po!te o:+ine in(om!+iile /,pliment!e nece/!e pin !pel!e! !@,to,l
po#!melo l! :!1! "e "!te.
M!e! "i4e/it!te ! po:lemelo ce pot (i /emn!l!te "e c!1,ile e=cep+ion!le (!ce
impo/i:il% #%/ie! "e e#,li #ene!l 4!l!:ile "e /ol,+ion!e ! !ce/to!.
Pe :!1! c,no!'teii c!,1elo ce #enee!1% c!1,ile e=cep+ion!le /e pot /t!:ili c!te#oiile "e
inte4en+ii m!n!#ei!leC #ene!li1!e! meto"elo ,tili1!teF elimin!e! c!,1elo nee!li1%iloF
elimin!e! c!,1elo ce !, #ene!t !:!tei po1iti4e c, epec,/i,ni ne#!ti4e 9n !lte "omeniiF
mo"i(ic!e! ni4el,l,i pl!ni(ic!t /!, ! tole!n+elo.
At,nci c$n" c!1,ile e=cep+ion!le /emni(ic% !:!tei "e n!t,% po1iti4%< e1,lt!t !l ,no
c!,1e c,no/c,te 'i !"mi/e Ameto"e ,tili1!te m!i :,ne "ec$t cele pe4%1,teB< inte4en+i! con/t%
9n l,!e! ,no m%/,i "e #ene!li1!e ! meto"elo ,tili1!te 9n 4e"ee! m,ltiplic%ii e(ectelo<
l! to!te loc,ile ,n"e !ce/t l,c, e/te po/i:il. C$n" c!1,ile e=cep+ion!le /emni(ic% !:!tei c,
e(ecte ne#!ti4e !/,p! !cti4it%+ilo 'i e1,lt!telo< inte4en+iile /,nt "e tip coecti4< con/t$n" 9n
m%/,i 4i1$n" elimin!e! c!,1elo /!, cel p,+in "imin,!e! e(ectelo po",/e "e !ce/te!.
D!c% !:!teile po1iti4e 9ntD,n "omeni, !, inci"en+e citice 9n !lte "omenii< coel$n",D
/e c, !:!teile ne#!ti4e "in c!",l !ce/to! "in ,m%< m%/,ile ce /e imp,n /,nt tot "e n!t,!
elimin%ii c!,1elo ce !, #ene!t !:!teile Ae=empl,C "ep%'ie! po",c+iei (i1ice l! pel,c!e!
,no epee< "!c% /e "!toe!1% nee/pect%ii e#im,ilo teEnolo#ice optime< po!te /% con",c%
l! ce'tee! 4ol,m,l,i e:,t,ilo 'i em!nieilo< ce'tee! con/,m,l,i "e ene#ie< ce'tee!
con/,m,l,i "e /c,le !'cEieto!e< ce'tee! 4ol,m,l,i "e ep!!+ii !le ,til!@elo etcB.
At,nci c$n" "in !n!li1! !:!teilo e1,lt% c% ni4el,l pl!ni(ic!t #e'it /t!:ilit /!,
tole!n+ele pe! /t$n/e P pe! l!#i con/tit,ie c!,1! !:!teilo /emni(ic!ti4e< inte4en+i!
te:,ie /% con/te! 9n coect!e! ",p% c!1 ! ni4el,l,i pl!ni(ic!t /!, ! /i/tem,l,i "e tole!n+e.
Prelucrarea automata a datelor" condiie a implementrii metodei
A'! c,m /D! m!i !%t!t< ,tili1!e! pe /c!% l!#% ! pel,c%ii !,tom!te ! "!telo
Apel,c!e !,tom!t% ! "!teloB e/te ,n! "in con"i+iile pe!l!:ile implement%ii
m!n!#ement,l,i pin e=cep+ie. Vol,m,l m!e "e ope!+ii 'i peci1i! i"ic!t% l! c!e te:,ie /%
/e /it,e1e e1,lt!tele /,nt c!!ctei/tici !le t,t,o et!pelo "e "e/(%',!e ! meto"ei< "e l!
el!:o!e! /i/tem,l,i in"ic!toilo "e pl!n< contin,$n" c, "etemin!e! tole!n+elo 'i !
limitelo !"mi/i:ile !le m%imilo pelimin!te< e(ect,!e! comp!!+iilo e!li1%i P pelimit!t<
(,ni1!e! in(om!+iilo "e/pe c!1,ile e=cep+ion!le< p$n% l! !n!li1! c!1,ilo e=cep+ion!le 'i
!"opt!e! "eci1iilo pi4in" inte4en+iile.
Con/i"e%m c% lip/! mi@lo!celo e4ol,!te "e pel,c!e !,tom!t% ! "!telo ! (o/t c!,1!
pincip!l% c% o meto"% c, ,n poten+i!l i"ic!t n, ! c,no/c,t o %/p$n"ie m!i l!#%< i! !colo
,n"e /D! !plic!t< n, ! p,t,t !4e! ,n c!!cte "e #ene!li1!e< limit$n",D/e l! !n,mite "omenii
!le m!n!#ement,l,i< c,m ! (i cel ope!+ion!l. Tot lip/! ecEip!mentelo pe(om!nte "e
pel,c!e !,tom!t% ! "!telo 9n "eceniile tec,te ! (%c,t c! 9n ,nele l,c%i "e /peci!lit!te
meto"! /% (ie "e/ci/% 9n con"i+iile e!li1%ii !cti4it%+ilo 'i ope!+iilo /peci(ice 9n mo"
m!n,!l /!, c, mi@lo!ce m!i p,+in e4ol,!te.
8n con"i+iile !ct,!le< c!e /,nt !"ic!l /cEim:!te (!+% "e peio!"! "e 9ncep,t ! !plic%ii
m!n!#ement,l,i pin e=cep+ie< e/te nece/!% o e#$n"ie ! meto"ei< 9n m!nie! pe1ent!t% 9n
l,c!e! "e (!+%. EcEip!mentele "e pel,c!e :!1!te pe TI ATeEnolo#i! In(om!+ieiB 'i
)6
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
/i/temele in(om!tice "e /pi@in !l m!n!#ement,l,i AMI7 D M!n!#ement In(om!tion
7L/tem/B c,m /,ntC D77 ADeci/ion 7,ppot 7L/tem/B D /i/teme "e /pi@in !l "eci1ieiF EI7
AE=ec,ti4e In(om!tion 7L/tem/B D /i/teme in(om!tice "e/tin!te m!n!#ement,l,i "in
e'!lon,l /,peioF E77 AE=ec,ti4e 7,ppot 7L/tem/B D /i/teme "e /pi@in !l m!n!#ement,l,i
"in e'!lon,l /,peioF E7 AE=pet 7L/tem/B D /i/temele e=pet< !, /cEim:!t !"ic!l con"i+iile
"e !plic!e ! m!n!#ement,l,i pin e=cep+ie.
3.*. MANAGEMENTUL PRIN OBIECTIVE
Concep,t 9n 7UA< 9n peio!"! po/t:elic% A165.B "e c%te Pete D,Ie< m!n!#ement,l
pin o:iecti4e AM.P.O.B /e (olo/e'te 9n pe1ent 9n n,meo!/e +%i. L! "i(,1!e! l,i 9n +%ile
occi"ent!le< o conti:,+ie "eci/i4% !, !4,tDo (imele "e con/,lt!n+% 9n m!n!#ement. E/te
/i/tem,l "e m!n!#ement cel m!i (ec4ent (olo/it. MCel m!i m!e !4!nt!@ !l m!n!#ement,l,i
pin o:iecti4e D /p,ne! D,Ie De/te po:!:il< !cel! c% (!ce po/i:il pent, ,n con",c%to
contol,l popiei pe(om!nteG. O !/emene! !peciee !te/t% (!pt,l c% meto"! ! !p%,t c!
,m!e ! !n!li1ei citice ! poce"eelo 'i teEnicilo "e con",cee !plic!te !nteio 'i c!e /e
:!1e!1% !po!pe 9n e=cl,/i4it!te pe e=ecit!e! !,toit%+ii 'i pe contol,l ie!Eic.
L! :!1! concepeii M.P.O. /e !(l! ,m%to!e! pemi/%C e(ic!cit!te! ,nei o#!ni1!+ii
"epin"e "e 9ntep%t,n"ee! o:iecti4elo /!le c, o:iecti4ele /,:/i/temelo< cee! ce implic% o
coel!e /t$n/% ! tinom,l,i O>IECTIVE DREZULTATE ? RECOMPEN7E P 7ANC3IUNI.
'. C''C!+(S!(C(8+ M.P.5.@
D in/tit,ie! ,n,i /i/tem "e o:iecti4e pent, o#!ni1!+ie< c!e /% Mco:o!eG p$n% l! ni4el,l
e=ec,t!n+iloF
D p!ticip!e! 9nte#,l,i pe/on!l< ! (iec%,i component !l o#!ni1!+iei< l! /t!:ilie!
o:iecti4elo 9n ! c%o e!li1!e e/te nemi@locit implic!tF
D in"i4i",!lit!te! :,#etelo "e cEelt,ieli pe pincip!lele /,:"i4i1i,ni o#!ni1!toice< cee! ce
implic% "e/cent!li1!e! l!t,ii ope!+ion!le ! /i/tem,l,i (in!nci!F
D in/tit,ie! ,n,i /i/tem "e contol contin,, :!1!t pe meto"! !:!teilo /emni(ic!ti4eF
D coel!e! /t$n/% ! ecompen/elo 'i /!nc+i,nilo m!tei!le 'i mo!le c, e1,lt!tele e(ecti4
o:+in,teF
D m,t!+ii 9n ment!lit!te! pe/on!l,l,i o#!ni1!+iei< 9n !tit,"ine! /! (!+% "e o:iecti4ele !ce/tei!<
9n /peci!l 9n "iec+i! ce'teii p!ticip%ii< ! ini+i!ti4ei< ! col!:o%ii 9n poce/,l /t!:iliii 'i
9n"epliniii lo.
M.P.O. po!te (i "e(init "eci< c! ,n /i/tem "e con",cee< :!1!t pe "etemin!e! i#,o!/%
! o:iecti4elo p$n% l! ni4el,l e=ec,t!n+ilo< c!e p!ticip% nemi@locit l! /t!:ilie! lo 'i pe
coel!e! /t$n/% ! ecompen/elo 'i /!nc+i,nilo c, ni4el,l e!li1%ii o:iecti4elo pe/t!:ilite.
%. C5MP5&+&!+8+ M.P.5. c,pin"e< "e e#,l%< !n/!m:l,l !cti4it%+ilo ,nei o#!ni1!+iiC
!B 7I7TEMUL DE O>IECTIVE te:,ie "e(init "e o m!nie! c$t m!i concet% 'i ope!+ion!l%<
(!cilit$n" e!li1!e! lo.
6-
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009

C,pin"e o:iecti4ele (,n"!ment!le< "ei4!te 1< "ei4!te 2< /peci(ice 'i in"i4i",!le.
E/en+i!l e/te c! /i/tem,l "e o:iecti4e /% /e 9n/cie !monio/ pe 4etic!l! /i/tem,l,i "e
m!n!#ement< !/i#,$n" e!li1!e! o:iecti4elo c,pin/e 9n pl!n,l /!, po#!m,l o#!ni1!+iei<
pe :!1! inte#%ii e(iciente ! e(ot,ilo /i e1,lt!telo (iec%,i component !l ei.
:B PROGRAMELE DE AC3IUNI /e 9ntocme/c pent, (iec!e /,:"i4i1i,ne o#!ni1!toic% 'i
e4i"ent pent, !n/!m:l,l o#!ni1!+iei. C,pin" 9ntDo m!nie% (o!te peci/% e/,/ele ,m!ne<
m!tei!le 'i (in!nci!e !(eente e!li1%ii o:iecti4elo pe4i1ion!te< 9mpe,n% c, /peci(ic!e!
!c+i,nilo nece/!e 9n !ce/t /cop. 7t!:ilie! !c+i,nilo "e 9ntepin/< c! 'i ! mi@lo!celo
"i/poni:ile< /e e(ect,e!1% l,$n" 9n con/i"e!e pioit!te! "i(eitelo c!te#oii "e o:iecti4e.
cB CALENDARELE DE TERMENE epe1int% cool!,l po#!melo "e !c+i,ni. Pent, ! !/i#,!
/inconi1!e! 9n timp< 9n el!:o!e! lo /e pone'te "e l! temenele (in!le pent, o:iecti4ele
(,n"!ment!le 'i o:iecti4ele "ei4!te< ,tili1$n",D/e pincipi,l n,m%%ii in4e/e.
"B >UGETELE DE VENITURI 7I CKELTUIELI epe1int% (,n"!ment,l economic 'i moti4!+ion!l !l
M.O.P. Pe :!1! lo /e "etemin% peci/ e/,/ele cEelt,ite "e pincip!lele componente
o#!ni1!+ion!le 'i e1,lt!tele e(ecti4 o:+in,te. Ace!/t! pemite l,!e! ,no m%/,i "e
pe(ec+ion!e @,"icio/ loc!li1!te< concomitent c, "i(een+iee! coect% ! ecompen/elo 'i
/!nc+i,nilo.
eB REPERTOARELE DE METODE epe1int% /,pot,l lo#i/tic !l M.P.O. 9ntocmie! !ce/to! n,
e/te o ope!+ie mec!nic%< ci ,n poce/ "e /elec+ie ! celo m!i !"ec4!te meto"e 'i teEnici "e
con",cee c!e /% +in% cont "e c!!ctei/ticile o:iecti4elo /t!:ilite 'i "e poce/ele "e m,nc%
implic!te.
(B IN7TRUC3IUNILE "e e/pect!t con/tit,ie ,ltim! component% m!@o! ! MP.O. Ace!/t!
e=pim% concep+i! m!n!#ement,l,i o#!ni1!+iei !/,p! mo",l,i "e e!li1!e ! o:iecti4elo 'i
te:,ie /% e/pecte le#i/l!+i!< /% /inteti1e1e e=peien+! e/pecti4ei o#!ni1!+ii.
De e#,l%< /e el!:oe!1% "o,% c!te#oii "e in/t,c+i,niC
D #ene!le< 4!l!:ile pe !n/!m:l,l !cti4it%+ilo o#!ni1!+ieiF
D p!+i!le< ce /e e(e% l! ,nele "in !cti4it%+ile o#!ni1!+ion!le.
Pent, ! (i c$t m!i ,tile< in/t,c+i,nile n, te:,ie /% (ie pe! !m%n,n+ite< "eo!ece
(!cilite!1% !p!i+i! m!ni(e/t%ilo "e imo:ili/m< i#i"it!te< !p!tie< "! nici pe! #ene!le<
"eo!ece (!4oi1e!1% con(,1ii< m!ni(e/t%i !n!Eice etc.
61
7I7TEMUL DE
O>IECTIVE
Po#!me "e
!c+i,ni
C!len"!e
"e temene
>,#ete "e
4enit,i 'i
cEelt,ieli
Repeto!e
"e meto"e
2i#. 5. 7t,ct,! m!n!#ement,l,i pin o:iecti4e AM.P.O.B
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
C. +!'P+8+ M.P.5.
D /t!:ilie! o:iecti4elo (,n"!ment!le !le o#!ni1!+iei. Ace/te! te:,ie /% (ie e!li/te<
/tim,l!ti4e 'i mo:ili1!to!e. Ele implic% o temeinic% (,n"!ment!e< o p!ticip!e /,/+in,t% l!
