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THERMAL ENGINEERING (MG UNIVERSITY) PART 1

Module 1
Steam Engineering: Properties of steam - wet, dry and superheated steam - dryness
fraction - enthalpy and internal energy - entropy of steam - temperature entropy diagram -
process - Mollier chart - Rankine cycle for wet, dry and superheated steam. Steam
Generators - classification - modern steam generators - boiler mountings and accessories.

Steam Engineering
Formation of steam -
Consider a cylinder fitted with a piston which can move freely upwards and downwards
in it.
(a) Let 1 kg of water at 0
o
C under the piston
Let the piston is loaded with load w to ensure heating at constant pressure.
Now if heat is imparted to water, a rise in temperature will be noticed and this rise will
continue till boiling point is reached.
B.P of water, at normal atmospheric pressure of 1.01325 bar is 100
o
C. But it increases
with the increase in pressure.
(b) The volume of water will increase slightly with the increase in temperature, but increase
in volume of water (or work) is generally neglected for all types of calculations.
The boiling temperature is known as the temperature of formation of steam or saturation
temperature.

(c) Now, if supply of heat to water is continued, it will be notices that rise of temperature
after the boiling point is reached nil but piston starts moving upwards which indicates that there
is increase in volume which is only possible if steam formation occurs.
The heat being supplied does not show any rise of temperature but changes water into
vapour state (steam) and is known as Latent heat or hidden heat.
So long as the steam is in contact with water, it is called wet steam.
(d) If heating of steam is further progressed such that all the water particles associated with
steam are evaporated, the steam so obtained is called dry and saturated steam.
If vg m
3
is the volume of 1 kg of dry and saturated steam then work done on the piston
will be
P (V
g
- V
f
), where P is the constant pressure (due to weight W on the piston).
(e) If the supply of heat to the dry and saturated steam is continued at constant pressure,
there will be increase in temperature and volume of steam.
The steam so obtained is called super heated steam and it behaves like a perfect gas.
Temperature Vs Total Heat Graph during steam formation

A represents the initial condition of water at 0oC and pressure p (in bar)
During the formation of the super heated steam, from water at freezing point, the heat is
absorbed in the following 3 stages.
The heating of water upto boiling temperature or saturation temperature (t
s
) is shown by
AB.
AP known as sensible heat, liquid heat or total heat of water.
The change of state from liquid to steam is sown by BC PQ, latent heat of vaporisation.
The super heating process is CD.
QR known as the heat of superheat.
LINE, AR represents the total heat of the super heated steam.
If the pressure is increased, the boiling temperature also increases.
The line passing through the points A, B, E, K Saturated liquid line.
The line passing through the points L, F, C Dry saturated steam line.
[Some times, these terms are briefly written as liquid line and dry steam line. but the
word saturated is always understood].
Note:
When the pressure and saturation temperature increases, the latent heat of vaporisation
decreases, it becomes ZERO at a point (N), where liquid and dry steam lines meet.
The point N is known as critical point and at this point, the liquid and vapour phases
merge, and become identical in every respect.
The temperature corresponding to critical point N is known as critical temperature and
the pressure is known as critical pressure.
For steam, the critical temperature is 374.15
o
C and critical pressure is 220.9 bar
Pc = 220.9 bar
Tc = 374.15oC
At critical point and above, there is no definite transition from liquid to vapour and two
phases cannot be distinguished visually. The latent heat of vaporisation is zero at critical point
and has no meaning at pressure higher than critical.
At T = 273.16 k and P = 0.006113 bar ice, water and steam co-exist in the
thermodynamic equilibrium in a closed vessel and bcf (Belleni - 200) is called triple point line.
At lower pressures than this, ice sublimates to steam.
IMPORTANT TERMS RELATING STEAM FORMATION
1. Sensible Heat of water (h
f
)
It is defined as the quantity of heat absorbed by 1 kg of water when it is heated from
0oC (freezing point) to boiling point.
If i kg of water is heated from 0
o
C to 100
o
C the sensible heat added to it will be 4.18
100 = 418 kJ
But if water is at say 20
o
C initially then sensible heat added will be 4.18 (100-20) =
334.7 kJ
This type of heat is denoted by letter h
f
and its value can be directly read from the steam
tables.

