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TEXTILE DICTIONARY
Md. Jakir Hossen
B.Sc. in Textile Engineering
Southeast University








































[First Edition]

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Md. Jakir Hossen
All rights reserved.


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Prepared By:


Md. Jakir Hossen
Dept. Of Textile Engineering
Batch: 19
th
Sec: (i)
I.D.: 2012000400016
Southeast University
Email: Jakir.seu12@gmail.com
Facebook: www.fb.com/Engr.Jakir.SEU
Mob: +8801738-093405





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ABNORMAL CRIMP

A relative term for crimp that is either too low or too high in frequency and/or amplitude or that has been put
into the fiber with improper angular characteristics.

ABRADED YARN

A filament yarn in which filaments have been cut or broken to create hairiness (fibrillation) to simulate the
surface character of spun yarns. Abraded yarns are usually plied or twisted with other yarns before use.

ABRASION MARK

An area where a fabric has been damaged by friction.

ABRASION RESISTANCE

The ability of a fiber or fabric to withstand surface wear and rubbing.

ABSORBANCE

The ability of a substance to transform radiant energy into a different form, usually with a resulting rise in
temperature. Mathematically, absorbance is the negative logarithm to the base 10 of transmittance.

ABSORBENCY

The ability of one material to take up another material.

ABSORPTION

The process of gases or liquids being taken up into the pores of a fiber, yarn, or fabric. (Also see
ADSORPTION.)

ACCELERANT

A chemical used to speed up chemical or other processes. For example, accelerants are used in dyeing
triacetate and polyester fabrics.

ACETATE FIBER

A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is cellulose acetate (FTC definition). Acetate is
manufactured by treating purified cellulose refined from cotton linters and/or wood pulp with acetic
anhydride in the presence of a catalyst. The resultant product, cellulose acetate flake, is precipitated,
purified, dried, and dissolved in acetone to prepare the spinning solution. After filtration, the highly viscous
solution is extruded through spinnerets into a column of warm air in which the acetone is evaporated,
leaving solid continuous filaments of cellulose acetate. The evaporated acetone is recovered using a solvent
recovery system to prepare additional spinning solution. The cellulose acetate fibers are intermingled and
wound onto a bobbin or shippable mtier cheese package, ready for use without further chemical processing.

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In the manufacture of staple fiber, the filaments from numerous spinnerets are combined into tow form,
crimped, cut to the required length, and packaged in bales.

ACETIC ACID

An organic acid (CH
3
COOH) widely used in textile applications. It is used in textile wet processing, dyeing
and printing, and in the manufacture of cellulose acetate and cellulose triacetate.

ACETIC ANHYDRIDE

Anhydrous acetic acid [(CH
3
CO)
2
O]. It is used in the acetylation process in the manufacture of cellulose
acetate.

ACETONE

Dimethyl ketone (CH
3
COCH
3
). It is one of the most powerful organic solvents. Acetone dissolves secondary
cellulose acetate and other derivatives of cellulose. It is miscible with water and has a low boiling point (55-
56C).

ACETONE RECOVERY

A process for reclaiming the acetone solvent from acetate fiber or plastics manufacture. Usually the recovery
process consists of adsorption by activated carbon and re-distillation.

ACETYL

The radical (CH
3
CO-) of acetic acid.

ACETYLATION

A chemical reaction whereby the acetyl radical is introduced into a compound, as in the conversion of
cellulose to cellulose acetate.

ACETYL VALUE

A measure of the degree of esterification or combination of acetyl radicals with cellulose in acetate or
triacetate products.

ACID-DYEABLE VARIANTS

Polymers modified chemically to make them receptive to acid dyes.

ACID DYES: See DYES.

ACID FADING: See GAS FADING.

ACIDIC

A term describing a material having a pH of less than 7.0 in water.

ACID RECOVERY


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A reclamation process in chemical processing in which acid is extracted from a raw material, by-product, or
waste product. In the manufacture of cellulose acetate, acetic acid is a major by-product. Acid recovery
consists of combining all wash water containing appreciable acetic acid and concentrating it to obtain glacial
acetic acid.

ACID RESISTANCE

The property of withstanding contact or treatment with any acids normally encountered in use. The type of
acid should be stated (i.e., organic or inorganic).

ACRYLIC FIBER

A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of
at least 85% by weight of acrylonitrile units [-CH
2
-CH(CN)-] (FTC definition). Acrylic fibers are produced
by two basic methods of spinning (extrusion), dry and wet. In the dry spinning method, material to be spun
is dissolved is a solvent. After extrusion through the spinneret, the solvent is evaporated, producing
continuous filaments which later may be cut into staple, if desired. In wet spinning, the spinning solution is
extruded into a liquid coagulating bath to form filaments, which are drawn, dried, and processed. 2001,
Celanese Acetate LLC

ACRYLIC RESIN

A polymer of acrylonitrile, used in the production of manufactured fibers, as a fabric finish and as a size.

ACRYLONITRILE

A colorless, volatile, flammable liquid (CH
2
=CHCN) used as a raw material in the manufacture of acrylic
polymers and fibers.

ACTINIC DEGRADATION

See ULTRAVIOLET DEGRADATION.

ACTINIC RESISTANCE

See ULTRAVIOLET RESISTANCE.

ACTION STRETCH

A term applied to fabrics and garments that give and recover in both the lengthwise and the widthwise
directions. Action stretch is ideal for tight-fitting garments such as ski pants.

ACTIVATED CARBON

Charcoal, mostly of vegetable origin, of high adsorptive capacity. It is used for decolorizing liquids and
other adsorption purifications. It is usually made by carbonization and chemical activation.

ADDITION POLYMERIZATION

A reaction yielding a polymer in which the molecular formula of the repeating unit is identical with that of
the monomer. The molecular weight of a polymer so formed is a simple sum of the molecular weight of the
combined monomer units. Combination occurs by means of rearrangement of the chemical bonds.

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ADDITIVE

A supplementary material combined with a base material to provide special properties. For example,
pigments are used as dope additives to give color in mass dyeing. 2001, Celanese Acetate LLC

ADHESION

The force that holds different materials together at their interface and resists separation into two layers.

ADHESION PROMOTERS

Products used to treat the smooth fiber-face of closely constructed base fabric to provide a chemical bonding
site for subsequent coating. This step is done because it is difficult to get good coating adhesion via
strikethrough and mechanical bonding in closely constructed fabrics. Products containing the isocyanate
group are the most widely used promoters. (Also see DIP TREATING.)

ADHESIVE ACTIVATED YARNS

Yarns treated by the fiber manufacturer to promote better adhesion to another material such as rubber and/or
to allow easier processing.

ADHESIVE MIGRATION

In nonwovens, the movement of adhesive together with its carrier solvent in a fabric during drying, giving it
a non-uniform distribution within the web, usually increasing to the outer layers.

ADHESIVES

In textiles, materials which cause fibers, yarns, or fabrics to stick together or to other materials.

ADIPIC ACID

1,4-butanedicarboxylic acid [COOH(CH
2
)
4
COOH]. It is used in the polymerization reaction to form nylon
66 polymers and in the manufacture of polyurethane foams.

ADSORPTION

The attraction of gases, liquids, or solids to surface areas of textile fibers, yarns, fabrics, or any material.
(Also see ABSORPTION.)

ADVANCED COMPOSITE

Polymer, resin, or other matrix-material system in which reinforcement is accomplished via high-strength;
high-modulus materials in continuous filament form or are discontinuous form such as staple fibers, fibrets,
and in-situ dispersions. (Also see COMPOSITE.)

AESTHETICS

In textiles, properties perceived by touch and sight, such as the hand, color, luster, drape, and texture of
fabrics or garments.

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AFFINITY

Chemical attraction; the tendency of two elements or substances to unite or combine, such as fiber and
dyestuff.

AFTERGLOW

The flameless, glowing combustion of certain solid materials that occurs after the removal of an external
source of ignition or after the cessation of combustion of the material.

AFTERTREATMENT

Any treatment done after fabric production. In dyeing, it refers to treating dyed material in ways to improve
properties; in nonwovens, it refers to finishing processes carried out after a web has been formed and
bonded. Examples are embossing, creping, softening, printing, and dyeing.

AGEING

1. Deterioration of textile or other materials caused by gradual oxidation during storage and/or exposure to
light. 2. The oxidation stage of alkali-cellulose in the manufacture of viscose rayon from bleached wood
pulp. 3. Originally, a process in which printed fabric was exposed to a hot, moist atmosphere. Presently, the
term is applied to the treatment of printed fabric in moist steam in the absence of air. Ageing is also used for
the development of certain colors in dyeing, e.g., aniline black. 2001, Celanese Acetate LLC

AGER

A steam chamber used for ageing printed or padded material.



AGGLOMERATION

A cluster of particles or fibers.

AGITATE

To stir or to mix, as in the case of a dye bath or solution.

AIR BAG

An automatically inflating bag in front of riders in an automobile to protect them from pitching forward in
an accident. End use for manufactured textile fibers.

AIR BRUSHING

Blowing color on a fabric or paper with a mechanized pneumatic brush.

AIR CONDITIONING


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1. A chemical process for sealing short, fuzzy fibers into a yarn. Fabrics made from air-conditioned yarns
are porous. Because they allow more air circulation, these fabrics are also cooler. 2. Control of temperature
and/or humidity in work or living space.

AIR ENTANGLED YARNS: See COMPACTED YARNS.

AIR FORMING

A process in which air is used to separate and move fibers to fashion a web such as the Kroyer process for
short fibers, usually of wood pulp; or the Rando-Webber process for staple-length fibers.

AIR JET SPINNING

A spinning system in which yarn is made by wrapping fibers around a core stream of fibers with compressed
air. In this process, the fibers are drafted to appropriate sliver size, then fed to the air jet chambers where
they are twisted, first in one direction, then in the reverse direction in a second chamber. They are stabilized
after each twisting operation.

AIR JET TEXTURING: See TEXTURING.

AIR-LAID NONWOVENS

Fabrics made by an air-forming process (q.v.). The fibers are distributed by air currents to give a random
orientation within the web and a fabric with isotropic properties.

AIR PERMEABILITY

The porosity or the ease with which air passes through material. Air permeability determines such factors as
the wind resistance of sailcloth, the air resistance of parachute cloth, and the efficacy of various types of air
filters. It also influences the warmth or coolness of a fabric. 2001, Celanese Acetate LLC

AIRPLANE FABRIC

A plain, tightly woven, water-repellent fabric traditionally made of mercerized cotton. During World War I,
the fabric was treated with a cellulose acetate dope and used to cover the wings, tail, and fuselage of
airplanes. Today, similar fabrics made from nylon or polyester/cotton blends are used in rainwear and
sportswear.

AIR-SUPPORTED ROOF

A fabric-based roofing system that is supported and held in place by air pressure.

ALBATROSS

A soft, lightweight wool or wool blend fabric in a plain weave with a napped, fleecy surface that resembles
in texture, the breast of the albatross. It is usually light-colored and is used in negligees, infants wear, etc.

ALGINATE FIBER

Fiber formed from a metallic salt (normally calcium) of alginic acid, which is a natural polymer occurring in
seaweed. Alginate fiber is soluble in water.

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ALKALINE

A term used to describe a material having a pH greater than 7.0 in water.

ALKYLATION

The introduction of an alkyl radical into an organic molecule.

ALLOY

A solid or liquid mixture of two or more metals; or of one or more metals with certain nonmetallic elements
formed by fusing the components.

ALPACA

1. Long, fine hair from Alpaca sheep. 2. A fabric from alpaca fibers or blends, (originally a cotton cloth with
alpaca filling) that is used for dresses, coats, suits, and sweaters. It is also used as a pile lining for jackets
and coats. (The term has been incorrectly used to describe a rayon fabric.)

ALPACA STITCH

A 1 x 1 purl-links stitch that is knit so that the courses run vertically instead of horizontally as the fabric
comes off the knitting machine. A garment made with an alpaca stitch is not always 100% alpaca; it can be
made of other natural or manufactured fibers.

ALPHA CELLULOSE

One of three forms of cellulose. Alpha cellulose has the highest degree of polymerization and is the chief
constituent of paper pulp and chemical dissolving-grade pulp. (Also see BETA CELLULOSE and GAMMA
CELLULOSE.)

ALSIMAG

Registered trademark of American Lava Corporation for ceramic materials. These materials are used in
guides and discs on textile processing machines and fiber manufacturing equipment.

ALTERNATING TWIST

A texturing procedure in which S and Z twist are alternately inserted in the yarn by means of a special
heating arrangement.

AMBIENT CONDITIONS: See ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS.

AMINE END GROUP

The terminating (-NH
2
) group of a nylon polymer chain. Amine end groups provide dye sites for
polyamides.

AMORPHOUS


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No crystalline, lacking regular geometrical shape. Used to describe certain regions in polymers. 2001,
Celanese Acetate LLC

ANGORA

1. The hair of the Angora goat. The long, fine fibers are so smooth and soft that they must be combined with
other fibers in weaving. 2. The hair of the Angora rabbit. The fine, lightweight hair is warm, and it is often
blended with wool to decrease price and to obtain novelty effects in weaving. By law, the fiber must be
described as Angora rabbit hair.

ANHYDRIDE

A compound formed by abstraction of water, usually from an acid. Example: acetic anhydride, which is used
in converting cellulose to cellulose acetate.

ANIDEX FIBER

A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of
at least 50% by weight of one or more esters of a monohydric alcohol and acrylic acid, (CH
2
=CH-COOH)
(FTC definition).

ANILINE DYES: See DYES.


ANIMAL FIBERS

Fibers of animal origin such as wool, alpaca, camel hair, and silk.

ANION

A negatively charged ion.

ANISOTROPIC

Not having the same physical properties in every direction. In the plane of a fabric, it is related to a non-
random distribution of fibers.

ANTHRAQUINONE DYES: See DYES.

ANTIBACTERIAL FINISH

A treatment of a textile material to make it resistant to, or to retard growth of, bacteria.

ANTICHLOR

A chemical, such as sodium thiosulfate, used to remove excess chlorine after bleaching.

ANTIFELTING AGENTS

Products that prevent or minimize matting and compaction of textile materials.

ANTIFOAMING AGENT

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An additive that minimizes the formation of bubbles within or on the surface of a liquid by reducing the
forces that support the bubbles structure.

ANTIOXIDANT

A substance to retard deterioration (of fiber, fabrics, finishes, etc.) resulting from reaction with oxygen.

ANTISOILING PROPERTIES

The properties of textile materials whereby they resist deposition of dirt and stains.

ANTISTAINING PROPERTIES

The ability of a textile to resist the deposition of oil- or water-borne stains.

ANTISTATIC AGENT

A reagent capable of preventing, reducing, or dissipating static electrical charges that may be produced on
textile materials.

ANTISTATIC PROPERTIES

The ability of a textile material to disperse an electrostatic charge and to prevent the build up of static
electricity. 2001, Celanese Acetate LLC

APPLIQUE

A design made separately and then sewn on a cloth or garment.

APRON MARK: See DECATING MARK.

ARACHNE MACHINE

A machine for producing loop-bonded nonwovens. The fabric is formed by knitting a series of warp yarns
through a fiber web processed on a card. (Also see BONDING, 2. Stitch Bonding.)

ARAMID FIBER

A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming material is a long chain synthetic polyamide having at least
85% of its amide linkages (-NH-CO-) attached directly to two aromatic rings (FTC definition). Aramid
fibers exhibit low flammability, high strength, and high modulus. Fabrics made from aramid fibers maintain
their integrity at high temperatures; such fabrics are used extensively in hot-air filters. Aramids are also
found in protective clothing, ropes and cables, and tire cord.

ARGYLE

A pattern consisting of diamond shapes of different colors knit in a fabric.

ARTIFICIAL TURF


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A manufactured carpet having the appearance of grass. Used to replace grass in sports arenas, yards, etc.
(Also see RECREATIONAL SURFACES.)

ART LINEN

A plain-weave, softly finished fabric used either bleached or unbleached as a base fabric for needlework.

ASBESTOS

A nonmetallic mineral fiber, which is nonflammable. The fiber is woven into fabrics and used for theater
curtains and industrial uses where flame-resistant materials are needed.

ASPECT RATIO

1. The ratio of length to diameter of a fiber or yarn bundle. 2. In tire production, the ratio of the height of the
tire to its width. 3. In a rectangular structure, the ratio of the longer dimension to the shorter.

ASPHALT OVERLAY FABRICS: See GEOTEXTILES.

ASTRAKHAN CLOTH

A thick knit or woven fabric with loops or curls on the face. The base yarns are usually cotton or wool and
the loops are made with fibers such as mohair, wool, and certain manufactured fibers. The face simulated the
pelt of the astrakhan lamb.

ATACTIC POLYMER

A type of polymer molecule in which substituent groups or atoms are arranged randomly above and below
the backbone chain of atoms, when the latter are all in the same plane (e.g., in polypropylene). (Also see
ISOTACTIC POLYMER, SYNDIOTACTIC POLYMER, and TACTIC POLYMER.)

ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS

In general, the relative humidity, barometric pressure, and temperature existing at a given time.

ATMOSPHERIC FADING: See GAS FADING. 2001, Celanese Acetate LLC

ATTRITION MILLS

Machines for reducing materials into smaller particles by grinding down by friction. In the manufacture of
acetate and triacetate fibers, equipment used in shredding pulp prior to acetylation.

AUTOCLAVE

1. An apparatus for carrying out certain finishing operation, such as pleating and heat setting, under pressure
in a superheated steam atmosphere. 2. Apparatus for polymerizing condensation polymers such as nylon or
polyester at any pressure above or below atmospheric.

AVERAGE STIFFNESS

The ratio of change in stress to change in strain between two points on a stress strain diagram, particularly
the points of zero stress and breaking stress. (Also see MODULUS).

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AVERAGE TOUGHNESS

See TOUGHNESS.

AXIAL YARN

A system of longitudinal yarns in a triaxial braid that are inserted between bias yarns.



AXMINSTER CARPET

A machine-woven carpet in which successive weft-wise rows of pile are inserted during weaving according
to a predetermined arrangement of colors. There are four main types of Axminster looms: Spool, Gripper,
Gripper-Spool, and Chenille.

AZLON FIBER

A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance consists of any regenerated naturally occurring
proteins (FTC definition). Azlon is not currently produced in the United States.

AZO DYES: See DYES.

AZOIC DYES: See DYES, Naphthol Dyes.


Ballotini

Small glass beads which are normally used in reflective paints but which can also be incorporated into
fabrics.

Bandana

Handkerchief designs in simple color and white stylized patterns, including spots and paisley.

Basket weave

A textile weave consisting of double threads interlaced to produce a checkered pattern similar to that of a
woven basket.

Bast fibre

Fibre obtained from the stems of certain types of plant.

Batik


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A traditional dyeing process in which portions of cloth are coated with wax and therefore resist the dye,
enabling distinctive patterns to be created. Batik fabrics are characterized by a streaky or mottled
appearance.

Batt

Single or multiple sheets of fibre used in the production of nonwoven fabric.




Bedford cord

A fabric constructed in such a way as to show rounded cords in the warp direction with pronounced sunken
lines between them.

Bias
The direction diagonally across a piece of fabric at 45 to the warp and weft. Bicomponent fabric: A fabric
with two layers.

Bi-component fibres

Fibres spun from two different polymers. The most common types are made from polymers which have
different melting points and are used for thermal bonding. Another variant is produced from polymers which
have differing solubilities. In this case one polymer may later be dissolved out to leave ultra-fine filaments.
An example is the production of suede-like fabrics. This process is also used to create crimping, in order to
provide bulk or stretch.

Bicomponent yarn

A yarn having two different continuous filament components

Binder (nonwoven)

An adhesive material used to hold fibres together in a nonwoven structure. Birdseye: A fabric woven to
produce a pattern of very small, uniform spots.

Bi-shrinkage yarn

A yarn containing two different types of filament, which have different shrinkages.

Blooming

The tendency of a yarn to become fuller-looking when wetted and dried under certain conditions. In
practice, the overall yarn diameter increases slightly-resulting in a "halo effect" or softer look-and the length
diminishes. The effect usually results fro a nonwoven fabric in which the fibres are held together by a
bonding material. This may be an adhesive or a bonding fibre with a low melting point. Alternatively, the
material may be held together by stitching.

Braided yarn

Intertwined yarn containing two or more strands.

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Breathability
The ability of a fabric, coating or laminate to transfer water vapour from one of its surfaces through the
material to the other surface.




Brocade

Usually a jacquard woven fabric in which the figure is developed by floating the warp threads, the weft
threads, or both, and interlacing them in a more or less irregular order

Brocatelle

A heavy figured cloth in which the pattern is created by warp threads in a satin weave.

Brushed fabrics

Fabrics which have undergone a brushing process to produce a napped surface. Brushed fabrics usually have
a soft, slightly weathered, broken-in feel.

Bullet proof material

A material which provides complete protection against all types of high velocity projectiles or against
multiple hits in the same location from such projectiles.

Bushing

A block made from platinum alloy containing several hundred holes through which molten glass is fed at
very high temperatures from a furnace, resulting in the formation of glass filaments.

Batik

One of the oldest forms of dyeing fabrics, using wax. Portions of the fabric are coated in wax leaving the
unwaxed areas to take the dye, and then the wax is removed. This method of dyeing is imitated in machine
printing.

Boucle

Knitted or woven fabrics made distinctively by its small regularly spaced loops of specially twisted yarns.

Brocade

Rich fabric wove on a loom with the jacquard attachment giving an embossed appearance that resembles
embroidery in a pattern of raised figures or flowers. Many times it includes gold and silver threads. The
name is derived from the French meaning to ornament.

Back Length

The dimension on a garment taken from the center collar attaching seam to the bottom of the garment, or in
the case of a coverall, to the top of the waistband.

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Back Waist Length

The dimension on a body, taken from the top of the back bone at the base of the neck to the waistline.

Bactericide

Kills bacteria.

Bacteriostat

Doesn't necessarily mean that it kills bacteria. A stat means that it may simply be slowing growth or holding
the death to growth rates of bacteria (same for fungal stats) more or less in equilibrium. Inhibits bacteria
growth.

Ballistic

A thick woven fabric that is extremely abrasion resistant and tough; has a denier of about 2000, and is used
in apparel, packs and gear.

Band (Continuous/Grown-on)

Pant panels that extend to the top of the pant and are folded over without an outside band. A separate inside
band lining is sewn through the pant and has an interlining.

Band (Pasted-on/Folder-set)

A separate band sewn on the pant with stitching that shows on the outside at the top and bottom.


Band (Rocap)

A separate band of body fabric sewn on and turned down so the attaching seam is not visible. Inside the
band is a separate lining---made from pcketing fabric---and interlining.
Barre
An imperfection, characterized by a ridge or mark running in the crosswise or lengthwise directions of the
fabric. Barres can be caused by tension variations in the knitting process, poor quality yarns, and problems
during the finishing process.
Bartack
To reinforce a seam with a bar of stitches that provides a more durable seam end. (Commonly used at points
of strain.)



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Base Layer
The apparel in contact with your skin. The purpose of the base layer is to keep you warm/cool and dry.
Basket Weave
A variation of the plain weave construction, formed by treating two or more warp yarns and/or two or more
filling yarns as one unit in the weaving process. Yarns in a basket weave are laid into the woven
construction flat, and maintain a parallel relationship. Both balanced and unbalanced basket weave fabrics
can be produced. An example of basket weave construction includes monk cloth and oxford cloth. Bast
Fiber - Strong, soft, woody fibers, such as flax, jute, hemp, and ramie, which are obtained from the inner
bark in the stems of certain plants.
Batiste
A medium-weight, plain weave fabric, usually made of cotton or cotton blends. End-uses include blouses
and dresses.
Bedford Cord
A cord cotton-like fabric with raised ridges in the lengthwise direction. Since the fabric has a high strength
and a high durability, it is often used for upholstery and work clothes.
Beeze
Piping or cording formed at lower and inside pocket welts.
Besom
An edging or reinforcement around a pocket opening.
Bleaching
A process of whitening fibers, yarns, or fabrics by removing the natural and artificial impurities to obtain
clear whites for finished fabric, or in preparation for dyeing and finishing. The materials may be treated with
chemicals or exposed to sun, air, and moisture.
Blend
A term applied to a yarn or a fabric that is made up of more than one fiber. In blended yarns, two or more
different types of staple fibers are twisted or spun together to form the yarn. Examples of a typical blended
yarn or fabric are polyester/cotton.
Bonding
The technique of permanently joining together two fabrics or layers of fabrics together by a bonding agent.
Into one package. The bonding of fibers in a single layer of material is called a web. Special adhesives,
binders, or thin slices of foam may be used as the marrying agent.
Bonding

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A process for adhesive laminating of two or more fabrics or fabric and a layer of plastic by means of a
bonding agent (adhesives, plastics or cohesion).
Boucle
A knit or woven fabric made from a rough, curly, knotted boucle yarn. The fabric has a looped, knotted
surface and is often used in sportswear and coats
Break
Point on the front edge of the garment at which the roll of the lapel begins. Usually at the same point as the
lower end of the bridle.
Breathability
The movement of water or water vapor from one side of the fabric to the other, caused by capillary action,
wicking, chemical, or electrostatic action. Also known as moisture transport.
Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial
An antimicrobial that effectively controls or kills at least 3 of the basic microorganism groups. This term is
important to help give a specific encompassing term to technologies that offer protection from the gamut of
microorganisms, without the sometimes vague nature of the term antimicrobial, which could mean kills just
one type or kills many types.
Broadcloth
A plain weave tightly woven fabric, characterized by a slight ridge effect in one direction, usually the filling.
The most common broadcloth is made from cotton or cotton/polyester blends.
Brocade
A heavy, exquisite jacquard type fabric with an all-over raised pattern or floral design. Common end-uses
include such formal applications as upholstery, draperies, and eveningwear.
Brushing
A finishing process for knit or woven fabrics in which brushes or other abrading devices are used on a
loosely constructed fabric to permit the fibers in the yarns to be raised to create a nap on fabrics or create a
novelty surface texture.

Bunting
Can be either a cotton or wool fabric, woven in a plain open weave, similar to cheesecloth, and dyed in the
piece. Cotton bunting is often woven with plied yarns. Wool bunting is woven with worsted yarns, using
strong, wiry wool.
Burlap

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A loosely constructed, heavy weight, plain weave fabric used as a carpet backing, and as inexpensive
packaging for sacks of grain or rice. Also, as fashion dictates, burlap may also appear as a drapery fabric.
Burn-out
A brocade-like pattern effect created on the fabric through the application of a chemical, instead of color,
during the burn-out printing process. (Sulfuric acid, mixed into a colorless print paste, is the most common
chemical used.) Many simulated eyelet effects can be created using this method. In these instances, the
chemical destroys the fiber and creates a hole in the fabric in a specific design, where the chemical comes in
contact with the fabric. The fabric is then over-printed with a simulated embroidery stitch to create the eyelet
effect. However, burn-out effects can also be created on velvets made of blended fibers, in which the ground
fabric is of one fiber like a polyester, and the pile may be of a cellulosic fiber like rayon or acetate. In this
case, when the chemical is printed in a certain pattern, it destroys the pile in those areas where the chemical
comes in contact with the fabric, but leaves the ground fabric unharmed.
Buttonhole (eyelet)
Formed by a contoured patch of zig-zag stitching, followed by a cut---a portion of which is circular. Eyelet
buttonholes are usually used on heavy fabrics and/or with large buttons. A gimp or cord is usually contained
within the stitches to provide reinforcement along the edge of the hole.
Buttonhole (straight)
Formed by two pairs of straight, parallel rows of zigzag stitching, followed by a single, straight knife cut.
Each end of the row of stitching is secured by a bartack.
Buttons
Specified by design, size, color, and type---such as brass, melamine, or pearl, buttons are either shanked
(attached by passing threads through the shank's eye) or holed (attached by passing threads through the
button's holes).
Bolt
An entire length of fabric, rolled full width on a tube


Border
A border is a gimp, but wider. This trim is sometimes woven in plain patterns, such as stripes or chevrons.
Boucle
A novelty yarn that is looped and crimped to produce a pebbly surfaceBrush Fringe A brush fringe is a cut
fringe that has a flat skirt made of thin yarns. The heading can vary from plain to a most elaborate gimp.
Bullion

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Fringe Bullion Fringe is made of plain or crepe cords, rather than yarns. The heading can be plain or
decorative.
Back Length
The dimension on a garment taken from the center collar attaching seam to the bottom of the garment, or in
the case of a coverall, to the top of the waistband.
Back Waist Length
The dimension on a body, taken from the top of the back bone at the base of the neck to the waistline.
Bactericide- Kills bacteria.
Bacteriostat
Doesn't necessarily mean that it kills bacteria. A stat means that it may simply be slowing growth or holding
the death to growth rates of bacteria (same for fungal stats) more or less in equilibrium. Inhibits bacteria
growth.
Ballistic
A thick woven fabric that is extremely abrasion resistant and tough; has a denier of about 2000, and is used
in apparel, packs and gear.BTextile Dictionary Band (Continuous/Grown-on)- Pant panels that extend to the
top of the pant and are folded over without an outside band. A separate inside band lining is sewn through
the pant and has an interlining.
Band (Pasted-on/Folder-set)
A separate band sewn on the pant with stitching that shows on the outside at the top and bottom.
Band (Rocap)
A separate band of body fabric sewn on and turned down so the attaching seam is not visible. Inside the
band is a separate lining---made from pcketing fabric---and interlining.

Barre
An imperfection, characterized by a ridge or mark running in the crosswise or lengthwise directions of the
fabric. Barrs can be caused by tension variations in the knitting process, poor quality yarns, problems
during the finishing process.
Bartack
To reinforce a seam with a bar of stitches that provides a more durable seam end. (Commonly used at points
of strain.)
Base Layer
The apparel in contact with your skin. The purpose of the base layer is to keep you warm/cool and dry.

