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7.

A
1.1
PAVEMENT DATA
General Information
A brief description of the pavement
charts which follow will be helpfut in their use for airport
planning.
Each airplane configuration is depicted with a minimum range of four loads imposed on
the main landing gear to aid in interpolation between the discrete values shown. All curves are
plotted at const4nt specified tire
pressure
at the highest certified weight for each model.
Subsection 7.2 presents
basic data on the landing gear footprint configuration, tire sizes, and tire
pressures.
The pressure for less than at maximum weight rnay be determjned from the chart in Sub-
section 7 .2,l.
Subsection ?.3 lists maximum vertical and horizontal pavement loads at the tire ground interfaces
for certain critical conditions.
Subsection 7.4 provides a chart which shows static loads imposed on the main landing gear
strufs
for the operational limits of the airplane. These main landing gear
loads are used for the interpreta-
tion of the pavement
design charts which follow.
Subsection 7.5 presents a pavement requirement chart for flexible pavements. Flexible pavement
design curves are based upon the format and procedures
set forth in Instruction Report No. S-7?-1,
"hocedures for Development of CBR Design Curves," published in June 1977 by the U.S. Army
Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Soils and Pavements Laboratory, Vicksburg, Mississippi.
The following procedure
is used to develop the flexible payements
curves.
l. Having e'stablished the scale for pavement depth at the bottom and the scale for CBR at the
top, an arbitrary line is drawn lepresenting 6,000 annual departures.
?. Values of the aircraft gross weight are then plotted.
3. Additional annual departure lines are then drawn based on the load lines of theaircraftgross
weights already established.
4' An additional lins represonting
10,0@ coveragps (used to calculats the flexible-pavernent
Airffaft Classification Number) is also placed.
Subsection 7.6 consists of LCN conversion curves for flexible pavements.
These LCN curves have
been plotted
using procedures
and curves in the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 3 Pavements,
Document 9157-AN/901,
!g77. Oa the same charts
are plots of equivalent singte wheel load verus payement
thicknes.
7-1
S-ubsection 7 .7 provides rigid paveme4t
design curyes prepared with the use of the westergaard
Equations in general accordance with
the relationships outiined in the 1955 edition of
..Design
of
concrete Airport Pavement" published
by the Portiand cement Association, 33 w. Grand ive.,
Chicago,Iilinois, but modified fo the
4ew
format described in the 1968
portland
Cement Associa-
lion
publication, " Computer Program for Airport Pavement Design" by Robert G.
packard.
The
following procedure is used to develop
the rigid pavement
design curves.
l. Having established the scale for pavement thickness to the left and the scale for allowable
working stress to the right, an gbitrary
load line is drawn representing the main landing
gear
maximum weight to be shown.
2- All values of the subgrade moduluq (K-values)
are then plotted using the maximum load line. as
shown.
3. Additional load lines for the incrpmental value of weight on the main landinggear are then
'established
on the basis of the curvp for K = 300
pcl,
already established.
Subsection 7-8 presents LCN conversiop curves for rigid pavements.
These curyes harre been plotted
using procedures
and curves in the In{ernational Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
Aerodrome
Desigrr Manual, Part 3 Pavements, Document 915?-AN/901, lg77 . On the same charts are plots of
equivalent single wheel load Yersus radius of relative stiffness. The LCN requirements are based on
the condition of center of slab loadfrg. Radius of relative stiffness values are obtained from
Subsection 7.8.1 .
Subsection 7.9 provides
ACN data prelared
according to the ACN-rcN system described in Aero-
dromes, Annex l4 to the convention on International civil Aviation-
ACN-PCN provides
a standardized international airplane/pavement
rating system replacing the
various S, T, TT, LCN, ALIW, ISWL,
!tc., rating systerns used throughout the world. ACN is the
Aircraft Classification Number and PCN is the corresponding Pavement Classification Number.
An aircraff having an ACN equal to or Iess than the PCN can operate without restriction on the
pavement.
