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5-DOF Manipulator Simulation Based on

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83 vizualizări6 pagini5-DOF Manipulator Simulation Based on

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methodology applied to a 5-DOF manipulator. The

work includes mathematical modeling of the direct,

inverse and differential kinematics as well as the

dynamics of the manipulator. The method

implements the path following in the 3D space and

uses the Matlab-Simulink approach. Several paths

were tested to verify the method. This methodology

can be used with different robots to test the

behavior and control laws.

Keywords Simulation methodology, Simulink, Manipulator

1. INTRODUCTION

Robotics is one of the main disciplines in the industry

which can be used in the development of new technologies.

The synergy of robotics with the different applications like

submarine task, car assembly operation, vision systems and

artificial intelligence allows the innovation and reduces the

manufacture costs.

For this purpose, it is important that the robot

programmers are able to visualize and test the behavior of the

robots in different circumstances and with different

parameters. There are several programming algorithms to

simulate robotic systems [1]; some of them use the link and

joint positions, however, mainly the path following in the

Cartesian work space are visually showed by lineal plots [2].

Some other works only make a 3D virtual animation [3].

Other works only show the kinematic modeling in a mixed

programming environment like C++ and OpenGL [4], also,

some multiple interface programming technique has been

developed using Matlab, C++ and OpenGL [5][6]; in both

cases, the computational time increases, and is quite

complicated to manage the different programming tools.

Finally, some research that presents an interface between

Matlab and Simulink is used to simulate a mechatronic system

[7], however, it doesnt have a visual representation like the

one proposed in this article.

The main objective of the present work is to show a

complete simulation methodology using the same

programming platform, where, the combination of Matlab and

Simulink is proposed. Here, the mathematical calculations are

performed at the same time than its virtual representation. The

method allows to manipulate the robotic system and to

visualize the robots behavior from different perspectives.

To test the methodology, a manipulator robot with 5-DOF

as shown on figure 1 (Thermo Scientific CATALYST-5) is

used, this robot has the capability to load a maximum of 1.5

kg. A PD+G (Proportional Derivative with Gravity

Compensation) control is implemented based on a dynamic

modeling.

Figure 1. Catalyst-5 Robot

The robot specifications are presented on table 1:

Link 1 length

Link 1 mass

l1

m1

0.2504

9.0

m

kg

Link 2 length

Link 2 mass

l2

m2

0.2504

2.0

m

kg

Link 3 length

Link 3 mass

l3

m3

0.2504

1.0

m

kg

Link 4 length

Link 4 mass

l4

m4

0.0

0.4

m

kg

Link 5 length

Link 5 mass

l5

m5

0.51

0.3

m

kg

Gravity acceleration G 9.81 m/s

2

Table 1. Robot specifications

2. KINEMATIC MODELING

The dynamic modeling of a manipulator robot with n-

degree of freedom (DOF.) can be divided in four steps: Direct

Kinematics, Inverse Kinematics, Differential Kinematics and

Dynamics.

5-DOF Manipulator Simulation based on MATLAB-

Simulink methodology

Velarde-Sanchez J.A., Rodriguez-Gutierrez S.A., Garcia-Valdovinos L.G., Pedraza-Ortega J.C.,

PICYT-CIDESI, CIDIT-Facultad de Informatica, Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro,

Queretaro, Mexico.

velardeartur@yahoo.com.mx, sergioarg@prodigy.net.mx, ggarcia@cidesi.mx, caryoko@yahoo.com

978-1-4244-5353-5/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE 295

Direct Kinematics:

The objective of the direct kinematics is to determine

the accumulative effect that comes from the set of variables of

each link, that is, to determine the position and orientation of

the end-effector.

The analysis of the Direct Kinematics was made using the

Denavit Hartembrerg convention as follows:

A

i

= (1)

Then, the table 2 was obtained with the results:

Table 2. Denavit Hartenberg parameters

After some calculations, the end-effector position vector is

defined by:

X=

Y=

Z=

Inverse Kinematics:

The inverse kinematics main problem can be reduced

to both the calculus of the position and orientation inverse

kinematics, where a geometrical approach to the problem

solution is based in the Method proposed by Spong [8].

Differential Kinematics:

In the previous steps, the dynamics related with the position

of the end-effector as well as the location of the joints and its

position with respect to the reference frame, therefore, the

position problem will be changed to a speed analysis problem

of a serial manipulator.

The differential kinematics is defined by the next

equation:

X

= [q (2)

where J is the Jacobian matrix. This matrix depends on the

robot configuration and robot degrees of freedom (DOF).