23

Basket Weave
A variation of the plain weave construction, formed by treating two or more warp yarns and/or two or more
filling yarns as one unit in the weaving process. Yarns in a basket weave are laid into the woven
construction flat, and maintain a parallel relationship. Both balanced and unbalanced basket weave fabrics
can be produced. Examples of basket weave construction includes monk cloth and oxford cloth.Bast Fiber-
Strong, soft, woody fibers, such as flax, jute, hemp, and ramie, which are obtained from the inner bark in the
stems of certain plants.
Batiste
A medium-weight, plain weave fabric, usually made of cotton or cotton blends. End-uses include blouses
and dresses.
Bedford Cord
A cord cotton-like fabric with raised ridges in the lengthwise direction. Since the fabric has a high strength
and a high durability, it is often used for upholstery and work clothes.
Bicomponent Fiber
Manufactured fiber made of continuous filaments, and made of two related components, each with different
degrees of shrinkage. The result is a crimping of the filament, which makes the fiber stretchable.
Bleaching
A process of whitening fibers, yarns, or fabrics by removing the natural and artificial impurities to obtain
clear whites for finished fabric, or in preparation for dyeing and finishing. The materials may be treated with
chemicals or exposed to sun, air, and moisture.

Blend
A term applied to a yarn or a fabric that is made up of more than one fiber. In blended yarns, two or more
different types of staple fibers are twisted or spun together to form the yarn. Examples of a typical blended
yarn or fabric is polyester/cotton.
Bonding
The technique of permanently joining together two fabrics or layers of fabrics together by a bonding
agent.into one package. The bonding of fibers in a single layer of material is called a web. Special adhesives,
binders, or thin slices of foam may be used as the marrying agent.
Bonding
A process for adhesive laminating of two or more fabrics or fabric and a layer of plastic by means of a
bonding agent (adhesives, plastics or cohesion).
Boucle

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A knit or woven fabric made from a rough, curly, knotted boucle yarn. The fabric has a looped, knotted
surface and is often used in sportswear and coatsBreak- Point on the front edge of the garment at which the
roll of the lapel begins. Usually at the same point as the lower end of the bridle.Textile Dictionary
Breathability
The movement of water or water vapor from one side of the fabric to the other, caused by capillary action,
wicking, chemical, or electrostatic action. Also known as moisture transport.
Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial
An antimicrobial that effectively controls or kills at least 3 of the basic microorganism groups. This term is
important to help give a specific encompassing term to technologies that offer protection from the gamut of
microorganisms, without the sometimes vague nature of the term antimicrobial, which could mean kills just
one type or kills many types.
Burn-out
A brocade-like pattern effect created on the fabric through the application of a chemical, instead of color,
during the burn-out printing process. (Sulfuric acid, mixed into a colorless print paste, is the most common
chemical used.) Many simulated eyelet effects can be created using this method. In these instances, the
chemical destroys the fiber and creates a hole in the fabric in a specific design, where the chemical comes in
contact with the fabric. The fabric is then over-printed with a simulated embroidery stitch to create the eyelet
effect. However, burn-out effects can also be created on velvets made of blended fibers, in which the ground
fabric is of one fiber like a polyester, and the pile may be of a cellulosic fiber like rayon or acetate. In this
case, when the chemical is printed in a certain pattern, it destroys the pile in those areas where the chemical
comes in contact with the fabric, but leave the ground fabric unharmed.

Collar (Banded)
The visible or panel portion of the collar is cut separately and attached to the neckband portion. This is
normal dress shirt construction.
Collar (convertible)
The panel or visible portion of the collar and the neckband portion are cut as one piece, but folded once
along the length to produce the appearance of a banded collar.
Collar (Lined)
A collar made by placing a piece of interlining between the two pieces of body fabric.
Collar (one piece)
A collar constructed from a single piece of fabric with the center fold forming the outer edge.
Collar (padding)

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Attaching the under-collar to canvas with several rows of blindstitching.
Collar (sandwich)
A collar which has the top-collar inserted between the canvas and the under-collar.
Collar (topstitched)
A collar with an added row of stitching along the folded edges.
Collar (two-piece)
A collar formed by joining two identical pieces, inverting and sometimes topstitching along the folded
edges.
Color Abrasion
Color changes in localized areas of a garment due to differential wear, such as the knees of blue jeans. Often
evident in cross-dye shades of blends where durable press treatments are applied. Color abrasion is often
called "frosting".

Colorfastness
A term used to describe a dyed fabric's ability to resist fading due to washing, exposure to sunlight, and
other environmental conditions.
Combing
The combing process is an additional step beyond carding. In this process the fibers are arranged in a highly
parallel form, and additional short fibers are removed, producing high quality yarns with excellent strength,
fineness, and uniformity.
Comfort Stretch
The term given to the freedom of movement experienced in the wearing of a garment that contains spandex,
or has stretch engineered into a yarn through mechanical stretch construction.
Commercial Standards
"Recorded voluntary standards of the trade." The U.S. Bureau of Standards issues Commercial Standards
which are not laws, but are important as accepted voluntary benchmarks of performance and quality by the
industry. These standards are usually referred to by number, and spell out test procedures and minimum
performance guidelines.
Composite Fabric
An engineered fabric made from two or more components. One component is often a strong fiber such as
fiberglass, Kevlar, or carbon fiber that gives the material its tensile strength, while another component
(often called a matrix) is often a resin, such as polyester or epoxy that binds the fibers together.

26

Compression Fabric
A high tenacity stretch fabric which, when in a close fitting garment, provides muscles with a firm
compression fit that lessons vibrations, reduces fatigue, and keeps muscles energized. The fabric is usually
made in a knit construction, using a series of gradient fibers with an open knit inner surface to create a
moisture transfer environment.
Compression Stretch
The name given to the expansive stretch that is created by the spandex fibers used in the development of a
compression fabric.
Calendared
The term used to describe a fabric which has been passed through rollers to smooth and flatten it or confer
surface glaze.

Canvas
A plain weave usually made from cotton or linen.
Capillary action: A process in which liquids move along interstices between fibres. These may be
manufactured with a special cross-section to enhance the process.
Carbon Fibre
A man-made fibre containing at least 90% of carbon obtained by controlled pyrolysis of appropriate fibres
Carbonization
A chemical process for eliminating vegetable matter from animal fibres such as wool by degrading it to an
easily friable (readily crumbled) condition. The process usually involves treatment with an acid followed by
heating. Hydrochloric acid gas is used
Carded
Description of a continuous web or sliver produced by carding
Carding
The disentanglement, cleaning and intermixing of fibres to produce a continuous web or sliver suitable for
subsequent processing. This is achieved by passing the fibres between moving pins, wires or teeth
Cavalry Twill
A firm warp-faced cloth, woven to produce a steep twill effect.

Cellophane Effect
An effect created in a fabric which gives it the iridescent appearance of cellophane.

27

Cellulosic Fibres
Fibres made or chemically derived from a naturally occurring cellulose raw material
Chafer Fabric
A fabric coated with vulcanized rubber which is wrapped around the bead section of a tyre before
vulcanization of the complete tyre. Its purpose is to maintain an abrasion-resistant layer of rubber in contact
with the wheel on which the tyre is mounted.
Chainette
A tubular cord produced on a circular knitting machine.


Challis
A lightweight plain-weave fabric, made from cotton or wool, usually with a printed design.
Chambray
A cotton shirting fabric woven with a colored warp and white weft. Cheesecloth: An open lightweight plain-
weave fabric usually made from carded cotton yarns.
Chenille
A yarn consisting of a cut pile which may be one or more of a variety of fibres helically positioned around
axial threads that secure it. Gives a thick, soft tufty silk or worsted velvet cord or yarn typically used in
embroidery and for trimmings.
Chiffon
A very light, transparent fabric in a plain weave.
Chintz
A glazed, printed, plain-weave fabric, usually made of cotton.
Circular Jersey
Fabric produced on circular knitting machines
Cloque
A compound or double fabric with a figured blister effect, produced by using yarns of different character or
twist which respond in different ways to finishing treatments.
Color way

28

One of several different combinations of colors in which a given pattern is printed on items such as fabrics
and wallpapers.
Commingled Yarn
A yarn consisting of two or more individual yarns that have been combined, usually by means of air jets.
Condenser Card
A roller-and-clearer type of card, as distinct from a flat card, which converts fibrous raw materials to
slubbings by means of a condenser spun yarn: Yarn spun from slubbing.


Conjugate Fibre
A bicomponent or biconstituent fibre produced by extruding two different polymers through the same orifice
Cord
A term used to describe the way in which textile strands have been twisted, such as in cabled or plied yarns.
Corduroy
A cut weft pile fabric in which the cut fibres form a surface of cords or ribs in the warp direction.
Core-Spun Yarn
A yarn consisting of an inner core yarn surrounded by staple fibres. A core spun yarn combines the strength
and/or elongation of the core thread and the characteristics of the staple fibres which form the surface.
Count
A measure of linear density
Cover Factor (Knitted Fabrics)
A number that indicates the extent to which the area of a knitted fabric is covered by yarn. It is also an
indication of the relative looseness or tightness of the knitting
Cover Factor (Woven Fabrics)
A number that indicates the extent to which the area of a fabric is covered by one set of threads. For any
woven fabric, there are two cover factors: a warp cover factor and a weft cover factor. Under the cotton
system, the cover factor is the ratio of the number of threads per inch to the square root of the cotton yarn
count.
Crease-Resist Finish

29

A finish, usually applied to fabrics made from cotton or other cellulosic fibres or their blends, which
improves the crease recovery and smooth-drying properties of a fabric. In the process used most commonly,
the fabric is impregnated with a solution of a reagent which penetrates the fibres and, after drying and
curing, cross-links the fibre structure under the influence of a catalyst and heat. The crease-resistant effect is
durable to washing and to normal use.
Crepe
A fabric characterized by a crinkled or puckered surface. Crimp: The waviness of a fibre or filament.

Crock
A measure of the resistance of a fabric to the loss of color due to rubbing or abrasion. Cross-dyeing: The
dyeing of a yarn or fabric containing a mixture of fibres, at least one of which is colored separately.
Cupro
A type of cellulosic fibre obtained by the cuprammonium process.
Curing (Chemical Finishing)
A process carried out after the application of a finish to a textile fabric in which appropriate conditions are
used to effect a chemical reaction. Usually, the fabric is heat treated for several minutes. However, it may be
subject to higher temperatures for short times (flash curing) or to low temperatures for longer periods and at
higher regain (moist curing).
Cut and Sew
A system of manufacturing in which shaped pieces are cut from a layer of fabric and stitched together to
form garments. In the case of tubular knitted fabric, the cloth is either cut down one side and opened up into
a flat fabric or left as a tube and cut to shape.
Chenille
From the French word for caterpillar, is actually a type of woven yarn which has a pile giving it a fluffy
face. Used in various types of decorative fabrics and tassels, and used to describe a fabric woven from
chenille yarns. The yarn can be of silk, wool, cotton or rayon.
Chintz
A glazed cotton fabric usually with a printed design and originally from India.
Corduroy
From the French word "cloth of kings," a strong and durable upholstery weight cut pile fabric usually made
of cotton or rayon with narrow to wide ridges in the pile running vertically.
Crepe

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A term used to describe a variety of lightweight fabric in various fibers and blends characterized by their
puckered surface obtained by highly twisting either the yarn, or chemical treatments or weave construction.



Calendaring
A process for finishing fabrics in which such special effects as high luster, glazing, embossing, and moir
are produced.
Calico
A tightly-woven cotton type fabric with an all-over print, usually a small floral pattern on a contrasting
background color. Common end-uses include dresses, aprons, and quilts.
Camel's Hair
A natural fiber obtained from the hair of the Bactrian camel, a two-humped pack-carrying species. The fiber
is used primarily in coats, sweaters, and suits.
Canvas
Cotton, linen, or synthetic fabric made with a basic plain weave in heavy and firm weight yarns for
industrial or heavy duty purposes. Also referred to as "duck", although the term "canvas" usually relates to
the heavier, coarser constructions.
Capillary Action
A process by which liquids are drawn through the fabric and into pores found between fibers and yarns.

Carding
A process which eliminates fibers too short for inclusion in the spun yarn. The process also removes dirt and
foreign matter still remaining in the fiber mass, and arranges the fibers into a very thin layer.


Cashmere
A luxury fiber obtained from the soft fleecy undergrowth of the Kashmir goat of Tibet, Mongolia, China,
Iran, Iraq, and India. Most commonly used in sweaters, shawls, suits, coats, and dresses.
Cellulose
A material derived from the cell walls of certain plants. Cellulose is used in the production of many
vegetable fibers, as well as being the major raw material component used in the production of the
manufactured fibers of acetate, rayon, and triacetate.

31


Challis
A lightweight, soft plain weave fabric with a slightly brushed surface. The fabric is often printed, usually in
a floral pattern. Challis is most often seen in fabrics made of cotton, wool, or rayon.
Chambray
A plain woven fabric that can be made from cotton, silk, or manufactured fibers, but is most commonly
cotton. It incorporates a colored warp (often blue) and white filling yarns.
Chenille - 1
A specialty yarn, characterized by a pile protruding on all sides, resembling a caterpillar. The yarn is
produced by first weaving a fabric with a cotton or linen warp and a silk, wool, rayon, or cotton filling. The
warp yarns are taped in groups of tightly woven filling yarns, which have been beaten in very closely. After
weaving, the fabric is cut into strips between the yarn groups. Each cutting produces a continuous chenille
yarn, which is then twisted, creating the chenille yarn, and giving the pile appearance on all sides of the
yarn. The chenille yarn is used mainly for decorative fabrics, embroidery, tassels, and rugs. 2. A fabric
woven from the chenille yarn.
Chiffon
A plain woven lightweight, extremely sheer, airy, and soft silk fabric, containing highly twisted filament
yarns. The fabric, used mainly in evening dresses and scarves, can also be made from rayon and other
manufactured fibers.
Chino
Classic all-cotton "Army twill" fabric made of combed two-ply yarns. Usually vat dyed, mercerized, and
given a compressive shrinkage finish. Used traditionally for army uniforms, chino is now finding popularity
sportswear and work clothes.
Chintz
Glazed plain weave cotton fabric with a tightly spun fine warp and a coarser slack twist filling, often printed
with brightly colored flowers or stripes. Named from Hindu word meaning spotted. Several types of glazes
are used in the finishing process. Some glazes wash out in laundering, but others such as resin finishes are
permanent. Unglazed chintz is called cretonne. Chintz end-uses include draperies, slipcovers, skirts, and
summer dresses, and shirts.
Chintz
A plain-weave fabric, which has been glazed to produce a polished look. Usually made of cotton, this fabric
is most commonly used in blouses, dresses, draperies, and slipcovers.

Chlorinated Wool

32

Wool in the fiber, yarn, or fabric form which are treated chemically to decrease felting shrinkage and
increase ability to take dyes.
Circular Knit
Weft knit fabric made on a circular needle-bed knitting machine, which produces fabric in tubular form.
Common types include single or double knits. Seamless hosiery are also made on a circular knitting
machine. Although allowances are made on the machine for knitting the welt and foot. See Knitting
(Circular).
Cleaning
Hand operation in which the basting threads are removed from the garment; usually done prior to the final
pressing
Clo Value
A unit of thermal resistance. The insulation required to produce the necessary heat to keep an individual
comfortable at 21 degrees Centigrade with air movement at .1 m/s. One clo is about equal to the insulation
value of typical indoor clothing.
Closures
Items used to close openings in apparel and other consumer textile products, i.e. buttons, buckles, hook and
eye, snaps and zippers.
Coated Fabrics
Fabrics that have been coated with a lacquer, varnish, rubber, plastic resin of polyvinyl chloride or
polyethylene, or other substance to make them longer lasting or impervious to water or other liquids.
Collar
Two or more thicknesses of fabric attached to the neckhole opening to provide a firm and neat-appearing
finish.
Continuous Cure
A method of curing durable press garments which uses a moving conveyor system to carry garments into
and out of the curing oven. Also known as continuous oven.
Continuous Filament
A long continuous, unbroken strand of fiber extruded from a spinneret in the form of a monofilament. Most
manufactured fibers such as nylon, polyester, rayon, and acetate are made in continuous filament form.

Converter

33

A person or a company which buys grey goods and sells them as finished fabrics. A converter organizes and
manages the process of finishing the fabric to a buyer specification, particularly the bleaching, dyeing,
printing, etc.
Converter
A person or a company which buys grey goods and sells them as finished fabrics. A converter organizes and
manages the process of finishing the fabric to a buyer specification, particularly the bleaching, dyeing,
printing, etc.
Corduroy
A fabric usually made of cotton, utilizing a cut-pile weave construction. Extra sets of filling yarns are woven
into the fabric to form ridges of yarn on the surface. The ridges are built so that clear lines can be seen when
the pile is cut.
Core Yarn
A yarn in which one type of fiber is twisted or wrapped around another fiber that serves as a core. Core
yarns are often used to make stretch fabrics where the core is spandex or rubber, and the outer wrapped fiber
is a textured manufactured fiber such as polyester or nylon.
Core-Spun Yarns
Consist of a filament base yarn, with an exterior wrapping of loose fiber which has not been twisted into a
yarn. Polyester filament is often wrapped with a cotton outer layer in order to provide the strength and
resiliency of polyester, along with the moisture-absorbent aesthetics and dye affinity of cotton. Sewing
thread as well as household and apparel fabrics are made from these yarns.
Cotton
A unicellular, natural fiber that grows in the seed pod of the cotton plant. Fibers are typically 1/2 inch to 2
inches long. The longest staple fibers, longer than 1 1/2 inch, including the Pima and Egyptian varieties,
produce the highest quality cotton fabrics.
Count of Cloth
The number of warp ends and picks per inch in a woven fabric. If a cloth is 68 X 72, it means there are 68
ends and 72 picks per inch in a woven fabric. A cloth that has the same number of ends and picks per inch in
woven goods is called a square cloth. 80-square percale, for example, has 80 warp ends and 80 picks per
inch.
Course
The rows of loops or stitches running across a knitted fabric. Corresponds to the weft or filling in woven
goods.

Crabbing
A treatment used to set the cloth and yarn twists permanently in woolens and worsted goods.

34

Crease Resistant Finish
Also referred to as CRF. Finishes used on fabrics that make them resistant to wrinkling and creasing, such as
synthetic resin type finishes like durable press. Today some fabrics are made highly resistant to wrinkling
through fiber blending and construction.
Crease Retention
The ability of a cloth to hold or pleat or a crease, which has been intentionally created, through the use of a
heat treatment. Heat setting of thermoplastic fibers causes creases to be permanently set.
Crepe-back Satin
A satin fabric in which highly twisted yarns are used in the filling direction. The floating yarns are made
with low twist and may be of either high or low luster. If the crepe effect is the right side of the fabric, the
fabric is called satin-back crepe.
Crinoline
A lightweight, plain weave, stiffened fabric with a low yarn count (few yarns to the inch in each direction).
Crocking
The rubbing-off of dye from a fabric. Crocking can be the result of lack of penetration of the dyeing agent,
the use of incorrect dyes or dyeing procedures, or the lack of proper washing procedures and finishing
treatments after the dyeing process.
Crocking
The tendency of excess dyes to rub off. Napped and pile fabrics in deep colors are most likely to crock.
Industry has set standards and tests to measure and prevent crocking.
Crotch Seam
The short seams from the back of the pants fly to the inseam.
Cuff (lined)
A cuff with interlining placed between the two pieces of body fabric.


Cuff (one-piece)
A two-ply cuff formed by folding over a single piece of fabric, usually with a lining in between.
Cuff (topstitched)
A cuff with an added row of stitching along the folded edges.

35

Cuff (two-piece)
A cuff in which two identical pieces of fabric, usually with a lining in between, are joined by a seam along
the edge, then turned and sometimes topstitched near the folded edges.
Cuprammonium
A process of producing a type of regenerated rayon fiber. In this process, the wood pulp or cotton liners are
dissolved in an ammoniac copper oxide solution. Bemberg rayon is a type of Cuprammonium rayon.
Curing
A baking process with the use of resin finishes, applying heat under carefully controlled conditions to a
fabric or the garment, which cause a reaction in the finishing agents and make them work. Crease-retention,
water repellency, wrinkle resistance, and durable press are examples of finishes that are cured.
Cut-on-cross
Fabric that is cut so that the warp runs horizontally across the garment piece.
Cashmere
A fine fiber obtained from the undercoat of the Himalayan Cashmere goat
Chenille
Derived from the French word for "caterpillar". A special yarn with pile protruding on all sides, produced by
first weaving a fabric, usually with cotton or linen warp and silk, wool, rayon or cotton weft; the warps are
taped in groups of four and the wefts are beaten in very closely; after weaving, the fabric is cut lengthwise
between each of these groups of warp yarns, each cutting producing a continuous chenille which is then
twisted.
Chiffon
Plain weave, soft, sheer fabric - often silk or rayon yarns




Chintz

A cotton fabric, with or without a printed pattern, with a glaze created by applying resin and calendaring
Collage
A term used to describe the style of a product where more than two different fabrics are being used.
Cord
Cords consist of plied yarns (plies) that have been twisted together. When used for a seam a tape is sewn
onto the edge of the cord. Cords are frequently used in place of fabric welting.

36

Corduroy
A cut-pile fabric, usually cotton, in which the ribbed pile is produced with a supplementary weft yarn.
Cotton
A natural cellulosic seed-hair fiber, obtained from the seed pod of the cotton plant. First known in India
about 3000 B.C.
Crewel
A hand embroidery technique from Kashmir in which fine, loosely twisted two-ply yarn is chain stitched on
cotton cloth. Imperfections, color variations, irregularities, natural black specks, dye marks and dirt spots are
characteristics that label it as genuine. These fabrics are hand woven by natives in India and the beauty of
the cloth is in its natural, homespun appearance.
Crushed
Fabrics which are treated with heat, moisture and pressure in finishing to distort pile formation
Cut pile
A fabric in which the pile is cut rather than looped, creating a velvet effect.
Cut yardage
A fabric or trimming ordered to a specific measurement, as opposed to purchasing by the piece
Camel's Hair
A natural fiber obtained from the hair of the Bactrian camel, a two-humped pack-carrying species. The fiber
is used primarily in coats, sweaters, and suits.
Canvas
Cotton, linen, or synthetic fabric made with a basic plain weave in heavy and firm weight yarns for
industrial or heavy duty purposes. Also referred to as "duck", although the term "canvas" usually relates to
the heavier, coarser constructions.
Capillary Action
A process by which liquids are drawn through the fabric and into pores found between fibers and yarns.
Carding- A process which eliminates fibers too short for inclusion in the spun yarn. The process also
removes dirt and foreign matter still remaining in the fiber mass, and arranges the fibers into a very thin
layer.
Cashmere
A luxury fiber obtained from the soft fleecy undergrowth of the Kashmir goat of Tibet, Mongolia, China,
Iran, Iraq, and India. Most commonly used in sweaters, shawls, suits, coats, and dresses.
Cellulose

37

A material derived from the cell walls of certain plants. Cellulose is used in the production of many
vegetable fibers, as well as being the major raw material component used in the production of the
manufactured fibers of acetate, rayon, and triacetate.
Challis
A lightweight, soft plain weave fabric with a slightly brushed surface. The fabric is often printed, usually in
a floral pattern. Challis is most often seen in fabrics made of cotton, wool, or rayon.
Chambray
A plain woven fabric that can be made from cotton, silk, or manufactured fibers, but is most commonly
cotton. It incorporates a colored warp (often blue) and white filling yarns.
Chenille- 1
A specialty yarn, characterized by a pile protruding on all sides, resembling a caterpillar. The yarn is
produced by first weaving a fabric with a cotton or linen warp and a silk, wool, rayon, or cotton filling. The
warp yarns are taped in groups of tightly woven filling yarns, which have been beaten in very closely. After
weaving, the fabric is cut into strips between the yarn groups. Each cutting produces a continuous chenille
yarn, which is then twisted, creating the chenille yarn, and giving the pile appearance on all sides of the
yarn. The chenille yarn is used mainly for decorative fabrics, embroidery, tassels, and rugs. 2. A fabric
woven from the chenille yarn.


Chiffon
A plain woven lightweight, extremely sheer, airy, and soft silk fabric, containing highly twisted filament
yarns. The fabric, used mainly in evening dresses and scarves, can also be made from rayon and other
manufactured fibers.
Chino
Classic all-cotton "Army twill" fabric made of combed two-ply yarns. Usually vat dyed, mercerized, and
given a compressive shrinkage finish. Used traditionally for army uniforms, chino is now finding popularity
sportswear and work clothes.
Chintz
Glazed plain weave cotton fabric with a tightly spun fine warp and a coarser slack twist filling, often printed
with brightly colored flowers or stripes. Named from Hindu word meaning spotted. Several types of glazes
are used in the finishing process. Some glazes wash out in laundering, but others such as resin finishes are
permanent. Unglazed chintz is called cretonne. Chintz end-uses include draperies, slipcovers, skirts, and
summer dresses, and shirts.
Chintz
A plain-weave fabric, which has been glazed to produce a polished look. Usually made of cotton, this fabric
is most commonly used in blouses, dresses, draperies, and slipcovers.

38

Chlorinated Wool
Wool in the fiber, yarn, or fabric form which are treated chemically to decrease felting shrinkage and
increase ability to take dyes. Circular Knit- Weft knit fabric made on a circular needle-bed knitting machine,
which produces fabric in tubular form. Common types include single or double knits. Seamless hosiery is
also made on a circular knitting machine. Although allowances are made on the machine for knitting the
welt and foot. See Knitting (Circular).
Cleaning
Hand operation in which the basting threads are removed from the garment; usually done prior to the final
pressing.
Clo Value
A unit of thermal resistance. The insulation required to produce the necessary heat to keep an individual
comfortable at 21 degrees Centigrade with air movement at .1 m/s. One clo is about equal to the insulation
value of typical indoor clothing. Closures- Items used to close openings in apparel and other consumer
textile products, i.e. buttons, buckles, hook and eye, snaps and zippers.


Collar
Two or more thicknesses of fabric attached to the neck hole opening to provide a firm and neat-appearing
finish. Collar (Banded)- The visible or panel portion of the collar is cut separately and attached to the
neckband portion. This is normal dress shirt construction.
Collar
The panel or visible portion of the collar and the neckband portion are cut as one piece, but folded once
along the length to produce the appearance of a banded collar.
Collar (Lined)
A collar made by placing a piece of interlining between the two pieces of body fabric.
Collar
A collar constructed from a single piece of fabric with the center fold forming the outer edge. Collar
(padding)- Attaching the under-collar to canvas with several rows of blind stitching.
Collar (sandwich)
A collar which has the top-collar inserted between the canvas and the under-collar.
Collar (topstitched)
A collar with an added row of stitching along the folded edges.

39

Collar (two-piece)
A collar formed by joining two identical pieces, inverting and sometimes topstitching along the folded
edges.
Color Abrasion
Color changes in localized areas of a garment due to differential wear, such as the knees of blue jeans. Often
evident in cross-dye shades of blends where durable press treatments are applied. Color abrasion is often
called "frosting".
Colorfastness
A term used to describe a dyed fabric's ability to resist fading due to washing, exposure to sunlight, and
other environmental conditions.
Combing
The combing process is an additional step beyond carding. In this process the fibers are arranged in a highly
parallel form, and additional short fibers are removed, producing high quality yarns with excellent strength,
fineness, and uniformity.
Comfort Stretch
The term given to the freedom of movement experienced in the wearing of a garment that contains spandex,
or has stretch engineered into a yarn through mechanical stretch construction. Commercial Standards-
"Recorded voluntary standards of the trade." The U.S. Bureau of Standards issues Commercial Standards
which are not laws, but are important as accepted voluntary benchmarks of performance and quality by the
industry. These standards are usually referred to by number, and spell out test procedures and minimum
performance guidelines.
Composite Fabric
An engineered fabric made from two or more components. One component is often a strong fiber such as
fiberglass, Kevlar, or carbon fiber that gives the material its tensile strength, while another component
(often called a matrix) is often a resin, such as polyester or epoxy that binds the fibers together.
Compression Fabric
A high tenacity stretch fabric which, when in a close fitting garment, provides muscles with a firm
compression fit that lessons vibrations, reduces fatigue, and keeps muscles energized. The fabric is usually
made in a knit construction, using a series of gradient fibers with an open knit inner surface to create a
moisture transfer environment.
Compression Stretch
The name given to the expansive stretch that is created by the spandex fibers used in the development of a
compression fabric.
Continuous Cure

40

A method of curing durable press garments which uses a moving conveyor system to carry garments into
and out of the curing oven. Also known as continuous oven.
Continuous Filament
A long continuous, unbroken strand of fiber extruded from a spinneret in the form of a monofilament. Most
manufactured fibers such as nylon, polyester, rayon, and acetate are made in continuous filament form.
Converter
A person or a company which buys grey goods and sells them as finished fabrics. A converter organizes and
manages the process of finishing the fabric to a buyers' specifications, particularly the bleaching, dyeing,
printing, etc.
Converter
A person or a company which buys grey goods and sells them as finished fabrics. A converter organizes and
manages the process of finishing the fabric to a buyers' specifications, particularly the bleaching, dyeing,
printing, etc.
Corduroy
A fabric usually made of cotton, utilizing a cut-pile weave construction. Extra sets of filling yarns are woven
into the fabric to form ridges of yarn on the surface. The ridges are built so that clear lines can be seen when
the pile is cut
Core Yarn
A yarn in which one type of fiber is twisted or wrapped around another fiber that serves as a core. Core
yarns are often used to make stretch fabrics where the core is spandex or rubber, and the outer wrapped fiber
is a textured manufactured fiber such as polyester or nylon.
Core
Spun Yarns- Consist of a filament base yarn, with an exterior wrapping of loose fiber which has not been
twisted into a yarn. Polyester filament is often wrapped with a cotton outer layer in order to provide the
strength and resiliency of polyester, along with the moisture-absorbent aesthetics and dye affinity of cotton.
Sewing thread as well as household and apparel fabrics are made from these yarns.
Cotton
A unicellular, natural fiber that grows in the seed pod of the cotton plant. Fibers are typically 1/2 inch to 2
inches long. The longest staple fibers, longer than 1 1/2 inch, including the Pima and Egyptian varieties,
produce the highest quality cotton fabrics.
Count of Cloth
The number of warp ends and picks per inch in a woven fabric. If a cloth is 68 X 72, it means there are 68
ends and 72 picks per inch in a woven fabric. A cloth that has the same number of ends and picks per inch in
woven goods is called a square cloth. 80-square percale, for example, has 80 warp ends and 80 picks per
inch.