/t!:ilie! lo "in p!te! c$t m!i m,lto componen+i !i o#!ni1!+ieiF
D /t!:ilie! o:iecti4elo "ei4!te< /peci(ice 'i in"i4i",!le. Pent, !ce!/t! e/te nece/! /%
/e 4ei(ice 1onele cEeie implic!te "e (iec!e o:iecti4 !/,p! c%o! 9'i 4o concent! !ten+i!
p!ticip!n+ii. 8n "e,l!e! et!pei /e (olo/e/c (o!te m,lt "i!lo#,ile :il!te!le 'i m,ltil!te!le
"inte con",c%toi 'i /,:o"on!+i< cee! ce #!!nte!1% e!li/m,l 'i c!!cte,l /tim,l!ti4 !l
o:iecti4eloF
D el!:o!e! po#!melo "e !c+i,ni< c!len"!elo "e temen< :,#etelo 'i li/t! meto"elo
pe !n/!m:l,l o#!ni1!+iei< c$t /i pent, (iec!e /t,ct,% o#!ni1!toic%. 7t!:ilie! lo /e (!ce
l,$n" 9n con/i"e!e ie!Ei! "i(eitelo c!te#oii "e o:iecti4e< poten+i!l,l pe/on!l,l,i 'i
celel!lte e/,/e "i/poni:ile 9n o#!ni1!+ieF
D !"opt!e! "eci1iilo 'i !"!pt!e! /t,ct,ii 'i /i/tem,l,i in(om!+ion!l l! cein+ele
e!li1%ii o:iecti4elo. Concomitent c, /t!:ilie! mo"i(ic%ilo pe pl!n "eci1ion!l< /t,ct,!l /i
in(om!+ion!l /e "e(initi4e!1% 'i in/t,c+i,nile c!e /t!, l! :!1! (,nc+ion!ii M.P.O.F
D ,m%ie! e!li1%ii o:iecti4elo. Oi "e c$te oi /it,!+i! imp,ne< /e i!, "eci1ii c,
c!!cte po(il!ctic /!, coecti4< !/t(el 9nc$t e!li1!e! o:iecti4elo /% /e (!c% c!t m!i !po!pe
"e itm,ile /t!:iliteF
D e4!l,!e! e!li1%ii o:iecti4elo 'i ecompen/!e! pe/on!l,l,i. E/te et!p! (in!l% 9n
c!e /e comp!! e1,lt!tele o:+in,te c, o:iecti4ele /t!:ilite ini+i!l. 8n (,nc+ie "e ni4el,l
e!li1%ii lo /e "eci"e ecompen/!e! in"i4i",!l% 'i colecti4% /!,< /!nc+ion!e! celo
implic!+i. Con+in,t,l et!pei (in!le e/te Eot%$to "in p,nct "e 4e"ee moti4!+ion!l<
con"i+ion$n" 9ntDo m%/,! !peci!:il% mo",l 'i e1,lt!tele ,tili1%ii 9n contin,!e ! M.P.O.
Comple=it!te! "eo/e:it% ! /i/tem,l,i< ce implic! /cEim:%i /en/i:ile 9n ment!lit!te!
pe/on!l,l,i< imp,ne o peio!"! el!ti4 9n"el,n#!t% "e (,nc+ion!e< !peci!t% "e /peci!li'ti "e
minim cinci !ni.
D. '9'&!'4+8+ 'P8(C:(( M.P.5.C
D ce'tee! e!li/m,l,i o:iecti4elo o#!ni1!+iei 'i ! componentelo /!leF
D !mpli(ic!e! ni4el,l,i "e moti4!e !l pe/on!l,l,iF
D "e14olt!e! ,n,i clim!t "e ce!ti4it!teF
D 9m:,n%t%+ie! ,tili1%ii timp,l,i c!"elo "e con",cee< ,m!e ! "imin,%ii /,p!4e#Eeii 'i
contol,l,iF
D 9nt%ie! e/pon/!:ilit%+ilo 9nte#,l,i pe/on!l (!+% "e e!li1!e! o:iecti4eloF
D coel!e! m!i /t$n/% ! /!l!iilo c, e1,lt!tele e(ecti4 o:+in,teF
D /poie! /en/i:il% ! e(icientei o#!ni1!+ion!le.
+. D+;'9'&!'4+8+ 'P8(C:(( M.P.5.C
D po/i:ilit!te! ,no neconco"!n+e 9nte o:iecti4ele "i(eitelo c!"e "e con",cee /!, !le
"i(eitelo ni4el,i ie!EiceF
D po/i:ilit!te! (!4oi1%ii ,no "omenii con/i"e!te cEeie 9n "!,n! !lto!< /!, /tim,l!e!
e!li1%ii ,no o:iecti4e pe temen /c,t 9n "!,n! celo pe temen l,n#F
D (om,l!e! pe! #ene!l% ! ,no o:iecti4e< c!e (!ce "i(icil% "e4iee! lo /!, contol,l
e1,lt!teloF
D m!ni(e/t!e! ,no "e(iciente "e o"in o#!ni1!toic "!to!te ,n,i compot!ment
ne/!ti/(%c%to !l con",c%toilo< c!e 9n et!p! o:+ineii e1,lt!telo< n, m!i contole!1% /t!"iile
"e 9n"eplinie ! o:iecti4elo.
62
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
3.0. METODA DE CONDUCERE PRIN EDIN
Ce! m!i (ec4ent ,tili1!t% meto"% "e m!n!#ement< 'e"in+!< e/te "in p%c!te !"e/e! t!t!t%
/,pe(ici!l< ne(iin" con/i"e!t% tot"e!,n! c! o meto"% 'tiin+i(ic%. e"in+! con/t% 9n e,nie!
m!i m,lto pe/o!ne pent, ,n /c,t inte4!l "e timp 9n 4e"ee! /ol,+ion%ii 9n com,n ! ,no
/!cini c, c!!cte in(om!+ion!l /!, "eci1ion!l. Ace!/t! con/tit,ie mo"!lit!te! pincip!l% "e
t!n/mitee ! in(om!+iilo 'i "e c,le#ee ! (ee"D:!cID,l,i "e l! ,n n,m% m!e "e componen+i
!i ,nei o#!ni1!+ii.
A. D,p% con+in,t,l !ce/to!< ele pot (iC "e in(om!e< "eci1ion!le< "e !moni1!e< "e
e=plo!e 'i eteo#ene.
!B EDIN3ELE DE IN2ORMARE !, c! o:iecti4 (,ni1!e! "e in(om!+ii con",c%to,l,i 'iP/!,
col!:o!toilo< e(eito!e l! !n,mite "omenii. Ele /e o#!ni1e!1% peio"ic A/%pt%m$n!l<
"ec!"!l< l,n!B /!, !"DEoc 9n (,nc+ie "e nece/it!+i.
:B EDIN3ELE DECIZIONALE !, 9n 4e"ee pe1ent!e!< (om,l!e! 'i e4!l,!e! "e 4!i!nte
"eci1ion!le nece/!e e!li1%ii !n,mito o:iecti4e.
cB EDIN3ELE DE ARMONIZARE !, c! /cop p,nee! "e !co" ! !c+i,nilo con",c%toilo 'i !
componen+ilo ,no comp!timente /it,!te pe !cel!'i ni4el ie!Eic< /!, pe ni4el,i !popi!te
9n c!",l /t,ct,!l !l o#!ni1!+iei. De e#,l%< /,nt 'e"in+e ope!ti4e< c, o (ec4en+% !le!toie
9n (,nc+ie "e nece/it%+ile e!li1%ii ,no o:iecti4e< pl!n,i< po#!me c!!ctei1!te pin /(e! "e
c,pin"ee 'i comple=it!te "eo/e:it%.
"B EDIN3ELE DE E0PLORARE ,m%e/c in4e/ti#!e! 1onelo nec,no/c,te !le 4iito,l,i
o#!ni1!+iei milit!e !le ,no componente !le !ce/tei! /!, !le !n,mito !/pecte ce
in(l,en+e!1% "e/(%',!e! !cti4it%+ilo /!le. Ele /,nt "e/tin!te !mpli(ic%ii ce!ti4it%+ii
(om$n"< "e e#,l%< con+in,t,l ,no meto"e "e /ine /t%t%to!e c,m ! (i :!in/tomin#,l<
/inectic!< Del:ecc.
eB EDIN3ELE ETEROGENE 9nt,ne/c elemente ! "o,! /!, m!i m,lte "in celel!lte tip,i "e
'e"in+e< (iin" o#!ni1!te "e e#,l% l! ni4el,l m!n!#ement,l,i /,peio 'i me"i! o#!ni1!+iei.
7,nt cele m!i (ec4ent ,tili1!te 9n o#!ni1!+ii.
B. In"i(eent "e tip,l 'e"in+elo< !ce/te! con/tit,ie "e m,lte oi o sursa de irosire a
timpului conductorului. C!,1ele !ce/to /it,!+ii< c!e cee!1% m,lte nec!1,i !t$t
con",c%toilo< c$t /i p!ticip!n+ilo l! 'e"in+e /,nt "i4e/eC
D lip/! ,no o:iecti4e cl! "e(inite !le con4oc%ii ,nei 'e"in+e (!ce c! 9n/%'i peci1!e!
tem!ticii !ce/tei! 'i /t!:ilie! li/tei p!ticip!n+ilo /% 9nt$mpine m!i "i(ic,lt%+iF
D in/,(icient! pe#%tie 'i o#!ni1!e ! ,nei 'e"in+e impiete!1% 4i1i:il !/,p! "e/(%',%ii ei<
pent, oicine e/te nepl%c,t 'i cEi! iit!nt /% (ie 9nte,pt "in !cti4it!te! pe c!e o "e/(%'o!%
pent, ! p!ticip! l! o 'e"in+! c!e< "in c!,1! in/,(icientei pe#%tii< tene!1% peni:il 'i /e
"o4e"e'te 9n (in!l /teil%F toto"!t%< !ce!/t! c!,1% (!ce c! m,lte "in 'e"in+e /% e',e1e p!ctic
9nc% "in!inte "e ! 9ncepe< 9n con"i+iile 9n c!e con",c%to,l 'e"in+ei 'i p!ticip!n+ii n, /D!,
pe#%tit /,(icient c, pi4ie l! /,:iect,l "e1:!teii 'i l! inte4en+i! lo 9n le#%t,! c, !ce/t
/,:iectF
D lip/! i#oii< t!ct,l,i 'i (emit%+ii< in"i/pen/!:ile con",ceii 'e"in+ei< (!ce< "e !/emene!< c!
e1,lt!tele ei (in!le /% (ie /l!:e< lip/! ,n,i mo" cl! cont,!t 'i (em e/pect!t "e "e/(%',!e !
"e1:!teilo< ! ,nei oient%i contin,e ! !ce/to! /pe o:iecti4ele pet!:il (i=!te 'i ! (in!li1%ii
peci/e< cl!e pent, to+i p!ticip!n+ii< pin concl,1iile pe c!e le t!#e con",c%to,l< /,nt 9ntD
o "i/c,+ie "e1oient!t% 'i ine(icient%.
C, to!te !ce/te!< 'e"in+ele pot (i e(iciente 'i cEi! pl%c,te 9n con"i+iile e/pect%ii ,no
reguli 'i l,%ii ,no m%/,i !"ec4!te 9n momentele "e e(ein+%C
6*
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
D 9n peio!"! !nteio!% "e/(%',%ii 'e"in+ei< con/!c!t% /t!:iliii o:iect,l,i !ce/tei! 'i
pe#%tiii con"i+iilo nece/!e "e/(%',%ii ei coe/p,n1%to!eF
D 9n inte4!l,l "e/(%',%ii 'e"in+ei< 9n c!e pe pim,l pl!n /e pl!/e!1% /til,l con",c%to,l,i
'e"in+ei 'i mo",l "e con",cee 'i oient!e ! "e1:!teiloF
D moment,l (in!li1%ii 'e"in+ei 'i peio!"! ce ,me!1%< 9n c!e peoc,p%ile /,nt pol!i1!te "e
cont,!e! celo m!i :,ne /ol,+ii< l,!e! "eci1iilo coe/p,n1%to!e 'i ,m%ie! !plic%ii lo.

C. Utili1!e! meto"ei 'e"in+ei pe/,p,ne o:li#!toi, p!c,#ee! ! patru et!peC
pe#%tie!< "e/cEi"ee!< "e/(%',!e! 'i (in!li1!e!. Pent, ! e!li1! o 'e"in+% e(ic!ce e/te
nece/! c! pe p!c,/,l (iec%ei et!pe /! (ie e/pect!te !n,mite e#,li.
1B PREG;TIREA UNEI EDIN3E !e ,n imp!ct /en/i:il !/,p! e(ic!cit%+ii /!le< ecl!m$n"
,n comple= "e !c+i,niC
D /t!:ilie! ,nei o"ini "e 1i @,"icio!/eF optim e/te !:o"!e! ,nei /in#,e po:lemeF
D (om,l!e! po:lemelo 9n/ci/e 9n o"ine! "e 1i c, m!=im "e cl!it!teF (om,l%ile te:,ie
/! /t$ne!/c% intee/,l celo 4i1!+i< incit$n",Di l! o p!ticip!e !cti4%F
D "e !/emene!< pe :!1! citeiilo competentei 'i epe1ent!ti4it%+ii< ! pe/o!nelo c!e te:,ie
/! 9ntocme!/c% m!tei!lele nece/!eF
D /t!:ilie! pe/o!nelo c!e 4o (i in4it!te l! 'e"in+!< (iin" ecom!n"!:il /% p!ticipe cele
implic!te nemi@locit 9n po:lemele !:o"!teF te:,ie e4it!t% m%ie! ne@,/ti(ic!t% ! n,m%,l,i
"e p!ticip!n+i AD,!t! ,nei 'e"in+e ce/te popo+ion!l c, p%t!t,l n,m%,l,i "e p!ticip!n+i ?
Le#e! l,i 7KANA>ANBF
D e/te in"ic!t c! m!tei!lele pent, 'e"in+% /% (ie c$t m!i /c,te< c,pin1$n" /tict in(om!+iile
nec,no/c,te "e p!ticip!n+i< (iin" timi/e c, cel p,+in 1D2 1ile 9n!inteF
D 9n c!1,l 'e"in+elo oc!1ion!le pent, /t!:ilie! "!tei e/te in"ic!t% con/,lt!e! pe/o!nelo
implic!te !/,p! (i=%ii 1ilei 'i oei /!, cel p,+in !n,n+!e! lo "in timpF
D 9n c!1,l 'e"in+elo peio"ice D /%pt%m$n!le< "ec!"!le< l,n!e ? e/te impot!nt% "e,l!e! lo
9n !cele!'i 1ile 'i oe< (!cilit$n" (om!e! l! p!ticip!n+i "e o:i'n,in+e pi4in" !t$t pe#%tie!<
c$t /i p!ticip!e!F
D /t!:ilie! loc,l,i "e "e/(%',!e 'i ! !m:i!ntei e/te nece/! /% /e e(ect,e1e 9n (,nc+ie "e
o:iecti4ele ,m%iteF mo:ilie,l te:,ie /% (ie con(ot!:il< /% n, p%t,n"% 1#omote
pet,:!toii< /% e=i/te !p!!t,% !,"io4i1,!l%F
D "e/emn!e! pe/o!nei c!e /e oc,p% "e 9ne#i/t!e! "i/c,+iilo l! 'e"in+% 'i !n,n+!e! /! "in
timp !/,p! "!tei 'i loc,l,i "e "e/(%',!e ! !ce/tei!.
2B DE7CKIDEREA EDIN3EIC
D "e/cEi"ee! 'e"in+ei l! o! com,nic!t% 9n pe!l!:il p!ticip!n+iloF
D (om,l!e! cl!% ! o:iecti4elo 'e"in+eiF
D pe1ent!e! i"eilo l! mo",l po1iti4F
D (olo/ie! ,n,i lim:!@ !t!cti4 pent, ! imp,ne !ten+iei i"eile emi/eF
D limit!e! e=p,neii into",cti4e l! 1 D 2 min,teF
D /t!:ilie!< "e com,n !co" c, p!ticip!n+ii< ! ",!tei tot!le ! 'e"in+ei 'i< "!c% e=i/t! peicol,l
,no l,%i "e c,4$nt e=ce/i4 "e l,n#i< /t!:ilie! ",!tei m!=ime pent, l,%ile "e c,4$nt !le
p!ticip!n+ilo.
*B DE72;URAREA EDIN3EIC
D /,:liniee! conti:,+iilo 9n i"ei noi< /ol,+ii e(iciente< !/t(el 9nc$t /% /tim,le1e p!ticip!e!
!cti4% 'i c$t m!i /,:/t!n+i!l% ! celo pe1en+i l! 9n"eplinie! /cop,ilo ,m%iteF
D c!lm!e! /piitelo 9n(ie:$nt!te< inte4enin" c, t!ct< "! (em< pent, ! pe9nt$mpin! /!,
elimin! 9n (!1! incipient% momentele "e ten/i,neF
6.
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
D inte4en+i! pompt%< 9n 4e"ee! /top%ii peo!+iilo in,tile pent, /ol,+ion!e! po:lemei
!:o"!te< ! "i4!#!+iilo "e l! /,:iect< ! e=p,neilo c!e n, epe1int% o conti:,+ie< ci "o! o
p,nee 9n e4i"en+% ! c,no'tin+elo meitelo ,no pe/o!neF
D impim!e! ,n,i itm c!e /% !/i#,e 9nc!"!e! ",!tei 'e"in+ei 9n peio!"! /t!:ilit%<
concomitent c, e!li1!e! /cop,ilo ,m%ite.
.B 8NCKIDEREA EDIN3EIC
D limit!e! ",!tei l! 1 D 1<5 oe< !'! c,m in"ic% m!@oit!te! /peci!li'tiloF
D inte4en+i! (in!l% ! con",c%to,l,i 'e"in+ei te:,ie /% (ie conci/% 'i< concomitent< /% /e e(ee
l! pincip!lele !co",i p,ncte "e 4e"ee e=pim!teF
D elementele "eo/e:it "e impot!nte /,nt ecom!n"!:il /% (ie t!n/mi/e 'i 9n /ci/
p!ticip!n+ilo< cel m!i t$1i, 9n 1i,! ,m%to!e e,ni,nii. E/te nece/! "e e+in,t c%
elementele "e !+ion!lit!te pe1ent!te /,nt 4!l!:ile< 9n #ene!l< pent, to!te tip,ile "e 'e"in+eC
9n c!1,l ,nei !n,mite c!te#oii< ,nele "in ele !, o pon"ee m!i m!e /!, m!i mic%.