The value of specific heat of water may be taken as 4.18 kJ/kg K at low pressures but at
high pressures it is different from this value.
2. Latent Heat or Hidden Heat (h
fg
)
It is the amount of heat required to convert water at a given temperature and pressure
into steam at the same temperature and pressure.
The value of L.H is not constant and varies according to pressure variation.
3. Dryness Fraction (x)
It is related with wet steam
Mass of dry saturated vapour to the total mass of the mixture.
x =
g g
g f
m m
m m m
=
+

m
g
= Mass of actual Dry steam
m
f
= Mass of water in suspension
m = Mass of mixture = mg + mf
eg:- If in 1 kg of wet steam 0.9 kg is the dry steam and 0.1 kg water particles then x =
0.9.
No steam can be completely dry and saturated, so long as it is in contact with the water
from which it is being formed.
The steam is called saturated when the molecules escaping from the liquid become
equal to the molecules returning to it.
Saturated steam may be dry or wet. When the saturated vapour contains particles of
liquid evenly distributed over the entire mass of vapour, it is called wet saturated steam.
Wet steam is characterised by its dryness fraction.
Dryness fraction, x =
mass of day saturated vapour
mass of mixture

=
mg
m

x =
mass of dry vapour in the mixture
mass of the mixture

Q. Calculate the dryness fraction of steam which has 1.25 kg of water in suspension with 40
kg of steam
=
g
g f
m
m m +
=
40
0.97
40 1.25 +

4. Total heat or enthalpy of wet steam (h)
It is defined as the quantity of heat required to convert 1 kg of water at 0
o
C into steam at
constant pressure.
5. Total heat of dry saturated steam
If steam is dry saturated, x = 1 and h
g
= h
f
+ h
fg

6. Superheated steam
Total heat of super heating is always carried out at constant pressure.
It represents the quantity of heat required to convert 1 kg of water at 0
o
C into super
heated steam at constant pressure.
( )
sup f fg ps sup s
h h h c T T = + +
The value of specific heat of steam at constant pressure C
ps
depends upon the degree of
superheat and the pressure of steam generation. Its average value is taken from 2 to 2.1 kJ/kg K.
Water boils at 12
o
C if pressure on the surface of water is kept at 0.014 bar.
7
o
C if pressure 0.01 bar.
Advantages obtained by using super heated steam
1. By super heating steam, its heat content and have its capacity to do work is increased
without having increase its pressure.
2. High temperature use of super heated steam results in an increase in thermal
efficiency.
3. Super heating is done in a super heater which obtains its heat from waste furnace
gases which would have otherwise passed uselessly up the chimney.
Volume of wet and dry steam
If steam has a dryness fraction of x.
1 kg of this steam will contain x kg of dry steam and (1 - x) kg of water.
Let ,
f
v volume of 1 kg of water
g
v volume of 1 kg of perfect dry steam
f
v = specific volume of saturated liquid
fg
v = specific volume of evaporation
g
v = specific volume of dry steam, then
[specific volume of a fluid is the volume occupied by a unit mass of the fluid]
Volume of 1 kg of wet steam = volume of dry steam + volume of water
[Since v
f
is very small as compared to
g
v , therefore the expression (1 - x) v
f
may be
neglected.
Volume of 1 kg of wet steam =
3
g
xv m
( )
g f
xv 1 x v = +
g f f
x v v x v = +
( )
f g f
v x v v = +
f fg
v x v = +
f fg fg fg
v x v v v = + +
( ) ( )
f fg fg
v v 1 x v = +
( )
g fg
v 1 x v =
Super heated Steam
The superheated steam behaves like a perfect gas and therefore, its volume can be
worked out by applying Charles law to steam at the beginning and at the end of super heating
process.
v
g
= Specific volume of dry steam at pressure P
T
s
= Saturation temperature in K
T
sup
= Temperature of super heated steam in K
V
sup
= Volume of 1 kg of super heated steam at pressure P.
Then
g sup
s sup
PV PV
T T
=

g sup
sup
s
V T
V
T
=
Internal Energy of steam
The actual Heat energy above the freezing point of water stored in steam is known as
internal energy of steam.
The work of evaporation is not stored in the steam as it is utilised in during external
work.
So the internal energy of steam could be found by subtracting work of evaporation from
the total heat.
u = h - pv
For wet steam