41

Course
The rows of loops or stitches running across a knitted fabric. Corresponds to the weft or filling in woven
goods.
Crabbing
A treatment used to set the cloth and yarn twists permanently in woolens and worsted goods. Crease
Resistant Finish- Also referred to as CRF. Finishes used on fabrics that make them resistant to wrinkling and
creasing, such as synthetic resin type finishes like durable press. Today some fabrics are made highly
resistant to wrinkling through fiber blending and construction.
Crease Retention
The ability of a cloth to hold or pleat or a crease, which has been intentionally created, through the use of a
heat treatment. Heat setting of thermoplastic fibers causes creases to be permanently set.
Crepe-back Satin
A satin fabric in which highly twisted yarns are used in the filling direction. The floating yarns are made
with low twist and may be of either high or low luster. If the crepe effect is the right side of the fabric, the
fabric is called satin-back crepe.
Crinoline
A lightweight, plain weave, stiffened fabric with a low yarn count (few yarns to the inch in each direction).
Crocking
The rubbing-off of dye from a fabric. Crocking can be the result of lack of penetration of the dyeing agent,
the use of incorrect dyes or dyeing procedures, or the lack of proper washing procedures and finishing
treatments after the dyeing process.
Crocking
The tendency of excess dyes to rub off. Napped and pile fabrics in deep colors are most likely to crock.
Industry has set standards and tests to measure and prevent crocking.
Crotch Seam
The short seams from the back of the pants fly to the inseam.
Cuff (lined)
A cuff with interlining placed between the two pieces of body fabric.
Cuff (one-piece)
A two-ply cuff formed by folding over a single piece of fabric, usually with a lining in between.
Cuff (topstitched)

42

A cuff with an added row of stitching along the folded edges.
Cuff (two-piece)-
A cuff in which two identical pieces of fabric, usually with a lining in between, are joined by a seam along
the edge, then turned and sometimes topstitched near the folded edges.
Cuprammonium
A process of producing a type of regenerated rayon fiber. In this process, the wood pulp or cotton liners are
dissolved in an ammoniac copper oxide solution. Bamberg rayon is a type of Cuprammonium rayon.
Curing
A baking process with the use of resin finishes, applying heat under carefully controlled conditions to a
fabric or the garment, which cause a reaction in the finishing agents and make them work. Crease-retention,
water repellency, wrinkle resistance, and durable press are examples of finishes that are cured.

Damask
A figured woven fabric in which the design is created by the use of satin and sateen weaves.
Decitex
A unit of the Tex system. A measure of linear density; the weight in grams of 10,000 meters of yarn.
Denier
A measure of linear density; the weight in grams of 9,000 meters of yarn.
Denim
A 3/1 warp-faced twill fabric made from a yarn-dyed warp and an undyed weft yarn. Traditionally, the warp
yarn was indigo-dyed.
Dent
The space between adjacent wires in a reed.
Dip Dyeing
A process in which a garment is dipped into a dye bath to achieve dye take-up only in those areas immersed.
Dobby

43

A mechanism for controlling the vertical position of heald shafts on a loom, so as to selectively raise some
warp threads while leaving others depressed. The use of a dobby facilitates the weaving of a fabric which
has a more complex structure.
Dogstooth or Houndstooth Check
A small color and weave effect using a 2/2 twill.

Donegal
A tweed yarn or fabric with different color naps.
Doupion
A fabric made of irregular, raw, rough silk reeled from double cocoons, or a man-made fibre substitute
designed to imitate the silk equivalent.
Drafting
A process which reduces the linear density of an assembly of fibres. Drafting typically occurs in the early
stages of producing yarns from staple fibres. Draw spinning: A process for spinning partially or highly
oriented filaments in which the orientation is introduced after melt spinning but prior to the first forwarding
or collecting device.
Draw Twist
A process of orienting a filament yarn by drawing it and then twisting it in integrated sequential stages Drill:
A twill fabric, usually piece-dyed, similar in construction to denim.
Dry Spinning
In the dry spinning process, polymer is dissolved in a solvent before being spun into warm air where the
solvent evaporates. This leaves the fibrous polymer ready for drawing.
Dye Liquor
The liquid that contains the dye and the reagents necessary for dyeing.
Damask
A classic that has remained unchanged for years, a damask is a fabric with a woven pattern similar to
brocade but flatter and reversible. Usually woven in one color, the weave used for the background differs
than the weave of the pattern and is made visible by the effect of light striking the contrasting satin and
matte surface areas. Originally made of silk, damasks are now made of linen, cotton, rayon and wool or a
combination of any two.
Denim
A very serviceable and heavy cotton twill, and easily recognized by the traditional indigo blue.

44

Damask
A glossy jacquard fabric, usually made from linen, cotton, rayon, silk, or blends. The patterns are flat and
reversible. The fabric is often used in napkins, tablecloths, draperies, and upholstery.
Dart (cut-in)
An open dart cut in approximately 12" under the armhole.
Dart (front or double)
An additional closed dart located toward the front edge of the garment, used to get maximum waist
suppression.
Dart (panel)
A panel sewn full length to the front that is used for waist suppression.
Denier
A system of measuring the weight of a continuous filament fiber. In the United States, this measurement is
used to number all manufactured fibers (both filament and staple), and silk, but excluding glass fiber. The
lower the number, the finer the fiber; the higher the number, the heavier the fiber. Numerically, a denier is
the equivalent to the weight in grams of 9,000 meters of continuous filament fiber.
Denier per Filament
The size of an individual filament, or an individual staple fiber if it were continuous, The dpf is determined
by dividing the yarn denier per filament by the number of filaments in the yarn.
Denim
True denim is a twill weave cotton-like fabric made with different colored yarns in the warp and the weft. In
the weaving process, the two layers of woven fabric are held together using binder threads. The woven
patterns in each layer of fabric can be similar or completely different
Double Knit
A weft knit fabric in which two layers of loops are formed that cannot be separated. A double knit machine,
which has two complete sets of needles, is required for this construction. both sides. Today, most double
knits are made of I5O denier polyester, although many lightweight versions are now being made using finer
denier yarns and blends of filament and spun yarns.
Double Weave
A woven fabric construction made by interlacing two or more sets of warp yarns with two or more sets of
filling yarns. The most common double weave fabrics are made using a total of either four or five sets of
yarns.
Down

45

The soft, fluffy fiber or under feathers of ducks, geese, or other water fowl. Used primarily for insulation in
outerwear garments.
Duck
A tightly woven, heavy, plain-weave, bottom-weight fabric with a hard, durable finish. The fabric is usually
made of cotton, and is widely used in men's and women's slacks, and children's play clothes.
Durability
The ability of a fabric to resist wear through continual use.
Durable Press
A treatment applied to the fabric in the finishing process in which it maintains a smooth attractive
appearance, resists wrinkling, and retains creases or pleats during laundering.
Durable Water Repellent (DWR)
Fabrics that retain their durability and their ability to repel water after wearing, washing, and cleaning.
Typically involves a fabric with a coating

Dye (Piece)
Dyeing of the fabric into solid colors after weaving or knitting.
Dye (Yarn)
Dyeing of the yarn into solid colors before weaving or knitting.
Damask
Originally a rich silk fabric with woven floral designs made in China and introduced into Europe through
Damascus, from which it derived its name. Typically, damasks are woven with a single beam (warp) with
one or two weft colors. The fancy damasks reveal the smooth warp satin in the background with the low
luster reverse sating in the motif. In two color damasks the colors reverse on either side. Single damask is
made with a five-harness satin weave; the true or double or reverse damask, is woven with an eight-harness
satin weave and has a firm hand
Denim
Yarn-dyed cotton cloth woven in a warp-faced twill, usually with a dyed warp and a natural weft
Density
A standard measurement of thickness in fabric weight. Yarn size, amount of warp ends and weft picks
determine the density

Doupione

46

An irregular, slub silk reeled from double cocoons or silk worms which have spun their cocoons side by side
causing an interlock, making it necessary to reel them together. Antique taffetas and sheers are woven with
doupioni weft yarn, as are many damasks
Duck
A broad term for a wide range of plain weave fabrics, duck is usually made of cotton, although sometimes
linen is used. The terms canvas and duck are often interchangeable, but "canvas" often is used to refer to the
heavier constructions. The term "duck" had its origins before the mid 19th Century when all canvas for sails
were imported. The light flax sail fabrics imported mostly from England and Scotland bore the trademark
stencil of a raven while the weights bore the trademark picturing a duck. The word "duck" became
associated with a heavy fabric and was applied to cotton canvas when it was first manufactured in the U.S.
Damask
A glossy jacquard fabric, usually made from linen, cotton, rayon, silk, or blends. The patterns are flat and
reversible. The fabric is often used in napkins, tablecloths, draperies, and upholstery.
Dart (cut-in)
An open dart cut in approximately 12" under the armhole
Dart (front or double)
An additional closed dart located toward the front edge of the garment, used to get maximum waist
suppression.
Dart (panel)
A panel sewn full length to the front that is used for waist suppression.
Denier
A system of measuring the weight of a continuous filament fiber. In the United States, this measurement is
used to number all manufactured fibers (both filament and staple), and silk, but excluding glass fiber. The
lower the number, the finer the fiber; the higher the number, the heavier the fiber. Numerically, a denier is
the equivalent to the weight in grams of 9,000 meters of continuous filament fiber.
Denier Per Filament
The size of an individual filament, or an individual staple fiber if it were continuous, the dpf is determined
by dividing the yarn denier per filament by the number of filaments in the yarn.

Denim
True denim is a twill weave cotton-like fabric made with different colored yarns in the warp and the weft.
Due to the twill construction, one color predominates on the fabric surface.
Dobby Weave

47

A decorative weave, characterized by small figures, usually geometric, that are woven into the fabric
structure. Dobbies may be of any weight or compactness, with yarns ranging from very fine to coarse and
fluffy. Standard dobby fabrics are usually flat and relatively fine or sheer. However, some heavyweight
dobby fabrics are available for home furnishings and for heavy apparel
Doeskin
Generally used to describe a type of fabric finish in which a low nap is brushed in one direction to create a
soft suede-like feel on the fabric surface. End-uses include billiard table surfaces and men's' sportswear.
Donegal Tweed
A medium to heavy, plain or twill weave fabric in which colorful yarn slubs are woven into the fabric. The
name originally applied to a hand-woven woolen tweed fabric made in Donegal, Ireland. End-uses include
winter coats and suits.
Dotted Swiss
A lightweight, sheer cotton or cotton blend fabric with a small dot flock-like pattern either printed on the
surface of the fabric, or woven into the fabric. End-uses for this fabric include blouses, dresses, baby clothes,
and curtains.
Double Cloth
A fabric construction, in which two fabrics are woven on the loom at the same time, one on top of the other.
In the weaving process, the two layers of woven fabric are held together using binder threads. The woven
patterns in each layer of fabric can be similar or completely different
Double Knit
A fabric knitted on a circular knitting machine using interlocking loops and a double stitch on a double
needle frame to form a fabric with double thickness. It is the same on both sides. Today, most double knits
are made of I5O denier polyester, although many lightweight versions are now being made using finer
denier yarns and blends of filament and spun yarns.
Double Knit
A weft knit fabric in which two layers of loops are formed that cannot be separated. A double knit machine,
which has two complete sets of needles, is required for this construction.
Double Weave
A woven fabric construction made by interlacing two or more sets of warp yarns with two or more sets of
filling yarns. The most common double weave fabrics are made using a total of either four or five sets of
yarns.
Down
The soft, fluffy fiber or underfeathers of ducks, geese, or other water fowl. Used primarily for insulation in
outerwear garments.
Duck

48

A tightly woven, heavy, plain-weave, bottom-weight fabric with a hard, durable finish. The fabric is usually
made of cotton, and is widely used in men's and women's slacks, and children's play clothes. Durability- The
ability of a fabric to resist wear through continual use.
Durable Press
A treatment applied to the fabric in the finishing process in which it maintains a smooth attractive
appearance, resists wrinkling, and retains creases or pleats during laundering.
Durable Water Repellent (DWR)
Fabrics that retain their durability and their ability to repel water after wearing, washing, and cleaning.
Typically involves a fabric with a coating
Dye (Piece)
Dyeing of the fabric into solid colors after weaving or knitting.
Dye (Yarn)
Dyeing of the yarn into solid colors before weaving or knitting.

Elastane
A man-made fibre containing at least 85% polyurethane which is capable of high stretch followed by rapid
and substantial recovery to its upstretched length.
Embossing
A process in which a pattern is formed in relief by passing fabric through a calendar in which a heated metal
bowl engraved with a pattern is compressed against a soft bowl.
Embroidery
A decorative pattern superimposed on an existing fabric by machine stitching or hand needlework.
Emerised
A fabric which has been passed over a series of emery-covered rollers to produce a suede-like finish.
Embroidery
The art of decorating fabric with yarn or thread and needle, this ornamental needlework can be done by hand
or on a machine.
Edge

49

The front margin of the garment that extends from front corner to front corner
Edge Tape
A tape sewn along the front edge of a coat from top of the lapel to bottom of the facing. On less expensive
coats, this tape starts at the bottom of the lapel (called the break line). The tape is usually sewn with an edge-
knife machine.
Elasticity
The ability of a fiber or fabric to return to its original length, shape, or size immediately after the removal of
stress.
Embossing
A calendaring process in which fabrics are engraved with the use of heated rollers under pressure to produce
a raised design on the fabric surface.
Embroidery
An embellishment of a fabric or garment in which colored threads are sewn on to the fabric to create a
design. Embroidery may be done either by hand or machine.
Encapsulation
A process in which the fibers of a fabric are coated with a filmy substance to create certain high
performance qualities, such as breathability.
Ergonomic Seaming
This apparel construction technology is aimed at maximizing comfort and ease of movement. The key
feature of this seaming technology is that the seams are constructed ergonomically. Therefore, the seams
flow according to the body's natural movements, regardless of the type of activity engaged in by the wearer.
The seams are placed away from potential pressure points, in order to maximize comfort and movement.
Ergonomics
The study of improving a garment design by enhancing the wearers' comfort, performance, or health.
Eyelet
A type of fabric which contains patterned cut-outs, around which stitching or embroidery may be applied in
order to prevent the fabric from raveling.
Embossing
A calendaring process which produces a raised design or pattern in relief. The design is pressed into fabric
or leather by passing it through hot engraved rollers; velvet or plush is embossed by shearing the pile to
different levels or by pressing parts flat.
Edge

50

The front margin of the garment that extends from front corner to front corner.
Edge Tape
A tape sewn along the front edge of a coat from top of the lapel to bottom of the facing. On less expensive
coats, this tape starts at the bottom of the lapel (called the break line). The tape is usually sewn with an edge-
knife machine.
Elasticity
The ability of a fiber or fabric to return to its original length, shape, or size immediately after the removal of
stress.
Embossing
A calendaring process in which fabrics are engraved with the use of heated rollers under pressure to produce
a raised design on the fabric surface.
Embroidery
An embellishment of a fabric or garment in which colored threads are sewn on to the fabric to create a
design. Embroidery may be done either by hand or machine.
Encapsulation
A process in which the fibers of a fabric are coated with a filmy substance to create certain high
performance qualities, such as breathability.


Ergonomic Seaming
This apparel construction technology is aimed at maximizing comfort and ease of movement. The key
feature of this seaming technology is that the seams are constructed ergonomically. Therefore, the seams
flow according to the body's natural movements, regardless of the type of activity engaged in by the wearer.
The seams are placed away from potential pressure points, in order to maximize comfort and movement.
Ergonomics
The study of improving a garment design by enhancing the wearers' comfort, performance, or health.
Eyelet
A type of fabric which contains patterned cut-outs, around which is stitching or embroidery may be applied
in order to prevent the fabric from raveling.



51

F
False Twist
The twist inserted in yarn using false twisting such that the net twist in the yarn is zero.
Fancy Yarn
A yarn which differs from the normal construction of single and folded yarns by way of deliberately
produced irregularities in its construction. These irregularities are formed by increasing the input of one or
more of the yarns components.
Fell (of the cloth)
The edge of the fabric in a weaving loom formed by the last weft thread.
Felting
The matting together of fibres during processing. This is achieved on animal hair or wool by the application
of moisture or heat, which causes the constituent fibres to mat together.
Fibre
A material used to make textiles which is flexible, fine, and has a high ratio of length to thickness.

Fibrefill
Staple fibres used for stuffing or padding quilts, upholstery and toys, etc.
Fibroin
A tough, elastic protein which forms the principal component of raw silk.
Fill Coupe
Extra, floating, wefts which are embodied in a fabric, particularly a jacquard, and can be cut to produce a
fringe effect.
Filament
A fibre of indefinite length. Flame resistant: a term used to describe fibres, yarns or fabrics which resist
burning.
Flame Retardant
A substance added or a treatment applied to a material in order to suppress, significantly reduce or delay the
propagation of flame

52

Flannel
Generally, a cotton or wool fabric, which has been napped on one or both sides (usually both) followed by a
bleaching, dyeing or printing process and then brushed or rerun through the napping machine to revive the
nap.
Flared Leg
A style of jeans which are tightly fitted around the hips and thighs of a person but become much wider from
the knees downwards
Flax
The fibre used to make linen textiles.
Fleece fabric
A fabric, usually knitted, with a heavy napped surface on one side. The fabric is produced using two types of
yarn, one for the face area and the other for the reverse.
Floating (Warp)
A length of warp yarn which passes over two or more weft threads (rather than intersecting with them) in a
woven structure.
Floating (Weft)
A length of weft yarn which passes over two or more warp threads (rather than intersecting with them) in a
woven structure.
Flock
A material obtained by reducing textile fibres to fragments by, for example, cutting, tearing, or grinding.
Flock Printing
A process in which a fabric is printed with an adhesive, followed by the application of finely chopped fibres
over the whole surface of the fabric by means of dusting-on, an air blast, or electrostatic attraction. The
fibres adhere to the printed areas, and are removed from the unprinted areas by mechanical action.
Flocking
A process in which short chopped lengths of fibre (flock) are applied to an adhesive coated backing fabric or
other substrate. The application is usually carried out electrostatically.
Foam Printing
A process in which a rubber solution is turned into a foam and squeezed through a screen to make a rubber
print. Also known as puff rubber printing.
FOB

53

Free-on-board goods are delivered on-board a ship or to another carrier at no cost to the buyer.
Folded Yarn
A yarn made by twisting two or more single yarns together in one operation
Free Shrinkage
Spontaneous shrinkage in the absence of outside influences such as heat or a liquid.
Free Swell Absorbency
The weight of fluid in grams that can be absorbed by 1 gram of fibre, yarn or fabric.
Fretting
The wearing away of filaments through friction. Fuji silk: a spun-silk fabric woven in a plain weave.
Flounce
Hanging strips of material which is normally sewn to the hem of a skirt.


Fringe
An example of trim or embellishment that is used on draperies, upholstery and other soft home decorating
goods.
Frieze
A pile fabric with uncut loops with the patterns created by cutting some of the loops or using different color
yarns.

Face Finished Fabrics
Fabrics which have surface treatments that provides a variety of looks and effects on the fabric surface.
These include brushing, sanding, sueding, etc. The warp knit industry is specially innovative with face
finishing techniques
Facing
A piece of fabric that is sewn to the collar, front opening, cuffs, or arms eye of a garment to create a finished
look.
Faille
A glossy, soft, finely-ribbed silk-like woven fabric made from cotton, silk, or manufactured fibers

54

Fell
To join two pieces of material with the edges folded together using double needle stitching.
Felt
A non-woven fabric made from wool, hair, or fur, and sometimes in combination with certain manufactured
fibers, where the fibers are locked together in a process utilizing heat, moisture, and pressures to form a
compact material.
Fiber
The basic entity, either natural or manufactured, which is twisted into yarns, and then used in the production
of a fabric.
Fiberfill
Specially engineered manufactured fibers, which are used as filler material in pillows, mattresses, mattress
pads, sleeping bags, comforters, quilts, and outerwear
Filament
A manufactured fiber of indefinite length (continuous), extruded from the spinneret during the fiber
production process.
Filling
In a woven fabric, the yarns that run cross the fabric from selvage to selvage, and which run perpendicular to
the warp or lengthwise yarns. Also referred to as the weft.
Findings
Any extra items attached to a garment during the manufacturing process. This can include trims, buttons,
hooks, snaps, or embellishments.
Finished Fabric
A fabric that has gone through all the necessary finishing processes, and is ready to be used in the
manufacturing of garments. These processes include bleaching, dyeing, printing, heat setting, etc.
Flame Resistant
Fabrics treated with special chemical agents or finishes to make them resistant to burning. Today many
fabrics achieve this property by using fibers that have this property built directly into the polymer. A fabric
is considered flame resistant if it passes federal specifications for specific end-uses.
Flame Retardant
A chemical applied to a fabric, or incorporated into the fiber at the time of production, which significantly
reduces a fabric's flammability.
Flannel

55

A medium-weight, plain or twill weave fabric that is typically made from cotton, a cotton blend, or wool.
The fabric has a very soft hand, brushed on both sides to lift the fiber ends out of the base fabric and create a
soft, fuzzy surface. End-uses include shirts and pajamas.
Flannelette
A medium-weight, plain weave fabric with a soft hand, usually made from cotton. The fabric is usually
brushed only on one side, and is lighter weight than flannel. End-uses include shirts and pajamas.
Flax
The plant from which cellulosic linen fiber is obtained. Linen is used in apparel, accessories, draperies,
upholstery, tablecloths, and towels.
Fleece
The wool shorn from any sheep, or from any animal in the wool category.

Fleece Fabric
A lightweight fabric with a thick, heavy fleece-like surface. It may be a pile or napped fabric, or either
woven or knit construction. End uses include coats, jackets, blankets, etc. Fleece fabrics are available in a
variety of constuctions: 1) Polarfleece is the original fleece fabric, developed in 1979, by Malden Mills. It
is typically used for non-technical garments, and it is only available at Malden Mills; 2) Polartec, also
developed by Malden Mills, and was created for today's high-performance technical garments, which
provides enhanced durability warmth, wind resistance, breathability and weather protection.
Flocking
A type of raised decoration applied to the surface of a fabric in which an adhesive is printed on the fabric in
a specific pattern, and then finely chopped fibers are applied by means of dusting, air-brushing, or
electrostatic charges. The fibers adhere only to the areas where the adhesive has been applied, and the excess
fibers are removed by mechanical means.
Foulard
A lightweight twill-weave fabric, made from filament yarns like silk, acetate, polyester, with a small all-over
print pattern on a solid background. The fabric is often used in men's ties.
Four-way Stretch
A fabric that stretches both on the crosswise and lengthwise grains of the fabric. It is the same as two-way
stretch.
Front (stitched down)
A front the has a double-turned hem that is stiched down full length of the front. The term may also refer to
the shell (outside) front of self-goods
Full-cut

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Not tapered.
Fungicide
Kills fungi. Fungistat - Inhibits fungal growth
Felt
A fabric made from fibers not taken to yarn form but instead intermeshed by heat, moisture and agitation or
a fabric made by shrinking and agitating woven or knit cloth to obtain superior density, resilience and
strength.
Fiberglass
A manmade mineral fiber extruded in continuous filaments.
Filament
A continuous strand of silk or manmade fiber.
Filling (Weft)
An element carried horizontally through the open shed of the vertical warp in a woven fabric.
Flame resistant
A fabric whose fiber content or topical finish makes it difficult to ignite and slow to burn.
Flame retardant fabric
A manmade fabric whose fiber content is officially acceptable for most fire code requirements.
Flange
Using fabric, a decorative finish sewn into a seam. To avoid the dog-ear affect a pellon may be inserted to
stabilize the flange. Flannel a woolen fabric whose surface is slightly napped in finish.
Flax
The plant from the stem of which bast fiber is extracted by retting to produce linen. An erroneous term for
linen fiber, particularly in blends.
Float
The portion of a warp or weft yarn that rides over two or more opposing yarns to form a sleek face, as in
satin or is grouped to form a pattern on the face, as in brocade.
Face Finished Fabrics
Fabrics which have surface treatments that provides a variety of looks and effects on the fabric surface.
These include brushing, sanding, sueding, etc. The warp knit industry is specially innovative with face
finishing techniques.

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Facing
A piece of fabric that is sewn to the collar, front opening, cuffs, or arms eye of a garment to create a finished
look.
Faille
A glossy, soft, finely-ribbed silk-like woven fabric made from cotton, silk, or manufactured fibers

Fell
To join two pieces of material with the edges folded together using double needle stitching.
Felt
A non-woven fabric made from wool, hair, or fur, and sometimes in combination with certain manufactured
fibers, where the fibers are locked together in a process utilizing heat, moisture, and pressures to form a
compact material.
Fiber
The basic entity, either natural or manufactured, which is twisted into yarns, and then used in the production
of a fabric.
Fiberfill
Specially engineered manufactured fibers, which are used as filler material in pillows, mattresses, mattress
pads, sleeping bags, comforters, quilts, and outerwear
Filament
A manufactured fiber of indefinite length (continuous), extruded from the spinneret during the fiber
production process.
Filling
In a woven fabric, the yarns that run cross the fabric from selvage to selvage, and which run perpendicular to
the warp or lengthwise yarns. Also referred to as the weft.
Findings
Any extra items attached to a garment during the manufacturing process. This can include trims, buttons,
hooks, snaps, or embellishments.
Finished Fabric
A fabric that has gone through all the necessary finishing processes, and is ready to be used in the
manufacturing of garments. These processes include bleaching, dyeing, printing, heat setting, etc.
Flame Resistant

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Fabrics treated with special chemical agents or finishes to make them resistant to burning. Today many
fabrics achieve this property by using fibers that have this property built directly into the polymer. A fabric
is considered flame resistant if it passes federal specifications for specific end-uses.Flame Retardant- A
chemical applied to a fabric, or incorporated into the fiber at the time of production, which significantly
reduces a fabric's flammability.

Flannel
A medium-weight, plain or twill weave fabric that is typically made from cotton, a cotton blend, or wool.
The fabric has a very soft hand, brushed on both sides to lift the fiber ends out of the base fabric and create a
soft, fuzzy surface. End-uses include shirts and pajamas.
Flannelette
A medium-weight, plain weave fabric with a soft hand, usually made from cotton. The fabric is usually
brushed only on one side, and is lighter weight than flannel. End-uses include shirts and pajamas.
Flax
The plant from which cellulosic linen fiber is obtained. Linen is used in apparel, accessories, draperies,
upholstery, tablecloths, and towels.
Fleece
The wool shorn from any sheep, or from any animal in the wool category.
Fleece Fabric
A lightweight fabric with a thick, heavy fleece-like surface. It may be a pile or napped fabric, or either
woven or knit construction. End uses include coats, jackets, blankets, etc. Fleece fabrics are available in a
variety of constuctions: 1) Polarfleece is the original fleece fabric, developed in 1979, by Malden Mills. It
is typically used for non-technical garments, and it is only available at Malden Mills; 2) Polartec, also
developed by Malden Mills, and was created for today's high-performance technical garments, which
provides enhanced durability warmth, wind resistance, breathability and weather protection.
Flocking
A type of raised decoration applied to the surface of a fabric in which an adhesive is printed on the fabric in
a specific pattern, and then finely chopped fibers are applied by means of dusting, air-brushing, or
electrostatic charges. The fibers adhere only to the areas where the adhesive has been applied, and the excess
fibers are removed by mechanical means.
Foulard
A lightweight twill-weave fabric, made from filament yarns like silk, acetate, polyester, with a small all-over
print pattern on a solid background. The fabric is often used in men's ties.
Four-way Stretch

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A fabric that stretches both on the crosswise and lengthwise grains of the fabric. It is the same as two-way
stretch.
Front (stitched down)
A front the has a double-turned hem that is stitched down full length of the front. The term may also refer to
the shell (outside) front of self-goods.
Full-cut
Not tapered.
Fungicide
Kills fungi.
Fungistat
Inhibits fungal growth.
G
Gabardine
A tightly woven, twilled, worsted fabric with a slight diagonal line on the right side. Wool gabardine is
known as a year-round fabric for business suiting. Polyester, cotton, rayon, and various blends are also used
in making gabardine.
Gauge
A measurement most commonly associated with knitting equipment. It can mean the number of needles per
inch in a knitting machine. However, in full fashioned hosiery and sweater machines, the number of needles
per 1-1/2 inches represents the gauge.
Gauze
A thin, sheer plain-weave fabric made from cotton, wool, silk, rayon, or other manufactured fibers. End-uses
include curtains, apparel, trimmings, and surgical dressings.
Georgette
A sheer lightweight fabric, often made of silk or from such manufactured fibers as polyester, with a crepe
surface. End-uses include dresses and blouses.
Geotextiles
Manufactured fiber materials made into a variety of fabric constructions, and used in a variety civil
engineering applications.


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Gingham
A medium weight, plain weave fabric with a plaid or check pattern. End-uses include dresses, shirts, and
curtains.