Numerically, the ACN is twe times the derived single wheel load expressed in thousands
of kilograms, whete the derived single yheet
load is defined as the load on a single tire inflated to
l'25 MPa (lB1 psi) that would have thg same pavement
requirements as the aircraft. Computation-
ally, the ACN-PCN system uses PCA
fogram
PDILB for rigid pavements
and S-77-l for flexible
pavements
to calculate ACN values. The method of payement
evaluation is the responsibility of
the airport '.,*ith the results of their evalgation presented
as follows:
REPOnT EXAiTPLE: FCN 8O/B/E/WT
T]RE PRESSUF
CAlEGORY
{BEARING STRENGTH FOR
UNRESTRICTED OPERATIONSI
HIGH
lK - IsOMN/M3)
oRGBR = 16%l
MEDIUM
{K - SO MH'M3}
OR CBR = 1O%)
rOW
(K
= 4OMNIMSI
OF CBR = 6%l
ULTRA LOW
(K
= 20MN/M3}
OR CBF = 3961
HIGH
(NO
LIMIT}
MEDIUM
(LIMITEO
TO
1.5 MPal
LOW
{LIMITED TO
1.O MPal
VRY LOI{
(LIMITED
TO
O-5 MPa'
TECHNICAL
USING AIRCRAFT
7-2
MODEL MDO SERIES
-81 2.,88
:r' 87 87'
MAXIMUM BAMP
WEIGHT
141,000 L8
{63,911 KG}
150,5fi) L8
{08.254 KG}
l8t,(n0 LB
{73,016 KG)
r4r,mo LB
(63p46
KS)
150,500 LB
{68:54 KG}
PEf,CFNT OF WEIGHT
ON MAIN GEAR
SEE SUBSECTION 7.4
NOSE TIRE SIZE 26 x 6.6
wPE Vll
26 x 6.6
TYPE VII
26 x 6.6
TYPE VII
26 x 6.6
TYPEVII
26 x 6.8
TYPS VII
NOSE TIRE PRESSURE 155 PSr
(10.9 KG/CMz)
1 55 PSI
{10.9 KG/CM2}
170 PSI
{12.0 KC/CM?I
192 PSI
(13.5
KG/CM2}
r92 PSI
tl35 KG/CM2}
MAIN GEAR TIRE SIZE H.l4.5x 16.5-?0
24PR
H 44.5 x 16.5
-
20
MPB
H 44,5 x 16.5
r
2O
28 PR
H44.5x165*2t)
24 PR
H 445 x t6-5
-
20
26 PR
MAIN GgAfi TIRE
PRESSUBE
170 PSr
{12.O KG/CM2}
r84 PSI
{12-9 KG/Cm2)
1S5 PSI
{r3.7 KGlCMzl
t70 Psr
^
{12.0 KG/CM4!
t84 PSI
112.s KG/CM2)
MAIN GEAR TIRE INFLATIONS INCLUDE A 7 PERCENT MARGIN FOR IMPROVED
SAFETY (DOUGLAS
POLICY}.
"WITH FUSELAGE AUXILIARY FUEL TANKS
28.125 rN.
{71.4
ALL MODELS
72 FT 5.1 lN.
{22.08 Ml
20 FT 4.8 tN. {6.22 M}
14 tN.
(35.6
CM)
ALL MODELS
MDl, 2, 3 AND 8
62F-t 11.1 lN.
(19.r8
Ml
MD.87
7.2 Fo0rPnrllr
ilODEL IID.8(l SERIES
FT 8.2 rN. (5.09
M)
ALL MODELS
{REF}
ALL MODELS
7-3
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7-4
LEGEND: VruC - MAXIMUM VERTICAL NOSE GEAR GROUND LOAD AT MOST FORWARD C.G.
V"6 =MAXIMUM VERTTCAL MA|N GEAR GROUNO LOAD AT MOST AFT C.c.