#vantajele poten+i!le !le 'e"in+ei /,ntC ce'tee! ni4el,l,i "e in(om!e ! pe/on!l,l,iF
(,n"!ment!e! temeinic% ! "eci1iiloF "e14olt!e! coe1i,nii 9n compot!mentele "e m,nc%F
/cEim:,l "e e=peien+! 9nte in"i4i1ii o#!ni1!+iei.
"ezavantajele 'e"in+eiC con/,m m!e "e timpF e",cee! ope!ti4it%+ii 9n cee! ce
pi4e'te /ol,+ion!e! ,no po:lemeF /c%"ee! e/pon/!:ilit%+ii ,no con",c%toi.
3.3. METODA DE CONDUCERE PRIN PRODUS
Meto"! epe1int% m!nie! 9n c!e con",cee!< c, !@,to,l ,n,i comple= "e in/t,mente<
poce"ee teEnici 9'i e=ecit% in(l,en+! (!ctoilo ,m!ni< m!tei!li 'i cEi! (in!nci!i 9n /cop,l
(olo/iii !+ion!le ! !ce/to! 9n poce/,l m,ncii< 9n /cop,l o:+ineii e1,lt!telo peconi1!te.
Ace!/t! c,pin"eC
Q !/pect,l teoetic !cti4 !l 'tiin+ei< c!e !!t% c!le! "o:$n"iii "e noi c,no'tin+eF
Q e(icien+% p!ctic% 9n !:o"!e! e!lit%+iF
Q e/te ,n po#!m ",p% c!e /e e#le!1% !cti4it%+ile p!ctice 'i intelect,!le< pent, !tin#ee!
,n,i /copF
Q !e ,n c!!cte in/t,ment!l< c! o mo"!lit!te "e inte4en+ie< "e intepet!te< "e in(om!e "e
!c+ion!eF
Q ec,#e l! com:in!e! ,no el!+ii< l! teEnici 9mp,m,t!te "in !lte "omenii< l! mo"elele
ipotetice< !@,n#$n",D/e l! con/t,c+ii 'i ino4!+ii "e o:iecte 'i inteDel!+ii (,nc+ion!le "eci l!
ce!+ie.
O meto"% po!te (i !plic!t% n,m!i "!c% /e :!1e!1% pe e!lit!te! o:iecti4%< pe !moni1!e!
e/,/elo c, cein+ele. 7cop,l meto"ei con/t% 9n optimi1!e! (olo/iii c!p!cit%+ii "e m,nc% !
m!n!#e,l,i 9n e(icienti1!e! compot!ment,l,i 'i !c+i,nilo /!l!i!+ilo 'i 9n !nten!e!
9nte#,l,i pe/on!l l! !tin#ee! o:iecti4elo ,nit%+ii. Meto"! m!n!#ei!l% epe1int%
mo"!lit!te! 9n c!e m!n!#e,l e!li1e!1% poce/,l m!n!#ei!l< t!n/(om$n" in(om!+iile 9n
!c+i,ne c, !@,to,l "eci1iilo< pin !moni1!e! e/,/elo c, cein+ele 'i ,m%in" e1,lt!te
m!=im!le.
Meto"! "e con",cee pin po",/ 9'i !e oi#ine! 9n 9ncec!e! /!ti/(!ceii te:,in+elo
con/,m!toilo pe "e o p!te 'i "oin+! pe/t!toilo< pe "e !lt% p!te "e ! e!li1! o !cti4it!te
c$t m!i ent!:il%. 7e :!1e!1% pe o#!ni1!e! Pie+ei pe 7e#mente Omo#ene "in p,nct "e
4e"ee !l nece/it%+ilo ce te:,ie 9n"eplinite. Pent, (iec!e "inte "iec+iile "e !(!cei /e
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n,me'te ,n coo"on!to m!n!#e "e PRODU7 P RELA3IE< c!e !e /!cinile coe/p,n1%to!e
el!:o%ii /t!te#iei /peci(ice 'i poiect,l (l,=,ilo (in!nci!e nece/!e /,/+ineii "e,l%ii
!(!ceii.
Con",cee! pin po",/ epe1int% ,n /i/tem "e con",cee con/t$n" 9n ce!e! 9n
/t,ct,! o#!ni1!toic% ! (,nc+iei "e CONDUC;TOR DE PRODU7 /!, GRUP; DE PRODU7E.
M!n!#e,l 9ntepin"eii "e t,i/m e=ecit% 'i !lte (,nc+ii e/en+i!le c,m /,nt cele pi4in"C
W /t!:ilie! o:iecti4elo ce "ei4% "in mi/i,ne! pent, c!e ! (o/t ce!t% 9ntepin"ee!F
W el!:o!e! pl!n,ilo /t!te#ice "e m!Ietin# pent, 9n"eplinie! o:iecti4elo /t!:iliteF
W concepee! ,nei /t,ct,i o#!ni1!+ion!le coe/p,n1%to!eF
W complet!e! c, !ten+ie< ! o#!ni#!mei c, pe/on!l !peci!t c! nece/! 'i c$t m!i competent
po/i:ilF
W coo"on!e! !cti4it%+ii pe/on!l,l,i !n#!@!tF
W e=ecit!e! contol,l,i ope!ti4 !l pe(om!n+elo /!l!i!+ilo 9n to!te comp!timentele
"e pe/t!+ii "e /e4icii t,i/tice.
METODOLOGIA "e e!li1!e< pe et!peC
W /t!:ilie! po",/,l,i /!, #,p,i "e po",/eC
W "e/emn!e! "e pe/o!ne c!e !/i#,% con",cee! /i/tem,l,i e/pecti4 'i (i=!e! !ti:,+iilo<
!,toit%+ii 'i e/pon/!:ilit%+ii ! ce'teiiC
W el!:o!e! "e c%te con",c%to,l "e po",/ ! ,no 4!i!nte "e /t!te#ii pent, (!:ic!e 'i
comeci!li1!e.
W e4ent,!le mo"i(ic%i "e o"in /t,ct,!lDo#!ni1!toicC
W e4!l,!e! peio"ic% ! e1,lt!telo.
TR;7;TURI e/en+i!le !le con",c%to,l,i pin po",/C
W ti"emen/ion!lit!te! le#%t,iloC 4etic!l%< o:lic% <oi1ont!l%F
W !p!i+i! politicii "e po",/C #en< c!lit!te< c!ntit!te< pe+F
W "e(inie! c!!ctei/ticilo /t,ct,ii teEnice 'i comeci!leC !"!pt!e! po",/,l,i l!
/cEim:%ile "e pe pi!+! inten% 'i e=ten% D "e/(%',!e! /t!te#iei 9ntepin"eii 9n
conco"!n+% c, "in!mi/m,l po",c+iei 'i pie+ei.
AVANTAHE
W !+ion!lit!te 9n o#!ni1!e! 'i "e/(!cee! (!:ic!+iei po",/eloF
W !ccent,!e! "imen/i,nilo pe4i1ion!teF
W ce!e! "e con"i+ii pent, "e/(!cee! 'i /poie! po(it,l,i po",/,l,iF
W "e/con#e/tion!e! ,no comp!timente (,nc+ion!leF
W m!i :,n! coo"on!e 9nte comp!timenteF
W oient!e! !pi"% ! m!n!#ement,l,i /pe 9nnoie! po",/elo 'i !"!pt!e! !ce/to! l!
cein+ele pie+eiF
Planurile strategice+ instrumente utile de lucru pentru modelarea produsului turistic. 8n
con",cee! pin po",/ te:,ie !4,te 9n 4e"ee o /eie "e /t!te#ii !/t(elC
W /t!te#i! #!mei "e /e4icii D o !#en+ie "e t,i/m po!te /%D'i e=tin"% /!, /%D'i e/t$n#% p!let!
/e4iciilo< ",p% nece/it%+ile pe c!e le o(e% pi!+!F
W /t!te#i! "e pe+,i 'i t!i(e D #!m! "e po",/e t,i/tice !le ,nei !#en+ii /e 4! e/t$n#e /!, /e
4! l%#ii 9n (,nc+ie "e po/i:ilit%+ile "e !liniee ! pe+,ilo 'i t!i(elo l! t!i(ele competitoiloF
W "i/poni:ilit!te! o(etelo D m!@oit!te! !#en+iilo "in +!! no!/t% n, "i/p,n "e o :!1%
m!tei!l% popie 'i< 9n con/ecin+%< o(etele /,nt pl!(on!te l! ni4el,l :!1ei m!tei!le pe c!e o
pot o:+ine pe :!1% "e cont!cte /!, 9n+ele#ei pe!l!:ile "e l! pe/t!toii "e /e4icii.
Mo:ilit!te! 9n concepee! 'i e!li1!e! po",/elo t,i/tice 4! "epin"e "eci "e el!+iile "e
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col!:o!e /t!tonicite 9nte !#en+iile "e t,i/m 'i pe/t!toi c!e< l! $n",l lo< 9'i /t!:ile/c
con"i+iile #ene!le "e 4$n1!e ! /e4iciilo pe c!e le pe/te!1%F
W /t!te#i! c!lit%+ii D !#,ment,l e/en+i!l !l competiti4it%+ii po",/elo 'i o /e4iciilo
t,i/tice e/te c!lit!te! /e4iciilo pe/t!te< 9n (,nc+ie "e c!e /e "etemin% 'i e(ot,ile
pomo+ion!le "e p%t,n"ee< men+inee /!, e=tin"ee pe "i(eite /e#mente "e pi!+%.
W concept,l "e po",/ t,i/tic D nici o !#en+ie "e t,i/m n, i/c% l!n/!e! l! 9nt$mpl!e ! ,n,i
po",/ t,i/tic .Pe#%tie! pent, comeci!li1!e 9ncepe "in moment,l 9n c!e /t,"iile !te/t%
,tilit!te! po",/,l,i 'i 4! contin,! p$n% 9n moment,l c$n" po",/,l 4! (i !pt pent, ! (i
comeci!li1!t.
Pl!n,ile /t!te#ice /e "i(een+i!1% 'i "in p,nct,l "e 4e"ee !l p!tic,l!it%+ii
po",/,l,i< "ict!te< 9n!inte "e to!te "e /e1on!lit!te! !cti4it%+ii t,i/tice< pe ",!t! cicl,l,i "e
4i!+% !l po",/,l,i< 'i "e con"i+iile 9n c!e po",/,l ce!t 4! p,te! (i 4!loi(ic!t.
8n pl!n,ile /t!te#ice !le noilo po",/e m!n!#ement,l !#en+iilo "e t,i/m te:,ie /%
incl,"% ,m%to!ele /ec+i,niC
D loc!li1!e! con/,m,l,i /e4iciilo A+!!< 1on!< /t!+i,ne! etc.BF
D "imen/i,nile c!p!cit%+ilo ecepto!e "e c!e po!te "i/p,ne o !#en+ie "e t,i/mF
D contol,l ope!+i,nilo "e "e,l!e ! /e4iciiloF
D pent, ,n m!n!#e n, e/te /,(icient /%D'i c,no!/c% (o!te :ine popi! !#en+ie 'i clientel!< ci
te:,ie /% 'tie 'i c,m !c+ione!1% 9ntepin"eile competito!e. In(om!+iile pe c!e le po!te
o:+ine m!n!#e,l "e/pe 9ntepin"eile competito!e /,nt tot !t$te! elemente c!e conti:,ie
l! oient!e! politicii popii 9n el!:o!e! pl!n,ilo /t!te#ice.
3.<. MANAGEMENTUL PRIN DIAGNOSTICARE
Di!#no/tic!e! po!te (i "e(init% c! !ce! meto"% (olo/it% "e m!n!#ei< pe :!1! con/tit,iii
,nei ecEipe m,lti"i/ciplin!e< "in m!n!#ei 'i e=ec,t!n+i< !l c%ei con+in,t pincip!l con/t% 9n
i"enti(ic!e! p,nctelo (ote 'i< e/pecti4< /l!:e !le "omeni,l,i !n!li1!t< c, e4i"en+iee!
c!,1elo c!e le #enee!1%< (in!li1!t% 9n ecom!n"%i c, c!!cte coecti4 /!, "e "e14olt!e.
Di!#no/tic!e! pe1int% tei c!!ctei/tici pincip!leC e/en+! ei con/t% 9n !n!li1! c!,1%
De(ect< !t$t 9n "epi/t!e! 'i e=!min!e! p,nctelo (ote 'i /l!:e< c$t 'i l! (om,l!e!
ecom!n"%ilo. 7peci(ic !ce/tei meto"e e/te 'i c!!cte,l /!, p!ticip!ti4F /e imp,ne
implic!e! m!i m,lto /!l!i!+i "e /peci!lit%+i "i(eite< coe/p,n1%to n!t,ii po:lemelo
in4e/ti#!te< "inte c!e n, te:,ie /% lip/e!/c% m!n!#eii 'i e=ec,t!n+ii nemi@locit implic!+i 9n
"e/(%',!e! e/pecti4elo !cti4it%+iF ! tei! con/t% 9n (in!li1!e! /! 9n ecom!n"%i< !"ic%
!"opt!e! "eci1iilo c, c!!cte coecti4 pi4in" "i/(,nc+ion!lit%+ile 'i< e/pecti4< "e
"e14olt!e< e(eito!e l! !/pectele po1iti4e.
8n c!",l (imelo /e (olo/e'te o #!m% l!#% "e "i!#no/tice. Di!#no/ticele #ene!le !,
"ept o:iect !n/!m:l,l !cti4it%+ilo /ociet%+ii comeci!le /!, e#iei !,tonome . Di!#no/ticele
/peci!li1!te< /e e(e% l! o !cti4it!te< ,n comp!timent /!, o po:lem% "in c!",l (imei.
Di!#no/ticele mono(!1ice "iecte< /e e(e% l! o /in#,! (!1% 9n c!",l c%ei! /e e=!mine!1% o
/in#,% !cti4it!te< /,:!cti4it!te /!, po:lem%. Di!#no/ticele pl,i(!1ice /!, 9n c!/c!"!< !,
"ept c!!ctei/tici pincip!le in4e/ti#!e! /,cce/i4% ! cel p,+in "o,! !cti4it%+i< +in$n" cont "e
el!+iile c!,1!De(ect "inte !ce/te!.
Pent, ,tili1!e! coect! ! meto"ei "i!#no/tic%ii e/te o:li#!toie p!c,#ee! m!i
m,lto et!pe C
!B /t!:ilie! "omeni,l,i "e in4e/ti#!tF
:B "oc,ment!e! pelimin!%F
cB /t!:ilie! pincip!lelo p,ncte /l!:e 'i ! c!,1elo c!e le #enee!1%F
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"B /t!:ilie! pincip!lelo p,ncte (ote 'i ! c!,1elo c!e le #enee!1%F
eB (om,l!e! ecom!n"%ilo.
Pincip!lele !4!nt!@e !le (olo/iii !ce/tei meto"eC !/i#,% (,n"!ment,l nece/! el!:o%ii
'i !plic%ii po#!melo "e "e14olt!e ! (imeiF pe9nt$mpin% !p!i+i! ,no "i/(,nc+ion!lit%+i
m!@oe "!toit% i"enti(ic%ii c!,1elo ce le #enee!1% 9ntDo (!1% incipient%F !mpli(ic% !pi"
poten+i!l,l /ociet%+ii comeci!le /!, e#iei !,tonome pin !c+ion!e !/,p! c!,1elo
#ene!to!e "e p,ncte (oteF !/i#,% :!1! in(om!+ion!l% !:/ol,t nece/!% !"opt%ii ,no
"eci1ii /t!te#ice 'i t!ctice c,ente 'i e(ic!ce.
3.=. MANAGEMENTUL PRIN DELEGARE
8n c!",l m!n!#ement,l,i (imei< "ele#!e! !e ,n con+in,t /peci(ic< "etemin!t "e
p!tic,l!it%+ile !ce/t,i o#!ni/m /ocioDeconomic. Dele#!e! con/t% 9n !ti:,ie! tempo!% "e
c%te ,n m!n!#e ! ,nei! "in /!cinile /!le "e /e4ici, ,n,i /,:o"on!t< 9n/o+it% 'i "e
competen+! 'i e/pon/!:ilit!te! coe/p,n1%to!e. Din "e(ini+i! "!t% e1,lt% "e (!pt< o "epl!/!e
tempo!% "e /!cini< competen+e 'i e/pon/!:ilit%+i "e l! ni4el,l ie!Eic /,peio l! ni4el,l
ie!Eic in(eio. Accent,%m c% !e ,n c!!cte tempo! 9nt,c$t !ltmintei !4em "eD! (!ce c,
o "e/cent!li1!e.
