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May 31, 2014

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Factor Analysis

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139 (de) vizualizări

Factor Analysis

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Factor Analysis Using SPSS

The theory of factor analysis was described in your lecture, or read Field (2005) Chapter 15.

Example

Factor analysis is frequently used to develop questionnaires: after all if you want to measure

an ability or trait, you need to ensure that the questions asked relate to the construct that you

intend to measure. I have noticed that a lot of students become very stressed about SPSS.

Therefore I wanted to design a questionnaire to measure a trait that I termed SPSS anxiety. I

decided to devise a questionnaire to measure various aspects of students anxiety towards

learning SPSS. I generated questions based on interviews with anxious and non-anxious

students and came up with 23 possible questions to include. Each question was a statement

followed by a five-point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree through neither agree or

disagree to strongly agree. The questionnaire is printed in Field (2005, p. 639).

The questionnaire was designed to predict how anxious a given individual would be about

learning how to use SPSS. Whats more, I wanted to know whether anxiety about SPSS could

be broken down into specific forms of anxiety. So, in other words, are there other traits that

might contribute to anxiety about SPSS? With a little help from a few lecturer friends I

collected 2571 completed questionnaires (at this point it should become apparent that this

example is fictitious!). The data are stored in the file SAQ.sav.

Questionnaires are made up of multiple items each of which elicits a

response from the same person. As such, it is a repeated measures design.

Given we know that repeated measures go in different columns, different

questions on a questionnaire should each have their own column in SPSS.

Initial Considerations

Sample Size

Correlation coefficients fluctuate from sample to sample, much more so in small samples than

in large. Therefore, the reliability of factor analysis is also dependent on sample size. Field

(2005) reviews many suggestions about the sample size necessary for factor analysis and

concludes that it depends on many things. In general over 300 cases is probably adequate but

communalities after extraction should probably be above 0.5 (see Field, 2005).

Data Screening

SPSS will nearly always find a factor solution to a set of variables. However, the solution is

unlikely to have any real meaning if the variables analysed are not sensible. The first thing to

do when conducting a factor analysis is to look at the inter-correlation between variables. If

our test questions measure the same underlying dimension (or dimensions) then we would

expect them to correlate with each other (because they are measuring the same thing). If we

find any variables that do not correlate with any other variables (or very few) then you should

consider excluding these variables before the factor analysis is run. The correlations between

variables can be checked using the correlate procedure (see Chapter 4) to create a correlation

matrix of all variables. This matrix can also be created as part of the main factor analysis.

The opposite problem is when variables correlate too highly. Although mild multicollinearity is

not a problem for factor analysis it is important to avoid extreme multicollinearity (i.e.

variables that are very highly correlated) and singularity (variables that are perfectly

correlated). As with regression, singularity causes problems in factor analysis because it

becomes impossible to determine the unique contribution to a factor of the variables that are

C8057 (Research Methods II): Factor Analysis on SPSS

Dr. Andy Field Page 2 10/12/2005

highly correlated (as was the case for multiple regression). Therefore, at this early stage we

look to eliminate any variables that dont correlate with any other variables or that correlate

very highly with other variables (R < .9). Multicollinearity can be detected by looking at the

determinant of the R-matrix (see next section).

As well as looking for interrelations, you should ensure that variables have roughly normal

distributions and are measured at an interval level (which Likert scales are, perhaps wrongly,

assumed to be!). The assumption of normality is important only if you wish to generalize the

results of your analysis beyond the sample collected.

Running the Analysis

Access the main dialog box (Figure 1) by using the AnalyzeData ReductionFactor

menu path. Simply select the variables you want to include in the analysis (remember to

exclude any variables that were identified as problematic during the data screening) and

transfer them to the box labelled Variables by clicking on .

Figure 1: Main dialog box for factor analysis

There are several options available, the first of which can be accessed by clicking on to

access the dialog box in Figure 2. The Coefficients option produces the R-matrix, and the

Significance levels option will produce a matrix indicating the significance value of each

correlation in the R-matrix. You can also ask for the Determinant of this matrix and this option

is vital for testing for multicollinearity or singularity. The determinant of the R-matrix should

be greater than 0.00001; if it is less than this value then look through the correlation matrix

for variables that correlate very highly (R > .8) and consider eliminating one of the variables

(or more depending on the extent of the problem) before proceeding. The choice of which of

the two variables to eliminate will be fairly arbitrary and finding multicollinearity in the data

should raise questions about the choice of items within your questionnaire.