( )
f fg g
u h xh pxv = +
=
( )
f fg g
h h 100pxv + kJ/kg
Pressure on the piston in bar
= P 105 N/m2
1 bar = 105 N/m2
For dry saturated steam

( )
f fg g
u h h pv = +

g g
h 100pv = kJ/kg
For super heated steam

( )
f fg ps sup s sup
u h h C T T PV = + +
( )
g ps sup s sup
h C T T 100PV
(
= +


Entropy of steam
1. The entropy of water at 0oC is taken as zero. The water is heated and evaporated at
constant pressure. The steam is also super heated at constant pressure in super heaters.
2. So the entropy of steam can be calculated from the formula for the change of entropy
at constant pressure.
Entropy of water

p
s
C dT
dQ
d
T T
e
= =
The total increase in entropy of water from freezing point to boiling point, may be
obtained by integrating the above expression within the limits 273 K and T
s
K.
s
s T
p dT
s
o 273
s
C
d
T
e
=
} }

s s
f p e p
T T
S C log 2.3C log
273 273
e e
( (
= =
( (


The value of S
f
may be directly seen from the steam tables
Entropy Increase during Evaporation
When the water is completely evaporated into steam, it absorbs full latent heat (h
fg
) at
constant temperature T, corresponding to the given pressure.
Entropy =
Heat absorbed
Absolute temperature

Increase of entropy during evaporation

fg
fg
h
S
T
=
If the steam is wet with dryness fraction x, the evaporation will be partial.
i.e., if evaporation is partial,
Heat absorbed = x h
fg
Increase of entropy,
fg
fg
x h
S
T
=
Entropy of wet and dry steam
Entropy of wet and dry steam =
Entropy of water + Entropy during evaporation
=
fg
f f fg
xh
S S xS
T
+ = + (wet steam)
=
fg
f f fg g
h
S S S S
T
+ = + = (dry steam)
Entropy of super heated steam
Heat absorbed; dQ = C
ps
dT
psdT
s
C
d
T
= [value taken 1.67 kJ/kg K to 2.5 kJ/kg K]
sup sup
g s
S T
s p
S T
dT
d C
T
=
} }
or
sup sup
sup g ps e p
T T
S S C log 2.3C log
T T
( (
= =
( (


where
( )
sup g
S S is the increase in entropy.
Entropy of 1 kg of superheated steam is

sup
sup g ps
T
S S 2.3C log
T
(
= +
(


TEMPERATURE - ENTROPY (T.S) DIAGRAM


STEAM TABLES
The generation of steam at different pressures has been studied experimentally and
various properties of steam have been obtained at different conditions. The properties have been
listed in tables called steam tables. The steam tables are available for
1. Saturated water and steam - on pressure basis.
2. Saturated water and steam - on temperature basis.
3. Super heated steam - on pressure and temperature basis for enthalpy, entropy and
specific volume.
4. Supercritical steam - on pressure and temperature basis above 221.2 bar and
374.15
o
C for enthalpy, entropy and specific volume.
Some important points regarding Steam Tables
(a) The steam table gives values for 1 kg of water and 1 kg of steam.
(b) The steam table gives values of properties from the triple point of water to the
critical point of steam.
(c) For getting values of thermodynamic properties, either saturation pressure or
saturation temperature need to be known. Pressure based steam table (i.e., extreme left pressure
column is placed) is used when pressure value is known, similarly temperature based steam table
is used when temperature value is known.
(d) At low pressure the volume of saturated liquid is very small as compared to the
volume of dry steam and usually the specific volume of the liquid is neglected. but at very high
pressure the volume of liquid is comparable and should not be neglected.
(e) The specific enthalpy and specific entropy at 0
o
C are both taken as zero and
measurements are made from 0
o
C onwards.
(f) In computing properties for wet steam it should be noted that only h
fg
and s
fg
are
affected by dryness fraction but h
f
and s
f
are not affected by dryness fraction. This means that for
steam with dryness fraction x,
g f fg
h h xh = +
g f fg
S S xS = +
Property Table
Property Wet steam Dry steam Super heated steam
Volume
( )
f g
1 x v xv +
g
v
sup
g
s
T
v .
T