Pincip!lele elemente componente !le poce/,l,i "e "ele#!e /,ntC
D 9n/%cin!e!C con/t% 9n !ti:,ie! ,n,i /,:o"on!t< "e c%te ,n m!n!#e< ! e(ect,%ii ,nei
/!cini ceDi e4ine "e "ept pin o#!ni1!e! (om!l%F
D !ti:,ie! competen+ei (om!leC /e !/i#,% /,:o"on!t,l,i li:et!te! "eci1ion!l% 'i "e
!c+i,ne nece/!% e!li1%ii /!cinii e/pecti4eF
D 9nce"in+!e! e/pon/!:ilit%+iiC !/i#,% e(!cee! Mti,n#Ei,l,i "e !,N !l o#!ni1%ii pent,
/!cin! 9n /pe+%.
Pro%lema cheie 9n ,tili1!e! c, /,cce/ ! meto"ei "ele#%ii e/te /ol,+ion!e!
coe/p,n1%to!e ! "ilemei 9nce"ee D contol. Pent, o /ol,+ion!e coe/p,n1%to!e ! "ilemei
contol D 9nce"ee< e/te nece/! /% /e e/pecte ,n /et "e e#,liC
!B /% n, /e "ele#e e!li1!e! "e /!cini "e impot!n+% m!@o%F
:B peci1!e! cl!%< 9n /ci/< ! /!cinilo< competen+elo 'i e/pon/!:ilit%+ilo "ele#!teF
cB ce!e! ,nei !m:i!n+e (!4o!:ile "ele#%iiF
"B "e(inie! c$t m!i i#,o!/% ! e1,lt!telo ce /e !'te!pt% F
eB 4ei(ic!e!< "e e#,l%< ! e1,lt!telo o:+in,te.
#vantajele acestei metodeC /e (olo/e'te m!i !+ion!l c!p!cit!te! m!n!#eilo pin
"e#e4!e! "e /ol,+ion!e! ,no! "in po:lemele "e m!i e",/% impot!n+%F /,:o"on!+ii
:ene(ici!1% "e con"i+ii m!i :,ne pent, "e14olt!e! pe pl!n po(e/ion!lF poten+i!l,l
e=ec,t!n+ilo 'i m!n!#eilo e/te 4!loi(ic!t l! ,n ni4el /,peioF clim!t,l "e m,nc%
(!4oi1e!1% 9ntDo m%/,% /poit% ini+i!ti4!< ce!ti4it!te! etc.
3.>. MANAGEMENTUL PRIN TABLOUL DE BORD
'oninutul $i utilitatea ta%loului de %ordC 9n pim,l $n"< e/te o impot!n+% teEnic% "e
m!n!#ement< c, imp!ct nemi@locit !/,p! e(ic!cit%+ii m,ncii m!n!#eiloF 9n !l "oile! $n"<
e/te o mo"!lit!te pincip!l% "e !+ion!li1!e ! /,:/i/tem,l,i in(om!+ion!l micoeconomic.
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Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
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Pin inteme"i,l t!:lo,l,i "e :o" /e !/i#,% o in(om!e complet%< !pi"% 'i ope!ti4% !
con",c%toilo.
"e)iniieC ,n !n/!m:l, "e in(om!+ii c,ente< pe1ent!te 9ntDo (om% /inoptic%<
pe/t!:ilit%< e(eito!e l! pincip!lele e1,lt!te !le !cti4it%+ii !4,te 'i l! (!ctoii pincip!li ce
con"i+ione!1% "e,l!e! ei e(icient%.
TipologieC /,nt "i(een+i!te 9n "o,! c!te#oii pincip!leC t!:lo,i "e :o" e/t$n/e c, ,n
4ol,m mic "e in(om!+ii 'i t!:lo,i "e :o" comple=e c, in(om%i m!i !mple.
'erineC e/te ,n in/t,ment "e /inte1% c!e pemite< 9ntD,n timp /c,t< o !n!li1%
comple=% ! "e,l%ii !cti4it%+ilo con",/e< (!cilit$n" !"opt!e! ,no "eci1ii e(iciente. Te:,ie
/% /!ti/(!c% c$te4! cein+e minime< e/pecti4C con/i/ten+!< i#,o1it!te!< !#e#!e!<
!cce/i:ilit!te!< ecEili:!e!< e=pe/i4it!te!< !"!pt!:ilit!te!< economicit!te! .
.unciiC "e !4eti1!e< e4!l,!e D "i!#no/tic!e< "e elimin!e ! !/pectelo ne#!ti4e 'i "e
#ene!li1!e ! elementelo po1iti4e .
.ormeC cele m!i /emni(ic!ti4e /,nt t!:elele "e 4!loi 'i #!(iceleF !poi m!nie! "e
e!li1!e ! t!:lo,l,i "e :o"C m!pele "in m!tei!l pl!/tic /!, c!ton< e#i/tele "e m%imi
"i(eite< p!no,ile pi4ot!nte< (oile "e impim!nt%< "i/pl!LD,ile etc.
#vantajeC !mpli(ic!e! #!",l,i "e (,n"!ment!e ! "eci1iiloF !+ion!li1!e! ,tili1%ii
timp,l,i "e l,c, !l m!n!#eilo 'i o#!ni/melo p!ticip!ti4e "e m!n!#ementF /poie!
e/pon/!:ilit%+ii m!n!#eilo pent, !cti4it!te! "e/(%',!t%F !:o"!e! in(om!+iilo e(eito!e
l! !cti4it%+ile "e m!n!#ement etc.
"ezavantajeC 9ne#i/t!e! epet!t% ! ,no in(om!+iiF 4ol,m,l< ,neoi m!e "e m,nc%F
co/t,l el!ti4 i"ic!t !l t!:lo,l,i "e :o".
3.?. METODA DE CONDUCERE PE BA' DE RE'ULTATE
Ace!/t% meto"% p,ne !ccent,l pe !/pect,l ce!to !l con",ceii. Acti4it!te! "e
con",cee e/te oient!t% 9n pincip!l /pe o:+inee! :ene(ici,l,i Am!=imi1!e! e1,lt!telo 'i
minimi1!e! cEelt,ieliloB. Con(om !ce/tei meto"e< (iec!e m!n!#e< in"i(eent "e po1i+i! /!
ie!Eic%< e/te %/p,n1%to "e !n,mite e1,lt!te pe c!e le po!te o:+ine pin 4!loi(ic!e!
c!p!cit%+ilo /!le pe/on!le 'i ! ,no e/,/e "in ,nit!te. Citeiile "e !peciee ! !cti4it%+ii "e
m!n!#ement con/t!, 9n m%ime! e1,lt!telo 'i ! cEelt,ielilo (%c,te pent, o:+inee!
!ce/to!. 8nc!"!e! pe "iec+i! o:+ineii e1,lt!telo pe/t!:ilite e/te ,m%it% peio"ic pin
conto!le c!e pemit o coect!e ope!ti4% ! !:!teilo.
8n !ce/t /cop /e (olo/e'te pe l!# /i/tem,l "e ecompen/e 'i /!nc+i,ni. Ace/t! meto"%
!/i#,% /elec+i! po:lemelo pioit!e< impot!nteF pemite 9m:in!e! intee/elo #ene!le 'i
p!tic,l!eF !/i#,% o eti:,+ie ecEit!:il%F pemite e4!l,!e! coect% 'i o:iecti4% ! !cti4it%+ii
"e m!n!#ementF pemite ce'tee! e(icien+ei !cti4it%+ii ,nit%+ii economice. Di(ic,lt%+i !p! 9n
!peciee! e1,lt!telo pe (iec!e l,c%toF m!=imi1!e! ,no e1,lt!te ime"i!te po!te /% n,
conco"e c, o:iecti4ele pe temen l,n#.
3.(A. MANAGEMENTUL BA'AT PE MOTIVAIE
Po:lemei moti4!+iei pe/on!l,l,i i /e !ti:,ie o m!e impot!n+% !t$t 9n /ecto,l pi4!t
c$t 'i 9n cel :,#et!. To+i m!n!#eii /,nt "e !co" c% !tin#ee! o:iecti4elo o#!ni1!+ion!le
"epin"e (o!te m,lt "e compot!ment,l 'i !tit,"ine! /,:o"on!+ilo lo (!+% "e /!cinile ce le
e4in. D! c$n" /e 9nce!c% /% /e %/p,n"% l! 9nte:%i "e #en,lC GC,m po+i /%Di "etemini pe
o!meni /% (!c% cee! ce "oe'ti t,[G /!, G"e ce # l,ce!1% m!i m,lt /i m!i :ine "ec$t : 9n
!cele!'i con"i+ii "e m,nc![G /e !@,n#e l! concl,1i! c% po:lem! e/te "e/t,l "e comple=% 'i
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"i(icil%. De !/emene!< te:,ie /p,l:e!t% "e l! 9ncep,t il,1i! c% ! e=i/t! o e+et% /i#,%< "e
/,cce/< c!e /% !/i#,e e1ol4!e! po:lemei moti4!+iei pent, oic!e "inte /it,!+ii /!,
/,:iec+i. De ce[ Pent, c% o!menii /,nt "i(ei+i. 2iec!e !e o pe/on!lit!te :ine "e(init%< c,
ne4oile< !ptit,"inile< 4!loile 'i !/pi!+iile /!le.
Ace/te c!lit%+i in"i4i",!le /e com:in% !poi c, con"i+ii 'i !/pecte le#!te "e loc,l "e
m,nc%. Pe l$n#% !ce!/t! m!i !c+ione!1% 9nc% ,n (!cto impot!nt< 'i !n,me "in!mic!
pe/on!lit%+ii 'i ce! ! me"i,l,i. In"i4i1ii n,D'i p%/te!1% 9n mo" con/e4!to to!te
c!!ctei/ticile. Unii /imt ne4oi! /!, /,nt o:li#!+i /%D'i "e14olte :!#!@,l "e c,no'tin+e. Al+ii
9'i pe(ec+ione!1% "epin"eile c$'ti#!te 9ntD,n "omeni, "e !cti4it!te pintD,n itm /,/+in,t 'i
pe/e4eent "e l,c,< c! /% n, m!i !mintim "e /cEim:%ile po4enite "in 4i!t! p!tic,l!%<
o"!t% c, tecee! !nilo. Nici con"i+iile o#!ni1!+ion!le n, /t!, pe loc. 7,nt /,(icient "e :ine
c,no/c,te e1,lt!tele 'i e!c+iile #ene!te "e 4!l,l "e /cEim:%i !le teEnolo#iei
in(om!+ion!le. I! in/tit,+iile 9'i ,me!1% t!/e,l c,no/c,t /,: "en,mie! "e cicl, !l 4ie+ii
o#!ni1!+ion!le 9n c!e ele /e n!/c< e4ol,e!1%< /e m!t,i1e!1%< /t!#ne!1% 'i !poi "ec!"< (iec!e
"inte !ce/te et!pe !4$n" c!!ctei/ticile :ine "e(inite.
C, to+i !ce'ti (!ctoi "in!mici< in"i4i",!li 'i o#!ni1!+ion!li !(l!+i 9ntDo contin,%
pe(!cee< !m p,te! !@,n#e 9n p!#,l ,nei 9nte:%i etoice 'i pline "e /ceptici/mC GO!e 4om
p,te! 4eo"!t% /% 9n+ele#em ce 9l "etemin% pe ,n !n#!@!t /% !i:% o !n,mit% !tit,"ine 'i ,n
!n,mit compot!ment l! loc,l "e m,nc!G[
G.A. Cole< ,n,l "inte /peci!li'tii :it!nici 9n "omeni,l m!n!#ement,l,i e/,/elo
,m!ne< 9nce!c% /% ne "e! o m$n! "e !@,to< o(ein",Dne ,m%to!e! "e(ini+ie /intetic% 'i
!cce/i:il%C GMoti4!+i! e/te ,n poce/ 9n c!e o!menii !le# 9nte (ome !lten!ti4e "e
compot!ment 9n 4e"ee! !tin#eii /cop,ilo pe/on!le.G L! !ce!/t!< /pe complet!e< !m
p,te! !"%,#! 'i "e(ini+i! !lten!ti4% con(om c%ei! Gmoti4!+i! epe1int% /,m! ene#iilo
intene 'i e=tene c!e ini+i!1% 'i "ii@e!1% compot!ment,l /pe ,n /cop c!e< o"!t% !tin/< 4!
"etemin! /!ti/(!cee! ,nei nece/it!+i. ARo:et L. M!tEi/< P!n!ite C. Nic! 'i Co/t!cEe R,/,<
166)< M!n!#ement,l e/,/elo ,m!ne< E". Economic%< >,c,e'tiB.
De/ci($n" pe 9n"elete !ce/te "e(ini+ii complement!e< e,'im /% i"enti(ic%m
pincip!lele elemente componente !le poce/,l,i moti4!+ion!lC compot!ment< /cop<
/!ti/(!c+ie< nece/it!+i< ene#ii A!ici c, /en/,l "e e/,/eB. A'e1$n" to!te !ce/te elemente 9ntDo
o"ine c!,1!l%< o:+inem ,n mo"el "etemini/t !l moti4!+iei 9n c!e ne4oile D /tim,lii con",c l!
,n compot!ment !"ec4!t 9n c!e /,nt e=plo!t!te e/,/ele nece/!e "in cele e=i/tente< e/,/e
c!e #enee!1% !c+i,ne! ce ",ce l! !tin#ee! /cop,l,i /!, o:+inee! e1,lt!telo !'tept!te< ce
(!c /% 9ncete1e !c+i,ne! /tim,lilo< !@,n#$n",D/e 9n (in!l l! /!ti/(!c+ie.
8n !ce/t /en/< Ge!l" Cole e!li1e!1% ,n mo"el (,n"!ment!l m,lt m!i /impli(ic!t 'i m!i
/cEem!tic< e+in$n" "o! c$te4! elemente "e :!1!C /tim,li P compot!ment !"ec4!t P /cop,i
/!, e1,lt!te "oite. Pe "e !lt% p!te< moti4!+i! e/te ,n (!cto "eo/e:it "e impot!nt 9n
"etemin!e! compot!ment,l,i< ne(iin" 9n !cel!'i timp 'i ,nic,l c!e 9l #enee!1%. Pe l$n#%
moti4!+ie 9'i m!i (!c /im+it% in(l,en+! 'i (!ctoii "e n!t,% :iolo#ic%< p/iEo/oci!l%<
o#!ni1!+ion!l% 'i c,lt,!l%.
8n e(ot,l lo "e ! e(icienti1! !cti4it%+ile o#!ni1!+iilo pe c!e le con",c pin inteme"i,l
/tim,l%ii !cti4it%+ii po(e/ion!le< m!n!#eii !, i"enti(ic!t 2 "imen/i,ni !le m,ncii c!e
,tili1e!1% /,/e moti4!+ion!le "i/tincte 'i /peci(iceC
!. "imensiunea o%iectiv ,tili1e!1% c! pincip!l% /,/% moti4!+ion!l% ecompen/!e!
ine#!l% ! m,ncii. Temen,l Gine#!l%G !e !ici /en/,l "e "i(een+i!t%< necon(,n"$n",D/e c,
p!cticile inecEit!:ile< incoecte. E=peien+! m,lto (ime 'i in/tit,+ii ! "emon/t!t c% politic!
e#!lit!i/m,l,i /!l!i!l ! #ene!t e(ecte ne#!ti4e pe temen l,n#< pincip!l,l (iin"
"emoti4!e! pe/on!l,l,i. In"i4i1ii c, pe#%tie!< !ptit,"inile 'i "epin"eile cele m!i
pe(om!nte !, /($'it pin ! p%%/i o#!ni1!+iile pent, !D'i c%,t! po/t,i 9n c!e /% (ie pl%ti+i
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9n mo" !"ec4!t. A/t(el /D! po",/ ,n !lt e(ect ne#!ti4C (l,ct,!+i! ce/c,t% ! (o+ei "e m,nc%.
Dimpoti4%< "i(een+iee! ecompen/elo (in!nci!e 9n (,nc+ie "e c!li(ic!e< "i(ic,lt!te!
/!cinilo< e1,lt!tele o:+in,te< mo",l "e "e/(%',!e ! !cti4it%+ii con/tit,ie o (om% "eo/e:it
"e e(icient% "e moti4!e.
:. "imensiunea su%iectiv (olo/e'te c! /,/% moti4!+ion!l% e(ect,l e/,/elo
nepec,ni!e. E=i/t! n,meo!/e /t,"ii ce !, "emon/t!t (!pt,l c% m,l+i !n#!@!+i pot (i moti4!+i
9n !c+i,nile lo 'i pin !lte meto"e "ec$t cele "e n!t,% (in!nci!%< o:+in$n",D/e e1,lt!te
/imil!e.