Figure 2: Descriptives in factor analysis

C8057 (Research Methods II): Factor Analysis on SPSS

Dr. Andy Field Page 3 10/12/2005

KMO and Bartletts test of sphericity produces the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling

adequacy and Bartletts test (see Field, 2005, Chapters 11 & 12). The value of KMO should be

greater than 0.5 if the sample is adequate.

Factor Extraction on SPSS

Click on to access the extraction dialog box (Figure 3). There are several ways to

conduct factor analysis and the choice of method depends on many things (see Field, 2005).

For our purposes we will use principal component analysis, which strictly speaking isnt factor

analysis; however, the two procedures often yield similar results (see Field, 2005, 15.3.3).

The Display box has two options: to display the Unrotated factor solution and a Scree plot. The

scree plot was described earlier and is a useful way of establishing how many factors should be

retained in an analysis. The unrotated factor solution is useful in assessing the improvement of

interpretation due to rotation. If the rotated solution is little better than the unrotated solution

then it is possible that an inappropriate (or less optimal) rotation method has been used.

Figure 3: Dialog box for factor extraction

The Extract box provides options pertaining to the retention of factors. You have the choice of

either selecting factors with eigenvalues greater than a user-specified value or retaining a fixed

number of factors. For the Eigenvalues over option the default is Kaisers recommendation of

eigenvalues over 1. It is probably best to run a primary analysis with the Eigenvalues over 1

option selected, select a scree plot, and compare the results. If looking at the scree plot and

the eigenvalues over 1 lead you to retain the same number of factors then continue with the

analysis and be happy. If the two criteria give different results then examine the

communalities and decide for yourself which of the two criteria to believe. If you decide to use

the scree plot then you may want to redo the analysis specifying the number of factors to

extract. The number of factors to be extracted can be specified by selecting Number of factors

and then typing the appropriate number in the space provided (e.g. 4).

Rotation

The interpretability of factors can be improved through rotation. Rotation maximizes the

loading of each variable on one of the extracted factors whilst minimizing the loading on all

other factors. Rotation works through changing the absolute values of the variables whilst

keeping their differential values constant. Click on to access the dialog box in Figure 4.

Varimax, quartimax and equamax are orthogonal rotations whereas direct oblimin and promax

are oblique rotations (see Field 2005). The exact choice of rotation depends largely on whether

or not you think that the underlying factors should be related. If you expect the factors to be

independent then you should choose one of the orthogonal rotations (I recommend varimax).

If, however, there are theoretical grounds for supposing that your factors might correlate then

direct oblimin should be selected. For this example, choose an orthogonal rotation.

The dialog box also has options for displaying the Rotated solution. The rotated solution is

displayed by default and is essential for interpreting the final rotated analysis.

C8057 (Research Methods II): Factor Analysis on SPSS

Dr. Andy Field Page 4 10/12/2005

Figure 4: Factor analysis: rotation dialog box

Scores

The factor scores dialog box can be accessed by clicking in the main dialog box. This

option allows you to save factor scores for each subject in the data editor. SPSS creates a new

column for each factor extracted and then places the factor score for each subject within that

column. These scores can then be used for further analysis, or simply to identify groups of

subjects who score highly on particular factors. There are three methods of obtaining these

scores, all of which were described in sections 15.2.3. and 15.5.3. of Field (2005).

Figure 5: Factor analysis: factor scores dialog box

Options

Click on in the main dialog box. By default SPSS will list variables in the order in which

they are entered into the data editor. Although this format is often convenient, when

interpreting factors it can be useful to list variables by size. By selecting Sorted by size, SPSS

will order the variables by their factor loadings. There is also the option to Suppress absolute

values less than a specified value (by default 0.1). This option ensures that factor loadings

within 0.1 are not displayed in the output. This option is useful for assisting in interpretation;

however, it can be helpful to increase the default value of 0.1 to either 0.4 or a value reflecting

the expected value of a significant factor loading given the sample size (see Field section

15.3.6.2.). For this example set the value at 0.4.