Enthalpy
f gf
h xh +
f fg g
h h h + =
( )
g ps sup sa
h C T T +
Entropy
f fg
S xS +
f fg g
S S S + =
sup
g ps n
s
T
S C l
T
+
Enthalpy - Entropy chart (Mollier chart)
Most of the thermodynamic systems deal with flow of steam in steady condition where
change in enthalpy is encountered.

The most convenient method of computing change in enthalpy is the enthalpy-entropy
chart.
Saturated liquid region is not required for solving engineering problems and therefore
only a part of chart near saturated vapour region and super heat region is shown.
This chart is very useful for solving problems on nozzles and steam power plants.
1. Dryness fraction lines
2. Constant volume lines
3. Constant pressure line
4. Isothermal lines
5. Isentropic lines
6. Throttling lines
RANKINE CYCLE
M.Rankine (1820-1872), a Professor at Glasgow University
It is also a reversible cycle but it differs from the Carnot cycle in the following respects:
(i) The condensation process is allowed to proceed to completion; the exhaust steam
from the engine/turbine is completely condensed. At the end of condensation process the
working fluid is only liquid and not a mixture of liquid and vapour.
(ii) The pressure of liquid water can be easily raised to the boiler pressure (pressure at
which steam is being generated in the boiler) by employing a small sized pump.
In addition, the steam may be super heated in the boiler so as to obtain exhaust steam of
higher quality. That will prevent pitting and erosion of turbine blades.
Steam power plant working on ideal Rankine cycle
The various elements are:
A boiler which generates steam at constant pressure
An engine or turbine in which steam expands isentropically and work is done.
A condenser in which heat is removed from the exhaust steam and it is completely
converted into water at constant pressure
A hot well in which the under state is collected
A pump which raises the pressure of liquid water to the boiler pressure and pumps it
into the boiler for conversion into steam.


Consider a steady flow conditions at all states and 1 kg of steam is circulating through
the cycle.
The heat supplied by the boiler per kg of steam generated
Heat absorbed = Q
1
= (h
2
h
1
) = (h
2
h
4
) - (h
1
h
4
)
where,
W
p
= (h
1
h
4
) is called pump work per kg of steam.
Heat rejected into the condenser = Q
2
= (h
3
h
4
)
Net work done per kg of steam = Q
1
- Q
2

= (h
2
h
4
) - W
p
- (h
3
h
4
)
= (h
2
h
3
) - W
p

= W
T
- W
P


Where,
W
T
= Turbine work = (h
2
h
3
) = isentropic enthalpy drop during expansion
Rankine efficiency =
R
1
Network done W
Heat supplied Q
q = =
=
( )
( )
1 2 P
1 3 P
h h W
h h W



The pump work (W
P
) is very small as compared to turbine work (h
2
h
3
) and heat
added (h
2
h
1
), therefore it can be fairly neglected.
W
P
= ( P
1
- P
2
) V
4

P
1
= Boiler pressure, P
2
= Condenser pressure
V
4
= Specific volume of saturated liquid at condenser pressure.
The field pump handles liquid water which is in compressed, which means with the
increase in pressure its density or specific volume undergoes a little change. Using general
property relation for reversible adiabatic compression, we get,
Tds = dh - vdp
ds = 0
dh = v dp
Ah = v AP ... (since change in specific volume is negligible)
h
f2
- h
f3
= V
1
(P
1
- P
2
)
When P is in bar and v is in m
3
/kg, we have
h
f2
- h
f3
= V
4
(P
1
- P
2
) 10
5
J/kg
The Rankine efficiency without pump work is