Dynamics:

The dynamic equation of an n-DOF in the manipulator can

be defined as:

H(q)q + C(q, q )q + g(q) = (3)

To carry out the manipulator analysis in this research,

we consider the Lagrangian analysis [9], this method consist

in the generalized coordinate analysis and it is based on the

Lagrangian function, which is defined by the difference

between the kinetic and the potential energies on a

mechatronic system and is defined as:

I = K - u (4)

In the case of the serial manipulators, the Lagrangian

is used in a matrix form and is represented by the next

equation:

Hq + I + C = (5)

where F = |I

1

, , I

n

]

1

, 6 = |0

1

, , 0

n

]

1

, Q = |

1

, ,

n

]

1

.

V is known as the Coriolis vector, G is the gravitational force

vector, and M is the inertia matrix where the analysis of the

manipulator is mostly performed.

3. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY

The development of the mathematical algorithms is

carried out in Matlab and the implementation of the virtual

simulation was made in Simulink as shown on figures 2 (a),

(b), (c) and (d):

(a)

Joint i

1

0

+

2 0 0

3 0 0

4 0 0

+

5

0 0

978-1-4244-5353-5/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE 296

(b)

(c)

(d)

Figure 2. Robot Simulation project in

The block diagram that expresses the wh

necessary to carry out a simulation of a r

presented as a block diagram presented on t

process starts from the mechanical analysis, c

dynamics until the virtual representation of

plots.

Figure 3. Proposed Methodolog

Simulink

hole methodology

robotic system is

the figure 3. The

continues with the

the robot and its

gy.

Mathematical modeling:

This step depends on the

analyzed. For demonstration p

calculations can be taken as a refe

physical and mechanical properties

centers, therefore, we can use a

equation (3).

Control Design:

The position control proble

manipulator can be solved according

Considering the dynamics

equation (5).

Having a constant path desi

Find a function in which t

qd (desired link direction)

Adaptable Control.

To solve this particular

(Proportional Derivative with

control is used as shown on figu

Figure 4. PD + G Con

Path programming:

The manipulator work space a

known. Then, the path should be pr

in the control system.

CAD Manipulator:

The virtual representation

mechanical visual representation,

SolidWorks program is used as

necessary to use geometric obj

approximation to each one of the

figure 5. If the complete assembly

simulation process will be more di

the fact that the model will be m

Simulink and also because the mass

harder to get.

Figure 5. SolidWork

e type of the robot to be

purposes, the dynamical

ference by considering the

of the links and the mass

model based control as

em of a manipulator robot

g to the following terms:

s of an n-DOF robot as

ired (Reference Point).

the q (robot links) tends to

) by using a PD, PID and

r problem, a PD + G

h Gravity Compensation)

ure 4.

ntrol System

and the path to follow are

rogrammed to be included

is close related with the

and due to this fact, the

a design tool, but it is

jects that are a closer

robot links as shown on

y of the robot is used, the

ifficult to carry out due to

more difficult to load in

center of each link will be

ks assembly.

978-1-4244-5353-5/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE 297

VRML2:

To visualize the prototype in 3D using Simulink, it is

necessary to convert the file into VRML 2.0. To solve this

matter, the 2009 SolidWorks version can be used and it is

necessary to export the design into VRML 2.0. If the file is

saved in VRML 1.0, by using the CrossRoads program the

version can be changed to the proper one.

Virtual Environment:

Once the previous steps have been completed and the

kinematics is programmed, the next step is to implement it in

the virtual environment that includes; manipulator design, data

showing and path following visualization.

In order to successfully carry out the simulation, it is

necessary to have a Matlab 2009 version that includes the full

3D animation library.

Manipulator design:

Here, the prototype is loaded by using the VR Sink

block, where the model can be edited using the VRML editor.

Due to the fact that the robot coming from the

mechanical system is different to the assembly, the operations

on the transformation from one link to other is different in this

editor, therefore it is necessary to perform the next tasks:

Identify each links of the manipulator.

Leave only 2 main transformations:

o The transformation on the base which wont be

moved;

o The link transformation where the movement chain is

performed to get the mathematical parameters (this is

variable depending on the robot to be used).

Text Visualization:

To obtain the real-time data from the manipulator, we can

use the VR Text Output.

It is necessary to reference the virtual environment, also to

introduce the variable names to be shown together with the

variable format.

Path Following Visualization:

To show the path that the robot follows in the simulation

process, it is necessary that the desired target as well as the

real target to be connected to the block named V Tracer.

We need to connect x, y and z for the data acquisition. The

type of path to be followed is selected and projected on the

virtual environment; also, it is necessary to reference the name

of the transformations in the manipulators design block to be

represented in the workspace.