Figure 6: Factor analysis: options dialog box

C8057 (Research Methods II): Factor Analysis on SPSS

Dr. Andy Field Page 5 10/12/2005

Interpreting Output from SPSS

Select the same options as I have in the screen diagrams and run a factor analysis with

orthogonal rotation. To save space each variable is referred to only by its label on the data

editor (e.g. Q12). On the output you obtain, you should find that the SPSS uses the value label

(the question itself) in all of the output. When using the output in this chapter just remember

that Q1 represents question 1, Q2 represents question 2 and Q17 represents question 17.

Preliminary Analysis

SPSS Output 1 shows an abridged version of the R-matrix. The top half of this table contains

the Pearson correlation coefficient between all pairs of questions whereas the bottom half

contains the one-tailed significance of these coefficients. We can use this correlation matrix to

check the pattern of relationships. First, scan the significance values and look for any variable

for which the majority of values are greater than 0.05. Then scan the correlation coefficients

themselves and look for any greater than 0.9. If any are found then you should be aware that

a problem could arise because of singularity in the data: check the determinant of the

correlation matrix and, if necessary, eliminate one of the two variables causing the problem.

The determinant is listed at the bottom of the matrix (blink and youll miss it). For these data

its value is 5.271E04 (which is 0.0005271) which is greater than the necessary value of

0.00001. Therefore, multicollinearity is not a problem for these data. To sum up, all questions

in the SAQ correlate fairly well and none of the correlation coefficients are particularly large;

therefore, there is no need to consider eliminating any questions at this stage.

Correlation Matrix

a

1.000 -.099 -.337 .436 .402 -.189 .214 .329 -.104 -.004

-.099 1.000 .318 -.112 -.119 .203 -.202 -.205 .231 .100

-.337 .318 1.000 -.380 -.310 .342 -.325 -.417 .204 .150

.436 -.112 -.380 1.000 .401 -.186 .243 .410 -.098 -.034

.402 -.119 -.310 .401 1.000 -.165 .200 .335 -.133 -.042

.217 -.074 -.227 .278 .257 -.167 .101 .272 -.165 -.069

.305 -.159 -.382 .409 .339 -.269 .221 .483 -.168 -.070

.331 -.050 -.259 .349 .269 -.159 .175 .296 -.079 -.050

-.092 .315 .300 -.125 -.096 .249 -.159 -.136 .257 .171

.214 -.084 -.193 .216 .258 -.127 .084 .193 -.131 -.062

.357 -.144 -.351 .369 .298 -.200 .255 .346 -.162 -.086

.345 -.195 -.410 .442 .347 -.267 .298 .441 -.167 -.046

.355 -.143 -.318 .344 .302 -.227 .204 .374 -.195 -.053

.338 -.165 -.371 .351 .315 -.254 .226 .399 -.170 -.048

.246 -.165 -.312 .334 .261 -.210 .206 .300 -.168 -.062

.499 -.168 -.419 .416 .395 -.267 .265 .421 -.156 -.082

.371 -.087 -.327 .383 .310 -.163 .205 .363 -.126 -.092

.347 -.164 -.375 .382 .322 -.257 .235 .430 -.160 -.080

-.189 .203 .342 -.186 -.165 1.000 -.249 -.275 .234 .122

.214 -.202 -.325 .243 .200 -.249 1.000 .468 -.100 -.035

.329 -.205 -.417 .410 .335 -.275 .468 1.000 -.129 -.068

-.104 .231 .204 -.098 -.133 .234 -.100 -.129 1.000 .230

-.004 .100 .150 -.034 -.042 .122 -.035 -.068 .230 1.000

.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .410

.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .043

.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .017

.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

.000 .006 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .005

.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001

.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .009

.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .004

.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .007

.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .001

.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .039

.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

.410 .000 .000 .043 .017 .000 .039 .000 .000

Q01

Q02

Q03

Q04

Q05

Q06

Q07

Q08

Q09

Q10

Q11

Q12

Q13

Q14

Q15

Q16

Q17

Q18

Q19

Q20

Q21

Q22

Q23

Q01

Q02

Q03

Q04

Q05

Q06

Q07

Q08

Q09

Q10

Q11

Q12

Q13

Q14

Q15

Q16

Q17

Q18

Q19

Q20

Q21

Q22

Q23

Correlation

Sig. (1-tailed)

Q01 Q02 Q03 Q04 Q05 Q19 Q20 Q21 Q22 Q23

Determinant = 5.271E-04 a.