1 2
R
1 f 3
h h
h f

q =

............ (1)
State 3 (i.e., at the end of isentropic expansion) must be known then only h
3
can be
determined. State 3 is located from the steam table by equating entropy S
2
and S
3
or by drawing
a vertical line on the Mollier chart from State 1 to condenser pressure.
Modified Rankine Cycle (Steam Engine Cycle)
In the steam engine the expansion is not continued up to the point 2 as the stroke will be
too long and as the work obtained is very small at the tail end of the stroke which is not even
sufficient to overcome the frictional resistances near the end of the stroke. Therefore in actual
practice the expansion is terminated at point 5 instead of 2 and the steam is released at constant
volume. This causes a sudden pressure drop from P
2
to P
2
to P
b
(back pressure) at constant
volume due to the steam communicating with outside atmosphere. This is represented by 56 fig.
This reduces the stroke length of the engine without any appreciable change in the work done.



Specific Steam Consumption (S.S.C)
It is defined as the steam consumption (kg/s) to produce unit power (kW)
S.S.C =
( )
1 2
Mass flow rate per hour kg / s 3600
kg / kWhr
Net power output kW h h
= =


(h
1
- h
2
) kJ work is obtained from 1 kg of steam.
1 kW hr = 3600 kJ
S.S.C =
( )
1 2
3600
kg / kWhr
h h

In case of steam power plant, the specific steam consumption is an indicator of the
relative size of the plant.
Work ratio (W
r
) : It is the ratio of network done to the turbine work.
( )
( )
1 2 P
r
1 2
h h W
W
h h

=


Relative Efficiency or Efficiency Ratio
Relative Efficiency =
Thermal Efficiency
Ranking Efficiency

Q. A simple Rankine cycle steam power plant operates between the temperature of 260
o
C
and 95
o
C. The steam is supplied to the turbine at a dry saturated condition. In the turbine
it expands in an isentropic manner. Determine the efficiency of the Rankine cycle followed
by the turbine and the efficiency of the carnot cycle operating between these two
temperature limits. Draw the T - S and H - S diagrams.
Solution:
T
1
= 260
o
C = 260 + 273 = 533 K ; T
2
= 95
o
C = 95 + 273 = 368 K.
From steam table, At 260
o
C, P
2
= 46.94 bar 1 95
o
C, P
2
= 0.845 bar.
The initial and final conditions of steam are shown in the H-S diagram.
h
1
= 2800 kJ/kg;
h
2
= 2170 kJ/kg;
From steam tables at temperature 95
o
C,
h
f3
= 398 kJ/kg
Efficiency of Rankine cycle,
1 2
R
1 f 3
h h
h f

q =


=
2800 2170
2800 398


= 0.262 = 26.2%
Efficiency of Carnot cycle,
1 2
c
1
T T
T

q =
=
533 368
533


= 0.3096 = 30.96%
Ranking cycle for wet dry and super heated steam
The value of h
1
and h
2
may be determined by using steam tables
h
1
= h
g
= 2796.4 kJ/kg ; S
g
= 6.001 kJ/kg
h
f3
= hf = 398 kJ/kg = 2270.2 kJ/kg
S
f3
= S
f
= 1.25 kJ/kg ; S
fg
= 6.167 kJ/kg K
Dryness fraction at 2
S
1
= S
2

6.001 = 1.25 + x (6.167) x = 0.77
h
2
= h
f
+ x h
fg

= 398 + 0.77 2270 - 2 = 2146 kJ/kg
Specific Steam Consumption
It is the mass of steam that must be supplied to a steam engine or turbine in order to
develop a unit amount of work or power out put.
The amount of work or power out put is usually expresses in kilowatt hour (kWh).
W = J/s
S.S.C =
1 2
Mass flow rate per hour kg/ s kg 3600
Net power out put kW kWS h h
= = =