Simulation:

Once the virtual environment is created, and having the

calculations already solved, the interface is carried out by

executing the program in Simulink.

In this way, it can be observed the linear plots in the virtual

environment at the same time that the dynamical behavior of

the manipulator is observed.

Moreover, we can use the visualization tools of the

virtual interface in Simulink to modify the physical aspects of

the simulation in order to get some pictures or videos.

TEST AND RESULTS

In order to test the proposed methodology, the clover shape

path was selected. This trajectory is represented as:

xJ = r - cos(S - w - t) - cos(w - t) + bx;

yJ = r - cos(S - w - t) - sin(w - t) +ky;

zJ = .S;

Considering the next parameters, we perform the

simulation:

Center of the figure in X-axis: 0 .3m

Center of the figure in Y-axis: 0 .2m

Petal Clover Radius: 0 .07 m

Angular Speed: 0.2094 rad/s

Control gains:

Kp = |Su u u u u; u 2u u u u; u u 2u u u; u u u 2u u; u u u u Su];

KJ = |1u u u u u; u 1u u u u; u u 1u u u; u u u 1u u; u u u u 2];

As can be seen in figure 6, the plots show the behavior of

the desired link paths and the real link paths. It is clear that

the proposed methodology can follow the desired path in a

closer way.

Figure 5 Inverse Kinematics

Also, the path follow is shown after the control

implementation in the Method. Here, it can be observed that

the performance is satisfactory and the plots of the real and the

desired path are shown in blue and red respectively.

978-1-4244-5353-5/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE 298

Figure 7 End Effector position

The 3D space path (real and desired) were plotted as well as

different views of the simulator on Figures 8 to 11.

Figure 8 Path in 3D space

Figure 9 Simulation of the 3D path follow with control

Figure 10. Simulation of the 3D path (Front view)

Figure 11 Virtual Reality Simulation in Simulink

CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK

A simulation methodology of the 5-DOF was proposed.

The modeling of the robot includes direct, inverse, and

differential kinematics as well as dynamics. This method was

applied to test the robot CATALYST 5 by using a project in

Simulink and Matlab. A proposed path was plotted in the 3D

space and the method was applied. All the plots from the links

and the end-effector positions were obtained and clearly show

the good performance of the proposed methodology.

As the future work, this methodology will be applied to

several robotic systems in order to test its behavior. Also,

more paths in 3D space will be tested in order to get the

information about the speed, acceleration and force of each

link in the manipulator. Some other options include the testing

of more control algorithms like optimal control.

978-1-4244-5353-5/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE 299

REFERENCES

[1] Felix Etienne Trepanier and Bruce A. MacDonald,

Graphical Simulation and Visualization Tool for a

Distributed Robot Programming Environment, Technical

Report of the Department of Electrical and Electronic

Engineering, University of Auckland, New Zealand,

2003.

[2] Stephen H. Murphy, John Ting-Yung Wen and George N

Saridis, Simulation of cooperating Robot Manipulators

on a mobile Platform, IEEE Transactions on Robotics

and Automation, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp. 468 478, Aug

1991.

[3] Martin Rohrmeier Web Based Robot Simulation using

VRML, Winter Simulation Conference Proceedings,

Volume 2, pp. 1525-1528, 2000.

[4] Moreno Trejo Roberto, Cabrera Ros Juan Salvador,

Hernndez Ramirez Fernando, Jose Emilio Vargas Soto,

Jesus Carlos Pedraza Ortega, Simulation Software of the

Mitsubishi RV-2AJ Manipulator Robot, Proceedings of

the 4th Mexican Conference on Mechatronics, pp. 129-

132, 2005 (In Spanish Language).

[5] J.A. Soto, J. E. Vargas and J.C. Pedraza A New

Trajectory Generation Method Using Vision for a Robot

Manipulator, International Conference on Dynamics,

Instrumentation and Control (CDIC), 2006.

[6] Maricela Gamio, J. Carlos Pedraza Juan M. Ramos,

Efrn Gorrostieta. Matlab-C++ Interface for a Flexible

Arm Manipulator Simulation using Multi-Language

Techniques, Proceedings of the Fifth Mexican

International Conference on Artificial Intelligence

(MICAI), pp. 369-378, 2006.

[7] Nourdine Aliane A Matlab/Simulink-Based Interactive

module for Servo Systems Learning, IEEE Transactions

on Education, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp. 1 7, 2009.

[8] Mark W. Spong. Robot Modelling and Control, John

Wiley and Sons, 2005.

[9] Lung Went Tsai Robot Analysis: The Mechanics of

Serial and Parallel Manipulators, Wiley, 1999.

978-1-4244-5353-5/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE 300

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