Emer; $i Thorsrud i"enti(ic% (om! 'i con+in,t,l "emoc!+iei in",/ti!le c$te4! "inte
ne4oile c!eD1 "etemin% pe om /% m,nce!/c% 'i pent, !ltce4! "ec$t pent, :!ni /!, !lte
!4!nt!@e m!tei!leC
D ne4oi! "e ! 9n4%+! pin m,nc%F
D ne4oi! "e ! c,no!'te n!t,! m,ncii 'i ! mo",l,i pin c!e o po!te e!li1!F
D ne4oi! "e ! l,! "eci1ii 'i "e ! !4e! ini+i!ti4%F
D ne4oi! cont!ct,l,i /oci!l po1iti4 'i "e ec,no!'tee 9n c!",l o#!ni1!+ieiF
D ne4oi! "e !D'i p,ne !cti4it!te! 9n /l,@:! o:iecti4elo (imei 'i "e !D'i le#! 4i!+! "e ce! !
com,nit%+iiF
D ne4oi! /i#,!n+ei 4iito,l,i.
8n ,ltim! 4eme /e !co"% "in ce 9n ce m!i m,lt% impot!n+% ne4oii "e con(ot 'i
/!ti/(!c+iei pe c!e o #enee!1%< !ce/t! lip/in" 9nc% 9n (o!te m,lte "omenii "e !cti4it!te.
Tip,ile "e ne4oi /e !(l% l! :!1! m!@oit%+ii teoiilo moti4!+ion!le pe c!e le 4om tece 9n
e4i/t% 9n contin,!eC
Teoria ierarhiei nevoilor a lui Maslo<
P/iEolo#,l A:!E!m M!/loO ! el!:o!t ,n! "inte cele m!i c,no/c,te teoii !le
moti4!+iei< c!e ! (o/t pel,!t% "e c%te m!n!#ement,l e/,/elo ,m!ne. Con(om !ce/tei!<
to!te ne4oile ,m!ne pot (i cl!/i(ic!te 9n = categorii !!n@!te 9ntDo /cEem% ie!Eic% ce
/t!:ile'te o"ine! 9n c!e !ce/te! /,nt /!ti/(%c,te. Repe1ent$n",Dle 9ntDo (om% pi!mi"!l%<
M!/loO /,/+ine c% ele te:,ie /!ti/(%c,te 9ncep$n" "e l! :!1% 'i /($'in" c, cele "e l! 4$(.
Re/pect$n" /i noi !ce!/t! o"ine< "e/ciem pe /c,t (iec!e "in !ce/te c!te#oiiC
1. 7evoile )iziologice /,nt ne4oi "e :!1% pec,m E!n!< !"%po/t,l< o"iEn!<
9m:%c%minte! 'i to!te celel!lte c!e "etemin% 'i !/i#,% e=i/ten+! 'i /,p!4ie+,ie!. To!te
/,nt e/en+i!le 'i /,nt !/i#,!te l! ni4el o#!ni1!+ion!l pintDo /!l!i1!e coe/p,n1%to!e<
con"i+ii :,ne "e m,nc%< po#!m "e l,c, e1on!:il etc.
2. 7evoile de securitate )izic $i social A/i#,!n+!B implic% o !ten+ie "eo/e:it% pent,
con"i+iile "e /ec,it!te ! m,ncii< pent, mo"i(ic!e! /!l!iilo 9n (,nc+ie "e in(l!+ie< pent,
/po,i "etemin!te "e con"i+ii /peci!le "e l,c, 'i pent, !/i#,!e! ,nei pen/ii l! 9ncEeiee!
!cti4it%+ii po(e/ion!le.
*. 7evoile sociale sau de asociere c,pin" ne4oi! "e pietenie 'i !(ec+i,ne< "e
!p!tenen+% /!, !/ociee l! ,n #,p< "e /oli"!it!te< 9n #ene!l "e /!ti/(!cee ! el!+iilo inteD
,m!ne. 8n c!",l !cti4it%+ii po(e/ion!le< !ce/te! /e m!ni(e/t% pin "oin+! "e ! cont!ct! 'i
col!:o! c, ceil!l+i !n#!@!+i< "e ! ce! le#%t,i p,tenice 9n c!",l ecEipei "e m,nc% etc.
.. 7evoile de stim $i recunoa$tere social /e e(e! l! ne4oi! (iec%,i om "e ! (i ce4!
m!i m,lt "ec$t ,n /impl, mem:, !l ,n,i #,p< "e ! !4e! o im!#ine (!4o!:il% 9n popii /%i
ocEi "! 'i 9n (!t! celol!l+i< c!e /%Dl e/pecte 'i /%Di !pecie1e e!li1%ile. L! ni4el
o#!ni1!+ion!l< !ce/te ne4oi /,nt /!ti/(%c,te 9n moment,l 9nc,n,n%ii c, /,cce/ ! ,n,i poiect
/!, !l pomo4%ii 9ntDo no,% (,nc+ie. Ace/te momente "!, n!'tee /entiment,l,i "e p,tee<
9nce"ee 9n /ine 'i pe/ti#i,.
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5. 7evoile de autoactualizare sau a)irmare $i realizare personal epe1int% cel m!i
9n!lt ni4el ie!Eic !l pi!mi"ei< c,pin1$n" ne4oile "e pe(ec+ion!e ! t!lentelo "e ce!+ie 'i !
!cEi1i+iilo "eo/e:ite 9n "omeni,l po(e/ion!l< 9n/enin$n" ,tili1!e! l! m!=im,m ! popi,l,i
poten+i!l.
Pincipi,l /!ti/(!ceii ne4oilo ,m!ne ",p% M!/loO ! (i ,m%to,lC in"i4i",l 9'i
/!ti/(!ce pim! "!t% ne4oile "e l! :!1! pi!mi"ei ie!Eice 'i !:i! !poi tece l! /!ti/(!cee!
celo "e l! ni4el,l ,m%to. O"!t% /!ti/(%c,te 'i !ce/te!< /e !4!n/e!1% l! ni4el,l ime"i!t
/,peio 'i /e contin,% !'! p$n% l! ,ltim! c!te#oie "in 4$(,l pi!mi"ei. Deci "o! ne4oile
ne/!ti/(%c,te /e4e/c c! (!ctoi moti4!+ion!li< celel!lte pie1$n",D'i !ce/t ol< p$n% 9n
moment,l e!cti4%ii lo.
Teoi! l,i M!/loO e/te citic!t%< (iin" c!t!lo#!t% c! /impli/t%< !ti(ici!l% 'i i#i"%.
Pincip!lele !#,mente !le citicii ! (i c% o!menii n, ,m%e/c /!ti/(!cee! ne4oilo 9n
o"ine! pe/ci/% "e M!/loO< m!i !le/ 9n cee! ce pi4e'te ni4el,ile /,peio!e< 'i c%< "!toit%
p/iEolo#iei comple=e ! in"i4i",l,i< m,lte "inte !ce/te ne4oi /e 9ntep%t,n"< ,neoi cEi!
com:in$n",D/e< /tim,l$n",D1 /% 9ncece /% le /!ti/(!c% /im,lt!n. Tot,'i< teoi! /e :,c,% "e
pop,l!it!te pinte m!n!#ei 9nt,c$t /e "o4e"e'te ! (i (o!te ,til% 9n 9n+ele#ee! moti4!+iei
/,:!ltenilo lo 9n (,nc+ie "e po1i+i! oc,p!t! "e !ce'ti! 9n ie!Ei! o#!ni1!+ion!l%.
Teoria )actorilor duali a lui 3erz%erg
De14olt$n" 'i mo"i(ic$n" teoi! ie!Eiei ne4oilo ! l,i M!/loO< 2e"eicI Ke1:e# !
!@,n/ l! concl,1i! c! e=i/t% 2 #,p,i "e (!ctoi ce in(l,en+e!1% /entimentele !n#!@!t,l,i (!+%
"e m,nc! /!C
D )actori motivatori Aintin/eci /!, "e con+in,tBF
D )actori igienici Ae=tin/eci /!, "e conte=tB.

.actori motivatoriC
D A,to!ct,!li1!e
D Rec,no!'tee
D M,nc% pent, /ine
D Re/pon/!:ilit!te
D A4!n/!e
.actori igieniciC
D Rel!+ii intepe/on!le
D Politic! (imei
D Contol
D 7!l!ii
D Con"i+ii "e m,nc%
P,nct,l cent!l !l !ce/tei teoii ! l,i Ke1:e# con/t% 9n !(im!e! "i/contin,it%+ii 9nte
(!ctoii c!e po",c /!ti/(!c+i! 'i cei c!e po",c in/!ti/(!c+i! 9n !cti4it!te! po(e/ion!l%.
No,t!te! con/t% 9n (!pt,l c%< /pe "eo/e:ie "e concep+i! t!"i+ion!l% c!e con/i"e! to+i
(!ctoii c! p,t$n" "etemin! !t$t /!ti/(!c+ii c$t /i in/!ti/(!c+ii< Ke1:e# /,/+ine c! /!ti/(!c+i!
9n m,nc% e/te "etemin!t% n,m!i "e ,n !n,mit tip "e (!ctoi< 'i !n,me cei moti4!toi< i!
in/!ti/(!c+i! e/te po",/% "e ,n !l tip "e (!ctoi< n,mi+i i#ienici.
2!ctoii moti4!toi /,nt /t$n/ le#!+i "e /peci(ic,l m,ncii 'i !c+ione!1% 9n "iec+i!
mo:ili1%ii o!menilo pent, ! l,c! m!i :ine.
2!ctoii "e i#ien% /!, "e 9nte+inee n, +in !t$t "e con+in,t,l m,ncii 9n /ine c$t "e
con"i+iile 9n c!e !ce!/t! e/te pe/t!t%. Ace'ti! n, #enee!1% /!ti/(!c+i!< "! "!c% n, !tin# ,n
ni4el coe/p,n1%to< "!, n!'tee l! nem,l+,mii.
Pincip!l! citic% !",/% !ce/tei teoii /e e(e! l! (!pt,l c%< 9n /en/ empiic< Ke1:e# !
(o/t peoc,p!t m!i m,lt "e /!ti/(!c+i! 9n m,nc! "ec$t "e compot!ment,l 9n poce/,l m,ncii.
Tot,'i< mo"el,l /%, "e intepet!e /D! "o4e"it 'i e/te 9n contin,!e !"ec4!t m!i !le/
!n#!@!+ilo "in c!te#oi! /peci!li'tilo 'i ! pe/on!l,l,i oc,p$n" po/t,i "e con",cee< (iin"
"eo/e:it "e impot!nt pent, m!n!#ei.
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Teoria achiziiei succeselor a lui Mc'lelland $i #t>inson Con(om !ce/tei teoii<
o#!ni1!+i! 9n+ele!/% c! loc "e "e/(%',!e ! !cti4it%+ii po(e/ion!le o(e% /!ti/(!cee! ! * tip,i
"e ne4oiC
1. ne4oi! "e p,teeF
2. ne4oi! "e !(ilieeF
*. ne4oi! "e e!li1!e.
In"i4i1ii l! c!e /e m!ni(e/t% "omin!nt ne4oi! "e p,tee /,nt moti4!+i "e oc,p!e! 9n
o#!ni1!+ie ! ,nei po1i+ii c$t m!i 9n!lte 'i m!i !,toit!e< (iin" /tim,l!+i /pe e!li1!e! t,t,o
!cti4it%+ilo ce con",c l! !tin#ee! !ce/t,i o:iecti4.
In"i4i1ii "omin!+i "e ne4oi! "e !(iliee /,nt cel m!i p,tenic moti4!+i pin (!pt,l c%
m,nc! le o(e% cont!ct (ec4ent c, cole#ii. Pent, !ce/t tip "e pe/o!ne e/te m!i in"ic!t /% n,
!i:% loc,i "e m,nc! i1ol!te.
In"i4i1ii c, ne4oi "e e!li1!e "omin!nte pe1int% ,m%to!ele c!!ctei/ticiC
D m!ni(e/t% o ne4oie "e e!li1!e con/t!nt%F
D c!,t% /!cini c!e /% le /olicite !/,m!e! e/pon/!:ilit%+iiF
D pe(e% /!cinile po4oc!to!e< (%% ! (i 9n/% pe! "i(icile< /!cini pe c!e le pot /t%p$ni 'i
9n"eplini An,D'i !/,m% nicio"!t% /cop,i impo/i:il "e !tin/BF
D c!,t% 9n pem!nen+% /% c,no!/c% (ee"D:!cID,l A%/p,n/,lB l! e1,lt!t,l m,ncii loF
D /,nt m!i p,+in intee/!+i "e ne4oile /oci!le /!, "e !(iliee.
Cei "oi cecet%toi !, /,p,/ ne4oi! "e e!li1!e ,n,i poce/ "e (om!li1!e< plec$n" "e
l! ipote1! c% (o+! moti4!+ion!l% "e po",cee ! ,n,i !ct e/te o (,nc+ie ! po",/elo "inte
p,tee! moti4,l,i< po:!:ilit!te! /,:iecti4% c% !ct,l 4! !4e! "ept con/ecin+% o:+inee!
/tim,lent,l,i Ae=pect!n+% /!, !'tept!eB 'i 4!lo!e! /tim,lent,l,i.
A/t(el /D! o:+in,t ,m%to!e! (om,l!C Motivaia ? ) 4Motiv * #$teptare * &timulent5
Implic!+iile cecet%ilo l,i McClell!n" /,nt /emni(ic!ti4e pent, m!n!#ei. Pent,
"i(eite tip,i "e po/t,i /,nt nece/!e "i(eite tip,i "e in"i4i1i. Cei c!e /,nt p,tenic
moti4!+i "e e!li1!e pot (i cei m!i :,ni 9n c!1,l po/t,ilo c!e nece/it% e(ect,!e! ,no
/!cini 'i !tin#ee! ,no o:iecti4e cl!e. 8n /cEim:< pent, po/t,i c!e ce c!p!cit%+i p,tenice
"e con",cee 'i /,p!4e#Eee n, e/te ecom!n"!t !ce/t tip "e in"i4i"< ci ,n,l c!e e/te
moti4!t "e ne4oi! "e ! in(l,en+! o!meni 'i e4enimente 'i n, "e ! 9n"eplini /!cini.
Teoria per)ormantelor a$teptate 4a lui 1ictor 1room5
Ace!/t% teoie com:in% 9n e=plic!e! moti4!+iei (!ctoii in"i4i",!li Ane4oi< c!li(ic!e<
!:ilit!te etc.B c, (!ctoii o#!ni1!+ion!li Ao#!ni1!e! contol,l,i< /i/tem,l "e ecompen/e<
pe(om!n+e etcB.
P,tee! moti4!+iei /!, (o+! e/te "e(init% c! o (,nc+ie "e cele * m%imiC
. ? # * ( * 1< ,n"eC
. D (o+! Amoti4!+i!BF
# D !'tept!e!< ce /e e=pim% pin !pot,l e(ot D pe(om!n+% /!, !ct D e1,lt!tF
( D in/t,ment!lit!te!< ce /e e=pim% pin !pot,l pe(om!n+% D ecompen/% Ael!+ie "e tip
e1,lt!t D e1,lt!tBF
1 D 4!len+! Ape(ein+!B< ce epe1int% 4!lo!e! po1iti4% /!, ne#!ti4% !ti:,it% e1,lt!telo (ie
e=tene A/!l!i,< pomo4!e< pemiiB< (ie intene Am$n"i! "e ! e,'i< intee/,l "e ! 9n"eplini o
mi/i,ne etc.B !'tept!te "e m,nc! e(ect,!t%.
D,p% Voom< pincip!lele 4!i!:ile ce !(ecte!1% /!ti/(!c+i! 9n m,nc% /,ntC
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1. /,pe4i1!e!F
2. m,nc! 9n #,pPecEip%F
*. /!ti/(!c+i! m,nciiF
.. /!l!i,lPpl!t!F
5. po/i:ilit%+ile "e pomo4!eF
&. po#!m,l "e l,c,.
8n ,m! /,p,neii !ce/tei teoii l! n,meo!/e 4ei(ic%i "e o"in e=peiment!l 'i teoetic<
!, (o/t emi/e o /eie "e citici< "inte c!e men+ion%m c! (iin" m!i impot!nte ce! c!e /e
e(e! l! in/,(icient! cl!it!te ! conceptelo "e e=pect!n+% /!, !'tept!e AAB /i
in/t,ment!lit!te AIB 'i ce! c!e /e e(e% l! (!pt,l c% n, /e e!li1e!1% o "i(een+iee 9nte cele *
"imen/i,ni A< I 'i V 9n (,nc+ie "e !p!i+i! lo 9n timp< pe/,p,n$n",D/e o /im,lt!neit!te !