Glass Fiber
An inorganic fiber which is very strong, but has poor flexibility and poor abrasion resistance. Glass will not
burn and will not conduct electricity. It is impervious to insects, mildew, and sunlight. Today, the primary
use of glass fiber is in such industrial applications as insulation or reinforcement of composite structures.
Gabardine
A firmly woven, warp-faced twill cloth.
Garnett machine
A type of carding machine, equipped with rollers and cylinders covered with metallic teeth, which is used to
open up hard and soft waste textile products with a view to recycling them.
Gauge
The number of needles per unit length (usually 1 inch) along a needle bed or needle bar or flat knitting
machine. For circular knitting machines, the unit length is the circumference of the needle cylinder.
Gauze
A light weight open texture fabric produced in a plain weave or a simple leno weaves.
Gel blocking
A phenomenon that occurs when the swelling of a superabsorbent polymer blocks the passage of fluid into
the centre of a fabric, thereby reducing the absorption capacity.
Georgette
A fine lightweight open fabric woven in crpe yarns.
Geotextile
A permeable textile cloth used in contact with soil or rock as part of a civil engineering operation. Ginnery:
A factory where cotton ginning takes place.
Ginning
The process of separating cotton lint from the seed.
Grading (in garment manufacture)
A process of adjusting the size of each pattern piece to fit different body sizes.

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Grinning
A flaw in a fabric, especially a ribbed fabric, that occurs either when warp threads show through the
covering weft threads or when the threads have slipped, leaving open spaces on either side.

Gingham:
A lightweight cotton material usually woven in a block motif or a check.
Gabardine
A tightly woven, twilled, worsted fabric with a slight diagonal line on the right side. Wool gabardine is
known as a year-round fabric for business suiting. Polyester, cotton, rayon, and various blends are also used
in making gabardine.
Gauge
A measurement most commonly associated with knitting equipment. It can mean the number of needles per
inch in a knitting machine. However, in full fashioned hosiery and sweater machines, the number of needles
per 1-1/2 inches represents the gauge.
Gauze
A thin, sheer plain-weave fabric made from cotton, wool, silk, rayon, or other manufactured fibers. End-uses
include curtains, apparel, trimmings, and surgical dressings.
Georgette
A sheer lightweight fabric often made of silk or from such manufactured fibers as polyester, with a crepe
surface. End-uses include dresses and blouses.
Geotextiles
Manufactured fiber materials made into a variety of fabric constructions, and used in a variety civil
engineering applications.
Gingham
A medium weight, plain weave fabric with a plaid or check pattern. End-uses include dresses, shirts, and
curtains.
Glass Fiber
An inorganic fiber which is very strong, but has poor flexibility and poor abrasion resistance. Glass will not
burn and will not conduct electricity. It is impervious to insects, mildew, and sunlight. Today, the primary
use of glass fiber is in such industrial applications as insulation or reinforcement of composite structures.

Gorge

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The break between the collar and the lapel.
Greige Goods
An unfinished fabric, just removed from a knitting machine or a loom also called grey goods.
Gimp
Gimps are flat, narrow, woven textiles made in many styles. One or both edges of a gimp can be plain or cut
or have scalloped loops.
Gingham
A yarn-dyed, combed or carded cotton fabric woven into a series of simple patterns in two or more colors,
such as checks, stripes or plaids.
Gorge
The break between the collar and the lapel.
Greige Goods
An unfinished fabric, just removed from a knitting machine or a loom. Also called grey goods.

Hank
An unsupported coil comprising wraps of yarn (or sliver) made by winding the yarn on a reeling machine
with a cross-wound pattern and then binding it to prevent tangling.
Heald
A steel wire or strip with an eye in the centre, or a similar device through which a warp yarn is threaded. The
heald enables the yarn to be raised or lowered during weaving to create a shed
Heald Shaft
A frame in which a large number of healds are mounted. Typically a loom contains two or more heald
shafts, depending upon the complexity of the weave pattern required. The heald shaft is raised or lowered by
means of cams or a dobby mechanism to form a shed and to create different weave patterns.
Hemp
A light-colored, strong bast fibre obtained from the hemp plant Cannabis sativa.
Herringbone
A broken twill weaves giving a zigzag or herringbone effect.

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Heterofilament
A filament made up of more than one polymer.
Hollow Fibres
Melt-spun fibres extruded through special spinnerets to produce fibres with one or more holes down their
length. Such fibres are good insulators and give warmth without adding weight.
Hollow Spindle Spinning
A system of yarn formation, also known as wrap spinning, in which the feed stock (sliver or roving) is
drafted, and the drafted twist less strand is wrapped with a yarn as it passes through a rotating hollow
spindle. The binder or wrapping yarn is mounted on the hollow spindle and is unwound and wrapped around
the core by rotation of the spindle. The technique may be used for producing a range of wrap spun yarns, or
fancy yarns, by using feeding different yarn and fibre feed stocks to the hollow spindle at different speeds.
Honeycomb
A fabric structure in which the warp and weft threads form ridges and hollows, so as to give a cellular
appearance Hopsack: A modification of a plain weave in which two or more ends or picks weave as one.
House-wrap
A fabric installed during the construction of a building between its inner structure and outer facing. House-
wrap is air permeable but not water permeable.
Hydrophilic Fibres
Fibres which tend to attract and are wetted by water. These may be valuable for wicking or for absorption.
Hydrophobic Fibres
Fibres which tend to repel and are not wetted by water.
Hygroscopic
A term used to describe a substance which attracts moisture from the atmosphere.
Hand
The way the fabric feels when it is touched. Terms like softness, crispness, dryness, silkiness are all terms
that describe the hand of the fabric.
Hard Shell
A high-impact, abrasion-resistant outer fabric, which provides protection from the environment
Heat Set Finish (Heat Sealing)

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A process of heat finishing that will stabilize many manufactured fiber fabrics in order that there will not be
any subsequent change in shape or size. Heat setting is used to permanently impart a crease, a pleat, or
durability into a fabric or garment---a finish that will remain through repeated washings and dry cleanings.
Heather
A yarn that is spun using pre-dyed fibers. These fibers are blended together to give a particular look. (For
example, black and white may be blended together to create a grey heathered yarn.) The term, heather, may
also be used to describe the fabric made from heathered yarns.
Heavy Weight
Also called expedition weight. Most often use din base layers. Thick and warm, it is usually brushed on the
inside for warmth and wicking, and smooth on the outside to protect.
Hem (clean)
The double fold of fabric secured with a row of stitching with the raw edge of the fabric buried within the
fold.
Hem (raw)
A single fold of fabric secured with a row of stitching, leaving the raw edge of the fabric exposed.
Hemp
A coarse, durable bast fiber obtained from the inner bark of the hemp plant. Used primarily in twines and
cordages, and most recently apparel.
Herringbone
A variation on the twill weave construction in which the twill is reversed, or broken, at regular intervals,
producing a zig-zag effect.

High Loft
A term given to a fiber structure that contains more air then fiber. It is a lofty, low-density material that is
used in such applications as fiberfill, insulation, etc
High Visability Fabrics
Fabrics that contain fluorescent materials in order to make the wearer visible in dim and dark lights. These
fabrics have the ability to reflect on-coming lights, which cause them to glow in the dark.
Hollow Fiber
Manufactured fiber made with a hollow center.
Hollow Filament Fibers

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Manufactured, continuous filament fibers that have a center void, which has been created through the
introduction of air or other gas in the polymer solution, or by melt spinning through specially designed
spinnerets during production.
Houndstooth Check
Variation on the twill weave construction in which a broken check effect is produced by a variation in the
pattern of interlacing yarns, utilizing at least two different colored yarns.
Hydrophilic Fibers
Fibers that absorb water easily, take longer to dry, and require more ironing. Hydrophobic Fibers - Fibers
that lack the ability to absorb water.
Hand
Literally, the feel of the goods in the hand; a qualitative term used to describe the tactile properties of a
fabric.
Harlequin
A large check turned 45 degrees to form a diamond in two or more contrasting colors; suggested by the
loudly checked costume of a harlequin.
Heat transfer printing
A method that transfers designs from rolls of paper to polyester or other thermo-plastic fibers. Designs are
preprinted with disperse dyes on paper, and under high temperature are transferred onto fabric when both are
passed through a heat transfer printing machine. Disperse dyes are the only ones that can sublimate and
therefore are the only ones that can be used. An adaptation of the decalcomania method.

Herringbone
A twill weave that reverses direction across the fabric to form a chevron.
Honeycomb
A pique' weave in a hexagonal shape. They are often referred to as a waffle weave.
Hound's tooth
A pointed check effect produced by a two up, two down broken twill with four ends and four picks in a
repeat.
Hand
The way the fabric feels when it is touched. Terms like softness, crispness, dryness, and silkiness are all
terms that describe the hand of the fabric.
Hard Shell

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A high-impact, abrasion-resistant outer fabric, which provides protection from the environment.
Heat Set Finish (Heat Sealing)
A process of heat finishing that will stabilize many manufactured fiber fabrics in order that there will not be
any subsequent change in shape or size. Heat setting is used to permanently impart a crease, a pleat, or
durability into a fabric or garment---a finish that will remain through repeated washings and dry cleanings.
Heather
A yarn that is spun using pre-dyed fibers. These fibers are blended together to give a particular look. (For
example, black and white may be blended together to create a grey heathered yarn.) The term, heather, may
also be used to describe the fabric made from heathered yarns.
Heavy Weight
Also called expedition weight. Most often use din base layers. Thick and warm, it is usually brushed on the
inside for warmth and wicking, and smooth on the outside to protect.
Hem (clean)
The double fold of fabric secured with a row of stitching with the raw edge of the fabric buried within the
fold.
Hem (raw)
A single fold of fabric secured with a row of stitching, leaving the raw edge of the fabric exposed.
Hemp
A coarse, durable bast fiber obtained from the inner bark of the hemp plant. Used primarily in twines and
cordages, and most recently apparel.
Herringbone
A variation on the twill weave construction in which the twill is reversed, or broken, at regular intervals,
producing a zig-zag effect.
High Loft
A term given to a fiber structure that contains more air then fiber. It is a lofty, low-density material that is
used in such applications as fiberfill, insulation, etc.
High Visability Fabrics
Fabrics that contain fluorescent materials in order to make the wearer visible in dim and dark lights. These
fabrics have the ability to reflect on-coming lights, which cause them to glow in the dark. Hollow Fiber-
Manufactured fiber made with a hollow center.
Hollow Filament Fibers

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Manufactured, continuous filament fibers that have a center void, which has been created through the
introduction of air or other gas in the polymer solution, or by melt spinning through specially designed
spinnerets during production.
Houndstooth Check
A variation on the twill weave construction in which a broken check effect is produced by a variation in the
pattern of interlacing yarns, utilizing at least two different colored yarns.
Hydrophilic Fibers
Fibers that absorb water easily, take longer to dry, and require more ironing. Hydrophobic Fibers- Fibers
that lack the ability to absorb water.
Half CupBra
A bra in which the top half of the breasts are exposed and the nipples may or may not be covered. See also
Demi Cup Bra or Shelf Bra.
Half Slip
A slip is an undergarment worn under clothing if it is sheer or to prevent clinging. A half-slip serves the
same purpose as a full slip but it is cut like a skirt, whereas a full slip is cut like a dress.

Halter Bra
A bra style featuring straps that fastens behind the neck. This bra is perfect for backless dresses. This bra
style can often convert to crisscross or one shoulder styles.
Halter Neck
A dress, bra or undergarment style where the fabric wraps behind and around the neck for support. Halters
may tie, hook, clasp or be a solid piece of fabric that slides over the head.
Halter Top
A sleeveless short top that is held in place by a narrow band of cloth that goes around the back of the neck.
Halter tops usually tie, hook, or clasp behind the neck and across the back, leaving the arms, shoulders, and
back bare. This term may also apply to other clothing that features a halter top style bodice such as dresses
or catsuits.
High Cut Brief
Also known as a "French Cut" brief, this panty is high cut on the leg with a full coverage back. High-Cut
Panty A panty that is cut high over the thigh and sides but with total back coverage.
High Cut Rio

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A panty style similar to the string bikini, but with moderate back coverage that looks more like a "v" instead
of the "u" which is found in full coverage backs. Many times, the waistband in the high-cut Rio is just a 1"
to 2" piece of elastic.
High Waist Brief
Shape wear with a brief style panty and a high waist to give shaping and support to the waistline.
Hikini
Panty variation on traditional brief or bikini featuring higher cut leg-holes for a longer leg. Similar to a
French Cut brief or bikini.
Hip Shaper
Shape wear piece designed to hold a woman's hips in particular form. This piece of lingerie or foundation
garment is used to enhance the shape of the hips or to help hide flaws.
Hipster
A type of panty or brief that is cut low in the front and back. This style of underwear is designed to wear
under low-rise jeans and trousers.

Hook and Eye
A closure or fastener used to secure bras, corsets, some shape wear and other garments. The fastener
includes a small hook secured to one side of the garment that grasps a small loop (the eye) secured to the
other side.
Hook Back, Hook and Eye Back
A garment closure that secures in the back with one or more hook and eye closures.
Hook Front, Hook and Eye Front
A garment closure that secures on the side with one or more hook and eye closures.
Hook Side, Hook Sides
A garment that closes at the side or sides with one or more hook and eyes or snaps. Hook side closures are
often seen in corsets, bustiers, and catsuits. This closure helps you get in and out of the garment but
providing a skin tight fit when closed. Hosiery Leg wear, body wear, or lingerie that may include socks,
stockings, bodysuits, body stockings, and pantyhose.
Hosiery Types
These are the most commonly seen types of hosiery: Control Top Pantyhose: provides shaping support in the
panty section. Fishnet Hose: Generally, a loosely woven diamond pattern that can either be small or quiet
large. French or Lace Pantyhose: A lace panty is sewn into the pantyhose. Lace Top Stockings: a lace band
at the top of the stockings replaces the plain welt. Suspender Hose: A section of the hose is cut out to

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simulate the look of stockings and a garter belt, and often worn with panties, thong or G String. Hot Pants,
Hot pants, Booty Shorts, Short Shorts These are shorts, also known as "short shorts", which are primarily
worn by women. These are very short, tight shorts, usually made out of cotton, nylon, Lycra, or Spandex.
They are meant to show off the buttocks and the legs. Hot Pants are also known as "Daisy Dukes". "Daisy
Dukes" are extremely tight short-shorts worn by women. They were named after the character of Daisy
Duke in the 1980's television series, The Dukes of Hazard, and more recently seen worn by Jessica Simpson
in the movie version.

Industrial Textiles
A category of technical textiles used as part of an industrial process, or incorporated into final products.
Innerwear
Clothing, such as lingerie, designed to be worn next to the skin.
Infusion Technology
An infused polymer construction process that reinforces the fabric of outerwear garments in the places
where they take the most abuse: zipper and pocket flaps, and other high-abrasion areas. The technology
blends polymers, penetrates deep into the inner fibers, and surrounds them to form a permanent bond. this
tough, resilient matrix ensures a highly wear-resistant surface while allowing the fabric to remain
lightweight and flexible. The infused polymer process eliminates the need for heavier-weight abrasion
overlays, tapes and bindings, and adds increased strength to the most crucial points on the garment, which
dramatically extends the life of the garment.
Inseam
The distance from the bottom of a trouser leg to the crotch. The measurement is taken along the inside leg
seam that joins the front and the back leg panels.
Insulation
With respect to a fabric, a material that protects from the loss of warmth or the penetration of cold.
Interfacing
Fabrics used to support, reinforce and give shape to fashion fabrics in sewn products. Often placed between
the lining and the outer fabric. It can be made from yarns or directly from fibers, and may be either woven,
nonwoven, or knitted. Some interfacings are designed to be fused (adhered with heat from an iron), while
others are meant to be stitched to the fashion fabric.
Interlining
An insulation, padding, or stiffening fabric, either sewn to the wrong side of the lining or the inner side of
the outer shell fabric. The interlining is used primarily to provide warmth in coats, jackets, and outerwear.
Interlock

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The stitch variation of the rib stitch, which resembles two separate 1 x 1 ribbed fabrics that are interknitted.
Plain (double knit) interlock stitch fabrics are thicker, heavier, and more stable than single knit
constructions.
Interlining
A layer of fabric between the outer, decorative fabric and the lining.
Iridescent
A color effect created by weaving warp ends of one color and a weft of another color. The taffeta weave
creates the best iridescent effects.

Jacquard
Woven fabrics manufactured by using the Jacquard attachment on the loom. This attachment provides
versatility in designs and permits individual control of each of the warp yarns. Thus, fabrics of almost any
type or complexity can be made. Brocade and damask are types of jacquard woven fabrics.
Jacquard Knit
A weft double knit fabric in which a Jacquard type of mechanism is used. This device individually controls
needles or small groups of needles, and allows very complex and highly patterned knits to be created.
Jersey Fabric
The consistent inter looping of yarns in the jersey stitch to produces a fabric with a smooth, flat face, and a
more textured, but uniform back.
Jersey fabrics may be produced on either circular or flat weft knitting machines.
Jersey Stitch
A basic stitch used in weft knitting, in which each loop formed in the knit is identical. The jersey stitch is
also called the plain, felt, or stockinet stitch. Jute - A bast fiber, chiefly from India, used primarily for gunny
sacks, bags, cordage, and binding threads in carpets and rugs.
Jacquard
A system of weaving which, because of a pattern-making mechanism of great versatility, permits the
production of woven designs of considerable size. The Jacquard loom, derivation of the old draw boy hand
loom, was credited to Joseph Marie Jacquard in France in the early 19th Century. On the Jacquard loom,
because the threads are handled individually, anywhere from 100 to 15,000 threads may have independent
weave action, allowing for complicated curvilinear designs.

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Jute
A bast fiber obtained from the round pod jute or the long pod jute of the family Tiliaceae. Grown
extensively in Pakistan and India, mainly in the Bengal district of Pakistan.
Jacquard
Woven fabrics manufactured by using the Jacquard attachment on the loom. This attachment provides
versatility in designs and permits individual control of each of the warp yarns. Thus, fabrics of almost any
type or complexity can be made. Brocade and damask are types of jacquard woven fabrics.
Jacquard Knit
A weft double knit fabric in which a Jacquard type of mechanism is used. This device individually controls
needles or small groups of needles, and allows very complex and highly patterned knits to be created.
Jersey Fabric
The consistent inter looping of yarns in the jersey stitch to produces a fabric with a smooth, flat face, and a
more textured, but uniform back. Jersey fabrics may be produced on either circular or flat weft knitting
machines.
Jersey Stitch
A basic stitch used in weft knitting, in which each loop formed in the knit is identical. The jersey stitch is
also called the plain, felt, or stockinet stitch.
Jute
A bast fiber, chiefly from India, used primarily for gunny sacks, bags, cordage, and binding threads in
carpets and rugs.


Knitted Fabric
A fabric produced by intermeshing loops from one or more yarns, fibres, filaments or other elements.
Knop
A bunch of fibres appearing along the length of a yarn, giving a spot effect.
Kapok
A short, lightweight, cotton-like, vegetable fiber found in the seed pods of the Bombocaceae tree. Because
of its brittle quality, it is generally not spun. However, its buoyancy and moisture resistance makes it ideal
for use in cushions, mattresses, and life jackets.
Knit Fabric

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Fabrics made from only one set of yarns, all running in the same direction. Some knits have their yarns
running along the length of the fabric, while others have their yarns running across the width of the fabric.
Knit fabrics are held together by looping the yarns around each other. Knitting creates ridges in the resulting
fabric. Wales are the ridges that run lengthwise in the fabric; courses run crosswise.

Knit-de-knit
A type of yarn texturizing in which a crimped yarn is made by knitting the yarn into a fabric, and then heat-
setting the fabric. The yarn is then unraveled from the fabric and used in this permanently crinkled form.
Knitting (Circular)
A weft knitting process where the fabric is a tube with the threads running continuously around the fabric.
Double-knit fabrics are produced on a circular knitting machine equipped with two sets of latch needles
situated at right angles to each other.
Knitting (Flat or Single)
A weft knitting process where the fabric is in flat form. The threads run back and forth across the fabric.
Shape can be added in the knitting process by increasing or decreasing the loops or stitches. Full-fashioned
garments are made on a flat-knitting machine.
Knitting (Raschel)
A versatile warp knitting made in plain and jacquard patterns; the fabrics are coarser than other warp knits.
Raschel knitting machines have one or two sets of latch needles and up to thirty sets of guides that enable
them to create a wide range of fabrics.
Knitting (Warp)
A type of knitting in which the yarns generally run lengthwise in the fabric. The yarns are prepared as warps
on beams. Examples of this type of knitting include tricot, Milanese, and Raschel knitting.
Knitting (Weft)
A type of knitting, in which one continuous thread runs crosswise in the fabric making all of the loops in one
course. Weft knitting types are circular and flat knitting.
Kick Pleats
A separate piece of fabric placed in the corners of a bed skirt. This feature hides the bed frame legs.
Knife Edge
A seam without a decorative finish.
Kapok

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A short, lightweight, cotton-like, vegetable fiber found in the seed pods of the Bombocaceae tree. Because
of its brittle quality, it is generally not spun. However, its buoyancy and moisture resistance makes it ideal
for use in cushions, mattresses, and life jackets.
Knit Fabric
Fabrics made from only one set of yarns, all running in the same direction. Some knits have their yarns
running along the length of the fabric, while others have their yarns running across the width of the fabric.
Knit fabrics are held together by looping the yarns around each other. Knitting creates ridges in the resulting
fabric. Wales are the ridges that run lengthwise in the fabric; courses run crosswise.
Knit-de-knit
A type of yarn texturizing in which a crimped yarn is made by knitting the yarn into a fabric, and then heat-
setting the fabric. The yarn is then unraveled from the fabric and used in this permanently crinkled form.
Knitting (Circular)
A weft knitting process where the fabric is a tube with the threads running continuously around the fabric.
Double-knit fabrics are produced on a circular knitting machine equipped with two sets of latch needles
situated at right angles to each other.
Knitting (Flat or Single)
A weft knitting process where the fabric is in flat form. The threads run back and forth across the fabric.
Shape can be added in the knitting process by increasing or decreasing the loops or stitches. Full-fashioned
garments are made on a flat-knitting machine.
Knitting (Raschel)
A versatile warp knitting made in plain and jacquard patterns; the fabrics are coarser than other warp knits.
Raschel knitting machines have one or two sets of latch needles and up to thirty sets of guides that enable
them to create a wide range of fabrics.
Knitting (Warp)
A type of knitting in which the yarns generally run lengthwise in the fabric. The yarns are prepared as warps
on beams. Examples of this type of knitting include tricot, Milanese, and Raschel knitting.
Knitting (Weft)
A type of knitting, in which one continuous thread runs crosswise in the fabric making all of the loops in one
course. Weft knitting types are circular and flat knitting. Lamb's Wool- The first clip of wool sheered from
lambs up to eight months old. The wool is soft, slippery and resilient. It is used in fine grade woolen fabrics.


74

Latent Heat
The quantity of heat absorbed or released by a substance undergoing a change of state, such as ice changing
to water or water to steam, at constant temperature and pressure. When a solid material is heated and reaches
its melting point, it goes from solid to liquid. During this process the material absorbs a certain amount of
heat, Despite the heat input, the temperature of the material stays at a relatively constant level, even though
phase change is taking place. We thus speak of latent (concealed) heat having been taken up by the material.
Lawn
A light, fine cloth made using carded or combed, linen or cotton yarns. The fabric has a crease-resistant,
crisp finish. Linen lawn is synonymous with handkerchief linen. Cotton lawn is a similar type of fabric,
which can be white, solid colored, or printed.
Left-hand twill
Any twill weave which runs from the left. The twill or diagonal line on the face of the fabric will run from
the upper left-hand corner to the lower right-hand corner of the fabric. Leight Weight- Having an airy
weave. Used as a light weight base layer in apparel for aerobic activities and cool weather.
Leno Weave
A construction of woven fabrics in which the resulting fabric is very sheer, yet durable. In this weave, two or
more warp yarns are twisted around each other as they are interlaced with the filling yarns; thus securing a
firm hold on the filling yarn and preventing them from slipping out of position. Also called the gauze weave.
Leno weave fabrics are frequently used for window treatments, because their structure gives good durability
with almost no yarn slippage, and permits the passage of light and air.
Linen
A fabric made from linen fibers obtained from inside the woody stem of the flax plant. Linen fibers are
much stronger and more lustrous than cotton. Linen fabrics are very cool and absorbent, but wrinkle very
easily, unless blended with manufactured fibers. Linen is one of the oldest tex A fabric that is used to cover
the inside of a garment to provide a finished look. Generally, the litile fibers. Lining-ning is made of a
smooth lustrous fabric. Loft- High loft is thick and fluffy, low loft is thin and dense. The higher the loft, the
better the insulation characteristic.
Loom
A machine used for weaving fabrics.

Loom-Finished
Material sold in the same condition in which the goods came from the loom---duck, webbing, canvas,
burlap, etc.

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Lyocell Fiber
A manufactured fiber composed of regenerated cellulose. Lyocell has a similar hand and drape as rayon, but
is stronger, more durable, and in many cases machine washable. It has a subtle luster and is rich in color.
Lyocell possesses low shrinkage characteristics, as well as good absorbency and wrinkle resistant qualities.
Lace
Fine open-work fabric with a mesh ground upon which patterns are worked.
Ladder Yarn
A knitted tape yarn with the appearance of a ladder.
Lap
A sheet of fibres or fabric wrapped around a core
Lay
Lengths of fabric, several plies high, which have been spread on a cutting table ready for cutting. The fabric
is subsequently cut in accordance with a cutting plan which is usually designed to optimise materials
utilization
Lay Plan
A plan in garment making of the lay height, lay length, color mix, selection of fabric pieces to be cut, and
the batches from which the fabric is to be used.
Layering
Layering involves the use of a comfort or base layer; an insulation layer; and a protection layer. The base
layer comprises clothing worn next to the skin. Perspiration drying on the skin can cause chilling. However,
this effect can be minimized by wearing a base layer which wicks moisture away from the skin. The
insulation layer is the middle layer in the system and enables the wearer to regulate his or her body
temperature by putting on or taking off garments as necessary. Insulation layer garments should be
lightweight and warm, and should dry quickly in order to retain body heat. They should also let perspiration
vapour escape from the comfort layer underneath, and retain their insulating properties even when wet. The
protection layer is an outer layer of waterproof and windproof fabric. It should be highly breathable, so as to
allow perspiration vapour to escape easily from the comfort layer and the insulation layer.

Laying-up
The process of spreading lengths of fabric on a cutting table to make a lay.
Leaching
The removal of a substance (such as a dyestuff) by a liquid which is in contact with the substance.
Leno Weaving

76

A form of weaving in which warp threads are made to cross one another between weft insertions.
Linear Density
The weight per unit length of a yarn or fibre. Units of linear density include decitex and denier.
Looper
An eyed stitch-forming element which carries an under thread or a cover thread on some types of sewing
machine.
Lyocell
The generic name given to a new family of cellulosic fibres and yarns that have been produced by solvent
spinning. The process is widely regarded as being environmentally-friendly and the product offers a number
of advantages over traditional cellulosic fibres.
Lamb's Wool
The first clip of wool sheered from lambs up to eight months old. The wool is soft, slippery and resilient. It
is used in fine grade woolen fabrics.
Lame
A woven fabric using flat silver or gold metal threads to create either the design or the background in the
fabric.
Laminated Fabric
A term used to describe fabrics which have been joined together through the use of a high-strength
reinforcing scrim or base fabrics between two plies of flexible thermoplastic film.. It can a bonded utilizing
either foam itself, or some other material, such as adhesives, heat, or chemical bonding agents.. See
BONDING.
Lapel
The part of a garment that is turned back in the front. The front fold on a shirt that is a continuation of the
collar.
Lapels (padding)
Attaching the lapel to canvas with several rows of blind stitching.
Latent Heat
The quantity of heat absorbed or released by a substance undergoing a change of state, such as ice changing
to water or water to steam, at constant temperature and pressure. When a solid material is heated and reaches
its melting point, it goes from solid to liquid. During this process the material absorbs a certain amount of
heat, despite the heat input, the temperature of the material stays at a relatively constant level, even though
phase change is taking place. We thus speak of latent (concealed) heat having been taken up by the material.
Lawn

77

A light, fine cloth made using carded or combed, linen or cotton yarns. The fabric has a crease-resistant,
crisp finish. Linen lawn is synonymous with handkerchief linen. Cotton lawn is a similar type of fabric,
which can be white, solid colored, or printed.
Left-hand twill
Any twill weave which runs from the left. The twill or diagonal line on the face of the fabric will run from
the upper left-hand corner to the lower right-hand corner of the fabric.
Leight Weight
Having an airy weave. Used as a light weight base layer in apparel for aerobic activities and cool weather.
Leno Weave
A construction of woven fabrics in which the resulting fabric is very sheer, yet durable. In this weave, two or
more warp yarns are twisted around each other as they are interlaced with the filling yarns; thus securing a
firm hold on the filling yarn and preventing them from slipping out of position. Also called the gauze weave.
Leno weave fabrics are frequently used for window treatments, because their structure gives good durability
with almost no yarn slippage, and permits the passage of light and air.
Linen
A fabric made from linen fibers obtained from inside the woody stem of the flax plant. Linen fibers are
much stronger and more lustrous than cotton. Linen fabrics are very cool and absorbent, but wrinkle very
easily, unless blended with manufactured fibers. Linen is one of the oldest textile fibers.
Lining
A fabric that is used to cover the inside of a garment to provide a finished look. Generally, the lining is made
of a smooth lustrous fabric.
Loft
High loft is thick and fluffy, low loft is thin and dense. The higher the loft, the better the insulation
characteristic.
Loom
A machine used for weaving fabrics.
Loom-Finished
Material sold in the same condition in which the goods came from the loom---duck, webbing, canvas,
burlap, etc.
Lyocell Fiber
A manufactured fiber composed of regenerated cellulose. Lyocell has a similar hand and drape as rayon, but
is stronger, more durable, and in many cases machine washable. It has a subtle luster and is rich in color.
Lyocell possesses low shrinkage characteristics, as well as good absorbency and wrinkle resistant qualities.