SPSS Output 1

SPSS Output 2 shows several very important parts of the output: the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin

measure of sampling adequacy and Bartlett's test of sphericity. The KMO statistic varies

C8057 (Research Methods II): Factor Analysis on SPSS

Dr. Andy Field Page 6 10/12/2005

between 0 and 1. A value of 0

indicates that the sum of partial

correlations is large relative to the

sum of correlations, indicating

diffusion in the pattern of

correlations (hence, factor analysis

is likely to be inappropriate). A

value close to 1 indicates that

patterns of correlations are

relatively compact and so factor

analysis should yield distinct and reliable factors. Kaiser (1974) recommends accepting values

greater than 0.5 as acceptable (values below this should lead you to either collect more data

or rethink which variables to include). Furthermore, values between 0.5 and 0.7 are mediocre,

values between 0.7 and 0.8 are good, values between 0.8 and 0.9 are great and values above

0.9 are superb (see Hutcheson and Sofroniou, 1999, pp.224-225 for more detail). For these

data the value is 0.93, which falls into the range of being superb: so, we should be confident

that factor analysis is appropriate for these data.

Bartlett's measure tests the null hypothesis that the original correlation matrix is an identity

matrix. For factor analysis to work we need some relationships between variables and if the R-

matrix were an identity matrix then all correlation coefficients would be zero. Therefore, we

want this test to be significant (i.e. have a significance value less than 0.05). A significant test

tells us that the R-matrix is not an identity matrix; therefore, there are some relationships

between the variables we hope to include in the analysis. For these data, Bartlett's test is

highly significant (p < 0.001), and therefore factor analysis is appropriate.

Factor Extraction

SPSS Output 3 lists the eigenvalues associated with each linear component (factor) before

extraction, after extraction and after rotation. Before extraction, SPSS has identified 23 linear

components within the data set (we know that there should be as many eigenvectors as there

are variables and so there will be as many factors as variables). The eigenvalues associated

with each factor represent the variance explained by that particular linear component and

SPSS also displays the

eigenvalue in terms of the

percentage of variance

explained (so, factor 1

explains 31.696% of total

variance). It should be clear

that the first few factors

explain relatively large

amounts of variance

(especially factor 1) whereas

subsequent factors explain

only small amounts of

variance. SPSS then extracts

all factors with eigenvalues

greater than 1, which leaves

us with four factors. The

eigenvalues associated with

these factors are again

displayed (and the

percentage of variance

explained) in the columns

labelled Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings. The values in this part of the table are the same

as the values before extraction, except that the values for the discarded factors are ignored

(hence, the table is blank after the fourth factor). In the final part of the table (labelled

KMO and Bartlett's Test

.930

19334.492

253

.000

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.

Approx. Chi-Square

df

Sig.

Bartlett's Test of Sphericity

SPSS Output 2

Total Variance Explained

7.290 31.696 31.696 7.290 31.696 31.696 3.730 16.219

16.219

1.739 7.560 39.256 1.739 7.560 39.256 3.340 14.523 30.742

1.317 5.725 44.981 1.317 5.725 44.981 2.553 11.099 41.842

1.227 5.336 50.317 1.227 5.336 50.317 1.949 8.475 50.317

.988 4.295 54.612

.895 3.893 58.504

.806 3.502 62.007

.783 3.404 65.410

.751 3.265 68.676

.717 3.117 71.793

.684 2.972 74.765

.670 2.911 77.676

.612 2.661 80.337

.578 2.512 82.849

.549 2.388 85.236

.523 2.275 87.511

.508 2.210 89.721

.456 1.982 91.704

.424 1.843 93.546

.408 1.773 95.319

.379 1.650 96.969

.364 1.583 98.552

.333 1.448 100.000

Component

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

Total

% of

Variance

Cumulative

% Total

% of

Variance

Cumulative

% Total

% of

Variance

Cumulative

%

Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

SPSS Output 3

C8057 (Research Methods II): Factor Analysis on SPSS

Dr. Andy Field Page 7 10/12/2005

Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings), the eigenvalues of the factors after rotation are

displayed. Rotation has the effect of optimizing the factor structure and one consequence for

these data is that the relative importance of the four factors is equalized. Before rotation,

factor 1 accounted for considerably more variance than the remaining three (31.696%

compared to 7.560, 5.725, and 5.336%), however after extraction it accounts for only

16.219% of variance (compared to 14.523, 11.099 and 8.475% respectively).