!'tept%ii< in/t,ment!lit%+ii 'i 4!len+ei.
8n temeni p!ctici< m!n!#eii c!e "oe/c /% ,tili1e1e i"ei c,pin/e 9n teoi! l,i Voom
! te:,i /% i! 9n con/i"e!e ,m%to!ele po:lemeC
D C,m pot (i i"enti(ic!te 4!loile 'i pe(ein+ele !n#!@!+ilo[
D Ce ecompen/e e m!i po:!:il /% (ie !peci!te "e !n#!@!+i[
D 8n ce (el pot (i ecompen/ele le#!te "e pe(om!nte[
D C,m pot (i (%c,te p,:lice ecompen/ele "i/poni:ile[
D C,m pot (i e#$n"ite P econcep,te ,nele po/t,i pent, ! incl,"e ecompen/ele !'tept!te "e
!n#!@!+i[
3.((. MANAGEMENTUL BA'AT PE ARBORELE DECI'IONAL
7t,"iile teoetice !, con",/ l! e!li1!e! ,n,i mo"el /emni(ic!ti4 pent, con+in,t,l 'i
(ilo1o(i! "eci1iei 9n m!n!#ement,l in",/ti!lC ,n con",c%to con(,nt!t c, ,n n,m% "e
po:leme m!i m!e "ec$t c!p!cit!te! "eci1ion!l% "i/poni:il%< po:leme m!@oe /!, minoe<
!cci"ent!le /!, (ec4ente< te:,ie /% !"opte Eot%$i n,mite "eci1ii in(l,en+!te "e tei c!te#oii
"e pemi/e (,n"!ment!leC
1. mi/i,ne! 'i /cop,ile pe c!e 'i le pop,n !c+ion!iiF
2. /t!e! e(ecti4% ! /i/tem,l,i po",cti4F
*. !/pi!+iile @,/ti(ic!te !le m!n!#eilo.
Ponin" "e l! po:lemele m!n!#ei!le pe c!e le /ol,+ione!1%< /e pot "i/tin#e tei cl!/e
tipolo#ice 9n teoi! "eci1iiloC
1. Deci1ii 9n condiii de certitudine D (iec!e 4!i!nt% con",ce l! ,n e1,lt!t cl! "e(init 'i n,
e=i/t% nici o 9n"oi!l% c% "!c% /e !le#e o !n,mit% 4!i!nt% V@< c, o po:!:ilit!te "e 1--R
e1,lt!t,l (in!l 4! (i cel pe"etemin!t.
2. Deci1ii 9n condiii de risc D 9n c!e /e c,no/c po:!:ilit%+ile e4enimentelo ce "e(ine/c
po:lem! pec,m 'i e1,lt!tele /!, con/ecin+ele (iec%ei 4!i!nte "eci1ion!le. De
e=empl,C n, 'tim 4eme! "e m$ine "! 'tim po:!:ilit!te! "e ! plo,!. Detemin!e!
po:!:ilit%+ilo< o:iecti4e /!, /,:iecti4e< epe1int% p,nct,l /en/i:il 9ntD,n poce/ "eci1ion!l
"e !ce/t tip< "e/eoi m!n!#eii (iin" con(,nt!+i c, M/,pi1eG nepl%c,te pin !p!i+i! ,no
e1,lt!te "i(eite "e cele /cont!te.
*. Deci1ii 9n condiii de incertitudine D /ol,+iile !"opt!te n, /e :!1e!1% pe in(om!+ii !/,p!
po:!:ilit%+ii "e po",cee ! /t%ilo n!t,ii< e4enimente /!, !lten!ti4e "eci1ion!le. De
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e=empl,C po:!:ilit!te! c! ,n p!ti" ecolo#i/t /% n,me!/c% ,n pim mini/t, pe/te 2- "e !ni
n, e/te c,no/c,t% d.
8n pim,l c!1 /ol,+i! /e !"opt% 9n (,nc+ie "e e1,lt!t,l cel m!i (!4o!:il< 9n cel "e!l
"oile! c!1 /ol,+i! /e "etemin% 9n (,nc+ie "e o 4!lo!e !'tept!t%< i! 9n ,ltim,l c!1 !le#ee! /e
moti4e!1% pin ,tili1!e! ,no meto"e /peci(ice teoiei @oc,ilo.
In"i(eent "e comple=it!te! po:lemei m!n!#ei!le /!, "e teEnicile (olo/ite pent,
!n!li1%< to!te "eci1iile /,nt con/tit,ite "intDo 9n'i,ie "e !lten!ti4e A/it,!+ii "eci1ion!leB
l,$n" 9n con/i"e!e po:!:ilit!te! "e/(%',%ii e4enimentelo< o con/t,c+ie #!(ic% c!e /e
n,me'te !:oe "eci1ion!l< ,n in/t,ment "e tip /toE!/tic ,tili1!t pent, !"opt!e! "eci1iilo
9n con"i+ii "e i/c 'i incetit,"ine. A:oele "eci1ion!l pemite /ec4en+iee! ,nei po:leme
m!n!#ei!le comple=e 9ntDo /,it% lo#ic% 'i o"on!t% "e po:leme m!i /imple 'i e4!l,!e!
m!tem!tic% concet% ! c$'ti#,ilo /!, ! pie"eilo l! (iec!e ni4el "eci1ion!l. A:oele
"eci1ion!l /e ,tili1e!1% 9n e1ol4!e! ,no po:leme m!n!#ei!le comple=e c, implic!+ii
(in!nci!e m!@oeC into",cee! 9n (!:ic!+ie "e noi po",/eF !le#ee! !mpl!/%ii ,nit%+ilo
po",cti4eF !le#ee! ecEip!menteloF e=tin"ee! c!p!cit%+ilo "e po",c+ieF pl!ni(ic!e!
9nte+ineii 'i ep!!+iilo ,til!@elo.
Pent, con/t,ie! !:oel,i "eci1ion!l /e p!c,# ,m%to!ele et!peC
1. I"enti(ic!e! po:lemei< /t!:ilie! o:iecti4,l,i 'i "etemin!e! !lten!ti4elo po/i:ileF
2. 7t,ct,!e! 'i con/t,ie! Aepe1ent!e! #!(ic%B ! !:oel,i "e "eci1ieF
*. 7t!:ilie! ni4el,l,i "e con/ecin+e !(eente (iec%ei !lten!ti4eF e1,lt!tele (in!le
!le !lten!ti4elo R
i
.
.. Detemin!e! po:!:ilit%+ilo e4enimenteloF /t%ile n!t,ii !, o !n,mit% po:!:ilit!te "e
e,'it% p
i
F
5. C!lc,l,l /pe!n+ei m!tem!tice pent, (iec!e !lten!ti4% "eci1ion!l%< et!p% 9n c!e /e
e/time!1% 4!loile !'tept!te pent, (iec!e com:in!+ie po/i:il% "inte !lten!ti4e 'i /t%ile
n!t,ii.
S
9
+ S -

&. Ale#ee! 4!i!ntei "eci1ion!le pe :!1! 4!loii m!=ime o:+in,te. 8n l,c%ile "e /peci!lit!te
!n#loD/!=one !ce!/t% 4!lo!e !pot!t% 9n ,nit%+i monet!e e/te not!t% c, EMV !:e4iee "e l!
E=pecte" Monet!L V!l,e A4!lo!e! monet!% !'tept!t%B.
A:oele "eci1ion!l< in/t,ment #!(ic "e !n!li1% ! 4!i!ntelo e4i"en+i!1% /ec4en+ele<
et!pele "intD,n poce/ "eci1ion!l< 9n pincip!l 9n (,nc+ie "e o /eie "e /t%i !le n!t,ii n,mite
e4enimente. Ace/te /t%i !le n!t,ii "e(inite pin po:!:ilit%+i /peci(ice< /,nt coel!te 9n
!:oele "eci1ion!l c, !lten!ti4ele "eci1ion!le< "etemin$n",D/e l! (iec!e ni4el c$'ti#,l
pent, (iec!e com:in!+ie "inte !lten!ti4e 'i /t%ile n!t,ii.
7t!e! n!t,ii< e4eniment,l< epe1int% o /it,!+ie :ine peci1!t%< o 9nt$mpl!e c!e
in(l,en+e!1% /!, n, "eci1i!. E=empl, "e /t!e ! n!t,iiC m$ine e o 1i ploio!/% d
Alten!ti4! 9ntD,n !:oe "eci1ion!l epe1int% c,/,l !c+i,nii /!, /t!te#i! c!e po!te (i
!le!/% pent, ! !"opt! o "eci1ie. Alten!ti4ele /e concente!1% 9n no",i "e "eci1ie
epe1ent!te #!(ic pin 2ORMCKECX>O0 /emni(ic$n" (!pt,l c% 9n !ce! /ec4en+% e/te nece/!%
o /elec+ie ! ,nei !lten!ti4e "in m!i m,lte po/i:ile. E=empl, "e !lten!ti4%C m$ine n, i!,
,m:el!.
V!lo!e! monet!% !'tept!t% AEMVB pent, o !lten!ti4% /e "etemin% c! o /,m%
!l#e:ic% ! 4!loilo /peci(ice /t%ilo n!t,ii pon"e!te c, po:!:ilit!te! !ce/to! "e ! /e
e!li1!.
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EMVAiB T V!lo!e! pimei /t%i ! n!t,ii = Po:!:ilit!te! "e !p!i+ie ! pimei /t%i !
n!t,ii ` V!lo!e! celei "eD! "o,! /t%i ! n!t,ii = Po:!:ilit!te! "e !p!i+ie ! celei "eD! "o,!
/t%i ! n!t,ii ` V!lo!e! celei "eD! tei! /t%i ! n!t,ii = Po:!:ilit!te! "e !p!i+ie ! celei "eD!
tei! *D! /t%i ! n!t,ii ` ...
Op+i,ne! 9n no",l "e "eci1ie 4! (i !le!/% "inte !lten!ti4ele c!e /,nt #ene!te "in
no",l e/pecti4 'i c!e e!li1e!1% 4!lo!e! monet!% !'tept!t% m!=im%. De =empl,C AMIGO 7A
in4e/ti#Ee!1% po/i:ilit!te! m%iii c!p!cit%+ilo "e po",c+ie< /t!:ilin",D/e c% pot (i l,!te 9n
con/i"e!e tei 4!i!nteC /e po!te con/t,i o (!:ic% m!e< /e po!te con/t,i o (!:ic% mic% /!,
/% n, con/t,i!/c%. Pi!+! po!te (i (!4o!:il% /!, "e(!4o!:il% c, o po:!:ilit!te pe c!e
m!n!#e,l o po!te "etemin!.
A:oele "eci1ion!l !(eent po:lemei en,n+!te A4e1i (i#. ).B /e con/t,ie'te !/t(el 9nc$t
/% /e e#%/e!/c% to!te !lten!ti4ele "eci1ion!le 'i to!te /t%ile n!t,ii< epe1ent!te 9ntDo
9n'i,ie et!pi1!t%< lo#ic%.
Detemin$n" 4!loile con/ecin+elo pent, (iec!e !lten!ti4% /e po!te con/t,i ,n t!:el
"eci1ion!l< /intetic 'i /,#e/ti4C
Con/ecin+ele !lten!ti4elo
ALTERNATIVE
7T;RI ALE NATURII
2AVORA>IL NE2AVORA>IL
Con/t,c+ie (o!te m!e 2-- --- ,.m. D 1)- --- ,.m.
Con/t,c+ie (o!te mic% 1-- --- ,.m. D 2- --- ,.m.
2%% con/t,c+ie - -
D!c% n, c,no!'tem po:!:ilit!te! c!e c!!ctei1e!1% /t%ile n!t,ii< !4em o po:lem%
"eci1ion!l% 9n c!1 "e incetit,"ine c!e po!te (i e1ol4!t% pe :!1! ,no citeii /peci(ice teoiei
1-&
1
2
c
:
!
Pi!+% ne(!4o!:il%
Pi!+% (!4o!:il%
Pi!+% (!4o!:il%
Pi!+% ne(!4o!:il%
2i#. ). A:oele "eci1ion!l pent, po/i:ilit%+ile (imei AMIGO 7.A.
Le#en"%C
!B con/t,im (!:ic% m!eF
:B con/t,im (!:ic% mic%
cB n, con/t,im
N, con/t,ie'te
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
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@oc,iloC m!=im!=< m!=imin 'i me"i! po:!:ilit%+ilo Apo:!:ilit!te e#!l% pent, !m:ele
!lten!ti4eB. A/t(elC
D "!c% !le#em citei,l m!=im!=< cee! ce pe/,p,ne m!=imi1!e! c$'ti#,ilo D /e con/t,ie'te
o (!:ic% m!e c!e< 9n c!1 "e /,cce/< 4! !",ce ,n c$'ti# "e 2--.--- ,.m.F
D "!c% !le#em citei,l m!=imin< cee! ce pe/,p,ne minimi1!e! pie"eilo D n, con/t,ie'te<
pie"ee! 9n !ce/t c!1 (iin" -F
D "!c% !le#em citei,l me"i! po:!:ilit%+ilo< cee! ce pe/,p,ne "etemin!e! l! (iec!e
!lten!ti4% ! me"iei con/ecin+eloC
pent, con/t,c+i! "e (!:ic% m!e c$'ti#,l e/te A2--.--- D 1)-.---BC2 T 1-.--- ,.m.F
pent, con/t,c+i! "e (!:ic% mic% c$'ti#,l e/te A1--.--- D 2-.---BC2 T .-.--- ,.m.F
pent, n, con/t,ie'te c$'ti#,l e/te -.
D "!c% /e 4! "eci"e con/t,ie! ,nei (!:ici mici< c!e coe/p,n"e ,n,i c$'ti# me"i, m!i m!e.
Deci1i! 9n c!1 "e i/c e/te o "eci1ie po:!:ili/tic%< /t%ile n!t,ii p,t$n" (i !peci!te pin
!n,mite po:!:ilit%+i. 8n !ce/te con"i+ii 4!loile con"i+ion!te "in t!:el,l "e "eci1ii /e
pon"ee!1% c, po:!:ilit!te! !p!i+iei (iec%ei /t%i ! n!t,ii 'i /e "etemin% 4!lo!e! !'tept!t%
AEMVB pent, (iec!e !lten!ti4%. Pent, e=empl,l no/t, pi!+! po!te /% /e m!ni(e/te pin
"o,% /it,!+ii pent, c!e /% pe/,p,nem c% !, (o/t "etemin!te ,m%to!ele po:!:ilit%+iC
pi!+% (!4o!:il% D -<& 'i pi!+% ne(!4o!:il% D -<..
Con(om celo pe1ent!te m!i /,/ pent, (iec!e !lten!ti4% !4emC
EMV< T 2--.--- = -<& D 1)-.--- = -<. T 12-.--- D52.--- T .).--- ,.m.
EMV2 T 1--.--- = -<& ` AD 2-.---B = -<. T &-.--- D ).--- T 52.--- ,.m.
EMV* T - = -<& ` - = -<. T -
Deci< pe :!1! e1,lt!telo o:+in,te /e 4! !le#e !lten!ti4! ! "o,!< c!e !/i#,% o 4!lo!e
monet!% m!i i"ic!t%.
BIBLIOGRAFIE SELECTIV
1. BOGATHB '.. 2--2<MCON2LICTE 8N ORGANIZA3IIN ED. EURO7TAMPAF
2. BACCER G. S.. 166)<eCAPITALUL UMANN< ED. ALL< >UCURETIF
*. CONDURACHE. GH.D HUU CARMEN. IFTIMESCU ANNE. 1665< eMANAGEMENTUL
RE7UR7ELOR UMANEN< >UCURETIF
.. CONSANTIN. T.. STOICA C&TIN.< 2--2< MMANGEMENTUL RE7UR7ELOR UMANEN<
IN7TITUTUL EUROPEAN< IAIF
5. CORNESCU V.. 166.< eMANAGEMENT< TEORIE I PRACTIC;N< ED. ACTAMI< >UCURETIF
&. CORNESCU V.< MIHILESCU I.. STANCIU S.. 166)< eMANAGEMENT >AZE GENERALEN< ED.
ACTAMI< >UCURETIF
5. CORNELIUS M.. FAIRE SH.. 166&< eTIIN3A REZOLVARII CON2LICTELORN ED. TIIN3; I
TECKNIC;< >UCURETIF
). DUMBRAV I.. 2--1< eMANAGEMENT GENERALN< ED. 2UNDA3IA ROMfNIA DE MfINE<
>UCURETIF
6. DIEMRESCU I.. 166)< MMANAGEMENTUL INTELIGEN3EI ECONOMICEN ED. LUMINA LE0<
>UCURETIF
1-. EMILIAN R.< 2---< eMANAGEMENTUL 7ERVICIILOR D MOTIVA3II< PRICIPII< METODE<
ORGANIZAREN ED. E0PERT< >UCURETIF
11. FISHER R.. URB F.. PATTON B.< 1665< e7UCCE7UL IN NEGOCIERIN < ED. DACIA< CLUHD
NAPOCAF
12. GA'IER B.. 2--*< e7TRATEGIILE RE7UR7ELOR UMANEN IN7TITUTUL EUROPEAN<
>UCURETIF
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15. IONESCU I.. 2---< eTURI7MUL 2ENOMEN 7OCIALDECONOMIC 7I CULTURALe< ED. O7CAR
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A N E 1 E
ANE1A (.