=
( )
1 2
3600
kg / kWhr
h h

Q. A steam power plant uses steam at a pressure of 50 bar and temperature 500
o
C and
exhausted into a condenser where a pressure of 0.05 bar is maintained. The mass flow rate
of the steam is 150 kg/sec. determine (a) the Rankine engine efficiency (b) Power developed
(c) specific steam consumption (d) Heat rejected into the condenser per hour (e) Carnot
efficiency.
P
1
= 50 bar, P
2
= 0.05 bar
From steam tables:
50 bar 263.99
o
C (Saturation Temperature)
Page - 44 (Properties of super heated steam)
h
1
= 3433.8 and S
1
= 6.9770 kJ
S
1
= S
2

6.977 =
f 3 fg
S xS +
6.977 = 0.4764 + x 7.9187, x 0.82 =
h
2
= h
f2
= x h
fg
= 137.8 + 0.82 2423.8 = 2125.316 kJ/kg
V
f3
= 1.005 10
-3
m
3
/kg
h
f3
= 137.82 kJ/kg
(a) Rankine Engine Efficiency =
1 2
1 3
h h 3433.8 2125.316
h h 3433.8 137.82

=


= 0.3969 = 39.69%
(b) Power developed = m
s
work done per kg = 150 (h
1
- h
2
)
= 150 1308.384
= 196257.6 kW = 196.257 mW
(c) S.S.C =
1 2
3600 3600
h h 1308.384
=


= 2.751 kg/kW hr
(d) Heat Rejected into the condenser = Q
2
= m
s
(h
2
- h
3
)
= 150 (2125.316 - 137.8)
= 298127.4 kJ/s
(e) Carnot efficiency,
c
q =
( )
( )
2
1
273 32.9 T
1 1
T 273 263.9
+
=
+

= 0.43 = 13%
P
1
Boiler Pressure, P
2
= Condenser Pr
V
3
Specific volume of saturated liquid at the condenser pressure
WP = (P
1
- P
2
) V
3

(f) Ranking cycle efficiency,
( )
( )
1 2 P
R
1 f 3 P
h h W
h h W

q =


=
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3433.7 2125.316 50 0.05 /10
3433.7 137.8 50 0.05 /10



=
1308.384 4.995
100 39.6%
3295.9 4.995


Q. Dry saturated steam at 10 bar is supplied to a prime mover and the exhaust takes place
at 0.2 bar. Determine the Rankine Efficiency, efficiency ratio and specific steam
consumption of the prime mover, if the indicated thermal efficiency is 20%. Also find the
percentage change in the Rankine efficiency, if steam is initially 90% dry.
From Mollier chart, h
1
= 2775 kJ/kg, h
2
= 2150 kJ/kg
From steam tables, we find that enthalpy of water at 0.2 bar,
h
f3
= 251.5 kJ/kg
Rankine Efficiency,
1 2
R
1 f 3
h h
h h

q =


=
2775 2150
2775 251.5


= 0.247 or 24.7%
Efficiency ratio =
Indicated thermal efficiency
Ranking efficiency

0.2
0.247
= = 0.81 or 81%
Specific Steam Consumption =
1 2
3600
h h

=
3600
2775 2150
= 5.76 kg/kWh
Percentage change in the Rankine efficiency if the steam is initially 90% dry
h
1
= 2580 kJ/kg, h
2
= 2030 kJ/kg
Rankine efficiency,
2 3
R
2 f 3
h h
h h

q =

=
25080 2030
2580 251.5


= 0.236 or 23.6%
Percentage change in Rankine Efficiency
=
24.7 23.6
100 4.45%
24.7

=
Q. In a Rankine cycle, the steam at turbine inlet is saturated at a pressure of 30 bar and the
exhaust pressure is 0.25 bar. Determine, (i) Pump-Work (ii) Turbine power. (iii)
Rankine efficiency (iv) condenser heat flow (v) dryness at the end of expansion.
Assume flow rate of 10 Kg/s.
P
1
= 30 bar
P2 = .05 bar
(i) Pump work per 1 Kg.