SPSS Output 4 shows the table of communalities before and after extraction. Principal

component analysis works on the initial assumption that all variance is common; therefore,

before extraction the communalities are all 1. The communalities in the column labelled

Extraction reflect the common variance in the data structure. So, for example, we can say that

43.5% of the variance associated with question 1 is common, or shared, variance. Another

way to look at these communalities is in terms of the proportion of variance explained by the

underlying factors. After extraction some of the factors are discarded and so some information

is lost. The amount of variance in each variable that can be explained by the retained factors is

represented by the communalities after extraction.

Communalities

1.000 .435

1.000 .414

1.000 .530

1.000 .469

1.000 .343

1.000 .654

1.000 .545

1.000 .739

1.000 .484

1.000 .335

1.000 .690

1.000 .513

1.000 .536

1.000 .488

1.000 .378

1.000 .487

1.000 .683

1.000 .597

1.000 .343

1.000 .484

1.000 .550

1.000 .464

1.000 .412

Q01

Q02

Q03

Q04

Q05

Q06

Q07

Q08

Q09

Q10

Q11

Q12

Q13

Q14

Q15

Q16

Q17

Q18

Q19

Q20

Q21

Q22

Q23

Initial Extraction

Extraction Method: Principal Component

Component Matrix

a

.701

.685

.679

.673

.669

.658

.656

.652 -.400

.643

.634

-.629

.593

.586

.556

.549 .401 -.417

.437

.436 -.404

-.427

.627

.548

.465

.562 .571

.507

Q18

Q07

Q16

Q13

Q12

Q21

Q14

Q11

Q17

Q04

Q03

Q15

Q01

Q05

Q08

Q10

Q20

Q19

Q09

Q02

Q22

Q06

Q23

1 2 3 4

Component

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

4 components extracted. a.

SPSS Output 4

This output also shows the component matrix before rotation. This matrix contains the

loadings of each variable onto each factor. By default SPSS displays all loadings; however, we

requested that all loadings less than 0.4 be suppressed in the output and so there are blank

spaces for many of the loadings. This matrix is not particularly important for interpretation.

At this stage SPSS has extracted four factors. Factor analysis is an exploratory tool and so it

should be used to guide the researcher to make various decisions: you shouldn't leave the

computer to make them. One important decision is the number of factors to extract. By

Kaiser's criterion we should extract four factors and this is what SPSS has done. However, this

criterion is accurate when there are less than 30 variables and communalities after extraction

are greater than 0.7 or when the sample size exceeds 250 and the average communality is

greater than 0.6. The communalities are shown in SPSS Output 4, and none exceed 0.7. The

average of the communalities can be found by adding them up and dividing by the number of

communalities (11.573/23 = 0.503). So, on both grounds Kaiser's rule may not be accurate.

However, you should consider the huge sample that we have, because the research into

Kaiser's criterion gives recommendations for much smaller samples. We can also use the scree

C8057 (Research Methods II): Factor Analysis on SPSS

Dr. Andy Field Page 8 10/12/2005

plot, which we asked SPSS to produce. The scree plot is shown below with a thunderbolt

indicating the point of inflexion on the curve. This curve is difficult to interpret because the

curve begins to tail off after three factors, but there is another drop after four factors before a

stable plateau is reached. Therefore, we could probably justify retaining either two or four

factors. Given the large sample, it is probably safe to assume Kaiser's criterion; however, you

could rerun the analysis specifying that SPSS extract only two factors and compare the results.

Scree Plot

Component Number

23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1

E

i

g

e

n

v

a

l

u

e

8

6

4

2

0

SPSS Output 5

If there are less than 30 variables and communalities after extraction are

greater than 0.7 or if the sample size exceeds 250 and the average

communality is greater than 0.6 then retain all factors with Eigen values

above 1 (Kaisers criterion).

If none of the above apply, a Scree Plot can be used when the sample size

is large (around 300 or more cases).