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* An!li1! !moni1%ii #!(ice 9nte col!:o!toi (!:ici 'i /ec+ii "e po",c+ie ? pem!nentF
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5 Re!ct,!li1!e! pe+,ilo "e c,mp%!e "e l! (!:ici ! /,:/t!n+elo coel!te c, pe+,l "e
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Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
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D ,m%e/c< pin pe/on!l,l /peci(ic< con/,m,ile pe po",/ "e m!tei!le< ene#ie<
com:,/ti:il< ",p% c!1< comp!$n",Dle c, cele /imil!e pe pl!n mon"i!l< l,$n" m%/,i
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Nom!li1!e!< /ol,+ii < competente < e/pon/!:ilit%+i C
D !/i#,% nece/!,l "e pe/on!l "e me/eii< (,nc+ii 'i /peci!lit%+i pent, po",c+i! c,ent! !
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m,nc% 'i eli:ee!1% le#itim!+iiF
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/e "e,le!1% 9n c!",l ,nit%+iiF
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D ,m%e'te e/t$n#ee! nomencl!to,l,i "e (,n+iiF
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D 9ntocme'te 'i pe1int% /pe !po:!e m!n!#e,l,i /t!t,l "e (,nc+ii< !poi ,m%e'te !plic!e!
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(!ctoii "e %/p,n"ee pent, 9m:,n%t%+ie! contin,% ! con"i+iilo m,nc%F
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!telieeloF
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im!#ine! e!l!F
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te:,ie /% e(lecte e!lit!te!F
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D e(ect,e!1% /t,"ii "e /peci!lit!te 'i poiecte "e o#!ni1!e.
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ANE1A 0.
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*. Deci1ii "e 9nc!"!e < pomo4!e < licEi"!e
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Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
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.. C%+i "e m,nc% A 9ntocmite /i complet!te B
5. 8nc!"!e < /cEim:!e loc "e m,nc% < "eci1ii
&. 7it,!+i! !n#!@!+ilo l! ni4el,l /ociet%+ii
5. Poce/ 4e:!l "e 9nc!"!e 9n ,m! e=!min%ilo
). Do/!ele pen/ion!e < :o!l% /!, limit% 4$/t%
6. Eli:e!e le#itim!+ii < ec,/o!ne < m%ci
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11. E4i"en+% c,/!n+i pe #,pe
12. E4i"en+% po#!m 'i pe1en+% lectoi
1*. Acte !:/ol4ie (ome "e c!li(ic!e ? pe(ec+ion!e ? /peci!li1!e
1.. 7t!t,l "e (,nc+ii !ct,!li1!t
15. Nom!li1!e! 'col!i1%ii in "oc,mente
1&. C!lc,l,l in"ic!toilo "e !co"!e ! /!l!iilo
15. Po#!m,l (o+ei "e m,nc% coel!t c, cein+ele
1). 7t,"ii pi4in" !plic!e! /t,ct,ilo e(iciente
16. 7t,"ii pi4in" eo#!ni1!e! /i/tem,l,i in(om!+ion!l
2-. Act,!li1!e R.O.2. con(om cein+elo
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2*. Poiecte "e mec!ni1!e t!n/pot < "epo1it!e
2.. Nome "e m,nc% pe /ec+ii /i l,c%i
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2&. 2oi "e (oto#!(iee ! loc,ilo "e m,nc%
25. 2i'e "e in/t,ct!@ potec+ie ! m,ncii
2). 8ntocmie "oc,mente in c!1 "e !cci"ente
26. 8ne#i/t!e! coe/pon"en+ei popii
*-. Doc,mente !"mini/t!ti4e "e #o/po"%ie
*1. Doc,mente "e cEelt,ieli c, (o+! "e m,nc%
*2. Act,!li1!e "oc,mente "e !Ei4%
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Ae ,m%to!ele !ti:,+ii< competen+e 'i e/pon/!:ilit%+iC
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D !n!li1e!1% 'i !/i#,% nece/!,l "e pe/on!l pent, "e/(%',!e! !cti4it%+ii 9n con"i+ii "e
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D o#!ni1e!1% !cti4it!te! comp!timenteloF
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D %/p,n"e "e 9nte!#! o#!ni1!e ! /ociet%+ii comeci!leF
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potocol 'i ! celo !"mini/t!ti4e< o#!ni1!e! /ecet!i!t,l,i< m,ltiplic%< "!ctilo#!(iei<
!Ei4%< ! po:lemelo "e p!1% 'i ! celo /oci!le.
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D 9ntocme'te pl!n,l (on",l,i nece/! potocol,l,i< "e4i1e "e cEelt,ieli 'i 4i1e!1% !ctele "e
cEelt,ieli F
D %/p,n"e "e pimie!< 9n/o+ie!< c!1!e!< !cti4it!te! "e potocol 'i 4i1itele "ele#!+iiloF
D 9ntocme'te coe/pon"en+! "e potocolF
D poc,% "oc,mentele "e t!n/pot 9n /t%in%t!te ! "ele#!+iilo /ociet%+ii comeci!le F
D 9ntocme'te pl!n,l ep!!+iilo pent, imo:ile 'i celol!lte mi@lo!ce (i=e 'i ,m%e'te mo",l
c,m /e e=ec,t% F
D %/p,n"e "e e4i"en+! imo:ilelo 'i o:iectelo "e in4ent! !"mini/t!ti4 #o/po"%e'tiF
D o#!ni1e!1% 'i %/p,n"e "e c,%+eni! /ociet%+ii comeci!leF
D /t!:ile'te 'i o:+ine !po:!e! pent, cEelt,ielile !"mini/t!ti4 ? #o/po"%e'ti l,n!e !le
/ociet%+iiF
D !po4i1ione!1% c, in4ent! #o/po"%e/c 'iDl con/e4% coe/p,n1%toF
D %/p,n"e "e colect!e! < "epo1it!e! < e4!c,!e! 'i 4!loi(ic!e! "e'e,ilo l! centele "e
/peci!lit!teF
D %/p,n"e "e !po4i1ion!e! 'i "i/ti:,ie! m!tei!l,l,i !nti"otF
D !/i#,% !cti4it!te! "e pimie < 9ne#i/t!e < ep!ti1!e 'i pe"!e! coe/pon"en+eiF
D 9ne#i/te!1% 'i p%/te!1% !ctele nom!ti4e 'i c!/!e! "oc,mentelo ce!te 'i "e+in,te 9n
!Ei4! /ociet%+iiF
D 9ntocme'te in"ic!to,l temenelo "e p%/t!e ! "oc,mentelo pec,m 'i nomencl!to,l
"o/!elo< e#i/telo< con"icilo< (i'elo "e pont!@F
D !/i#,% !cti4it!te! "e /ecet!i!t ! con",ceiiF
D %/p,n"e "e con(ec+ion!e! 'i e4i"en+! /i#iliilo 'i 't!mpileloF
D !/i#,% p%/t!e! e#i/t,l,i ,nic "e contol !l /ociet%+iiF
D %/p,n"e "e o#!ni1!e! !,"ien+elo 'i t!n/p,nee! lo 9n p!ctic%F
D !/i#,% !cti4it!te! "e in(om!+ii pent, p,:licF
D o#!ni1e!1% /i %/p,n"e "e p!1! #ene!l% ! t,t,o :,n,ilo /ociet%+ii comeci!le A/i/teme
"e !l!m% < pe/on!l in/t,it "e p!1%BF
D o#!ni1e!1% 'i !/i#,% pimie! < 9ne#i/t!e! < m!nip,l!e! 'i p%/t!e! "oc,mentelo
/eceteF
D p!ticip% l! o#!ni1!e! !cti4it%+ii "e !p%!e loc!l% !nti!ei!n%F
D %/p,n"e "e m%/,ile P7I 'i T7M 9n /ecto,l /%, "e !cti4it!te 'i pe 9nte!#! /ociet!te 9n
"omeni,l !"mini/t!ti4D#o/po"%e/cF
D coo"one!1% !cti4it!te! "e c,%+enie < #o/po"%ie ! /ociet%+ii 'i potec+ie ! me"i,l,i F
B. Prn$-5:#:# r#:58
1. T!n/miteeC in(om%i !/,p! "e/(%',%ii !cti4it%+ilo 9n "omeni,l< in(om%ii !/,p!
incen"iilo< !4!iilo< /,/t!#eiloF Pime'teC in"ic!+ii pi4in" o#!ni1!e! 'i "e/(%',!e!
!cti4it%+ii "e p!1% #ene!l% < P7I 'i !p%!e! !nti!ei!n%F
2. T!n/miteC pop,nei pent, pl!n,l "e "ot%i 'i ep!!+ii pent, imo:ile< in/t!l!+ii< mi@lo!ce
(i=e< in"ic!+ii P7I< m!nip,l!e! 'i p%/t!e! "oc,ment!+ieiF Pime'teC po#!m,l "e "ot%i 'i
ep!!+iile c!pit!leF
*. T!n/miteC pop,nei "e pl!n (in!nci! pi4in" cEelt,ielile !"mini/t!ti4e #o/po"%e'ti<
pl!n,l "e cEelt,ieli "e potocol 'i P7I< p%/t!e! "oc,mentelo (in!nci!eF Pime'teC /,mele
!po:!te pent, potocolF c,mp%!e! ,no m!tei!le e"ilit! ? #o/po"%e'tiF
11&
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.. T!n/miteC comen1ile "e !po4i1ion!e c, m!tei!le "e 9nte+inee pie/e "e /cEim:<
ecEi1ite "e :io,F Pime'teC comen1ile !po4i1ion!teF
5. T!n/miteC pop,nei pent, pe(ec+ion!e! pe#%tiii po(e/ion!le ! pe/on!l,l,i popi,<
pop,ne pent, pomo4!e /!, /!nc+ion!e 'i "!te pi4in" (l,ct,!+i! 'i /t!e! "i/ciplin!% !
pe/on!l,l,iF Pime'teC po#!m,l "e pe(ec+ion!e ! pe#%tiii po(e/ion!le ! pe/on!l,l,i<
in"ic!+ii pi4in" !plic!e! /!l!i1%iiF
&. T!n/miteC l,c%i /peci(ice e"ilit! ? #o/po"%e'ti< comen1i (emeF Pime'te C %/p,n/,i l!
comen1i 'i (omele "e e!li1!eF
C. P#ro"$%5%#
1 Re#i/tele "e int!e 'i ie'ie ! coe/pon"en+ei ? 1ilnicF
2 Re#i/tele e4i"en+% coe/pon"en+% pe"!t% l! po/t% 'i l! (!:ici A/ec+ii B pe :!1% "e
/emn%t,% ? pem!nentF
* 7it,!+i! pe1en+ei /!l!i!+ilo ? pem!nentF
. 7it,!+i! e4i"en+ei c,mp%%ii tim:elo po't!le 'i "i/ti:,ie! lo ? pem!nentF
5 Doc,mente !"mini/t!ti4e "e e4i"en+% l! ce'e < c%mine < etc. ? pem!nentF
& 7it,!+i! nece/!,l,i "e m!tei!le con/,m!:ile 'i "e :io, ? time/ti!lF
5 7it,!+i! mi@lo!celo (i=e 'i !"mini/t!ti4 ? #o/po"%e'ti ? l,n!F
) Pl!n "e cEelt,ieli !"mini/t!ti4 D #o/po"%e'ti ? l,n!F
6 Pl!n "e /it,!+ie ! o(i+eilo "e /e4ici, pe /ociet!te ? l,n!F
1- 7it,!+ie !:on!mente C2R 'i !,to ? l,n!F
11 7it,!+i! nece/!% "e !po4i1ion!t o:iecte !"mini/t!ti4e ? l,n!F
12 >on,i pent, m!#!1ie "e int!e 'i ie'ie ! "i(eitelo m!tei!le e"ilit! D #o/po"%e'ti D
peio"icF
1* 7it,!+i! e4i"en+ei "oc,mentelo "e l! pompie 'i e4!c,!e! pe/on!l,l,i ? time/ti!lF
1. Po#!me pe#%tie ! pe/on!l,l,i "e l! pompiei 'i e4!c,!e! pe/on!l,l,i ? time/ti!lF
15 Pl!n coope!e 9n c!1 "e incen"i, ? pem!nentF
1& Pl!n,l :,#et,l,i "e cEelt,ieli potocol ? pem!nentF
15 Doc,mente /peci(ice pent, 4i1ite 'i potoco!le ? ",p% c!1F
1) Doc,mente in4ent!iee D ",p% c!1F
16 R!po!te potec+ie ! me"i,l,i ?l,n!F
2- In(om%i pol,%i 'i in(e/t%i ? ",p% c!1.
ANE1A =.
A$%!%5%#5 Kur"$;
7e /,:o"one!1% "iecto,l,i #ene!l !l /ociet%+ii comeci!le /i !e ,m%to!ele !ti:,+iiC
D epe1int% intee/ele /ociet%+ii comeci!le 9n (!+! in/t!n+ei @,"ec%toe'ti< o#!nelo
!:it!@,l,i "e /t!t 'i ! !lto o#!ne "e @,/ti+ie< o#!nelo "e ,m%ie pen!l% /i not!i!tele "e
/t!t< pec,m 'i 9n !po!tele c, pe/o!nele @,i"ice 'i c, pe/o!nele (i1ice< pe :!1! "ele#!+iei
"e !,toit!te "!t% "e con",ceeF
D !+ion!li1e!1% 'i pe(ec+ione!1% /i/temele 'i /,:/itemele in(om!ticeF
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D p!ticip% e(ecti4 l! ce!e! /i/tem,l,i in(om!+ion!l inte#!t !l /ociet%+i comeci!leF
D e!li1e!1% poiectele 'i ! po",/elo noi c, !@,to,l c!lc,l!to,l,i 'i ! ecEip!mentelo
/peci!li1!teF
D 9nte+inee ecEip!ment "e c!lc,l< ecEip!mentele pei(eice 'i !,=ili!eF
D o#!ni1e!1% m,nc! pe/on!l,l,i "e e=plo!t!e ! ecEip!menteloF
D col!:oe!1% 'i /pi@in% /e4iciile (,nc+ion!le !le (!:icilo< /ec+iilo /i !telieelo :ene(ici!e
pent, pe#%tie! 'i "e,l!e! in4e/ti+iilo e(eito!e l! c!lc,l!to!e "e poce/ 9n /ec+ii /!,
/ecto!e teEnice< p!ticip$n" !l%t,i "e !ce'ti!< pe to!t% ",!t! in4e/ti+iiloF
D el!:oe!1% 'i e=ec,t% po#!me "e pe#%tie 'i pe(ec+ion!e< pe#%tiii po(e/ion!le !
c!"elo popii "e /peci!lit!teF
D /t!:ile'te ne4oile "e cEelt,ieli 9n (,nc+ie "e /olicit%ile e!leF
D o#!ni1e!1% inten !telieele 'i colecti4ele pe pincipi,l ent!:ilit%+ii m!=imeF
D !plic% con(om cein+elo nomele c, pi4ie l! teEnic! /ec,it%+ii m,nci< pe4enie! 'i
/tin#ee! incen"iilo< t,t,o ecEip!mentelo 'i !/i#,!e! p%/t%ii ecEip!mentelo c! (%c$n"
p!te "in 9nte#,l p!timoni, !l /ociet%+ii comeci!leF
D !pote!1% con",ceii 9n"eplinie! t,t,o l,c%ilo.
ANE1A >.
#f $#n%ru ,of$u/ "# $5:$u:@ 5%rJu8. $o9-#%#n8#. r#G-onG5J:%;8
E/te /,:o"on!t "iecto,l,i #ene!l !l /ociet%+ii 'i !e ol,l "e ! coo"on! 'i con",ce
!cti4it%+ile "e in(om!tic%
Ati:,+ii< Competen+e 'i Re/pon/!:ilit%+i C
] !n!li1e!1% /!cinile o(ici,l,i "e c!lc,l 'i pe1int% con",ceii m%/,ile "e e!li1!e ! !ce/to!F
] i! m%/,i pent, i"ic!e! ni4el,l,i "e pe#%tie po(e/ion!l% ! celo "in /,:o"ineF
] p!ticip% l! el!:o!e! intDo concep+ie ,nit!% ! /t,ct,ilo /i/temelo in(om!ticeF
11)
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] i! m%/,i pent, :,n! (,nc+ion!e ! ecEip!mentelo "in "ot!eF
] p!ticip% pe/on!l l! e!li1!e! l,c%ilo "e poiect!eF
] (!ce pop,nei "e p!ticip!e l! m!ni(e/t%ile 'tiin+i(iceF
] 9n"epline'te oice !lte /!cini /peci(ice< ep!ti1!te pe linie ie!Eic%F
] %/p,n"e "e 9nte!#! o#!ni1!e ! cent,l,i Ao(ici,l,i B "e c!lc,l 'i "e (,ni1!e! in timp ,til
! "!telo pel,c!teF
] "eci"e "!e! 9n e=plo!t!e! g !plic!+iilo in(om!tice implement!eF
] "eci"e popiet%+i "e ,l!e ! !plic!+iilo.