H = MAXIMUM HORIZONTAL GROUND LOAD FROM BRAKING
NOTE: ALL LOADS CALCULATED USTNG
AIRPLANE MAXIMUM GROSS WEIGHT
"IO FT/SEC2 DECELERATION DUE ONLY TO BRAKING
.WITH
FUSELAGE AUXILIARY FUEL TANKs
7.3 t[AXtHU*f PtUEtEilT I0ADS
iloDEL nD-t0 sEnEs
G
ftl'oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo{ffifooooooooo.
flt,t;
-
i-j-1 i--l G";-j
MODEL
MD.8O
MAXIMUM
GROSS
T'TEIGHT
vilc FoBWARD CG
vilc PER
STRUT 12}
AFT CG H PER STRUT 12}
STATIC
STEADV
BRAKINGI
STATIC
IT{STANTANEOUS
BRAKING
(COEFF
oF FR|CT|ON 0.81
STEADY
BRAKI'tIG*
LB LB KG LB KG
LB KG LB KG LB KG
-81
.82,
8
-f,!*'
-87
7**
141,000
r50,500.
t61,0(E
141,000
r50,500
12,69
13,400
15,100
14,896
16,026
5,731
6,079
6,850
6,757
7,269
17,736
18,365
20,300
19,875
2A]78
8,045
8,331
9,210
9,O15
9,153
67,405
71,538
76,280
66,813
7r,310
30,574
32,453
34,6@
30.306
32,U6
49,370
82,#7
55,950
48,637
51,M4
22,394
23,756
25,39)
22,016
23,335
21,994
23,370
25,ofl'
21,648
23147
9,932
r0,601
t1,3/m
9/819
10,rt81
7-6
REv. t?rv,
NOTE: UNSHADED AREAS REPRESENT OPERATIONAL LIMITS
%MAC
o 5 10152026303540
.120
TOTAL
WEIGHT
TWO
MAIN
LANDING
GEARS
{1,000 L8}
AIRPLA{V
GROSS
WEIGHT
(1.000
POUNDS)
90
PERCENT WEIGHT ON MAIN GEAR
7.4 LAT{DI]IG GEAN IOADIIIG OT PITEITETT
t0Dtt til0-81, 82, {3, lllD {E
7
7g
60
50
40
30
20
AIRPLANE
GROSS
WEIGHT
(1,cx)o
KG}
NOTE: UNSHADED AREAS REPRESENT oPERATIONAL LtMITs
%MAC
o 5 10 r5202530364{t
ffi
TOTAL
WEIGHT
TWO
MAIN
L.ANDJNG
GEARS
(r,000
LBI
AIRPLANE
GROSS
WEIGHT
(1,000
FOUHDSI
PERCENT WEIG}IT ON MAIN GEAR
1,I/ITH FUSELAGE AUXTLIARY FUEL TANKS
7.{ IAIIDITIS GEM TOADIIIG OtI PAUEMEilT
r0Dtt tD{7
7-7
AIRPLANE
GROSS
WE!GHT
(1,(m
KG}
7 .5 Flexible-Pavement
Requirernents
-
u.s. Army corps of Engineers
Method (s-72_l
)
The flexible-pavement
design chart is prepared
for standard-pressure
tires. This chart presents
data
for incremental maingear yeights
as well as the rhaximum ramp weight of each rnodel.
In the example shown for the MD-80 series, for a cBR of 7.0 and an annual departure level of,
6'000, the required flexible-pavernent
tfrickness for an airplane with a main gear
loading of 100,000
pounds
is24.0 inches-
The line showing IO,OOO ooverages is.,sed for ACN calculations.
78
cs
lil
E,
F/
MAIN;LANDING GEAR
LB {KG)
rSt.eoo t68,600):
143p00 t64Boo)
t35.mo {61,200)
r20,0fi)
(54,400)
'r00,000
(45,400)
80,000
(36,300)
{USED
FOR ACN
*20-YEAR
PAVEMENT LIFE
H44.5 x t6.5-20 TTRES
TIRE PRESSURE RANGE: 170 TO tgs PSI
MAXIMUM POSSIBLE MAIN GEAR LOAD AT
MAXIMUM RAMP WEIGHT AND AFT C.G.
CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO {CBR)
7 8 910 15 20 25 30
{rtrr.)
3 5 6 7 I910
(cM)
10 15 2A 25 30 40 50 60 80 100 120
FLEXI BLE PAVEM ENT TH ICKN ESS
"*WITH FUSELAGE AUXILTARY FUEL TANKS
7.5 FrErtBrE PAYH,IEITT RtQUIREilEtfIS
-
U.S. Anlrr CoRPS 0r EnGNEEnS
DESIGil ilETHOD
(S.77.I}
-
lilODEL MD.t{} SERIES
7
7.6 Flexible PaverRent Requirements, LCN Conversion
In order to determine the airplane weight that can be accommodated on a particular
flexible air-
port pavement, both the LCN of the pavement
and the thickness (h) of the pavement
must be
known.