78

Lace
An openwork fabric produced by a network of threads, twisted together and sometimes knotted, to form
patterns. It is made by hand, with needles, with hooks or by machinery.
Linen Strong,
lustrous yarn made from flax fiber.
Lis'er'e
The design is created by coloured warp threads brought up on the face of the fabric, leaving loose yarns on
the back woven vertically, which gives it a vertical stripe effect. Lis'er'es are Victorian in appearance and
have embroidered style patterns.
Loom state
Goods as they come off the loom before converting or finishing. Also called gray or griege.
Loop & Brush Fringe
A combination of a loop and cut brush fringe style within the same trimming.
Loop Fringe
Similar to a brush fringe except that the yarns at the base of the skirt are looped, not cut. The bottom edge of
a loop fringe can be straight or scalloped.

Lame
A woven fabric using flat silver or gold metal threads to create either the design or the background in the
fabric.
Laminated Fabric
A term used to describe fabrics which have been joined together through the use of a high-strength
reinforcing scrim or base fabrics between two plies of flexible thermoplastic film.. It can a bonded utilizing
either foam itself, or some other material, such as adhesives, heat, or chemical bonding agents.
Lapel
The part of a garment that is turned back in the front. The front fold on a shirt that is a continuation of the
collar.
Lapels (padding)
Attaching the lapel to canvas with several rows of blind stitching.



79


MACE SNAG TEST

A test for evaluation of snagging performance. A fabric sample is mounted on a revolving drum in contact
with a miniature mace that tracks randomly across the sample. The spikes of the mace effect the snagging.
The test predicts results in actual wear.

MACHINE DIRECTION

The long direction within the place of the fabric, i.e., the direction in which the fabric is being produced by
the machine.

MACHINE TWIST

A hard-twist sewing thread, usually of 3-ply construction spun with S twists and plied with Z twist,
especially made for use in sewing machines.

MACROLATTICE

A repeating structure in very small microfibrils of alternating crystalline and amorphous regions. Yarn
properties are thought to be governed by morphology at the macrolattice scale.


MADRAS

A lightweight, plain weave fabric with a striped, checked, or plaid pattern. True madras is guaranteed to
bleed.

MALLORY FATIGUE TEST

A test to measure the endurance properties of tire cord.

MANDRELL

The core around which the impregnated filaments are placed to form a specified shape in composite
manufacture.

MANILA

Fiber obtained from the leaf stalks of the abaca plant. It is generally used for cordage.

MANUFACTURED FIBER

A class name for various genera of fibers (including filaments) produced from fiber-forming substances
which may be: (1) polymers synthesized from chemical compounds, e.g., acrylic, nylon, polyester,
polyethylene, polyurethane, and polyvinyl fibers; (2) modified or transformed natural polymers, e.g., alginic
and cellulose-based fibers such as acetates and rayons; and (3) minerals, e.g., glasses. The term

80

manufactured usually refers to all chemically produced fibers to distinguish them from the truly natural
fibers such as cotton, wool, silk, flax, etc.

MARKER
In the floor coverings industry, a distinctive thread line in the back of a carpet that enables the installer to
assemble breadths of carpet so that the pile lays in one direction or so that patterns match. 2001, Celanese
Acetate LLC

MARL YARN

A yarn made from two rovings of contrasting colors drafted together, then spun. Provides a mottled effect.

MARQUISETTE

A lightweight, open-mesh fabric made of cotton, silk, or manufactured fibers in a leno, doup, or gauze
weave. Marquisettes are used for curtains, dresses, mosquito nets, and similar end uses.

MARRIED FIBER CLUMP

A defect that occurs in converter top. It consists of a group of unopened, almost coterminous fibers with the
crimp in register.




MATELASSE

A soft, double or compound fancy-woven fabric with a quilted appearance. Heavier types are used as
draperies and upholsteries. Crepe matelass is used for dresses, wraps, and other apparel. Matelass is
usually woven on a Jacquard loom.

MATERIAL BALANCE

A mathematical representation of material flow through a reaction system. The input material is accounted
for throughout its various transformations.

MATRIX FIBER

1. A manufactured fiber that is essentially a physical combination or mixture of two or more chemically
distinct constituents or components combined at or prior to the time of extrusion (i.e., produced in fiber
form), which components if separately extruded would each fall within different definitions of textile fiber.
(FTC definition). Matrix fibril fibers have the fibril constituent randomly arranged across the cross section
of the matrix. When the fibril component is in high concentration it may actually form a fibrillar network in
the matrix. 2. In aerospace textiles, a thermoplastic fiber used with reinforcing fiber to form a composite
after consolidation with heat and pressure. 3. In nonwovens manufacture, fibers that are blended with low-
melt fibers to form a thermally bonded fabric.

MATTED STAPLE

Fiber in the bale that is compressed and entangled in a manner indicating that the fiber was either too wet at
the baling operation or that excessive baling pressure was used.

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MATT EFFECT

See BASKET WEAVE.

MECHANICAL FINISHING

Changing the appearance or physical properties of a fabric by a mechanical process such as calendaring,
embossing, bulking, compacting, or creping.

MELDED FABRIC

A nonwoven fabric of a base fiber and a thermoplastic fiber. The web is hot-calendared or embossed at the
softening point of the thermoplastic fiber to form the bond.

MELT

A material in the molten state.

MELT BLEND

See BICONSTITUENT FIBER.

MELT BLOWING

The formation of a nonwoven by extruding molten polymer through a die then attenuating and breaking the
resulting filaments with hot, high-velocity air or steam. This results in short fiber lengths. The short fibers
are then collected on a moving screen where they bond during cooling. 2001, Celanese Acetate LLC

MELT-DYED

See DYEING, Mass-Colored.

MELT INDEX

The weight in grams of a thermoplastic material that can be forced through a standard orifice within a
specified time.

MELTING POINT

The temperature at which the solid and liquid states of a substance are in equilibrium; generally, the
temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid.

MELTON

A heavily fulled, hard, plain coating fabric that was originally all wool but is now also seen in wool blends.

MELT SPINNING

See SPINNING.

MELT VISCOSITY

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The resistance of molten polymer to shear deformation. It is primarily a factor of intrinsic viscosity and
temperature. It is an apparent polymer viscosity measurement in that it is only true at a specific shear stress
and shear rate combination.

MENDING

A process in woven fabric manufacture in which weaving imperfections, tears, broken yarns, and similar
defects are repaired after weaving; especially on woolen and worsted fabrics to prepare them for dyeing,
finishing, or other processing.

MERCERIZATION

A treatment of cotton yarn or fabric to increase its luster and affinity for dyes. The material is immersed
under tension in a cold sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) solution in warp or skein form or in the piece, and is
later neutralized in acid. The process causes a permanent swelling of the fiber and thus increases its luster.



MERGE

A group to which fiber production is assigned based on properties and dyeability. All fibers within a merge
can be expected to behave uniformly, and for this reason, can be mixed or used interchangeably.

MERINO

1. Wool from purebred Merino sheep. Merino wool usually has a mean fiber diameter of 24 microns or less.
2. A yarn of blended wool and cotton fibers.

MESH FABRICS

A broad term for fabric characterized by open spaces between the yarns. Mesh fabrics may be woven, knit,
lace, net, crochet, etc.

META

A chemical prefix, usually abbreviated m, that denotes that two substituents on a benzene ring are separated
by one carbon atom.

METALLIC FIBER

A manufactured fiber composed of metal, plastic-coated metal, metalcoated plastic, or a core completely
covered by metal (FTC definition). They are available in yarn form as well as in staple form for spinning
with other fibers. A core yarn with a metal surface is produced by twisting a strip of metal around yarn of
natural or manufactured fibers. The most important characteristic of metallic fiber and the chief reason for
its use in textiles is glitter. Metallic fibers are used as a decorative accent in fabrics for apparel, bedspreads,
towels, draperies, and upholstery. A relatively new application for metallic fibers is in carpet pile, where
they are being used in small percentages for control of static electricity.

METALLIZED DYES

See DYES. 2001, Celanese Acetate LLC

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METAMERIC COLOR MATCH

A color match between two materials in which the colors are identical under some lighting conditions but
not under others. Metameric color matches are common when different pigments or dyestuffs are used to
color the two materials.

METAP WEAVE-KNIT PROCESS

A technique combining weaving and knitting in one operation with two independent yarn systems wound on
warp beams. In the fabrics produced, woven strips are linked together with wales of stitches. Generally, the
fabrics have 75-85% woven and 25-15% knitted structure.



METERING PUMP

A positive displacement device that pumps a measured amount of polymer solution to the spinnerets.

METHENAMINE PILL TEST

See FLAMMABILITY TESTS.

METIER

A spinning machine for producing manufactured fibers. The bank of cells or compartments and associated
equipment used in the dry spinning of fibers, such as cellulose acetate and cellulose triacetate.

METIER TWIST

The amount of twist present in yarn wound at the metier.

METRIC COUNT

The number of kilometers per kilogram of yarn.

MICRODENIER

Refers to fibers having less than 1 denier per filament or 0.1 tex per filament.

MICROENCAPSULATION

Enclosing materials in capsules of less than one micron to over 2000 microns in diameter. These can contain
polymer additives that can then be released under certain conditions of use or processing.

MICRONAIRE METHOD

A means of measuring fiber fineness by determining the resistance of a sample to a flow of air forced
through it.

MIGRATION


84

1. Movement of dye from one area of dyed fabric to another. Includes movement of color from the dyed area
to the undyed area of cloth. 2. Movement of fibers which go from the center to the outside surface of yarn
and back again periodically.

MIL

A unit of length, 0.001 inch, commonly used for measuring the diameter of wires and textile monofilaments.

MILANESE KNITTING

See KNITTING.

MILDEW

A whitish growth caused by spore-forming fungi that grow in a warm, moist, confined atmosphere. The
formation of mildew may cause discoloration, tendering, or variation in dyeing properties in cellulosic fiber.

MILDEW RESISTANCE

The degree to which fabrics are unaffected by certain fungi that
cause odor and discoloration.

MILL END
A remnant or short length of finished fabric. 2001, Celanese Acetate LLC

MILLING

1. The process of treating fabric in a fulling mill, i.e., fulling. 2. In silk manufacturing the twisting of the
filaments into yarn. 3. A grinding process, i.e., ball-milling of dyes and pigments.

MILL RUN

A yarn, fabric, or other textile product that has not been inspected or that does not come up to the standard
quality.

MINERAL FIBERS

A generic term for all non-metallic, inorganic fibers, which may be natural, such as asbestos, or
manufactured from such sources as rock, ore, alloys, slag, or glass.

MINIMUM CARE

A term describing home laundering methods. Minimum care fabrics, garments, and household textile
articles can be washed satisfactorily by normal home laundering methods and can be used or worn after light
ironing. Light ironing denotes ironing without starching or dampening and with a relatively small
expenditure of physical effort.

MISCLIP

See SCALLOPED SELVAGE.

MISPICK

85


A weaving defect in which a pick is improperly interlaced, resulting in a break in the weave pattern.
Mispicks can result from starting the loom on the incorrect pick after a pick-out.

MISSING END
See END OUT.

MISS-STITCH

A knitting construction formed when the needle holds the old loop and does not receive new yarn. It
connects two loops of the same course that are not in adjacent wales. Also known as float-stitch.

MIXED END or FILLING

Warp or filling yarn differing from that normally used in the fabric, e.g., yarn with the incorrect twist or
number of plies, yarn of the wrong color, or yarn from the wrong lot.

MOCK DYEING

A heat stabilization process for yarns. The yarns are wound onto packages and subjected to package dyeing
conditions (water, pressure, temperature) but without dye an chemicals in the bath.

MOCK LENO

A combination of weaves having interlacings that tend to form the warp ends into groups (with empty
spaces intervening) in the cloth, thereby giving an imitation of the open structure that is characteristic of
leno fabrics. Mock leno fabrics are used for summer shirts, dresses, and other apparel, and as a shading
medium in Jacquard designs.

MODACRYLIC FIBER

A manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed
of less that 85% but at least 35% by weight of acrylonitrile units (FTC definition). Both wet and dry
spinning are used.

MODULUS

The ratio of change in stress to change in strain following the removal of crimp from the material being
tested; i.e., the ratio of the stress expressed in either force per unit linear density or force per unit area of the
original specimen, and the strain expressed as either a fraction of the original length or percentage
elongation. (Also see YOUNGS MODULUS.)

MOHAIR

See ANGORA, 1.

MOIRE
A wavy or watered effect on a textile fabric, especially a corded fabric of silk, rayon, or one of the
manufactured fibers. Moir is produced by passing the fabric between engraved cylinders which press the
design into the material, causing the crushed and uncrushed parts to reflect light differently.

MOISTURE-FREE WEIGHT

86


1. The constant weight of a specimen obtained by drying at a temperature of 105C in a current of desiccated
air. 2. The weight of a dry substance calculated from an independent determination of moisture content (e.g.,
by distillation with an immiscible solvent or by titration with Fischer reagent).

MOISTURE PROPERTIES

All fibers when exposed to the atmosphere pick up some moisture; the quantity varies with the fiber type,
temperature, and relative humidity. Measurements are generally made at standard conditions, which are
fixed at 65% RH and 70F. Moisture content of a fiber or yarn is usually expressed in terms of percentage
regain after partial drying.

MOISTURE REGAIN

The percentage of moisture in a textile material brought into equilibrium with a standard atmosphere after
partial drying, calculated as a percentage of the moisture-free weight. (Also see STANDARD MOISTURE
REGAIN.)

MOLESKIN

A heavy sateen-weave fabric made with heavy, soft-spun filling yarns. The fabric is sheared and napped to
produce a suede effect.

MONKS CLOTH

A rough, substantial, rather bulky fabric made of very coarse yarn in a 4- and-4 or similar basket-weave
construction.

MONOFIL

See MONOFILAMENT.

MONOFILAMENT

Any single filament of a manufactured fiber, usually of a denier higher than 14. Instead of a group of
filaments being extruded through a spinneret to form a yarn, monofilaments generally are spun individually.
Monofilaments can be used for textiles such as hosiery or sewing thread or for nontextile uses such as
bristles, papermakers felts, fishing lines, etc.

MONOMER

The simple, unpolymerized form of a compound from which a polymer can be made.

MORDANT

A chemical used in some textile fibers to provide affinity for dyes. 2001, Celanese Acetate LLC


MORESQUE

A multicolored yarn formed by twisting or plying single strands of different colors.

87


MORPHOLOGY

The study of the fine structure of a fiber or other material.

MOTE

A small piece of seed or vegetable matter in cotton. Motes are removed by boiling the fiber or fabric in
sodium hydroxide, then bleaching. When not removed, they can leave a dark spot in the fabric.

MUFF

A loose skein of textured yarn prepared for dyeing or bulking. In the bulking operation, the yarn contracts
and the resulting skein resembles a muff.

MUFF DYEING

See DYEING.

MULE SPINNING FRAME

A spinning machine invented by Samuel Crompton in 1782 and termed mule because it was a
combination of the machines invented by Arkwright and Hargreaves. It was once widely used for spinning
wool and to a lesser extent for very fine counts of cotton yarn. Its action was intermittent and slower than
that of the more current ring spinning frame. It drew out and twisted a length of yarn and then wound it in
the form of a cop, or bobbin, then repeated the cycle. (Also see SPINNING FRAME.)

MULLEN BURSTING STRENGTH

An instrumental test method that measures the ability of a fabric to resist rupture by pressure exerted by an
inflated diaphragm.

MULTIFILAMENT

A yarn consisting of many continuous filaments or strands, as opposed to monofilament which is one strand.
Most textile filament yarns are multifilament.

MULTILOBAL CROSS SECTION

See CROSS SECTION.

MURATA SPINNING

See AIR JET SPINNING.



MUSHROOM TEST

See FLAMMABILITY TESTS, Mushroom Apparel Flammability Test.

MUSLIN

88


A broad term describing a wide variety of plain-weave cotton or polyester/cotton fabrics ranging from
lightweight sheers to heavier shirting and sheeting.

MUSSINESS

A fabric defect on the surface that is characterized by undesirable unevenness caused by many minor
deformations. Mussiness is independent of the presence of soil.


Nap
A soft or fuzzy surface on a fabric, usually achieved by brushing.
Needle punching
A process for making a nonwoven textile in which a continuous mat of randomly laid fibres or filaments is
entangled with barbed needles. This causes matting and the production of a "felt" textile.
Nep
A small knot of entangled fibres commonly regarded as a fault but sometimes introduced as an effect.
Noil
Shorter fibres separated from longer fibres in combing.
Nylon
A manufactured fiber with extreme toughness, elasticity and strength.
Natural fibers
A general term for fibers derived from natural substances such as cellulose, proteins and minerals.
Nylon
A generic term for the synthetic polyamide fibers. Olefin A manmade fiber composed of at least 85% by
weight of ethylene, propylene or other olefin units.
Nainsook
A lightweight plain weave cotton fabric, usually finished to create a luster and a soft hand. Common end-
uses are infants' wear, blouses, and lingerie.
Nano-fiber

89

Nano refers to 1 billionth of a meter, or 1 x 10-8 centimeter. 150,000 strands of a nano-fiber can fit across a
human hair.
Nano-technology
Complex technology that involves nano-size materials and combines science such as biology, chemistry and
physics and engineering.
Nap
A fuzzy, fur-like feel created when fiber ends extend from the basic fabric structure to the fabric surface.
The fabric can be napped on either one or both sides.
Napping
The raising of fibers on the face of the goods by means of teasels or rollers covered with card clothing (steel
wires) that are about one inch in height. Action by either method raises the protruding fibers and causes the
finished fabric to provide greater warmth to the wearer, makes the cloth more compact, causes the fabric to
become softer in hand or smoother in feel, increases durability and covers the minute areas between the
interlacings or the warp and the filling.
Net
An open mesh fabric of rayon, nylon, cotton, or silk; made in a variety of geometric-shaped meshes of
different sizes and weights, matched to various end-uses. The net is made by knotting the intersections of
thread or cord to form the mesh.
Net
An open fabric, which is created by connecting the intersections in a woven, knitted, or crocheted
construction to form a mesh-like appearance that won't ravel. End-uses include veils, curtains, and fish nets.
Ninon
A lightweight, plain weave, made of silk or manufactured fibers, with an open mesh-like appearance. Since
the fabric is made with high twist filament yarns, it has a crisp hand. End uses include eveningwear and
curtains.
Nonwoven Fabric
A textile structure held together by interlocking of fibers in a random web, accomplished by mechanical,
chemical, thermal or solvent means. Generally, crimped fibers that range in length from 0.75 to 4.5 inches
are used.
Novelty Yarn
A yarn that is intentionally produced to have a special or unique effect. These effects can be produced by
twisting together uneven single yarns, by using yarns that contain irregularities, or by twisting yarns that
contain a color variance. A slubbed yarn is an example of a novelty yarn.
Nylon

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Produced in 1938, the first completely synthetic fiber developed. Known for its high strength and excellent
resilience, nylon has superior abrasion resistance and high flexibility.
Nytril
A manufactured fiber, most often used in sweaters or pile fabrics, where little or no pressing is
recommended, as the fiber has a low softening or melting point. However, it has also been successfully used
in blends with wool for the purpose of minimizing shrinkage and improving the shape retention in garments.

Ombre
A term used to describe fabrics with a dyed, printed or woven design in which the color is graduated from
light to dark and often into stripes of varying shades.
Open end spinning
A spinning system in which sliver feedstock is highly drafted and thus creates an open end or break in the
fibre flow. The fibres are subsequently assembled on the end of a rotating yarn and twisted in. Techniques
for collecting and twisting the fibres into a yarn include rotor spinning and friction spinning.
Organza
A thin but stiff plain woven silk fabric.
Ottoman
A warp-faced fabric showing a bold weft-way rib.
Oxford
A plain-weave shirting of good quality yarns that has two warp ends weaving as one
Organdy
A thin, transparent and very lightweight fabric of very stiff but fine cotton cloth.
Off-pressing
Pressing done after the garment is completely sewn.
Olefirn (polyolefin/polypropylene)
A manufactured fiber characterized by its light weight, high strength, and abrasion resistance. Olefin is also
good at transporting moisture, creating a wicking action. End-uses include active wear apparel, rope, indoor-
outdoor carpets, lawn furniture, and upholstery.
Open-shoulder construction

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A method used onb better coats that are characterized by hand-sewn lining shoulder seams.
Organdy
A stiffened, sheer, lightweight plain weave fabric, with a medium to high yarn count. End-uses include
blouses, dresses, and curtains/draperies.
Organza -
A crisp, sheer, lightweight plain weave fabric, with a medium to high yarn count, made of silk, rayon, nylon,
or polyester. The fabric is used primarily in evening and wedding apparel for women.
Osnaburg
A tough medium to heavyweight coarsely woven plain weave fabric, usually made of a cotton or cotton/poly
blend. Lower grades of the unfinished fabric are used for such industrial purposes as bags, sacks, pipe
coverings. Higher grades of finished osnaburg can be found in mattress ticking, slipcovers, work wear, and
apparel.
Ottoman
A tightly woven plain weave ribbed fabric with a hard slightly lustered surface. The ribbed effect is created
by weaving a finer silk or manufactured warp yarn with a heavier filler yarn, usually made of cotton, wool,
or waste yarn. In the construction, the heavier filler yarn is completely covered by the warp yarn, thus
creating the ribbed effect. End uses for this fabric include coats, suits, dresses, upholstery, and draperies.
Outseam
The distance from the bottom of the trouser leg to the top of the pant at the waist. The measurement is taken
along the outside leg seam that joins the front and back leg panels, and includes the width of the waistband.


Oven
Enclosed heating equipment used by garment manufacturers to apply heat for the purpose of applying heat
to a garment to set, or cure (bake), a durable press finish on the article.
Oxford
A fine, soft, lightweight woven cotton or blended with manufactured fibers in a 2 x 1 basket weave variation
of the plain weave construction. The fabric is used primarily in shirtings.
Olefin
A manmade fiber composed of at least 85% by weight of ethylene, propylene or other olefin units.
Organza
A thin, transparent silk, rayon or nylon fabric made in a plain weave and given a stiff, wiry finish.

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Off-pressing
Pressing done after the garment is completely sewn.
Olefirn (polyolefin/polypropylene)
A manufactured fiber characterized by its light weight, high strength, and abrasion resistance. Olefin is also
good at transporting moisture, creating a wicking action. End-uses include activewear apparel, rope, indoor-
outdoor carpets, lawn furniture, and upholstery.
Open-shoulder construction
A method used onb better coats that is characterized by hand-sewn lining shoulder seams.
Organdy
A stiffened, sheer, lightweight plain weave fabric, with a medium to high yarn count. End-uses include
blouses, dresses, and curtains/draperies.
Organza
A crisp, sheer, lightweight plain weave fabric, with a medium to high yarn count, made of silk, rayon, nylon,
or polyester. The fabric is used primarily in evening and wedding apparel for women.


Osnaburg
A tough medium to heavyweight coarsely woven plain weave fabric, usually made of a cotton or cotton/poly
blend. Lower grades of the unfinished fabric are used for such industrial purposes as bags, sacks, pipe
coverings. Higher grades of finished osnaburg can be found in mattress ticking, slipcovers, workwear, and
apparel.
Ottoman
A tightly woven plain weave ribbed fabric with a hard slightly lustered surface. The ribbed effect is created
by weaving a finer silk or manufactured warp yarn with a heavier filler yarn, usually made of cotton, wool,
or waste yarn. In the construction, the heavier filler yarn is completely covered by the warp yarn, thus
creating the ribbed effect. End uses for this fabric include coats, suits, dresses, upholstery, and draperies.
Outseam
The distance from the bottom of the trouser leg to the top of the pant at the waist. The measurement is taken
along the outside leg seam that joins the front and back leg panels, and includes the width of the waistband.
Oven
Enclosed heating equipment used by garment manufacturers to apply heat for the purpose of applying heat
to a garment to set, or cure (bake), a durable press finish on the article.

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Oxford
A fine, soft, lightweight woven cotton or blended with manufactured fibers in a 2 x 1 basket weave variation
of the plain weave construction. The fabric is used primarily in shirtings.

Polar Fleece
A fleece-back jersey fabric.
Polynosic
A type of cellulosic fibre characterised by a high wet modulus of elasticity. When sanded or raised, fabrics
made from this fibre have the soft, peachskin surface found in washed silks
Pongee
A lustrous lightweight plain-weave fabric, originally woven in silk
Popcorn
A fabric which has undergone a special finishing technique to give it a texture resembling fluffy kernels of
popcorn.
Poplin
A plain-weave cotton-type fabric with weftways ribs and a high warp sett.
Prince of Wales
A large-scale check, typified by a reversing effect ground with an overcheck.
Peachskin
The term used to describe the soft surface of certain textiles which feels like, and has the appearance of, the
skin of a peach.
Permeability
The ability of a textile to allow air or water vapour to pass through it
Pigment Dyeing
A process used to give garments a characteristic "washed out" or weathered look, while offering good light-
and wash-fastness and reasonable crocking (wet-rub) resistance.
Pima

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A type of long-staple cotton.
Pique
A woven cloth showing rounded cords in the weft direction with sunken lines between them.
Plating
A process for making a knitted fabric from two yarns of different properties-one on the face of the fabric, the
other on the back.
Ply
The number of layers in a fabric. Also used to denote the number of yarns twisted together to form a single
thread or yarn.
Push-pull Fabrics
Bicomponent fabrics composed of a non-absorbent hydrophobic material, usually polyester, on the inside
(worn next to the skin) and an absorbent hydrophilic material, usually nylon, on the outside.
Paisley
A tear-drop shaped, fancy printed pattern, used in dresses, blouses, and men's ties.
Panne Velvet
A type of lustrous, lightweight velvet fabric, usually made of silk or a manufactured fiber, in which the pile
has been flattened in one direction.
Parachute Fabric
A compactly woven, lightweight fabric comparable with airplane cloth. It is made of silk, nylon, rayon,
cotton, or polyester.
Peau de Soie
A heavy twill weave drapeable satin fabric, made of silk or a manufactured fiber, and used for bridal gowns
and eveningwear.
Percale
A medium weight, plain weave, low to medium count (180 to 250 threads per square inch) cotton-like
fabric. End-uses include sheets, blouses, and dresses.
Performance Fabrics
Fabrics made for a variety of end-use applications, which provide functional qualitites, such as moisture
management, UV protection, anti-microbial, thermo-regulation, and wind/water resistance.
Permanent Press (Durable Press)

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Terms used to describe a garment which has been treated to retain its fresh appearance, crease, and shape
throughout the life of the garment, Permanent press can be a misleading description, because no finish is
completely permanent. Durable press or crease resistant are the more accepted terms, and are the ones
approved by the Federal Trade Commission.
Permeability
A textile characteristic which allows air, water, and water vapor to penetrate and pass through it.
Perspiration Resistant
A treatment on a fabric which allows a fabric or a dye to resist perspiration.
Phase Change Materials
A hydrophilic compound applied to a fiber or fabric which results in superior breathability and a moisture
management system within the fabric that helps to maintain a comfortable body temperature when the
garment is worn.
Pick
A filling yarn that runs crosswise between selveges in woven goods. The pick intersects with the warp (or
lengthwise yarn) to form a woven cloth.
Pile Fabric
A fabric in which certain yarns project from a foundation texture and form a pile on the surface. Pile yarns
may be cut or uncut in the fabric. Corduroy and velveteen are examples of cut filling pile fabrics.
Pile Knit
A type of knit construction which utilizes a special yarn or a sliver that is interlooped into a standard knit
base. This construction is used in the formation of imitation fur fabrics, in special liners for cold weather
apparel such as jackets and coats, and in some floor coverings. While any basic knit stitch may be used for
the base of pile knits, the most common is the jersey stitch.
Pile Weave
A type of decorative weave in which a pile is formed by additional warp or filling yarns interlaced in such a
way that loops are formed on the surface or face of the fabric. The loops may be left uncut, or they may be
cut to expose yarn ends and produce cut pile fabric.
Pill
A tangled ball of fibers that appears on the surface of a fabric, as a result of wear or continued friction or
rubbing on the surface of the fabric.
Piping
A narrow tape used to bind seams, or used for decoration. Pique - A knitted fabric that resembles a
lightweight Bedford cord, with the wales or cords running in the warpwise or lengthwise direction.

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Pique
A medium-weight fabric, either knit or woven, with raised dobby designs including cords, wales, waffles, or
patterns. Woven versions have cords running lengthwise, or in the warp direction. Knitted versions are
double-knit fabric constructions, created on multi-feed circular knitting machines.
Plaid
A pattern consisting of colored bars or stripes which cross each other at right angles, comparable with a
Scottish tartan.
Plain Edge (Bluff Edge)
A construction in which the edges of the garment are not stitched.
Plain Weave
A basic weave, utilizing a simple alternate interlacing of warp and filling yarns. Any type of yarn made from
any type of fiber can be manufactured into a plain weave fabric.
Plaited Fabric
A narrow fabric made by crossing a number of sturdy yarns diagonally, so each strand passes alternatively
over or under one or more of the other stands. Typically used in shoe laces and suspenders.
Plaited Yarn
A yarn covered by another yarn.
Pleats
A portion of the fabric folded over, and secured by stitching or pressing. Plied Yarn - A twisting together of
two or more single yarns in one operation.
Pliss
A lightweight, plain weave, fabric, made from cotton, rayon, or acetate, and characterized by a puckered
striped effect, usually in the warp direction. The crinkled effect is created through the application of a
caustic soda solution, which shrinks the fabric in the areas of the fabric where it is applied. Pliss is similar
in appearance to seersucker. End-uses include dresses, shirtings, pajamas, and bedspreads.
Ply
Two or more yarns that have been twisted together. An automobile tire fabric yarn may be 9, 10, or 11 ply.
Pocket (patch)
A pocket attached to the outside of the garment and constructed of self-fabric.
Pocket (quarter)
The angle from the side seam.