ANE1A ?.
Con%r5$%u: "# 95n56#9#n%
8ncEei!t !/t%1ihhh.
L!hhhhhhhh
I PRILE CONTRACTANTE
(.(. 7.C. hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh..
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7.N.C.P7.C.7.[7.A.[7.R.L.< c, /e"i,l /oci!l 9n Aloc!lit!te!Bhhh.< /t
hhhhhhhh.. n. hhhhh< :lochhh< /c!!hhhhh.<
et!@ hh< !p!t!ment hh.< @,"e+,lP/ecto hhh..< 8ne#i/t!e! l! O(ici,l Re#i/t,l,i
Come+,l,ihhhh..hh..< /,: n. ...................."in
.......................< co" (i/c!l n. ............................ "in .................................<
A4$n" cont,l n. ............................................ "e/cEi/ l! ........................
hhhhhhh..< epe1ent!t% "e hhhhhhhhhhhh..< c, (,nc+i! "e
hhhhhhhhhh.< "en,mit%< 9n contin,!e< /ociet!te!< pe "e o p!te 'i
G5u
(.(. 8ntepin"ee! P A/oci!+i!
hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh..< c, /e"i,l
9n Aloc!lit!te!B hhhhhhh< /t. hhhhhhhhhh. n.
hh< :loc .h< /c!! hh< et!@ h.< !p!t!ment h< /ecto,lP@,"e+ hhh.. < po/e/o!e!
!,toi1!+iei n. hhh "in hhh.< eli:e!t% "e Pim%i!hhhhhh< co",l (i/c!l n.
hhhhhhh"inhhh< h..!4$n" cont,l n. hhhhhhhhhhhhhh.. "e/cEi/
l! hhhhh< epe1ent!t% "e hhhhhhhhhhh..< c, (,nc+i! "e
hhhhhhhhhh"en,mit%< in contin,!e< /ociet!te!< pe "e !lt% p!te <'i
(.). Dl hhhhhhhhhhhh.< "omicili!t 9n
hhhhhhhhhhhh</t. hhhhhhhhh..n . hhhh.<
:loc hh..< /c!!hh..< et!@hhh< !p!t!menthhh< /ectoP@,"e+
hhhhhhhh..< n%/c,t l! "!t! "e A1i,!< l,n!< !n,lB
hhhhhhhh9n Aloc!lit!te!B hhhh/ecto,lP@,"e+hhhh<
2i,l l,ihhhh. 'i !l hhhhh<po/e/o,l :,letin,l,i Ac%+iiB "e
i"entit!te /ei! hhhh..n. hhhh..eli:e!t "ehhhh<co"
n,meic pe/on!lhhhhh.< "en,mit 9n contin,!e< m!n!#e,l< pe "e !lt% p!te< !,
con4enit /% 9ncEeie pe1ent,l cont!ct "e m!n!#ement< c, e/pect!e! ,m%to!elo cl!,1e C
II. OBIECTUL CONTRACTULUI
).(. 7ociet!te! 9nce"in+e!1% m!n!#e,l,i o#!ni1!e!< con",cee! 'i
#e/tion!e! !cti4it%+ii /!le< pe :!1! o:iecti4elo 'i citeiilo "e
pe(om!n+% /t!:ilite "e p%+i.
).). !B In"ic!toii "e e(ein+%< o:iecti4ele 'i citeiile "e pe(om!n+% /,nt
pe4%1,te 9n !ne=! 'i (!c p!te inte#!nt! "in pe1ent,l cont!ct (iin"
/t!:ilite pe :!1! :il!n+,l,i cont!:il 9ncEei!t l! "!t! "ehhhhhhh .
:B In"ic!toii "e e(ein+% /e /t!:ile/c< 9n contin,!e< pe :!1! "!telo
(iec%,i :il!n+ !n,!l< pin !ct !"i+ion!l.
III. DURATA CONTRACTULUI
*.1. Pe1ent,l cont!ct /e 9ncEeie pe o ",!t% "ehhhhhhhhh.!ni.
*.2. In con"i+iile 9n c!e m!n!#e,l 9'i 9n"epline'te o:li#!+iile !/,m!te pin
pe1ent,l cont!ct< l! e=pim!e! temen,l,i pe4%1,t< p%+ile pot con4eni
pel,n#ie! !ce/t,i!.
IV. DREPTURI I OBLIGAII
0.(. M!n!#e,l !e ,m%to!ele
!B Dept,i C
1 /% pime!/c% ,n /!l!i, "e :!1% :,t< "e hhhhhh lei pe l,n!<
12-
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
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Rene#oci!:il oi "e c$te oi /e (!c in"e=%i "e /!l!ii F
2 /% p!ticipe l! po(it,l net !l /ociet%+ii< 9n pocent "ehhhh.R< /t!:ilit
!/t(el C
hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh.
hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh.
hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh
hhhhh. F
* /% :ene(icie1e "e ,n conce"i, "e o"iEn% "e hhhh.........................1ile
l,c%to!e< pl%tit c, o in"emni1!+ie "e
hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh..F
. /% pime!/c% 9n (olo/in+% ,n !,tot,i/m c, 'o(e< "in "ot!e! /ociet%+ii F
5 /% (ie !/i#,!t pent, !cci"ent "e m,nc%< pe cEelt,i!l! /ociet%+ii F
& /% i /e "econte1e cEelt,ielile "e c!1!e< "i,n%< t!n/pot 'i !lte cEelt,ieli<
pe :!1! "e "oc,mente @,/ti(ic!ti4e< pent, "epl!/%ile 9n intee/,l
/e4ici,l,i< e(ect,!te in +!% 'i in /t%in%t!te< /t!:ilite l! ,m%to!ele
ni4el,i m!=imehhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh..
hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh. .

:B O:li#!+ii C
1. 7% !",c% l! 9n"eplinie o:iecti4ele 'i citeiile "e pe(om!n+% /t!:ilite 9n !ne=!< /cop
9n c!e "i/p,ne "e ,m%to!ele peo#!ti4e C
D concepe 'i !plic% /t!te#ii 'i politici "e "e14olt!e ! /ociet%+ii F
D /electe!1%< !n#!@e!1% 'i conce"i!1% pe/on!l,l !n#!@!t F
D ne#oci!1% cont!ct,l colecti4 "e m,nc% 'i cont!ctele in"i4i",!le "e m,nc% F
D epe1int% /ociet!te! in el!+iile c, te+ii F
D 9ncEeie !cte @,i"ice 9n n,mele 'i pe /e!m! /ociet%+ii< c, e=cep+i! celo pent, c!e<
poti4it le#ii< e/te nece/!% !po:!e! !",n%ii #ene!le F
D !lte peo#!ti4e 9nce"in+!te "e !",n!e! #ene!l% ! !/oci!+iloP!c+ion!ilo.
2. 7% con/tit,ie 9n temen "e ..................... o #!!n+ie :%ne!/c% 9n 4!lo!e
"e ................< c!e /e con/emne!1% intD,n col+ p,t%to "e "o:$n1i 'i /e e/tit,ie m!n!#e,l,i
9mpe,n% c, "o:$n1ile !(eente< l! "!t! 9ncet%ii pe1ent,l,i cont!ct< 9n con"i+iile e!li1%ii
inte#!le ! !ce/t,i!.
0.). 7ociet!te! !e ,m%to!ele C
!B "repturi C
1. /% petin"% m!n!#e,l,i 9n"eplinie! o:iecti4elo 'i citeiilo "e pe(om!n+%
/t!:ilite in !ne=% F
2. /% /olicite m!n!#e,l,i< peio"ic< pe1ent!e! /it,!+iei economicoD(in!nci!e !
/ociet%+ii< /t!"i,l e!li1%ii in4e/ti+iilo< pec,m 'i !lte "oc,mente pi4in" 9n"eplinie!
o:iecti4elo< citeiilo "e pe(om!n+% /.!. F
*. /% petin"% m!n!#e,l,i con/tit,ie! #!!n+iei /t!:ilite pin pe1ent,l cont!ct l!
4!lo!e! 'i temen,l con4enite "e p%+i F
:B O%ligaii C
1. /% !/i#,e m!n!#e,l,i "eplin% li:et!te 9n con",cee!< o#!ni1!e! 'i #e/tion!e!
!cti4it%+ii /ociet%+ii< c, e=cep+i! limit%ilo pe4%1,te "e le#e 'i "e pe1ent,l cont!ct F
2. /% pl%te!/c% m!n!#e,l,i< inte#!l 'i l! temenele /t!:ilite< to!te "ept,ile :%ne'ti
ce i /e c,4in .
V. CLAU'A DE LOIALITATE SI DE CONFIDENIALITATE
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3.(. M!n!#e,l e/te o:li#!t /%D'i (olo/e!/c% 9nte!#! c!p!cit!te "e m,nc% 'i
po(e/ion!l% 9n intee/,l /ociet%+ii< compot$n",D/e 9n !cti4it!te! /! c! ,n :,n comeci!nt
3.). !B le /,nt inte1i/e m!n!#e,l,i oice (el "e !cti4it%+i 9n :ene(ici,l ,no /ociet%+i
conc,ente /!, c!e /e !(l% 9n el!+ii comeci!le ci /ociet!te! c, c!e !ce/t! ! 9ncEei!t
cont!ct,l.
:B inte"ic+i! /e e=tin"e 'i !/,p! /o+,l,iP/o+iei m!n!#e,l,i< pec,m 'i !/,p!
,"elo !ce/t,i! p$n% l! #!",l !l VIDle! incl,/i4.
3.*. !B pe to!t! ",!t! "e 4!l!:ilit!te ! pe1ent,l,i cont!ct< m!n!#e,l e/te o:li#!t /%
p%/te1e< c, i#,o1it!te< con(i"en+i!lit!te !/,p! "!telo< in(om!+iilo 'i "oc,mentelo
e(eito!e l! !cti4it!te! /ociet%+i< c%o! li /D! con(eit !ce/te c!!cte
:B o:li#!+i! pe4%1,t% l! lit. AB /e men+ine 'i pent, o peio!"% "ehh hhh..!ni
"e l! 9ncet!e! pe1ent,l,i cont!ct.
VI. RSPUNDEREA PARIILOR
<.(. Pent, ne9n"eplinie! /!, 9n"eplinie! necoe/p,n%to!e ! o:li#!+iilo pe4%1,te "e
pe1ent,l cont!ct< p%+ile %/p,n"< poti4it pe4e"eilo le#ii.
<.). R%/p,n"ee! m!n!#e,l,i e/te !n#!@!t% pent, nee/pect!e! pe4e"eilo le#ii< !le
pe1ent,l,i cont!ct 'i !le Eot%$ilo !"opt!te "e !",n!e! #ene!l% ! !c+ion!iloP!/oci!+ilo<
oi !le "eci1iilo !/oci!t,l,i ,nicPp!ton,l,i< ",p% c!1.
<.*. M!n!#e,l %/p,n"e< poti4it le#ii< pent, "!,nele po",/e /ociet%+ii pin oice !ct !l
/%, cont! intee/elo !ce/tei!< pin !cte "e #e/ti,ne imp,"ent%< ,tili1!e! !:,1i4% /!,
ne#li@ent% ! 4!loilo m!tei!le 'i :%ne'ti !le /ociet%+ii.
<.0. !B 9n c!1,l 9n c!e e=i/t! in"icii pi4in" /%4$'ie! ,nei in(!c+i,ni 9n le#%t,% c,
e=ec,t!e! cont!ct,l,i "e m!n!#ement< !c+ion!ii P!/oci!+ii !, o:li#!+i! /e/i1%ii< "e 9n"!t%< !
o#!nelo "e ,m%ie pen!l%.
:B 9n c!1,l pe4%1,t l! lit. !B pe peio!"! /ol,+ion%ii /e/i1%ii< cont!ct,l,i "e
m!n!#ement /e /,/pen"%.
VII. NCETAREA CONTARCTULUI
=.(. Pe1ent,l cont!ct 9ncete!1% pinC
!B e=pi!e! peio!"ei pent, c!e ! (o/t 9ncEei!t< "!c% p%+ile n, !,
ene#oci!t pel,n#ie! l,iF
:B e4oc!e! m!n!#e,l,i< 9n c!1,l ne9n"epliniii o:li#!+iilo pe4%1,te
9n pe1ent,l cont!ctF
cB en,n+!e! m!n!#e,l,i l! m!n"!t,l 9nce"in+!t< "!c% n, i /D!,
!/i#,!t con"i+iile pe4%1,te 9n cont!ct F
"B !co",l p%+ilo F
eB inte4en+i! ,nei c!,1e "e incomp!ti:ilit!te F
(B "ece/,l /!, p,nee! /,: inte"ic+ie @,"ec%toe!/c% ! m!n!#e,l,i F
#B in/ol4!:ilit!te! /!, (!liment,l /ociet%+ii.
=.). 8n c!1,ile "e e4oc!e Alit. :B FI "e en,n+!e Alit. cB p!te! 9n c!,1%
!co"% ,n pe!4i1 "e *- "e 1ile .
VIII FORA MAEOR
>.(. Nici ,n! "inte p%+ile cont!ct!nte n, %/p,n"e "e nee=ec,t!e! l!
temen /!,P'i "e e=ec,t!e! 9n mo" necoe/p,n1%to ?tot!l /!,
p!+i!l ? ! oic%ei o:li#!+ii c!e 9i e4ine in :!1! pe1ent,l,i
cont!ct< "!c% nee=ec,t!e! /!, e=ec,t!e! necoe/p,n1%to!e !
o:li#!+iei e/pecti4e ! (o/t c!,1!t% "e (o+! m!@o%< !'! c,m e/te
122
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009
"e(ini+i! "e le#e.
>.). P!te! c!e in4oc% (o+! m!@o% e/te o:li#!t% /% noti(ice celeil!lte
p%+i < 9n temen "ehhhhh..A1ile< oeB< po",cee!
e4eniment,l,i 'i /% i! to!te m%/,ile po/i:ile 9n 4e"ee! limit%ii
con/ecin+elo l,i .
>.*. D!c% 9n temen "ehhhh..A1ile< oeB "e l! po",cee< e4eniment,l
e/pecti4e n, 9ncete!1%< p%+ile !, "ept,l /%D'i noti(ice 9ncet!e! "e
plin "ept ! pe1ent,l,i cont!ct (%% c! 4e,n! "inte ele /% petin"%
"!,neDintee/e
I1. LITIGII
?.(. 8n c!1,l 9n c!e e1ol4!e! ne9n+ele#eilo n, e/te po/i:il! pe c!le
!mi!:il!< ele 4o (i /,p,/e /pe /ol,+ion!e! in/t!n+elo @,"ec%toe'ti
competente.
1. CLAU'E FINALE
(A.(. Mo"i(ic!e! pe1ent,l,i cont!ct /e (!ce n,m!i pin !ct !"i+ion!l
9ncEei!te 9nte p%+ile cont!ct!nte.
(A.). Pe1ent,l cont!ct< 9mpe,n! c, !ne=ele /!le c!e (!c p!te inte#!nte
"in c,pin/,l /%,< epe1int% 4oin+! p%+ilo 'i 9nl%t,% oice !lt%
9n+ele#ee 4e:!l% "inte !ce/te!< !nteio!% /!, ,lteio!% 9ncEeieii
l,i.
(A.*. 8n c!1,l 9n c!e p%+ile 9'i 9nc!lc% o:li#!+iile lo< nee=ecit!e! "e
p!te! c!e /,(e% 4e,n pe@,"ici, ! "ept,l,i "e ! cee e=ec,t!e!
9ntocm!i /!, pin ecEi4!lent :%ne/c ! o:li#!+iei e/pecti4e n,
9n/e!mn% c% e! ! en,n+!t l! !ce/t "ept !l /%,.
(A.0. Pe1ent,l cont!ct ! (o/t 9ncEei!t intD,n n,m% "ehh..e=empl!e<
"in c!ehhhhhh..!/t%1i hhhhhh<"!t! /emn%ii l,i.
7OCIETATEA

MANAGERUL
12*
Universitatea din Bucureti Facultatea de Geografie
Copyright DEPARTAMENT ID 2009