In the example for the Model MD-82, the flexible pavement thickness is 30 inches and the LCN is
74. For these conditions, the weight on the main landing gear
is 120,000 pounds.
Note: If the resultant aircxaft LCN is not more than 10 percent above the published pavement
LCN, it is the United Kingdom's view that the bearing strength of the pavement can be considered
sufficient for unlimited use by the airplane. The figure of l0 percent has besn chossn as repre-
senting the lowest degree of variation in LCN which is significant. (Reference:
ICAO Aerodrome
Design Manual, Part 3 Pavements, Document 915?.AN/901,lg77 Edition.)
7-10
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7-7 Rigid Pavement Requirements, Portland cement Association Design Method
In order to determine the airplane weight that can be accommodated on a'particular rigid pave-
ment, the thickness of the pavemenl,
the subgrade modulus (k) and the allowable working stress
must be known.
In the example for the MD-80 Series, the rigid pavement
thickness is 12 inches, the subgrade modu-
lus is 150, and the allowable working stress is 400 psi. For these conditions, the weight on the
landing gear is l27,OOO pounds.
7-14
.H44.5 x 16.5-20 TIRES
TIRE PRESSURE RANGE 170 TO 195 PSI
MAXIMUM POSSIBLE MAIN GEAR
LOAD AT MAXIMUM R.AMP WEIGHT
AND AFT CENTER OF GRAVITY
WEIGHT ON MAIN LANDING GEAR
(sEE
SUBSECTTON 7.41
LB (KGI
151,?00
143,000
r35,000
130,000
120,000
110,000
r00,@o
90,000
164,g(nl
(61
80,{n0
{36,300)
PSI
900
KG/CM2
-l-
T.
I r.u
ls
TE
-l-
=
"f
"f
20
16
t68,900)
(54,400)
(4e,900)
|.45,400l.
{40,900}
700
Q
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=llJ
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NOTE: THE VALUES OBTAINED BY USING THE
MAXIMUM LOAD REFERENCE LINE ANO
ANY VALUE OF K ARE EXACT. FOR
. LOADS LESS THAN MAXIMUM, THE CURVES
ARE EXACT FOB k
*
3{n BUT DEVIATE
SLIGHTLY FOR OTHER VALUES OF K.
400
REFERENCES: "DESIGN OF CONCRETE ATRPOFT
PAVEMENT'' ANO "COMPUTER
PROGRAM FOR .AI RPORT PAVEMENT
OESIGN
-
PROGRAM PDILB,"
PORTLAND CEMENT ASSN.
10
"WITH FUSELAGE AUXILIA,RY FUEL TANKS
7.7 RtGtD
ptuEt
EilT REQUtnEilEilTS,
poRltfiilD
CEilEilT
rssocnTt0fl DEstcil tETfioD
-
iloDEL ilD.Eo $ERttS
k= 76
k=150
k=30O
k=550
7.r5
7.8 Rigid Pavement Requirements, LCN Conversion
In order to determine the airplane weight that can be accommodated on a particular rigid airport
pavement, both the LCN of the pavepent and the radius of relative stiffness must be known.
ln the example for the MD-82, the rigid pavement radius of relative stiffness is 26 inches and the
LCN is 64. For these conditions, the weight on the main landing gear is I15,500 pounds.
The LCN charts use l-values based on Young's Modulus (E) of 4,000,000 psi and Poisson's Ratio
(p)
of 0.15. For convenience in finding l-values based on other values of E and;r, the curves in
'1.8-7
are included. For example, to find an l-value based on an E of 3,000,000 psithe "E" factor
of 0.931 is multiplied by the 9-value found in Table 7.8. t . The effect of variations of "p"
on the
9-value is treated in a similar manner.