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Pocket (rule)
A patch pocket attached on the outseam, halfway between the hip and the knee of the garment; usually
found on coveralls.
Pocket (serged)
A pocket formed by joining two pieces of fabric and joining the edges with safety-stitching.
Pocket (slash)
A pocket that must be entered through a slash on the garment. The pocket pouch is suspended from and
attached to the slash.
Pocket (stitch and turn)
Formed when two pieces of fabric are joined along the edges and turned so that the raw seam margin is
inside of the finished pocket.
Pocket (stitched/topstitched)
The same as stitch and turn pocket, except with an added row of stitching along the folded edges.
Pocket (swing)
The pocket pouch is suspended from and attached to the pocket opening.
Pocket Facing
A piece of shell (outer) material super-imposed on the top of the pocket material at its opening to conceal
the lining.
Polyester
A manufactured fiber introduced in the early 1950s, and is second only to cotton in worldwide use. Polyester
has high strength (although somewhat lower than nylon), excellent resiliency, and high abrasion resistance.
Low absorbency allows the fiber to dry quickly.
Polymer
A high molecular weight structure, which makes up the substance from which manufactured fibers are
produced. The fiber is created by linking together the chain-like molecular units called monomers.
Polypropylene (Olefin or Polyolefin
A manufactured fiber characterized by its light weight, high strength, and abrasion resistance. Polypropylene
is also good at transporting moisture, creating a wicking action. End-uses include active wear apparel, rope,
indoor-outdoor carpets, lawn furniture, and upholstery.
Pongee

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The most common form is a naturally colored lightweight, plain weave, silk-like fabric with a slubbed
effect. End-uses include blouses, dresses, etc.


Ponte di Roma
A fabric made in a double knit construction, usually produced in one color rather than color patterns. This
plain fabric has an elastic quality with a slight horizontal line. The fabric looks the same on both sides.
Poplin
A fabric made using a rib variation of the plain weave. The construction is characterized by having a slight
ridge effect in one direction, usually the filling. Poplin used to be associated with casual clothing, but as the
"world of work" has become more relaxed, this fabric has developed into a staple of men's wardrobes, being
used frequently in casual trousers.
Post-Cure
A type of durable press finish in which the finish is applied to the fabric by the mill, but the garment
manufacturer completes the cure of the finish by applying heat, using an oven, or press, or both to the
completed garment.
Pre-Cure
A finishing treatment in which the durable press finish is applied to the fabric and set, or cured, through the
use of heat at the mill, prior to shipment of the fabric to the garment manufacturer.
Pre-Shrunk
Fabrics which have received a treatment, which causes shrinking. Often done on cottons before cutting the
fabric in order to remove the tendency for shrinkage in the finished garment. The percent of residual
shrinkage must be indicated on the label of the treated goods or garments.
Press
1A device that uses heat and pressure to remove wrinkles and creases and smooth fabrics during garment
construction. 2. A device used to press or compress raw materials. 3. To iron in the home or commercial
laundry. 4. To squeeze liquid out of a fabric through the use of roller presses.
PTFE Fabric
A fabric made from Polytetrafluoroethylene, such as Gore-Tex.
Pucker
The uneven surface caused by differential shrinkage in the two layers of a bonded fabric during processing,
dry cleaning, or washing.


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Purl Stitch
A basic stitch used in weft knitting, which produces knit fabrics that have the same appearance on both
sides. The purl stitch is frequently used in combination with the jersey and rib stitches to produce a knitted
fabric design. Sweaters, knitted fabrics for infants and children's wear, knitted fabrics for specialized
sportswear, and bulky knit fabrics are commonly made using the purl stitch.
Pellon
A non-woven fabric that is used as an interfacing to shape, support and/or stabilize areas of a product.
Percale
A fine, plain-woven cloth of closely set combed and carded long staple cotton.
Piece dyeing
A process of dyeing fabric in the piece (bolt).
Pigment
An insoluble powdered coloring agent carried in a liquid binder and printed or padded onto the surface of a
cloth.
Pile
Raised loops, cut interlacings of double cloths or tufts (cut loops) and other erect yarns or fibers deliberately
produced on cloth, which form all or part of the surface of the fabric.
Pill
A fuzzy ball caused by the rolling up of abraded surface fibers.
Pique
Fabric has an embossed appearance created by weaving ribbed, waffle or honeycomb patterns.
Ply
The number of yarns twisted together to make a composite yarn.
Polyester
A generic term for a manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is a long chain synthetic
polymer composed of a complex ester.

Paisley

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A tear-drop shaped, fancy printed pattern, used in dresses, blouses, and men's ties.
Panne Velvet
A type of lustrous, lightweight velvet fabric, usually made of silk or a manufactured fiber, in which the pile
has been flattened in one direction.
Parachute Fabric
A compactly woven, lightweight fabric comparable with airplane cloth. It is made of silk, nylon, rayon,
cotton, or polyester.
Peau de Soie
A heavy twill weave drape able satin fabric, made of silk or a manufactured fiber, and used for bridal gowns
and eveningwear.
Percale
A medium weight, plain weave, low to medium count (180 to 250 threads per square inch) cotton-like
fabric. End-uses include sheets, blouses, and dresses.
Performance Fabrics
Fabrics made for a variety of end-use applications, which provide functional qualities, such as moisture
management, UV protection, anti-microbial, thermo-regulation, and wind/water resistance.
Permanent Press (Durable Press)
Terms used to describe a garment which has been treated to retain its fresh appearance, crease, and shape
throughout the life of the garment, Permanent press can be a misleading description, because no finish is
completely permanent. Durable press or crease resistant are the more accepted terms, and are the ones
approved by the Federal Trade Commission.
Permeability
A textile characteristic which allows air, water, and water vapor to penetrate and pass through it.
Perspiration Resistant
A treatment on a fabric which allows a fabric or a dye to resist perspiration.
Phase Change Materials
A hydrophilic compound applied to a fiber or fabric which results in superior breathability and a moisture
management system within the fabric that helps to maintain a comfortable body temperature when the
garment is worn.
Pick
A filling yarn that runs crosswise between selveges in woven goods. The pick intersects with the warp (or
lengthwise yarn) to form a woven cloth.

101

Pile Fabric
A fabric in which certain yarns project from a foundation texture and form a pile on the surface. Pile yarns
may be cut or uncut in the fabric. Corduroy and velveteen are examples of cut filling pile fabrics.
Pile Knit
A type of knit construction which utilizes a special yarn or a sliver that is interlooped into a standard knit
base. This construction is used in the formation of imitation fur fabrics, in special liners for cold weather
apparel such as jackets and coats, and in some floor coverings. While any basic knit stitch may be used for
the base of pile knits, the most common is the jersey stitch.
Pile Weave
A type of decorative weave in which a pile is formed by additional warp or filling yarns interlaced in such a
way that loops are formed on the surface or face of the fabric. The loops may be left uncut, or they may be
cut to expose yarn ends and produce cut pile fabric.
Pill
A tangled ball of fibers that appears on the surface of a fabric, as a result of wear or continued friction or
rubbing on the surface of the fabric.
Piping
A narrow tape used to bind seams, or used for decoration.
Pique
A knitted fabric that resembles a lightweight Bedford cord, with the wales or cords running in the warp wise
or lengthwise direction.
Piqu
A medium-weight fabric, either knit or woven, with raised dobby designs including cords, wales, waffles, or
patterns. Woven versions have cords running lengthwise, or in the warp direction. Knitted versions are
double-knit fabric constructions, created on multi-feed circular knitting machines.
Plaid
A pattern consisting of colored bars or stripes which cross each other at right angles, comparable with a
Scottish tartan.
Plain Edge (Bluff Edge)
A construction in which the edges of the garment are not stitched.
Plain Weave
A basic weave, utilizing a simple alternate interlacing of warp and filling yarns. Any type of yarn made from
any type of fiber can be manufactured into a plain weave fabric.

102

Plaited Fabric
A narrow fabric made by crossing a number of sturdy yarns diagonally, so each strand passes alternatively
over or under one or more of the other stands. Typically used in shoe laces and suspenders. Plaited Yarn- A
yarn covered by another yarn.
Pleats
A portion of the fabric folded over, and secured by stitching or pressing. Plied Yarn- A twisting together of
two or more single yarns in one operation.
Pliss
A lightweight, plain weave, fabric, made from cotton, rayon, or acetate, and characterized by a puckered
striped effect, usually in the warp direction. The crinkled effect is created through the application of a
caustic soda solution, which shrinks the fabric in the areas of the fabric where it is applied. Pliss is similar
in appearance to seersucker. End-uses include dresses, shirtings, pajamas, and bedspreads.
Ply
Two or more yarns that have been twisted together. An automobile tire fabric yarn may be 9, 10, or 11 ply.
Pocket (patch)
A pocket attached to the outside of the garment and constructed of self-fabric. Pocket (quarter)- The angle
from the side seam.
Pocket (rule)
A patch pocket attached on the outseam, halfway between the hip and the knee of the garment; usually
found on coveralls.
Pocket (serged)
A pocket formed by joining two pieces of fabric and joining the edges with safety-stitching.


Pocket (slash)
A pocket that must be entered through a slash on the garment. The pocket pouch is suspended from and
attached to the slash.
Pocket (stitch and turn)
Formed when two pieces of fabric are joined along the edges and turned so that the raw seam margin is
inside of the finished pocket.
Pocket (stitched/topstitched)

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The same as stitch and turn pocket, except with an added row of stitching along the folded edges.
Pocket (swing)
The pocket pouch is suspended from and attached to the pocket opening.
Pocket Facing
A piece of shell (outer) material super-imposed on the top of the pocket material at its opening to conceal
the lining.
Polyester
A manufactured fiber introduced in the early 1950s, and is second only to cotton in worldwide use. Polyester
has high strength (although somewhat lower than nylon), excellent resiliency, and high abrasion resistance.
Low absorbency allows the fiber to dry quickly.
Polymer
A high molecular weight structure, which makes up the substance from which manufactured fibers are
produced. The fiber is created by linking together the chain-like molecular units called monomers.
Polypropylene (Olefin or Polyolefin)
A manufactured fiber characterized by its light weight, high strength, and abrasion resistance. Polypropylene
is also good at transporting moisture, creating a wicking action. End-uses include active wear apparel, rope,
indoor-outdoor carpets, lawn furniture, and upholstery.
Pongee
The most common form is a naturally colored lightweight, plain weave, silk-like fabric with a slubbed
effect. End-uses include blouses, dresses, etc.


Ponte di Roma
A fabric made in a double knit construction, usually produced in one color rather than color patterns. This
plain fabric has an elastic quality with a slight horizontal line. The fabric looks the same on both sides.
Poplin
A fabric made using a rib variation of the plain weave. The construction is characterized by having a slight
ridge effect in one direction, usually the filling. Poplin used to be associated with casual clothing, but as the
"world of work" has become more relaxed, this fabric has developed into a staple of men's wardrobes, being
used frequently in casual trousers.
Post-Cure

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A type of durable press finish in which the finish is applied to the fabric by the mill, but the garment
manufacturer completes the cure of the finish by applying heat, using an oven, or press, or both to the
completed garment.
Pre-Cure
A finishing treatment in which the durable press finish is applied to the fabric and set, or cured, through the
use of heat at the mill, prior to shipment of the fabric to the garment manufacturer.
Pre-Shrunk
Fabrics which have received a treatment, which causes shrinking. Often done on cottons before cutting the
fabric in order to remove the tendency for shrinkage in the finished garment. The percent of residual
shrinkage must be indicated on the label of the treated goods or garments.
Press
1A device that uses heat and pressure to remove wrinkles and creases and smooth fabrics during garment
construction. 2. A device used to press or compress raw materials. 3. To iron in the home or commercial
laundry. 4. To squeeze liquid out of a fabric through the use of roller presses.
PTFE Fabric
A fabric made from Polytetrafluoroethylene, such as Gore-Tex.
Pucker
The uneven surface caused by differential shrinkage in the two layers of a bonded fabric during processing,
dry cleaning, or washing.


Purl Stitch
A basic stitch used in weft knitting, which produces knit fabrics that have the same appearance on both
sides. The purl stitch is frequently used in combination with the jersey and rib stitches to produce a knitted
fabric design. Sweaters, knitted fabrics for infants and children's wear, knitted fabrics for specialized
sportswear, and bulky knit fabrics are commonly made using the purl stitch.

QUADRIPOLYMER

A polymer made from four distinct monomers.

QUALITY


105

See SECONDS and YARN QUALITY.

QUARTZ FIBER

Pure silica that has been melted and drawn into glass-like fibers. Used for heat resistance and high dielectric
strength.

QUENCH

1. A box filled with water into which fabric is run after singeing to prevent sparks or fires. 2. See CABINET.
(Also see QUENCHING.)

QUENCHING

The cooling of fiber filaments after extrusion by carefully controlled airflow. (See CROSSFLOW
QUENCH, INFLOW QUENCH, and OUTFLOW QUENCH.)

QUENCH SPACER

The quiet zone below the spinneret in which there is no quench airflow. Quench spacer distance is
important in controlling fiber orientation and birefringence.

QUETSCH

The nip rollers of a padding machine.

QUILL

A light, tapered tube of wood, metal, paper, or plastic on which the filling yarn is wound for use in the
shuttle during weaving.



QUILLING

The process of winding filling yarns onto filling bobbins, or quills, in preparation for use in the shuttle for
weaving.

QUILTING

1. A fabric construction consisting of a layer of padding, frequently down or fiberfill, sandwiched between
two layers of material and held in place by stitching or sealing in a regular pattern across the body of the
composite. (Also see PINSONIC THERMAL JOINING MACHINE.) 2. The process of stitch bonding a
batting or composite.

Ramie

106

A bast fibre similar to flax, the fibre used for making linen textiles.
Raschel
A two-needle warp knitting system.
Rayon
A term used to describe fibres made from regenerated cellulose (see also viscose, modal and acetate).
Ready-to-wear
A term used to describe clothing which has been produced in a factory and is offered for sale as a finished
garment in a range of standard sizes
Real twist
Twist inserted in a yarn through the rotation of a yarn end (as in uptwisting or downtwisting) or the repeated
passage of a thread loop around an end, as in two-for-one twisting
Reed
A device consisting of several wires closely set which separate warp threads in a loom. The reed determines
the spacing of the warp threads, guides the weft carrying device, and beats up the weft against the fell of the
cloth.
Repco spinning
A technology for spinning yarns using a system of false twisting in which the rate of false twisting can be
varied
Resist treatment
A treatment applied to part of a fabric which causes the area treated to resist the take-up of dye
Retting (flax)
The subjection of a crop of flax or deseeded flax straw to chemical or biological treatment in order to make
fibre bundles more easily separable from the woody part of the stem.
Rib fabric
A knitted fabric with a rib pattern. Depending upon the usage, the pattern can be altered to exhibit different
rib effects. Rib fabric is used mainly in round necks and cuffs for certain types of T-shirts. It is also used for
making undergarments.
Ribbon yarns
Yarns that are woven or knitted in the form of a ribbon.
Ring spun

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A spinning system in which twist is inserted in a yarn by using a revolving traveller. This method gives a
tighter twist than the more modern, faster and usually cheaper open end spinning process
Rotor spinning
A method of open end spinning which uses a rotor (a high speed centrifuge) to collect and twist individual
fibres into a yarn.
Roving
A collection of relatively fine fibrous strands used in the later or final processes of preparation for spinning.
Rayon
A synthetic fiber with a cellulose base used a lot in combination with other fibers and can be lustrous and is
less expensive than silk.
Ramie
A bast fiber, similar to flax, taken from the stalk of a plant grown in China.
Raschel Knit
A warp knitted fabric in which the resulting knit fabric resembles hand crocheted fabrics, lace fabrics, and
nettings. Raschel warp knits contain inlaid connecting yarns in addition to columns of knit stitches.
Rayon
A manufactured fiber composed of regenerated cellulose, derived from wood pulp, cotton linters, or other
vegetable matter. Today, various names for rayon fibers are taken from different manufacturing processes.
The two most commonly used production methods for rayon are the Cuprammonium process and the
viscose process.
Reflective Insulation Technology
All materials emit energy by thermal radiation as a result of their temperature. The amount of energy or
radiant heat reflected depends on the surface temperature. The higher the surface temperature is, the greater
the reflection will be. Reflective Insulation Technology has been used by NASA since the earliest satellites,
and continues to be used today as the primary space suit insulation to protect every astronaut in space from
the extreme temperatures of outer space. The technology is effective in temperatures as high as 120 degrees
C. (250 degrees F.) to as low as -273 degrees C. (-400 degrees F.)
Repellency
The ability of a fabric to resist such things as wetting and staining by water, stains, soil, etc. Resiliency - The
ability of a fabric to spring back to its original shape after being t compounds to the fabric to provide
wrinkle-resistance, wash-and-wear characteristics, or an improved hand.
Rib Knit
A basic stitch used in weft knitting in which the knitting machines require two sets of needles operating at
right angles to each other. Rib knits have a very high degree of elasticity in the crosswise direction. This

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knitted fabric is used for complete garments and for such specialized uses as sleeve bands, neck bands,
sweater waistbands, and special types of trims for use with other knit or woven fabrics. Lightweight
sweaters in rib knits provide a close, body-hugging fit.
Rib Weave
One of the plain weave variations, which is formed by using: 1) heavy yarns in the warp or filling direction,
or 2) a substantially higher number of yarns per inch in one direction than in the other, or 3) several yarns
grouped together as one. Rib fabrics are all characterized by having a slight ridge effect in one direction,
usually the filling. Such fabrics may have problems with yarn slippage, abrasion resistance, and tear
strength. Examples of this construction include broadcloth, poplin, taffeta, faille, shantung, and cord fabric.
Ribbon
A fillet or narrow woven fabric of varying widths, commonly one-quarter to three inches, having selvage
edges, chiefly or rayon, silk, or velvet, and used for braiding, decoration, trimmings, etc.

Rickrack
Flat braid in a zig-zag formation. Made from several types if fibers, it is used for many kinds of trimming on
apparel.
Ring Spinning
A system of spinning, using a ring spinning frame that drafts the roving, twists the yarn, and winds it on the
bobbin continuously and simultaneously on one operation. Modern ring frames are suitable for spinning all
counts up to 150s.
Rip-stop Nylon
A lightweight, wind resistant, and water resistant plain weave fabric. Large rib yarns stop tears without
adding excess weight to active sportswear apparel and outdoor equipment such as sleeping bags and tents.
Rise
The length of trouser from the top of the waistband at the fly opening, around the crotch, to the top of the
back waistband at the center.
Raffia
A leaf stalk fiber obtained from the raffia palm in Raffia, Madagascar.
Railroaded
The pattern runs horizontally rather than up the roll.
Rayon
Generic term for a manmade fiber derived from regenerated cellulose.

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Repeat
A term used to describe how often the pattern repeats on a fabric.
Resin
A synthetic substance used in corrective finishes adding body, reducing creasing, control shrinkage,
producing luster in glazing, repelling water or supplying permanent press.
Rope
Ropes are cords with a diameter of at least one inch.
Ruched
Fabric can be ruched (gathered) to achieve a more elegant effect. Mostly used in welts or in the face of
decorative pillows.
Ruffle
A gathered fabric. Bed skirts are often ruffled. Pillows can also have a ruffled finish instead of a plain
flange. The fullness of a ruffle is regulated by how much fabric is used.
Ramie
A bast fiber, similar to flax, taken from the stalk of a plant grown in China.
Raschel Knit
A warp knitted fabric in which the resulting knit fabric resembles hand crocheted fabrics, lace fabrics, and
nettings. Raschel warp knits contain inlaid connecting yarns in addition to columns of knit stitches.
Rayon
A manufactured fiber composed of regenerated cellulose, derived from wood pulp, cotton linters, or other
vegetable matter. Today, various names for rayon fibers are taken from different manufacturing processes.
The two most commonly used production methods for rayon are the cuprammonium process and the viscose
process.
Repellency
The ability of a fabric to resist such things as wetting and staining by water, stains, soil, etc. Resiliency- The
ability of a fabric to spring back to its original shape after being twisted, crushed, wrinkled, or distorted in
any way.
Resin
The name commonly applied to synthetic chemical compounds polymerized on the fabric or yarn to give
wash-and-wear and durable press properties, crush resistance, dimensional stability, and hand to fabrics.
Resin-Treated

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A finishing process associated with the application of synthetic chemical compounds to the fabric to provide
wrinkle-resistance, wash-and-wear characteristics, or an improved hand.
Rib Knit
A basic stitch used in weft knitting in which the knitting machines require two sets of needles operating at
right angles to each other. Rib knits have a very high degree of elasticity in the crosswise direction. This
knitted fabric is used for complete garments and for such specialized uses as sleeve bands, neck bands,
sweater waistbands, and special types of trims for use with other knit or woven fabrics. Lightweight
sweaters in rib knits provide a close, body-hugging fit.

Rib Weave
One of the plain weave variations, which is formed by using: 1) heavy yarns in the warp or filling direction,
or 2) a substantially higher number of yarns per inch in one direction than in the other, or 3) several yarns
grouped together as one. Rib fabrics are all characterized by having a slight ridge effect in one direction,
usually the filling. Such fabrics may have problems with yarn slippage, abrasion resistance, and tear
strength. Examples of this construction include broadcloth, poplin, taffeta, faille, shantung, and cord fabric.
Ribbon
A fillet or narrow woven fabric of varying widths, commonly one-quarter to three inches, having selvage
edges, chiefly or rayon, silk, or velvet, and used for braiding, decoration, trimmings, etc.
Rickrack
Flat braid in a zig-zag formation. Made from several types if fibers, it is used for many kinds of trimming on
apparel.
Ring Spinning
A system of spinning, using a ring spinning frame that drafts the roving, twists the yarn, and winds it on the
bobbin continuously and simultaneously on one operation. Modern ring frames are suitable for spinning all
counts up to 150s.
Rip-stop Nylon
A lightweight, wind resistant, and water resistant plain weave fabric. Large rib yarns stop tears without
adding excess weight to active sportswear apparel and outdoor equipment such as sleeping bags and tents.
Rise
The length of trouser from the top of the waistband at the fly opening, around the crotch, to the top of the
back waistband at the center.


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Scouring
The treatment of textiles in aqueous or other solutions in order to remove natural fats, waxes, proteins and
other constituents, as well as dirt, oil and other impurities.
Scrim
A fabric with an open or loose configuration of strands or filaments which can usually be easily seen
through from a distance.
Seersucker
A fabric characterized by the presence of puckered areas contrasted by flat areas, usually in stripes along the
length of the cloth.
Selvedge
The longitudinal edge of a fabric or a garment panel produced during knitting. The term can also be applied
to fabric in which the yarn is cut rather than turned at the end of a course of loops.
Sandwash
The soft peachskin finish obtained by blasting a fabric with fine sand.
Sanforizing
A controlled compressive shrinkage process. The word Sanforized is a registered trade mark and can be used
to describe fabrics which meet defined and approved standards of washing shrinkage
Satin Weave
A warp faced weave in which the binding places are arranged with a view to producing a smooth fabric
surface, free from twill.
Shed
An opening formed during weaving by raising some warp threads and lowering others to facilitate the
passage of a weft yarn or a weft carrying device across the weaving machine
Shedding
A motion in weaving whereby a shed is created to facilitate the passage of a weft yarn or a weft carrying
device across the weaving machine.
Shepherd's Check
A small check effect in contrasting colors, often black and white
Shin Gosen
Fabrics made from ultra-fine polyester filament yarns with enhanced comfort, handle, drape and aesthetics.
Shin goes fabrics are designed specifically to appeal to end users by employing a combination of
sophisticated fibre and fabric processing technologies.

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Single Knitted Fabric
A fabric produced by knitting a single yarn continuously. In this type of fabric, the face and the back show
different patterns.
Sirospun Yarns
Worsted ply yarns spun on a slightly modified ring-spinning frame, which creates the yarns directly from
two rovings. In forming the yarns, the spinning frame twists the two rovings together, thereby holding the
fibres in place. The process, developed in Australia, eliminates the step of forming two separate single yarns.
Sizing
A process in which size is applied to yarns (usually warp) before weaving to protect, strengthen and
lubricate them during weaving. Sliver: An assemblage of fibres in continuous form without twist.
Slub Yarns
Yarns with a deliberately uneven surface Snarl yarns: Yarns which are so highly twisted that they curl back
on themselves into knots and snarls, like twisted strands of elastic
Solvent Spinning
The process of dissolving and subsequently spinning a fibre or filament without the formation of an
intermediate derivative
Space Dyed
A dyeing process in which yarn is colored at intervals
Spin Drawing
A process for spinning partially or highly oriented filaments in which the spinning and drawing processes
are integrated sequential stages. Most of the orientation in spin drawing is introduced between the first
forwarding device and the take-up.
Spinneret
A nozzle or plate provided with fine holes or slits through which a fibre-forming solution or melt is extruded
during fibre manufacture.
Spinning
The process used in the production of yarns or filaments
Spun bond
Nonwovens made from a continuous mat of randomly laid filaments. The filaments are bonded together by
heat and pressure or needle punching.
Spunlacing

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A process for bonding a nonwoven fabric by using high pressure water jets to intermingle the fibres.
Spunmelt
A nonwoven structure made by extruding molten polymer through spinnerets to form fibres. Spunmelt
processes are used in the manufacture of spunbond nonwovens, meltblown nonwovens and combinations of
the two.
Stain Resistance
The ability of a fabric to withstand permanent discoloration by the action of liquids. This property depends
partly upon the chemical nature of the fibre but may be improved by proprietary treatments.
Staple Fibre
short length fibres, as distinct from continuous filaments, which are twisted together (spun) to form a
coherent yarn. Most natural fibres are staple fibres, the main exception being silk which is a filament yarn.
Most man-made staple fibres are produced in this form by slicing up a tow of continuous filament.
Stitchbonding
A process in which a series of interlooped stitches are inserted along the length of a pre-formed fabric, an
array of cross-laid yarns or a fibre web. Proprietary systems include Arachne, Malipol and Maliwatt.
Sueded Fabric
A fabric finished in such a way as to imitate suede leather.
Synthetic Fibre
A man-made fibre made from a polymer that has been produced artificially, in contrast to fibres made from
naturally occurring polymers such as cellulose.
Sateen
An imitation fabric of satin with a lustrous surface and usually made of cotton.Satin:A glossy surface fabric
with a dull back made for use for draperies and upholstery but not recommended for heavy usage.
Silk
Made from the silkworm silk takes dye superbly and produces iridescent colors but natural light can discolor
easily. The texture of silk can vary depending on the quality.
Spun silk
Silk yarns that are made from damaged silk cocoons and mill waste. The result tends to have a heavier hand
and is less lustrous than reeled silk.

Strie

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This is cloth that resembles an uneven stripe or of having a streaked effect that is made by using threads of
various colors.
Sailcloth
Any heavy, plain-weave canvas fabric, usually made of cotton, linen, polyester, jute, nylon, etc. that is used
for sails and apparel (i.e. bottomweight sportswear).
Sanforized
Registered trademark of Cluett, Peabody & Co. for fabrics processed by machine so that residual shrinkage
will not exceed 1% in either direction (according to the U.S.?s standard wash test CCC-T-191a),, despite
repeated washings.
Saran Fiber
A manufactured fiber which has an excellent resistance to sunlight and weathering, and is used in lawn
furniture, upholstery, and carpets.
Sateen Fabric
A fabric made from yarns with low luster, such as cotton or other staple length fibers. The fabric has a soft,
smooth hand and a gentle, subtle luster. Sateen fabrics are often used for draperies and upholstery.
Sateen Weave
A variation of the satin weave, produced by floating fill yarns over warp yarns.
Satin Fabric
A traditional fabric utilizing a satin weave construction to achieve a lustrous fabric surface. Satin is a
traditional fabric for evening and wedding garments. Typical examples of satin weave fabrics include:
slipper satin, crepe-back satin, faille satin, bridal satin, moleskin, and antique satin.
Satin Weave
A basic weave, characterized by long floats of yarn on the face of the fabric. The yarns are interlaced in such
a manner that there is no definite, visible pattern of interlacing and, in this manner, a smooth and somewhat
shiny surface effect is achieved. The shiny surface effect is further increased through the use of high luster
filament fibers in yarns which also have a low amount of twist. A true satin weave fabric always has the
warp yarns floating over filling yarns.
Saxony
Originally a high grade coating fabric made from Saxony merino wool raised in Germany.
Schiffli Embroidery
Originated in Switzerland, the word, Schiffli, means "boat", identifiable with the boat-shaped shuttle used in
the frame. The lace effect is made by embroidering the motifs on a net ground.
Seam (book/booking)

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The raw edge hem done on a blindstitch machine, usually sewn in the side ans back seam outlets, and on the
bottom turn-up.
Seam (french)
A closure between two pieces of material, made by stitching,turning, and restitching, so as to conceal all raw
edges.
Seam (open gorge)
Both the collar and the facing are turned under, basted, and then the seam is felled (edges folded together)
from the outside.
Seam (raised)
A seam resulting after two pieces of fabric have been joined; one piece is folded back, and a second row of
stitching is placed adjacent to the folded edge.
Seamless Knitting
A unique process of circular knitting, done on either Santoni or Sangiacomo knitting machines. This circular
knitting process essentially produces finished garments with no side seams, which require only minimal
sewisng to complete the garment. Seamless knitting can transform yarn into complete garments in a fraction
of the time it takes for traditional garment manufacturing, by minimizing the traditional labor-intensive steps
of sutting and sewing
Seamless Technology
This term can refer to either "seamless knitting" (See Seamless Knitting), or "welding/bonding technology",
which uses a bonding agent to attach two pieces of fabric together, and eliminates the need for sewing
threads. (See welding.)
Seat
The circumference of a pant, measured perpendicular to the fly opening and from the base of the fly.
Seersucker
A woven fabric which incorporates modification of tension control. In the production of seersucker, some of
the warp yarns are held under controlled tension at all times during the weaving, while other warp yarns are
in a relaxed state and tend to pucker when the filling yarns are placed. The result produces a puckered stripe
effect in the fabric. Seersucker is traditionally made into summer sportswear such as shirts, trousers, and
informal suits.
Self-goods
When the same material is used as a pocket lining, or in a waistband, collar and fly construction. Also called
shell.
Selvage or Selvedge

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The thin compressed edge of a woven fabric which runs parallel to the warp yarns and prevents raveling. It
is usually woven, utilizing tougher yarns and a tighter construction than the rest of the fabric.
Serge
A fabric with a smooth hand that is created by a two-up, two-down twill weave. Serging - An overcasting
technique done on the cut edge of a fabric to prevent raveling.
Shantung
A medium-weight, plain weave fabric, characterized by a ribbed effect, resulting from slubbed yarns used in
the warp or filling direction. End-uses include dresses and suits.
Sharkskin
A hard-finished, low lustered, medium-weight fabric in a twill-weave construction. It is most commonly
found in men's worsted suitings; however, it can also be found in a plain-weave construction of acetate,
triacetate, and rayon for women's sportswear.
Shell
A fabric from which the garment is made.
Shuttle
The boat-like devise on weaving machines, which carries the filling yarn wound on the bobbin. The shuttle
moves from the shuttle box on one side of the loom, through the shed, and onto the shuttle box at the other
side of the loom. Opening - An opening created by the facing tacked onto the swing pockets. It allows the
wearer access to his trouser pockets. Typically found on coveralls.
Silk
A natural filament fiber produced by the silkworm in the construction of its cocoon. Most silk is collected
from cultivated worms; Tussah silk, or wild silk, is a thicker, shorter fiber produced by worms in their
natural habitat. All silk comes from Asia, primarily China.