Factor Rotation

The first analysis I asked you to run was using an orthogonal rotation. SPSS Output 6 shows

the rotated component matrix (also called the rotated factor matrix in factor analysis) which is

a matrix of the factor loadings for each variable onto each factor. This matrix contains the

same information as the component matrix in SPSS Output 4 except that it is calculated after

rotation. There are several things to consider about the format of this matrix. First, factor

loadings less than 0.4 have not been displayed because we asked for these loadings to be

suppressed. If you didn't select this option, or didn't adjust the criterion value to 0.4, then

your output will differ. Second, the variables are listed in the order of size of their factor

loadings because we asked for the output to be Sorted by size. If this option was not selected

your output will look different. Finally, for all other parts of the output I suppressed the

variable labels (for reasons of space) but for this matrix I have allowed the variable labels to

be printed to aid interpretation.

Compare this matrix with the unrotated solution. Before rotation, most variables loaded highly

onto the first factor and the remaining factors didn't really get a look in. However, the rotation

of the factor structure has clarified things considerably: there are four factors and variables

load very highly onto only one factor (with the exception of one question). The suppression of

loadings less than 0.4 and ordering variables by loading size also makes interpretation

considerably easier (because you don't have to scan the matrix to identify substantive

loadings).

C8057 (Research Methods II): Factor Analysis on SPSS

Dr. Andy Field Page 9 10/12/2005

Rotated Component Matrix

a

.800

.684

.647

.638

.579

.550

.459

.677

.661

-.567

.473 .523

.516

.514

.496

.429

.833

.747

.747

.648

.645

.586

.543

.427

I have little experience of computers

SPSS always crashes when I try to use it

I worry that I will cause irreparable damage because

of my incompetenece with computers

All computers hate me

Computers have minds of their own and deliberately

go wrong whenever I use them

Computers are useful only for playing games

Computers are out to get me

I can't sleep for thoughts of eigen vectors

I wake up under my duvet thinking that I am trapped

under a normal distribtion

Standard deviations excite me

People try to tell you that SPSS makes statistics

easier to understand but it doesn't

I dream that Pearson is attacking me with correlation

coefficients

I weep openly at the mention of central tendency

Statiscs makes me cry

I don't understand statistics

I have never been good at mathematics

I slip into a coma whenever I see an equation

I did badly at mathematics at school

My friends are better at statistics than me

My friends are better at SPSS than I am

If I'm good at statistics my friends will think I'm a nerd

My friends will think I'm stupid for not being able to

cope with SPSS

Everybody looks at me when I use SPSS

1 2 3 4

Component

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.

Rotation converged in 9 iterations.

a.

SPSS Output 6

Use orthogonal rotation when you believe your factors should theoretically

independent (unrelated to each other).

Use oblique rotation when you believe factors should be related to each

other.

Interpretation

The next step is to look at the content of questions that load onto the same factor to try to

identify common themes. If the mathematical factor produced by the analysis represents some

real-world construct then common themes among highly loading questions can help us identify

what the construct might be. The questions that load highly on factor 1 seem to all relate to

using computers or SPSS. Therefore we might label this factor fear of computers. The

questions that load highly on factor 2 all seem to relate to different aspects of statistics;

therefore, we might label this factor fear of statistics. The three questions that load highly on

factor 3 all seem to relate to mathematics; therefore, we might label this factor fear of

mathematics. Finally, the questions that load highly on factor 4 all contain some component of

social evaluation from friends; therefore, we might label this factor peer evaluation. This

analysis seems to reveal that the initial questionnaire, in reality, is composed of four sub-

scales: fear of computers, fear of statistics, fear of maths, and fear of negative peer

evaluation. There are two possibilities here. The first is that the SAQ failed to measure what it

set out to (namely SPSS anxiety) but does measure some related constructs. The second is

that these four constructs are sub-components of SPSS anxiety; however, the factor analysis

does not indicate which of these possibilities is true.

Guided Example

The University of Sussex is constantly seeking to employ the best people possible as lecturers

(no, really, it is). Anyway, they wanted to revise a questionnaire based on Blands theory of

SPSS Output 6

C8057 (Research Methods II): Factor Analysis on SPSS

Dr. Andy Field Page 10 10/12/2005

research methods lecturers. This theory predicts that good research methods lecturers should

have four characteristics: (1) a profound love of statistics; (2) an enthusiasm for experimental

design; (3) a love of teaching; and (4) a complete absence of normal interpersonal skills.