Note: If the resultant aircraft LCN is not more than l0 percent above the published pavement
LCN, it is the United Kingdom's view that the bearing strength of the pavement can be considered
sufficient for unlimited use by the airplane. The figure of l0 percent has been chosen as repre-
senting the lowest degree of variation irr LCN which is significant. (Reference: ICAO Aerodrome
Design Manual, Part 3 Payements, Docurnent 9157-ANl90l,1977 Edition.)
7-16
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NOTE:
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BOTH CURVES ON THIS
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THE I.VALUES OF
TABLE 7.8.1
23
E, YOUNG'S MODULUS
{106, PSI)
p, POISSON'S RATIO
7 .8.2 EFFECI 0F E lt{D
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0ll I UIIUES
EFFECT OF E ON I.VALUES
EFFECT OF p 0N !-VALUES
7-22
7.9 ACN-PCN Reporting System: Flexible and Rigid Pavements
To determine the ACN of an aircraft on flexible or rigid pavement, both the airraft gross
weight and the subgrade strength category must be known. The examples show that for an
airsaft gross weight of 130,000 pounds
and low subgrade strength, the ACN for flexible
pavement is 39 and the ACN for rigid pavement for the same gross
weight is 41.
Note: An aircraft with an ACN equal to or less than the reported PCN can operate on the
pavement subject to any limitations on the tire pressure.
7-23
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2.
7.9.1 Development of ACN Charts
The ACN charts for flexible and rigid pavements were developed by methods referenced in the
ICAO Aerodrome Manual, Part 3
-
Pavements, Document 9157-AN/901, 1983 Edition. The pro-
cedurcs used in developing these charts are also described below.
The following procedure
was used to develop the flexible-pavement ACN charts already shown in
this subsection.
l. Determine the percentage of weight on the main
gear to be used below in steps 2,3, md 4,
below. The rnaximum aft center of gravity position yields the critical loading on the critical
gear (see
Subsection 7.4). This center of
Eravity
position is used to determine mairrgear
loads at all gross weights of the model being considered.
Establish a flexible-pavement requirements chart using the S-77-l design method, such as
shown on the right side of 7.9.2. Use standard subgrade strengthsof CBR 3,6, 10, and 15
percent and 10,000 coverages. This chart provides the same thickness values as those of Sub-
section 7.5, but is presented here in a different format.
Determine reference thickness values from the pavement requirements chart of step 2 for each
standard subgrade strength and gear loading.
Enter the reference thickness values into the ACN flexible-pavement conversion chart shown
on the left side of Figure 7.9.2 to determine ACN. This chart was developed using the S-77-l
desigrr method with a single tire inflated to 1.25 MPa (181 psi) pressure and 10,000 coverages.
The ACN is two times the derived sintle-wheel load expressed in thousands of kilograms.
These values of ACN were plotted as functions of aircraft gross weight, as already shown.
The following procedure was used to develop the rigid-pavement ACN charts already shown in
this Subsection
Determine the percentage of weight on the main gear to be used in steps 2,3,and 4,below.
The maximum aft center of gravity position yields the critical loading on the critical gear (see
Subsection 7.4). This center of gravity position is used to determine main-gear loads at all gross
weights of the model being considered.
Establish a rigidaavernent-requirements chart using the PCA computer program PDILB, such
as shown on the right side of Figure 7.9.3. Use standard subgrade strengths of k =
75, 150,
300, and 550 pci (nominal values for k = 2A, 40,80, and 150 MN/m3). This chart provides the
same thickness values as those of Subsection 7.7.
Determine reference thickness values from the pavement requirements chart of step 2 for each
standard subgrade strength and gear loading at 4t)0 psi working stress
{nominal
value for 2.75
MPa working stress).
3.
4.
l'
2.
3.
7-26
Enter the reference thickness values into the ACN rigid-pavement conversion chart shown on
the left side of Figure 7.9.3 to determine ACN. This chart was developed using the
pCA
computer progmm PDILB with a single tire inflated to 1.25 MPa (l8l psi) preseure and a
working stress of
,+m.psi-
The ACN is tws.times the derived *ingle-wheel load expressed in
thousards of ki.lograms. These valuos of ACN w+rc plottod
as functions of aircraft gross
weight, as already shoryn iil this $ubpection.
7-27
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