Singeing
Process of burning off protruding fibers from fabrics to give the fabric a smooth surface.
Sisal
A strong bast fiber that originates from the leaves of the Agave plant, which is found in the West Indies,
Central America, and Africa. End-uses include cordage and twine.
Sizing
The application of a size mixture to warp yarn. The purpose of this is to make the yarn smoother and
stronger to withstand the strain of weaving, to provide an acceptable hand in the woven gray goods, and to
increase fabric weight.

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Sleeve Length
The sleeves measured from the center of the neckline in the back to the end of the sleeve or cuff.
Sleeve Tacking
Stitches whizh attach the sleeve to the lining along the sleeve inseams and elbow seams.
Sleeve Vent
A finished slit or opening in the sleeve. Vents are usually secured by snaps or buttons at the base of the cuff.
Sliver
A continuous bundle of loosely assembled untwisted fibers. These are fibers that are drawn from the card by
the drawing frames, and are eventually twisted into a yarn during the sliver knitting process.
Sliver Knitting
A type of circular knitting in which a high pile fabric is knitted by the drawing-in of the sliver by the
knitting needles.
Smart Textiles
Textiles that can sense and react to changes in the environment, such as changes from mechanical , thermal,
chemical, magnetic and other sources.
Soft Shell
Soft shell fabrics combine the benefits of hard shell fabrics with a breathable, flexible, comfortable fabric.
Stretch wovens with a DWR treatment.
Soilase Rele
A finish that has the purpose of increasing the absorbency of a fabric. on durable press blends. The finish
allows the stain to leave the fabric faster, increases the wicking action for improved comfort, and therefore
imparts greater ease in cleaning. Some soil release finishes also provide resistance to soiling as well as ease
of soil removal.
Solution-dyed
A type of fiber dyeing in which colored pigments are injected into the spinning solution prior to the
extrusion of the fiber through the spinneret. Fibers and yarns colored in this manner are color-fast to most
destructive agents.
Spacer Fabric
Two separate fabrics faces knitted independently and then connected by a separate spacer yarn. These
fabrics can be produced on both circular and flat knitting machines. Spacer fabrics have the properties of
good breathability, crush resistance, and a 3D appearance.
Spandex Fiber

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A manufactured elastomeric fiber that can be repeatedly stretched over 500% without breaking, and will still
recover to its original length.
SPF (Sun Protection Factor)
SPF measures the effectiveness of sunscreen on the body. the test for SPF is done by using a living organism
or body to measure the length of time it takes for the skin to redden without coverage or protection.
Spinneret
A metal nozzle type device with very fine holes used in the spinning process of manufactured fibers. The
spinning solution is forced or extruded through the small holes to form continuous filament fibers. The holes
in the spinneret can vary in diameter to produce fibers of various denier.
Spinning
This final operation in the production of a natural yarn, consists of of the drawing, twisting, and the winding
of the newly spun yarn onto a device such as a bobbin, spindle, cop, tube, cheese, etc. In manufactured
fibers, the spinning process is the extrusion of a spinning solution into a coagulation bath, a heated air
chamber, or a cooling area in order to form a continuous filament or tow.
Sponging
A pre-shrinkage process which involves the dampening with a sponge to woolen and worsted fabrics. The
process is accomplished by rolling in moist muslin, or by steaming. This procedure is performed at the
fabric mill prior to cutting to insure against a contraction of the material in the garment.
Spot Weave
A woven construction in which patterns are built in at spaced intervals through the use of extra warp and/or
extra fill yarns are placed in selected areas. These yarns are woven into the fabric by means of a dobby or
Jacquard attachment.
Spun Yarn
A yarn made by taking a group of short staple fibers, which have been cut from the longer continuous
filament fibers, and then twisting these short staple fibers together to form a single yarn, which is then used
for weaving or knitting fabrics
Stain Repellent
The ability of a fabric to resist wetting and staining by water.
Stain Resistance
A fiber or fabric property of resisting spots and stains.
Staple Fibers
Short fibers, typically ranging from 1/2 inch up to 18 inches long. Wool, cotton, and flax exist only as staple
fibers. Manufactured staple fibers are cut to a specific length from the continuous filament fiber. Usually the

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staple fiber is cut in lengths ranging from 1-1/2 inches to 8 inches long. A group of staple fibers are twisted
together to form a yarn, which is then woven or knit into fabrics.
Stay
A piece of fabric used to hold another piece of fabric in place, or to add strength to a seam or tack.
Stitch (Backstitch)
Used at the beginning and end of stitching to reinforce and prevent raveling. Also called backtack or stay-
stitch.
Stitch (Baste)
A stitching which holds the fabric in place until permanent stitching has been completed. Stitch (Blind) - A
stich that is not visible on one side of the fabric.
Stitch (Chain/Class 100)
A stitch formed with one or more needle threads, the look=ps of which are passed through the material and
through the loops of the preceding threads.
Stitch (Contrasting)
When the stitching thread contrasts the garment color.
Stitch
A stitch formed with two or more groups of threads that interlace each other. The loops of needle thread are
passed through the material where they are secured by looper threads; no bobbins used. This stitching ravels
in one direction.
Stitch (Flat seam/class 600)
Multi-needle stitches that provide the elasticity necessary for knits
Stitch (hand/class 200)
A stitch formed by hand with one or more needles---one thread per needle passing in and out of the material.
Stitch (Lock/class 300)
A stitch formed with two or more groups of threads that interface each other. The loops of needle threads are
passed through the material where they are secured by bobbin threads
Stitch (overedge/class 500)
A stitch formed with one or more groups of threads at least one of which passes around the edge of the
material.
Stitch (safety)

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A combination chain-stitch and overedge stitch made simultaneously on the same sewing machine.
Stitch (Top)
A second row of stitching close to the edge of a seam, after two or more pieces of fabric have been sewed
together and turned to bury the raw seam margin side.
Stitch (Zig-zag)
A stitch made on a sewing machine in which the needle bar comes down alternately on the right and left side
of an imaginary center line. Also refers to the type of machine producing this stitch.
Storm Shell
Wind proof, wind resistant outerwear.
Stretch Yarns
Continuous filament synthetic yarns that have been altered through special treatments or modification to
give them elasticity. Techniques include: twisting and untwisting, use of air jets, stuffer boxes, knife blades,
crimping, heat setting, curling, steaming, or looping. Use of these yarns gives fabrics a degree of elasticity
and comfort.
Substrate
Fabric on which coatings or other fabrics are applied; a support.
Super Light Weight
Term used to describe a fabric used in outerwear, which allows for a minimum pack volume and weight.
These lightweight, packable garments offer the most versatile weather protection. Some of these fabrics
have a protection layer on the membrane, which provides durability. This means that the garments made
from the extra lightweight fabrics need no separate lining.
Surah
A light weight, lustrous twill weave constructed fabric with a silk-like hand. Surah is the fabric of ties,
dresses, and furnishings. It is available in silk, polyester, and rayon.
Satin
This weave is usually made with 5, 8 or 10 shafts that have the warp yarn floating again. The weave
produces a fabric with a characteristic smooth surface and high luster. Weft or filler satins are usually
referred to as sateen
Selvage
The edge on either side of a woven or flat-knitted fabric, often of different threads and/or weave, so finished
to prevent raveling.
Shantung

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A lightweight silk cloth woven in a plain weave with doupioni yarn.
Sheer
A very thin, transparent or semi opaque fabric.
Silk
A natural protein fiber produced from the cocoon of wild or cultivated silkworms.
Skirt
Drop The measurement from the box spring to the floor.
Super King
A term used for Eastern Accents extra large king duvet. The Super King Duvet is recommended for a king
bed with a pillow-top mattress.


Super Queen
A term used for Eastern Accents extra large queen duvet. The Super Queen Duvet is recommended for a
queen bed with a pillow-top mattress.
Sailcloth
Any heavy, plain-weave canvas fabric, usually made of cotton, linen, polyester, jute, nylon, etc. that is used
for sails and apparel (i.e. bottomweight sportswear).
Sanforized
Registered trademark of Cluett, Peabody & Co. for fabrics processed by machine so that residual shrinkage
will not exceed 1% in either direction (according to the U.S.?s standard wash test CCC-T-191a),, despite
repeated washings.
Saran Fiber
A manufactured fiber which has an excellent resistance to sunlight and weathering, and is used in lawn
furniture, upholstery, and carpets.
Sateen Fabric
A fabric made from yarns with low luster, such as cotton or other staple length fibers. The fabric has a soft,
smooth hand and a gentle, subtle luster. Sateen fabrics are often used for draperies and upholstery.
Sateen Weave
A variation of the satin weave, produced by floating fill yarns over warp yarns.

122

Satin Fabric
A traditional fabric utilizing a satin weave construction to achieve a lustrous fabric surface. Satin is a
traditional fabric for evening and wedding garments. Typical examples of satin weave fabrics include:
slipper satin, crepe-back satin, faille satin, bridal satin, moleskin, and antique satin.
Satin Weave
A basic weave, characterized by long floats of yarn on the face of the fabric. The yarns are interlaced in such
a manner that there is no definite, visible pattern of interlacing and, in this manner, a smooth and somewhat
shiny surface effect is achieved. The shiny surface effect is further increased through the use of high luster
filament fibers in yarns which also have a low amount of twist. A true satin weave fabric always has the
warp yarns floating over filling yarns.
Saxony
Originally a high grade coating fabric made from Saxony merino wool raised in Germany.
Schiffli Embroidery
Originated in Switzerland, the word, Schiffli, means "boat", identifiable with the boat-shaped shuttle used in
the frame. The lace effect is made by embroidering the motifs on a net ground.
Seam (book/booking)
The raw edge hem done on a blindstitch machine, usually sewn in the side ans back seam outlets, and on the
bottom turn-up.(french)- A closure between two pieces of material, made by stitching,turning, and
restitching, so as to conceal all raw edges.
Seam (open gorge)
Both the collar and the facing are turned under, basted, and then the seam is felled (edges folded together)
from the outside.
Seam (raised)
A seam resulting after two pieces of fabric have been joined; one piece is folded back, and a second row of
stitching is placed adjacent to the folded edge.
Seamless Knitting
A unique process of circular knitting, done on either Santoni or Sangiacomo knitting machines. This circular
knitting process essentially produces finished garments with no side seams, which require only minimal
sewisng to complete the garment. Seamless knitting can transform yarn into complete garments in a fraction
of the time it takes for traditional garment manufacturing, by minimizing the traditional labor-intensive steps
of sutting and sewing.
Seamless Technology
This term can refer to either "seamless knitting" (See Seamless Knitting), or "welding/bonding technology",
which uses a bonding agent to attach two pieces of fabric together, and eliminates the need for sewing
threads.

123

Seat
The circumference of a pant, measured perpendicular to the fly opening and from the base of the fly.
Seersucker
A woven fabric which incorporates modification of tension control. In the production of seersucker, some of
the warp yarns are held under controlled tension at all times during the weaving, while other warp yarns are
in a relaxed state and tend to pucker when the filling yarns are placed. The result produces a puckered stripe
effect in the fabric. Seersucker is traditionally made into summer sportswear such as shirts, trousers, and
informal suits.

Self-goods
When the same material is used as a pocket lining, or in a waistband, collar and fly construction. Also called
shell.
Selvage or Selvedge
The thin compressed edge of a woven fabric which runs parallel to the warp yarns and prevents raveling. It
is usually woven, utilizing tougher yarns and a tighter construction than the rest of the fabric.
Serge
A fabric with a smooth hand that is created by a two-up, two-down twill weave.
Serging
An overcasting technique done on the cut edge of a fabric to prevent raveling.
Shantung
A medium-weight, plain weave fabric, characterized by a ribbed effect, resulting from slubbed yarns used in
the warp or filling direction. End-uses include dresses and suits.
Sharkskin
A hard-finished, low lustered, medium-weight fabric in a twill-weave construction. It is most commonly
found in men's worsted suitings; however, it can also be found in a plain-weave construction of acetate,
triacetate, and rayon for women's sportswear.
Shell
A fabric from which the garment is made.
Shuttle
The boat-like devise on weaving machines, which carries the filling yarn wound on the bobbin. The shuttle
moves from the shuttle box on one side of the loom, through the shed, and onto the shuttle box at the other
side of the loom.

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Side Opening
An opening created by the facing tacked onto the swing pockets. It allows the wearer access to his trouser
pockets. Typically found on coveralls.
Silk
A natural filament fiber produced by the silkworm in the construction of its cocoon. Most silk is collected
from cultivated worms; Tussah silk, or wild silk, is a thicker, shorter fiber produced by worms in their
natural habitat. All silk comes from Asia, primarily China.
Singeing
Process of burning off protruding fibers from fabrics to give the fabric a smooth surface.
Sisal
strong bast fiber that originates from the leaves of the Agave plant, which is found in the West Indies,
Central America, and Africa. End-uses include cordage and twine.
Sizing
The application of a size mixture to warp yarn. The purpose of this is to make the yarn smoother and
stronger to withstand the strain of weaving, to provide an acceptable hand in the woven gray goods, and to
increase fabric weight.
Sleeve Length
The sleeves measured from the center of the neckline in the back to the end of the sleeve or cuff.
Sleeve Tacking
Stitches which attach the sleeve to the lining along the sleeve inseams and elbow seams.
Sleeve Vent
A finished slit or opening in the sleeve. Vents are usually secured by snaps or buttons at the base of the cuff.
Sliver
A continuous bundle of loosely assembled untwisted fibers. These are fibers that are drawn from the card by
the drawing frames, and are eventually twisted into a yarn during the sliver knitting process.
Sliver Knitting
A type of circular knitting in which a high pile fabric is knitted by the drawing-in of the sliver by the
knitting needles.
Smart Textiles
Textiles that can sense and react to changes in the environment, such as changes from mechanical , thermal,
chemical, magnetic and other sources.

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Soft Shell
Soft shell fabrics combine the benefits of hard shell fabrics with a breathable, flexible, comfortable fabric.
Stretch wovens with a DWR treatment.
Soil Release
A finish that has the purpose of increasing the absorbency of a fabric. on durable press blends. The finish
allows the stain to leave the fabric faster, increases the wicking action for improved comfort, and therefore
imparts greater ease in cleaning. Some soil release finishes also provide resistance to soiling as well as ease
of soil removal.
Solution-dyed
A type of fiber dyeing in which colored pigments are injected into the spinning solution prior to the
extrusion of the fiber through the spinneret. Fibers and yarns colored in this manner are color-fast to most
destructive agents.
Spacer Fabric
Two separate fabrics faces knitted independently and then connected by a separate spacer yarn. These
fabrics can be produced on both circular and flat knitting machines. Spacer fabrics have the properties of
good breathability, crush resistance, and a 3D appearance.
Spandex Fiber
A manufactured elastomeric fiber that can be repeatedly stretched over 500% without breaking, and will still
recover to its original length.
SPF (Sun Protection Factor)
SPF measures the effectiveness of sunscreen on the body. the test for SPF is done by using a living organism
or body to measure the length of time it takes for the skin to redden without coverage or protection.
Spinneret
A metal nozzle type device with very fine holes used in the spinning process of manufactured fibers. The
spinning solution is forced or extruded through the small holes to form continuous filament fibers. The holes
in the spinneret can vary in diameter to produce fibers of various denier.
Spinning
This final operation in the production of a natural yarn, consists of of the drawing, twisting, and the winding
of the newly spun yarn onto a device such as a bobbin, spindle, cop, tube, cheese, etc. In manufactured
fibers, the spinning process is the extrusion of a spinning solution into a coagulation bath, a heated air
chamber, or a cooling area in order to form a continuous filament or tow.
Sponging
A pre-shrinkage process which involves the dampening with a sponge to woolen and worsted fabrics. The
process is accomplished by rolling in moist muslin, or by steaming. This procedure is performed at the
fabric mill prior to cutting to insure against a contraction of the material in the garment.

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Spot Weave
A woven construction in which patterns are built in at spaced intervals through the use of extra warp and/or
extra fill yarns are placed in selected areas. These yarns are woven into the fabric by means of a dobby or
Jacquard attachment.
Spun Yarn
A yarn made by taking a group of short staple fibers, which have been cut from the longer continuous
filament fibers, and then twisting these short staple fibers together to form a single yarn, which is then used
for weaving or knitting fabrics.
Stain Repellent
The ability of a fabric to resist wetting and staining by water.
Stain Resistance
A fiber or fabric property of resisting spots and stains.
Staple Fibers-
Short fibers, typically ranging from 1/2 inch up to 18 inches long. Wool, cotton, and flax exist only as staple
fibers. Manufactured staple fibers are cut to a specific length from the continuous filament fiber. Usually the
staple fiber is cut in lengths ranging from 1-1/2 inches to 8 inches long. A group of staple fibers are twisted
together to form a yarn, which is then woven or knit into fabrics.
Stay
A piece of fabric used to hold another piece of fabric in place, or to add strength to a seam or tack.
Stitch (Backstitch)
Used at the beginning and end of stitching to reinforce and prevent raveling. Also called backtack or stay-
stitch.
Stitch (Baste)
A stitching which holds the fabric in place until permanent stitching has been completed.
Stitch (Blind)
A stich that is not visible on one side of the fabric.
Stitch (Chain/Class 100)
A stitch formed with one or more needle threads, the look=ps of which are passed through the material and
through the loops of the preceding threads.
Stitch (Contrasting)
When the stitching thread contrasts the garment color.

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Stitch (Dbl. lock/class 400)
A stitch formed with two or more groups of threads that interlace each other. The loops of needle thread are
passed through the material where they are secured by looper threads; no bobbins used. This stitching ravels
in one direction.
Stitch (Flat seam/class 600)
Multi-needle stitches that provide the elasticity necessary for knits.
Stitch (hand/class 200)
A stitch formed by hand with one or more needles---one thread per needle passing in and out of the material.
Stitch (Lock/class 300)
A stitch formed with two or more groups of threads that interface each other. The loops of needle threads are
passed through the material where they are secured by bobbin threads.
Stitch (overedge/class 500)
A stitch formed with one or more groups of threads at least one of which passes around the edge of the
material.
Stitch (safety)
A combination chain-stitch and overedge stitch made simultaneously on the same sewing machine.
Stitch (Top)
A second row of stitching close to the edge of a seam, after two or more pieces of fabric have been sewed
together and turned to bury the raw seam margin side.
Stitch (Zig-zag)
A stitch made on a sewing machine in which the needle bar comes down alternately on the right and left side
of an imaginary center line. Also refers to the type of machine producing this stitch.
Storm Shell
Wind proof, wind resistant outerwear.

Stretch Yarns
Continuous filament synthetic yarns that have been altered through special treatments or modification to
give them elasticity. Techniques include: twisting and untwisting, use of air jets, stuffer boxes, knife blades,
crimping, heat setting, curling, steaming, or looping. Use of these yarns gives fabrics a degree of elasticity
and comfort.
Substrate

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Fabric on which coatings or other fabrics are applied; a support.
Super Light Weight
Term used to describe a fabric used in outerwear, which allows for a minimum pack volume and weight.
These lightweight, packable garments offer the most versatile weather protection. Some of these fabrics
have a protection layer on the membrane, which provides durability. This means that the garments made
from the extra lightweight fabrics need no separate lining.
Surah
A light weight, lustrous twill weave constructed fabric with a silk-like hand. Surah is the fabric of ties,
dresses, and furnishings. It is available in silk, polyester, and rayon


Taffeta
A closely woven, plain-weave fabric with a crisp handle and a smooth surface.
Tape Yarn
A yarn used for knitwear in the form of a tape with a large width-to-thickness ratio. Such yarns are typically
formed by weaving or knitting. Knitted tape yarns are often made on circular knitting machines, giving them
a tubular cross-section.
Tanquis
A type of long staple fibre cotton.
Tapestry
A closely woven figured fabric with a compound structure in which a pattern is developed by the use of
coloured yarns in the warp or in the weft or both. A fine binder warp and weft may be incorporated. The
fabric is woven on jacquard looms and is normally used for upholstery.

Tear Resistance
A measurement of fabric strength. Also, a property imparted by using "ripstop" yarns in close woven fabrics
Tenacity
A unit used to measure the strength of a fibre or yarn, usually calculated by dividing the breaking force by
the linear density
Tex

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A measure of linear density; the weight in grams of 1,000 metres of yarn.
Textured Yarn
A continuous filament yarn that has been processed to introduce durable crimps, coils, loops or other fine
distortions along the lengths of the filaments.
Thermal bonding
Part of a production route for making nonwovens in which a web, which must contain some meltable
synthetic fibres, is heated by a hot gas or by calendering. The fibres melt and form inter-fibre bonds.
Tie-dye
A traditional dyeing process in which fabric is tied and dyed.
Tuck Stitch
A stitch consisting of a held loop.
Tweed
Originally, a coarse, heavyweight, rough surfaced wool fabric for outerwear, woven in Scotland. The term is
now applied to fabrics made in a wide range of weights and qualities, generally from woollen spun yarns
Twill
A fabric produced by constructing a weave that repeats on three or more warp threads and weft threads, and
produces diagonal lines on the face of the fabric
Tyre cord fabric
A fabric that forms the main carcase of a pneumatic tyre. It is constructed predominantly of a ply warp with
a light weft to assist processing.
Taffeta
Fabric that is usually made from silk in a plain weave and is useful for draperies.
Tapestry
Originally handwoven with the design wove right into the fabric and an essential part of the fabric.
Tapestries made by machine are made with the jacquard attachment and have a smooth back with limited
colors. Many tapestries represent scenes of everyday life and were some symbols of wealth and nobility.
They are a very durable choice for upholstery.
Ticking
Closely woven cotton in a twill or satin weave, usually woven in stripes and used for mattress covers,
slipcovers, upholstery use and pillows.
Toiles de Jouy

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Toiles are printed fabrics usually in monotones that tell a story by depicting scenes from daily life or special
occasions.
Tussah silk
Wild silk from cocoons that fed on oak leaves and is a light brown in color.
Tweed
Woolen homespun material originally from Scotland, the term now applies to a large group of woolen goods
woven in twill, plain or herringbone weave.
Taffeta
A lustrous, medium weight, plain weave fabric with a slight ribbed appearance in the filling (crosswise)
direction. For formal wear, taffeta is a favorite choice. It provides a crisp hand, with lots of body. Silk taffeta
gives the ultimate rustle, but other fibers are also good choices.
Tape
Fabric sewn to a garment at the front edges, armholes, shoulder, neck, sideseams, vents, bottoms, gorge
seams, etc. It is usually designed to prevent distortion of a fabric edge or seam.
Tapestry
A heavy, often hand-woven, ribbed fabric, featuring an elaborate design depicting a historical or current
pictorial display. The weft-faced fabric design is made by using colored filling yarns, only in areas where
needed, that are worked back and forth over spun warp yarns, which are visible on the back. End-uses
include wall hangings and upholstery.


Tear Strength
The force necessary to tear a fabric, measured by the force necessary to start or continue a tear in a fabric.
Expressed in pounds or in grams, the most commonly used method for determining the tear strength is the
Elmendorf tear test procedure.
Tensile Strength (Breaking Stregth)
The strength shown by a fiber, yarn, or fabric to resist breaking under pressure. It is the actual number of
pounds of resistance that a fabric will give before the material is broken on the testing machine.
Tension Control Weave
A type of decorative weave, characterized by a puckered effect which occurs because the tension in the warp
yarns is intentionally varied before the filling yarns are placed in the fabric.
Terry Cloth

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A typical uncut pile weave fabric. This fabric is formed by using two sets of warp yarns. One set of warp
yarns is under very little tension; when the filling yarns are packed into place, these loose yarns are pushed
backward along with the filling yarns, and loops are formed. Typical uses include towels, robes, and apparel.
Terry Velour
A pile weave cotton fabric with an uncut pile on one side and a cut pile on the reverse side. Terry velour is
valued for its soft, luxurious hand. Typical uses include towels, robes, and apparel.
Textured Yarns
The yarns that result after undegoing the texturizing process, which can create crimping, looping, and
otherwise modify the filament yarn for the purpose of increasing cover, abrasion resistance, insulation,
warmth resilience, or moisture absorption, and to provide a different surface texture. When filament yarns
are texturized, and then woven or knitted into fabrics, the result is that the finished fabric?s properties
resemble a fabric that has been made from a spun yarn. Most of today's filament polyester is texturized.
Texturizing
A process performed on specialized machinery which create bulk, stretch to the yarn, and therefore creates
new aesthetics to the finished fabric.
Thermal Insulation
The ability of a fabric to retain heat.

Thermoregulation
The ability to maintain a constant temperature independent of dynamic (changing) environmental
conditions.
Thread Count
The number of ends and picks per inch in a woven cloth; the number of wales and courses per inch in a knit
fabric. See "Count of Cloth".
Ticking
A tightly woven, very durable fabric, usually made of cotton, and used for covering mattresses, box springs,
pillows, and work clothes. The fabric can be made by using a plain, satin, or twill weave construction.
Ticking
Compactly woven cotton cloth used for containers, covers for mattresses and pillows, sportswear (hickory
stripes), institution fabric, and work clothes. It is striped cloth, usually white background with blue or brown
stripes in the motif.
Tow

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A large bundle of manufactured filament fiber as they are extruded from the spinerette, and before they have
been cut into staple fibers.
Triacetate
A manufactured fiber, which like acetate, is made by modifying cellulose. However, even more acetate
groups have been added to create this fiber. Triacetate is less absorbent and less sensitive to high
temperatures than acetate. It can be hand or machine washed and tumble dried, with relatively good wrinkle
recovery.
Tricot Knit
A warp knit fabric in which the fabric is formed by interlooping adjacent parallel yarns. The warp beam
holds thousands of yards of yarns in a parallel arrangement, and these yarns are fed into the knitting area
simultaneously. Sufficient yarns to produce the final fabric width and length are on the beam. Tricot knits
are frequently used in women's lingerie items such as slips, bras, panties, and nightgowns.
Trim-cut
Tapered and tailored, or a form-fitting garment.
Trunk
Double the length of a coverall, from the center of the neckhole at the back to the point of the leg separation
on the seat seam.

Tulle
A lightweight, extremely fine, machine-made netting, usually with a hexagon shaped mesh effect. End-uses
include dance costumes and veils.
Turning
The reversing of two or more pieces of material that are seamed together for pressing or topstitching.
Tweed
A medium to heavy weight, fluffy, woolen, twill weave fabric containing colored slubbed yarns. Common
end-uses include coats and suits.
Twill Weave
A basic weave in which the fabrics are constructed by interlacing warp and filling yarns in a progressive
alternation which creates a diagonal effect on the face, or right side, of the fabric. In some twill weave
fabrics, the diagonal effect may also be seen clearly on the back side of the fabric.
Twist
A term that applies to the number of turns and the direction that two yarns are turned during the
manufacturing process. The yarn twist brings the fibers close together and makes them compact. It helps the

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fibers adhere to one another, increasing yarn strength. The direction and amount of yarn twist helps
determine appearance, performance, durability of both yarns and the subsequent fabric or textile product.
Single yarns may be twisted to the right (S twist) or to the left (Z twist). Generally, woolen and worsted
yarns are S-twist, while cotton and flax yarns are typically Z-twist.Twist is generally expressed as turns per
inch (tpi), turns per meter (tpm), or turns per centimeter (tpc).
Tartan
Multicolored plaids originally made for Scottish clan kilts.
Tassel
Tassels come in all sizes, shapes and forms. A hanging ornament consisting of a head and a skirt of cut yarn,
looped yarns or bullion fringe.
Tassel Trim
A plain or decorative gimp with attached tassels.
Ticking
A general term for a strong, durable, closely woven fabric in plain, twill or satin weave, which is used for
covering box springs, mattresses and pillows.
Toile
A French word for cloth or fabric, linen, sailcloth, canvas. The linen or cotton cloth was made famous when
a new technique of engraved plate printing was popularized in Jouy, France in the 18th Century. The
finished printed cloth was referred to as Toile de Jouy. Today it usually describes a one color, fine line
printed design that resembles a pen and ink technique. Toiles are printed by various methods, but the most
beautiful are still created by engraved plates or rollers.
Tussah
A brownish silk yarn or fabric made from wild silk cocoons of a brownish color. These worms feed on
leaves from various plants and trees such as oak, cherry, and wild mulberry.
Tweed
A homespun effect created by multi or monochromatic colored yarns woven on plain looms. The fabric is
usually wool or worsted and often has a rough texture.
Twill
This is a weave that creates a diagonal effect by having the warp float on top of a few weft yarns or vice
versa. Generally three threads up and one down. Antique Twill is woven as a twill with a doupioni yarn,
having slubs intermittently dispersed across the fabric.
Taffeta

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A lustrous, medium weight, plain weave fabric with a slight ribbed appearance in the filling (crosswise)
direction. For formal wear, taffeta is a favorite choice. It provides a crisp hand, with lots of body. Silk taffeta
gives the ultimate rustle, but other fibers are also good choices.
Tape
Fabric sewn to a garment at the front edges, armholes, shoulder, neck, sideseams, vents, bottoms, gorge
seams, etc. It is usually designed to prevent distortion of a fabric edge or seam.
Tapestry
A heavy, often hand-woven, ribbed fabric, featuring an elaborate design depicting a historical or current
pictorial display. The weft-faced fabric design is made by using colored filling yarns, only in areas where
needed, that are worked back and forth over spun warp yarns, which are visible on the back. End-uses
include wall hangings and upholstery.