These characteristics should be related (i.e. correlated). The Teaching Of Statistics for

Scientific Experiments (TOSSE) already existed, but the university revised this questionnaire

and it became the Teaching Of Statistics for Scientific Experiments Revised (TOSSER).

The gave this questionnaire to 239 research methods lecturers around the world to see if it

supported Blands theory.

The questionnaire is below.

SD = Strongly Disagree, D = Disagree, N = Neither, A = Agree, SA = Strongly Agree

SD D N A SA

1

I once woke up in the middle of a vegetable patch hugging a turnip that I'd mistakenly dug

up thinking it was Roy's largest root

A A A A A

2

If I had a big gun I'd shoot all the students I have to teach A A A A A

3 I memorize probability values for the F-distribution A A A A A

4 I worship at the shrine of Pearson A A A A A

5 I still live with my mother and have little personal hygiene A A A A A

6

Teaching others makes me want to swallow a large bottle of bleach because the pain of my

burning oesophagus would be light relief in comparison

A A A A A

7 Helping others to understand Sums of Squares is a great feeling A A A A A

8 I like control conditions A A A A A

9 I calculate 3 ANOVAs in my head before getting out of bed every morning A A A A A

10 I could spend all day explaining statistics to people A A A A A

11 I like it when people tell me I've helped them to understand factor rotation A A A A A

12

People fall asleep as soon as I open my mouth to speak A A A A A

13

Designing experiments is fun A A A A A

14

I'd rather think about appropriate dependent variables than go to the pub A A A A A

15 I soil my pants with excitement at the mere mention of Factor Analysis A A A A A

16 Thinking about whether to use repeated or independent measures thrills me A A A A A

17

I enjoy sitting in the park contemplating whether to use participant observation in my next

experiment

A A A A A

18 Standing in front of 300 people in no way makes me lose control of my bowels A A A A A

19 I like to help students A A A A A

20 Passing on knowledge is the greatest gift you can bestow an individual A A A A A

C8057 (Research Methods II): Factor Analysis on SPSS

Dr. Andy Field Page 11 10/12/2005

21

Thinking about Bonferroni corrections gives me a tingly feeling in my groin A A A A A

22 I quiver with excitement when thinking about designing my next experiment A A A A A

23 I often spend my spare time talking to the pigeons ... and even they die of boredom A A A A A

24

I tried to build myself a time machine so that I could go back to the 1930s and follow Fisher

around on my hands and knees licking the floor on which he'd just trodden

A A A A A

25 I love teaching A A A A A

26 I spend lots of time helping students A A A A A

27 I love teaching because students have to pretend to like me or they'll get bad marks A A A A A

28 My cat is my only friend A A A A A

The Teaching of Statistics for Scientific Experiments Revised (TOSSE-R)

Load the data in the file TOSSE-R.sav

Conduct a factor analysis (with appropriate rotation) to see the factor

structure of the data.

Would you exclude any items on the questionnaire on the basis of

multicollinearity or singularity? (Quote Relevant statistics).

Your Answer:

C8057 (Research Methods II): Factor Analysis on SPSS

Dr. Andy Field Page 12 10/12/2005

Is the sample size adequate? Explain your answer quoting any relevant

statistics.

Your Answer:

How many factors should be retained? Explain your answer quoting any

relevant statistics.

Your Answer:

C8057 (Research Methods II): Factor Analysis on SPSS

Dr. Andy Field Page 13 10/12/2005

What method of rotation have you used and why?

Your Answer:

Which items load onto which factors? Do these factors make psychological

sense (i.e. can you name them based on the items that load onto them?)

Your Answer:

C8057 (Research Methods II): Factor Analysis on SPSS

Dr. Andy Field Page 14 10/12/2005

Unguided Example

Re-run the SAQ analysis using oblique rotation (Use Field, 2005 to help you).

Compare the results to the current analysis. Also, look over Field (2005) and

find out about Factor Scores and how to interpret them.

Multiple Choice Questions

Go to http://www.sagepub.co.uk/field/multiplechoice.html and test yourself

on the multiple choice questions for Chapter 15. If you get any wrong, re-

read this handout (or Field, 2005, Chapter 15) and do them again until you

get them all correct.

This handout is an abridged version of Chapter 15 of Field (2005) and so is copyright

protected.

Field, A. P. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS (2

nd

edition). London: Sage.

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