( )
p 4 3 f
W m P P V =

5
1 (30 .04) .00102 10 3KJ = =
Power required for the pump
10 3KJ
30KW
sec

= =
(ii) Turbine Power
From steam table for 30 bar, dry sale steam
h
1
= kg, 2803 KJ/Kg
at (1) entropy
S
1
= Sg
1
= 7.831 KJ/kgK
at .2 steam is wet steam

2 f 2 2 2 2
S S x Sfg 0.893 x x... = + = +
Since 1-2 is an isentropic process
S
1
= S
2

7.831= 0.893 + x
2
.........
x
2
= 0.763
Enthalpy at 2, (wet steam of x2 dry)

2 f 2 2 2
h h x hfg = +
= 272 + 0.763 2346
Turbine power = 10 (2803-2062) KJ/s. = 7410 KW
(iii) Rankine Efficiency

1 2 p
1 3 p
h h W
h (h w )

=
+
=
( )
(2803 2062) 3
2803 272 3

+
=0.292 or 29.2%
(iv) heat flow rate in the condenser
= m(h
2
h
3
) = 10 (2062272) = 17900 KW
(v) Dryness at the end of expansion = 0.763 = 76.3%

Thermodynamic Processes of steam
Constant volume process
V1 = x
1
Vg
1
, V
2
= x
2
Vg
2

(i) W
1 2
= 0 dv = 0
(ii) U
1
= h
1
100P
1
V
1
= h
1
100P
1
X
1
Vg
1

U
2
= h
2
P
2
V
2
100 = h
2
P
2
X
2
Vg
2
100.....(Wet)
= h
2
P
2
Vg
2
100.........(dry saturated)
= h
2
P
2
Vsup 100 ...........(super heated)
(iii) heat absorbed, q
12
= du + w
12
= U
2
U
1

Applying first law energy equation

2
1
Q u pdv =A +
}


( )
2 1 2 1
U U P(V V) = +
if initially steam is wel. V
1
= X
1
Vg
1

Finally super heated V
2
= Vsup
Constant Temperature Process
- in wet steam region (hynerbolic in super heated steam region)
- will be a constant pressure process also during
- Condensation & evaporation
Q = h
2
h
1

W = P
1
(V
2
V
1
)
- Limited to wet steam region only
Hyperbolic Process
- Process PV = C
- Hyperbolic process is also an isothermal process in the superheated steam
regions.
2 2
2
1
1 1
v c
W pdv dv clog
v v
(
= = =
(

} }

2
1
1
V
W P V1log
V
=
Q u w =A +
( )
2
2 1 1 1
1
V
U U PV loge
V
| |
= +
|
\ .

( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1
1
V
h P V h PV PV log
V
| |
= +
|
\ .

( )
2
2 1 1 1
1
V
Q h h PV log
V
| |
= +
|
\ .

Isentropic Process
Q u w =A +
Q = O adiabalic
W = U
1
U
2

Steady flow reversible
W = h
1
h
2

1 1 1 2 2 2
1 2
u P V Q W U P V
h h
+ + + +
=
Polytropic Process
steam follows the low PV
n
= C
Work done
1 1 2 2
P V P V
W
n 1


Applying first law energy equation to the non flow process.
Q u W =A +
= ( )
1 1 2 2
2 1
P V P V
U U
n 1
| |
+
|

\ .

( ) ( )
1 1 2 2
2 2 2 1 1 1
PV P V
h P V h PV
n 1

= +


( ) ( )
2 1 1 1 2 2
1
h h P V P V 1
n 1
| |
= + +
|

\ .

( ) ( )
2 1 1 1 2 2
n
Q h h PV P V
n 1
= +


Throttling Process
Const. enthalpy in the absence of heat and work transfer enthalpy remains
constant.
h
1
= h
2
during throttling pressure always falls
Process Wo Qn
Isochoric O U
2
U
1

Isobaric
( )
2 1
P V V
2 1
h h
Isothermal
2 1
P(V V ) h
2
h
1

Hyper bolic
2
1 1
1
V
P V loge
V
| |
|
\ .
( )
2
2 1 1 1
1
V
h h PV loge
V
| |
+
|
\ .

Isentropic U
2
U
1
0
Polytropic
1 1 2 2
P V P V
n 1


( ) ( )
2 1 1 1 2 2
n
h h P V P V
n 1
+


throttling process h1 = h2