Tear Strength
The force necessary to tear a fabric, measured by the force necessary to start or continue a tear in a fabric.
Expressed in pounds or in grams, the most commonly used method for determining the tear strength is the
Elmendorf tear test procedure.
Tensile Strength (Breaking Stregth)
The strength shown by a fiber, yarn, or fabric to resist breaking under pressure. It is the actual number of
pounds of resistance that a fabric will give before the material is broken on the testing machine.
Tension Control Weave
A type of decorative weave, characterized by a puckered effect which occurs because the tension in the warp
yarns is intentionally varied before the filling yarns are placed in the fabric.
Terry Cloth
A typical uncut pile weave fabric. This fabric is formed by using two sets of warp yarns. One set of warp
yarns is under very little tension; when the filling yarns are packed into place, these loose yarns are pushed
backward along with the filling yarns, and loops are formed. Typical uses include towels, robes, and apparel.
Terry Velour
A pile weave cotton fabric with an uncut pile on one side and a cut pile on the reverse side. Terry velour is
valued for its soft, luxurious hand. Typical uses include towels, robes, and apparel.
Textured Yarns
The yarns that result after undegoing the texturizing process, which can create crimping, looping, and
otherwise modify the filament yarn for the purpose of increasing cover, abrasion resistance, insulation,
warmth resilience, or moisture absorption, and to provide a different surface texture. When filament yarns

135

are texturized, and then woven or knitted into fabrics, the result is that the finished fabric?s properties
resemble a fabric that has been made from a spun yarn. Most of today's filament polyester is texturized.
Texturizing
A process performed on specialized machinery which create bulk, stretch to the yarn, and therefore creates
new aesthetics to the finished fabric.
Thermal Insulation
The ability of a fabric to retain heat.

Thermoregulation
The ability to maintain a constant temperature independent of dynamic (changing) environmental
conditions.
Thread Count
The number of ends and picks per inch in a woven cloth; the number of wales and courses per inch in a knit
fabric. See "Count of Cloth".
Ticking
Compactly woven cotton cloth used for containers, covers for mattresses and pillows, sportswear (hickory
stripes), institution fabric, and work clothes. It is striped cloth, usually white background with blue or brown
stripes in the motif.
Ticking
A tightly woven, very durable fabric, usually made of cotton, and used for covering mattresses, box springs,
pillows, and work clothes. The fabric can be made by using a plain, satin, or twill weave construction.
Tow
A large bundle of manufactured filament fiber as they are extruded from the spinerette, and before they have
been cut into staple fibers.
Triacetate
A manufactured fiber, which like acetate, is made by modifying cellulose. However, even more acetate
groups have been added to create this fiber. Triacetate is less absorbent and less sensitive to high
temperatures than acetate. It can be hand or machine washed and tumble dried, with relatively good wrinkle
recovery.
Tricot Knit
A warp knit fabric in which the fabric is formed by interlooping adjacent parallel yarns. The warp beam
holds thousands of yards of yarns in a parallel arrangement, and these yarns are fed into the knitting area

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simultaneously. Sufficient yarns to produce the final fabric width and length are on the beam. Tricot knits
are frequently used in women's lingerie items such as slips, bras, panties, and nightgowns.
Trim-cut
Tapered and tailored, or a form-fitting garment.
Trunk
Double the length of a coverall, from the center of the neckhole at the back to the point of the leg separation
on the seat seam.

Tulle
A lightweight, extremely fine, machine-made netting, usually with a hexagon shaped mesh effect. End-uses
include dance costumes and veils.
Turning
The reversing of two or more pieces of material that are seamed together for pressing or topstitching.
Tweed
A medium to heavy weight, fluffy, woolen, twill weave fabric containing colored slubbed yarns. Common
end-uses include coats and suits.
Twill Weave
A basic weave in which the fabrics are constructed by interlacing warp and filling yarns in a progressive
alternation which creates a diagonal effect on the face, or right side, of the fabric. In some twill weave
fabrics, the diagonal effect may also be seen clearly on the back side of the fabric.
Twist
A term that applies to the number of turns and the direction that two yarns are turned during the
manufacturing process. The yarn twist brings the fibers close together and makes them compact. It helps the
fibers adhere to one another, increasing yarn strength. The direction and amount of yarn twist helps
determine appearance, performance, durability of both yarns and the subsequent fabric or textile product.
Single yarns may be twisted to the right (S twist) or to the left (Z twist). Generally, woolen and worsted
yarns are S-twist, while cotton and flax yarns are typically Z-twist. Twist is generally expressed as turns per
inch (tpi), turns per meter (tpm), or turns per centimeter (tpc).

Ultra Light Down

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Ultra Light Down is used in women's and men's jackets. the concept is to make the lightest and warmest
insulation layer available. U.L. Down jackets weigh less than a tee-shirt, blocks more wind, is warmer than
even the heaviest fleece jackets, and compress to the size of a water bottle. This outerwear can be used when
warmth is critical, minimal weight is paramount, and space is at a premium.
Ultra-Light Weight
Term used to describe a fabric used in outerwear, which allows for a minimum pack volume and weight.
Lightweight packable garments offer the most versatile weather protection. Some of these fabrics have a
protective layer on the membrane, which provides durability. This means that the garments made from extra
lightweight fabrics need no separate lining
Under-press
To press the underside of a garment section during manufacturing to open the seams and give it shape.
UPF (Ultraviolet Protection Factor)
The UPF rating indicates how effective a fabric is at blocking out solar ultraviolet radiation from reaching
the skin. UPF ratings range from 15 to 50 with higher ratings indicating more effective blocking and
therefore better protection for the wearer of a garment. Fabrics that test higher than UPF 50 are rated as
UPF50+. UPF testing involves exposing a fabric to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and measuring how much is
transmitted through the sample. Different wave-lengths of radiation in the UVR spectrum have different
effects on human skin and this is taken into consideration when calculating the UPF rating. Factors that
contribute to the UPF rating of a fabric are: *Composition of the yarns (cotton, polyester, etc) *Tightness of
the weave or the knit (tighter improves the rating) *Color (darket colors are generally better) *Stretch (more
stretch lowers the rating) *Moisture (many fabrics have lower ratings when wet) *Condition (worn and
faded garments may have reduced ratings) *Finishing (some fabrics are treated with UV absorbing
chemicals)
UV Degradation
The breaking down of fibers or fabrics when exposed to ultraviolet rays.
U.L. Down
Ultra Light Down is used in women's and men's jackets. the concept is to make the lightest and warmest
insulation layer available. U.L. Down jackets weigh less than a tee-shirt, blocks more wind, is warmer than
even the heavist fleece jackets, and compress to the size of a water bottle. This outerwear can be used when
warmth is critical, minimal weight is paramount, and space is at a premium.
Ultra-Light Weight
Term used to describe a fabric used in outerwear, which allows for a minimum pack volume and weight.
Lightweight packable garments offer the most versatile weather protection. Some of these fabrics have a
protective layer on the membrane, which provides durability. This means that the garments made from extra
lightweight fabrics need no separate lining.
UV Degradation
The breaking down of fibers or fabrics when exposed to ultraviolet rays.


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Vegetable Fibres
Fibres derived from annual and perennial plants.
Velour
A knitted or woven pile fabric
Velvet
A cut warp-pile fabric in which the cut fibrous ends of yarn form the surface of the fabric.
Velours
The French word for velvet, but now it is a term for any fabric that resembles velvet.
Velvet
Velvet is a fabric that has a thick short pile on the surface causing a nap or directional quality. Velvet can be
plain, striped or of a pattern and made of cotton, linen, mohair, synthetic fibers or silk. The finer quality may
be used for draperies and the heavier goods are used for upholstery.
Voile
A light transparent fabric of a plain weave.The popularity of home decorating fabrics is subject to the whims
of fashion and taste as with all other elements of home furnishings but this textile dictionary can serve as a
guide and fabric overview.
Velour
A medium weight, closely woven fabric with a thick pile. It can be made using either a plain weave or a
satin weave construction. It resembles velvet, but has a lower cut pile. End uses include apparel, upholstery,
and drapes.
Velvet
A medium weight cut-pile constructed fabric in which the cut pile stands up very straight. It is woven using
two sets of warp yarns; the extra set creates the pile. Velvet, a luxurious fabric, is commonly made with a
filament fiber for high luster and smooth hand.


Velveteen

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A cotton cut-pile weave fabric, utilizing extra fill yarn construction, with either a twill or a plain weave
back. The fabric is woven with two sets of filling yarns; the extra set creates the pile.
Virgin Wool
New wool that has never been used before, or reclaimed from any spun, woven, knitted, felted,
manufactured or used products.
Viscose
The most common type of rayon. It is produced in much greater quantity than Cuprammonium rayon, the
other commercial type.
Voile
A crisp, lightweight, plain weave cotton-like fabric, made with high twist yarns in a high yarn count
construction. Similar in appearance to organdy and organza. Used in blouses dresses and curtains.
Velour
A fabric with a pile or napped surface resembling velvet.
Velvet
There are two types of velvets. The hand woven velvet and the automatically woven velvet. The machine
made velvet is a double-faced fabric. It weaves two fabrics, face to face, joined by the weft yarns. These
yarns are then cut automatically which forms the pile on both faces.
Velveteen
A fabric with a single weft, similar to velvet but generally much softer and used for apparel.
Velour
A medium weight, closely woven fabric with a thick pile. It can be made using either a plain weave or a
satin weave construction. It resembles velvet, but has a lower cut pile. End uses include apparel, upholstery,
and drapes.
Velvet
A medium weight cut-pile constructed fabric in which the cut pile stands up very straight. It is woven using
two sets of warp yarns; the extra set creates the pile. Velvet, a luxurious fabric, is commonly made with a
filament fiber for high luster and smooth hand.

Wale

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A column of loops along the length of a knitted fabric.
Warp
Yarns which run along the length of a fabric
Water Repellency
The ability of a fabric to shed water to a limited degree.
Water Resistance
A measurement which determines the ability of a fabric to withstand sustained contact with water.
Waterproof
The ability of a fabric to prevent water penetration
Weaving
The process of producing fabric by interlacing warp and weft yarns.
Web
A sheet of fibres produced by a carding machine (carded web) or combing machine (combed web)
Weft
Yarns which run across the width of a fabric (also known as filling).
Wet Spinning
In the wet spinning process, the polymer solution (also known as "dope") is spun into a spin bath containing
a liquid chosen for its ability to extract the solvent from the dope.
Whipcord
A firmly constructed fabric with a bold, warp twill.

Wickability
the ability of a fabric to transfer liquids, usually perspiration, along its fibres and away from the wearer's
skin by capillary action.
Windproof
The ability of a fabric or membrane to block the passage of external air through it. In cold climatic
conditions, windproof garments help to keep the wearer warm.
Worsted

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A term used to describe yarns which are spun wholly from combed wool in which the fibres are reasonably
parallel, and to describe fabrics or garments made from such yarns.
Waistband (Two-piece)
When two identical pieces of fabric are placed back-to-back at the top of a pant, raw edges turned inside,
and joined with two widely spaced rows of stitching. the pant body is inserted betweeen and along one edge.
Wales
In a knitted fabric, the series of loops that are formed by a single needle, which runs vertically or lengthwise
in a knitted fabric.
Warmth to Weight Ratio
A measurement used to evaluate the effectiveness of an insulated product in relation to weather conditions
and the environment. The insulation with the best rating is down. Down provides the best warmth to weight
ratio over almost any other insulation material, which is why you will see down garments and sleeping bags
as the primary choice for use in almost every high altitude, cold weather expedition.
Warp
In woven fabric, the yarns that run lengthwise and is interwoven with the fill (weft) yarns.
Warp Knit
A type of knitted fabric construction in which the yarns are formed into stitches in a lengthwise manner.
Warp knits are generally less elastic than weft knits. Common examples of warp knits are tricot knits and
raschel knits.
Washable
Materials that will not fade or shrink during washing or laundering. Labels should be read by the consumer
to assure proper results. Do not confuse with "wash-and-wear".

Wash-and-Wear
Ability of a garment to be washed by hand or in a washing machine and require little or no ironing. Also
referred to as "easy care".
Watch Pocket
A small pocket in the garment, typically located just below the front waistband of men's trousers and used to
accommodate change or a pocket watch.
Water Repellent
Fabrics that have been treated with a finish which cause them to shed water and resist water penetration, but
are still air-permeable. Treatments can include wax coatings, resins, silicones, and fluorine derivatives. Such
treatments do not close the pours of the fabric, while waterproof finishes do.

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Water Repellent
A term applied to fabrics that have been treated with a finish which causes them to shed water, but is still
air-permeable. Water Resistant
A degree by which water is able to penetrate a fabric. Not to be confused with water-repellent. However, the
terms are often used interchangeably.
Waterproof
Materials that is impermeable by water.
Waterproof
A term applied to fabrics whose pores have been closed, and therefore, will not allow water or air to pass
through them.
Weaving
The process of forming a fabric on a loom by interlacing the warp (lengthwise yarns) and the filling
(crosswise yarns) perpendicular to each other. Filling is fed into the goods from cones, filling bobbins or
quills, which carry the filling yarns through the shed of the loom. Filling may also be inserted into the
material without the use of a shuttle, as in the case of a shuttleless loom. The three basic weaves are Plain,
Twill, and Satin. All other weaves, no matter how intricate, employ one or more of these basic weaves in
their composition. Variations on the basic weaves make a variety of different fabric surfaces and fabric
strengths.
Weft
In woven fabric, the filling yarns that run perpendicular to the warp yarns.
Weft Knit
A type of knitted fabric in which yarns are formed into stitches in widthwise manner. Common examples of
weft knits are circular knits and flat knits.
Weight of Cloth
This term describes the variety of ways that fabric is sold: Ounces per linear yard, Yards per pound, and
Ounces per square yard. Welded Shell - The outer layer of a bonded wor welded garment, such as a jacket.
Welding
There are two basic methods for applying bonding or welded seams. The first method uses an adhesive film,
and the application of heat to glue or laminate two substrates together. The second method involves gluing
or attaching two fabrics, using ultrasonic technology. The creation and channeling of high frequency
vibratory waves cause a rapid buildup of heat in synthetic fabrics to create the bonding.
Welt
1. A strip of material seamed to a pocket opening as a finishing, as well as a strengthening device. 2. A
raised or swelled lap or seam. 3. A covered cord or ornamental strip sewed on a border or along a seam. 4. In
knitting, it is flat-knitted separately and then joined to the fabric by looping or hand knitting, as the heel to

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the stocking. 5. A ribbed piece of knit goods used in forming the end of a sleeve or sock to prevent rolling or
raveling.
Welt Lining
Interlining for pocket welts.
Whipcord
A woven fabric with a very steep and compacted twill appearance on the face of the goods. End-uses for the
fabric include dress woolens, worsteds, or wool blends, and many types of uniforms.
White Goods
A very broad term which implies any goods bleached and finished in the white condition. Some of the
cotton white goods are muslin, cambric, dimity, lawn, longcloth, organdy, voile, etc.
White-on-White
Some fabrics, such as men's shirtings or broadcloth, poplin, madras, etc., are made on a dobby or jacquard
loom so the white motifs will appear on a white background.
Wickability
The ability of a fiber or a fabric to disperse moisture and allow it to pass through to the surface of the fabric,
so that evaporation can take place.


Wicking
Dispersing or spreading of moisture or liquid through a given area by capillary action in a material.
Wigwan
A converted cotton cloth, dyed black, brown or gray, and given a firm starched, plain calender finish, and
used for interlinings in men's and boys's clothing to give body to the garment.
Wind Resistant
The ability of a fabric to act against or oppose the penetration of wind or air, but it is not totally windproof.
Windproof
The ability of a fabric to be nonpermeable to wind and air.
Woof

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Comes from the Anglo-Saxon "owef". It is another name for the warp or warp yarn. Sometimes in
advertising textiles, the word has been used to imply filling yarn, and made to interchange with the other
term, weft.
Wool
Usually associated with fiber or fabric made from the fleece of sheep or lamb. However, the term "wool"
can also apply to all animal hair fibers, including the hair of the Cashmere or Angora goat or the specialty
hair fibers of the camel, alpaca, llama, or vicuna.
Worsted Fabric
A tightly woven fabric made by using only long staple, combed wool or wool-blend yarns. The fabric has a
hard, smooth surface. Gabardine is an example of a worsted fabric. A common end use is men's tailored
suits.
Worsted System
The textile process of manufacturing spun yarns from staple fibers usually over 3 inches in length. The main
operations are carding, combing, drafting, and spinning.
Woven Fabric
Fabrics composed of two sets of yarns. One set of yarns, the warp, runs along the length of the fabric. The
other set of yarns, the fill or weft, is perpendicular to the warp. Woven fabrics are held together by weaving
the warp and the fill yarns over and under each other.

Wrinkle Free
A resistant to wrinkling created through the use of a variety of finishes and treatments. Wrinkle Recovery -
Similar to resiliency. It is the ability of a fabric to bounce back after it has been twisted, wrinkled, or
distorted in any way.
Warp
Yarns place on a warp beam and entered into a loom.
Weft
Often referred to as "filling", it is the yarn that traverses the warp yarns (horizontally) during the weaving
operation.
Welt
A piping covered with fabric. Eastern Accents offers three sizes of piping; small .25", medium .5" and large
(jumbo) 1.5". The finished welt size depends on the fabric used. Welts are sawn into the seam of a product.
Wool

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Fibers that grow on the sheep fleece. There are varieties of wool such as Alpaca, Angora, Botany, Cashmere,
Merino and Shetland.
Waistband (one-piece)
A single thickness of fabric that is doubled and stitched to the top of a pant.
Waistband (Two-piece)
When two identical pieces of fabric are placed back-to-back at the top of a pant, raw edges turned inside,
and joined with two widely spaced rows of stitching. the pant body is inserted between and along one edge.
Warmth to Weight Ratio
A measurement used to evaluate the effectiveness of an insulated product in relation to weather conditions
and the environment. The insulation with the best rating is down. Down provides the best warmth to weight
ratio over almost any other insulation material, which is why you will see down garments and sleeping bags
as the primary choice for use in almost every high altitude, cold weather expedition.
Warp
In woven fabric, the yarns that run lengthwise and is interwoven with the fill (weft) yarns.


Warp Knit
A type of knitted fabric construction in which the yarns are formed into stitches in a lengthwise manner.
Warp knits are generally less elastic than weft knits. Common examples of warp knits are tricot knits and
raschel knits.
Washable
Materials that will not fade or shrink during washing or laundering. Labels should be read by the consumer
to assure proper results. Do not confuse with "wash-and-wear".
Wash-and-Wear
Ability of a garment to be washed by hand or in a washing machine and require little or no ironing. Also
referred to as "easy care".
Watch Pocket
A small pocket in the garment, typically located just below the front waistband of men's trousers and used to
accommodate change or a pocket watch.
Water Repellent

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Fabrics that have been treated with a finish which cause them to shed water and resist water penetration, but
are still air-permeable. Treatments can include wax coatings, resins, silicones, and fluorine derivatives. Such
treatments do not close the pours of the fabric, while waterproof finishes do.
Water Repellent
A term applied to fabrics that have been treated with a finish which causes them to shed water, but is still
air-permeable.
Water Resistant
A degree by which water is able to penetrate a fabric. Not to be confused with water-repellent. However, the
terms are often used interchangeably.
Waterproof
Materials that is impermeable by water. Waterproof- A term applied to fabrics whose pores have been
closed, and therefore, will not allow water or air to pass through them.
Weaving
The process of forming a fabric on a loom by interlacing the warp (lengthwise yarns) and the filling
(crosswise yarns) perpendicular to each other. Filling is fed into the goods from cones, filling bobbins or
quills, which carry the filling yarns through the shed of the loom. Filling may also be inserted into the
material without the use of a shuttle, as in the case of a shuttleless loom. The three basic weaves are Plain,
Twill, and Satin. All other weaves, no matter how intricate, employ one or more of these basic weaves in
their composition. Variations on the basic weaves make a variety of different fabric surfaces and fabric
strengths.
Weft
In woven fabric, the filling yarns that runs perpendicular to the warp yarns.
Weft Knit
A type of knitted fabric in which yarns are formed into stitches in widthwise manner. Common examples of
weft knits are circular knits and flat knits.
Weight of Cloth
This term describes the variety of ways that fabric is sold: Ounces per linear yard, Yards per pound, and
Ounces per square yard.
Welded Shell
The outer layer of a bonded wor welded garment, such as a jacket.
Welding
There are two basic methods for applying bonding or welded seams. The first method uses an adhesive film,
and the application of heat to glue or laminate two substrates together. The second method involves gluing
or attaching two fabrics, using ultrasonic technology. The creation and channeling of high frequency

147

vibratory waves cause a rapid buildup of heat in synthetic fabrics to create the bonding. Welt- 1. A strip of
material seamed to a pocket opening as a finishing, as well as a strengthening device. 2. A raised or swelled
lap or seam. 3. A covered cord or ornamental strip sewed on a border or along a seam. 4. In knitting, it is
flat-knitted separately and then joined to the fabric by looping or hand knitting, as the heel to the stocking. 5.
A ribbed piece of knit goods used in forming the end of a sleeve or sock to prevent rolling or raveling.
Welt Lining
Interlining for pocket welts.
Whipcord
A woven fabric with a very steep and compacted twill appearance on the face of the goods. End-uses for the
fabric include dress woolens, worsteds, or wool blends, and many types of uniforms.
White Goods
A very broad term which implies any goods bleached and finished in the white condition. Some of the
cotton white goods are muslin, cambric, dimity, lawn, long cloth, organdy, voile, etc. White-on-White-
Some fabrics, such as men's shirtings or broadcloth, poplin, madras, etc., are made on a dobby or jacquard
loom so the white motifs will appear on a white background.
Wickability
The ability of a fiber or a fabric to disperse moisture and allow it to pass through to the surface of the fabric,
so that evaporation can take place.
Wicking
Dispersing or spreading of moisture or liquid through a given area by capillary action in a material.
Wigwan
A converted cotton cloth, dyed black, brown or gray, and given a firm starched, plain calender finish, and
used for interlinings in men's and boys's clothing to give body to the garment.
Wind Resistant
The ability of a fabric to act against or oppose the penetration of wind or air, but it is not totally windproof.
Windproof
The ability of a fabric to be nonpermeable to wind and air.
Woof
Comes from the Anglo-Saxon "owef". It is another name for the warp or warp yarn. Sometimes in
advertising textiles, the word has been used to imply filling yarn, and made to interchange with the other
term, weft.
Wool

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Usually associated with fiber or fabric made from the fleece of sheep or lamb. However, the term "wool"
can also apply to all animal hair fibers, including the hair of the Cashmere or Angora goat or the specialty
hair fibers of the camel, alpaca, llama, or vicuna.
Worsted Fabric
A tightly woven fabric made by using only long staple, combed wool or wool-blend yarns. The fabric has a
hard, smooth surface. Gabardine is an example of a worsted fabric. A common end use is men's tailored
suits.
Worsted System
The textile process of manufacturing spun yarns from staple fibers usually over 3 inches in length. The main
operations are carding, combing, drafting, and spinning.


Woven Fabric
Fabrics composed of two sets of yarns. One set of yarns, the warp, runs along the length of the fabric. The
other set of yarns, the fill or weft, is perpendicular to the warp. Woven fabrics are held together by weaving
the warp and the fill yarns over and under each other.
Wrinkle Free
A resistant to wrinkling created through the use of a variety of finishes and treatments.Wrinkle Recovery-
Similar to resiliency. It is the ability of a fabric to bounce back after it has been twisted, wrinkled, or
distorted in any way.

XANTHATING

A process in rayon manufacture in which carbon disulfide is reacted with alkali cellulose to produce bright
orange cellulose xanthate.

XENON-ARC LAMP

A type of light source used in fading lamps. It is an electric discharge in an atmosphere on xenon gas at a
little below atmospheric pressure, contained in a quartz tube.
YARDAGE


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The amount or length of a fabric expressed in yards.

YARD GOODS

Fabric sold on a retail basis by the running yard.

YARN

A generic term for a continuous strand of textile fibers, filaments, or material in a form suitable for knitting,
weaving, or otherwise intertwining to form a textile fabric. Yarn occurs in the following forms: (1) a number
of fibers twisted together (spun yarn); (2) a number of filaments laid together without twist (a zero-twist
yarn); (3) a number of filaments laid together with a degree of twist; (4) a single filament with or without
twist (a monofilament); or (5) a narrow strip of material, such as paper, plastic film, or metal foil, with or
without twist, intended for use in a textile construction.

YARN CONSTRUCTION

A term used to indicate the number of singles yarns and the number of strands combined for form each
successive unit of a plied yarn or cord.


YARN DYEING DIFFERENCES

Variations in take-up of dyes by yarns, resulting in streaks in finished fabrics.

YARN INTERMEDIATE: A generic term for products obtained during the conversion of fibers to yarn,
including card webs, laps, slivers, rovings, and tops.

YARN NUMBER

A relative measure of the fineness of yarns. Two classes of systems are in use: (1) Direct yarn number (equal
to linear density) is the mass per unit length of yarn. This system is used for silk and manufactured filament
yarns. (2) Indirect yarn number (equal to the reciprocal of linear density) is the length per unit mass of yarn.
This system is used for cotton, linen, and wool-type spun yarns. (Also see COTTON COUNT.)

YARN NUMBER, EQUIVALENT SINGLE
The number of a plied yarn or cord determined by the standard methods used for singles yarns.

YARN QUALITY

Various grades of yarn designated by the producer with respect to performance characteristics, e.g., first
quality, second quality, etc.

YARN-TO-CORD CONVERSION EFFICIENCY

In tire cord, this is a measurement relating tensile strength of untwisted yarn to tensile strength of cord.
Increasing cord twist or increasing yarn diameter lowers conversion efficiency.


YELLOWNESS COEFFICIENT


150

Measure of the color of a molded acetate disc or dope solution. Cy = 1-T4400/T6400 where Cy is the
yellowness coefficient; T4400 is the transmission at 4400A (blue); and T6400 is the transmission at 6400A
(orange). 2001, Celanese Acetate LLC

YIELD

1. Number of linear or square yards of fabric per pound of fiber or yarn. 2. The number of finished square
yards per pound of Greige fabric.



YIELD POINT

Point on the stress-strain curve where the load and elongation stop being directly proportional. (Also see
ELASTIC LIMIT.)

YOUNGS MODULUS

A property of perfectly elastic materials, it is the ratio of change in stress to change in strain within the
elastic limits of the material. The ratio is calculated from the stress expressed in force per unit cross
sectional area, and the strain expressed as a fraction of the original length. Modulus so calculated is
equivalent to the force required to strain the sample 100% of its original length, at the rate prevailing below
the elastic limit.

Yardage
Any fabric made and sold by the yard.
Yarn
A continuous strand of textile fibers that may be composed of endless filaments or shorter fibers twisted or
otherwise held together. It may be made up oof vegetable (linen, hemp, jute, sisal, ramie,cotton), animal
(wool, mohair, silk), or artificial fibers (gold, silver and other metals rayons, nylon, Orlon). Yarns are
utilized in making fabric. Yarn is charachterized by its composition, its thickness (or grist or count), number
of strands (or plies), direction and degree of twist, and the color.
Yarn Beam
The same as a "Warp Beam".
Yarn-Dyed
A term applied to yarns dyed after spinning. See also "Wool-Dyed".
Yearling
A sheep or goat that is 12-18 months of age.
Yellowing
A white fleece can yellow for a variety of reasons. Yellow stains can be caused by urine or feces, and by
bacteria or fungus. Alkali and light can also cause yellowing in wool.
Most stains cannot be removed by washing. Bleaching will probably damage the fleece.
Yield
The amount of scoured wool obtained from a definite amount of grease wool. The amount of usable fiber
after the processes of washing, drying, and removing guard hairs. A 'high yield' fleece would have a low
percentage of grease.

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Yolk
The natural grease and suint covering on the wool fibers of the unscoured fleece, and excreted from glands
in the sheep's skin. Usually the finer the wool, the more abundant the yolk. Yolk serves to prevent
entanglement of the wool fibers and damage during growth of the fleece.
ZEIN FIBER
A manufactured fiber of regenerated protein derived from maize.

ZERO-TWIST
Twistless, devoid of twist.

Z-TWIST

Spinning counterclockwise. Traditionally, the direction "plied" yarns are spun.


































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__THE END__