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CERTIFICATE


This is to certify that Siddhant Sethi of class XII D has worked under
my supervision on the project CALCULATION OF THE VALUE
OF PLANCKS CONSTANT USING LED in physics laboratory and
completed it to my total satisfaction.
















Date: (Ms. Suman)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It gives me immense pleasure to express my deep sense of gratitude
towards my eminent physics teacher Mrs. Suman who has always been
there as guiding spirit behind the successful completion of the project.

I am also grateful to our Lab Assistant Mr. MN Singh for his valuable
guidance and encouragement throughout the course and preparation
of this project.











(Siddhant Sethi)

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INDEX
S.No. TOPIC PAGE
1.) AIM 4
2.) INTRODUCTION 5
3.) THEORY 6
4.) REQUIREMENTS 10
5.) PROCEDURE 11
6.) OBSERVATIONS 12
7.) CONCLUSION 13
8.) PHOTO GALLERY 14
9.) BIBLIOGRAPHY 15










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AIM:

To measure Planck's constant using light-emitting diodes using the
turn on voltage.

















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INTRODUCTION
Light-emitting diode



Red, green and blue LEDs of the 5mm type

Invented Nick Holonyak Jr. (1962)
Electronic symbol:

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) convert electrical energy into light energy.
They emit radiation (photons) of visible wavelengths when they are
forward biased (i.e. when the voltage between the p side and the n-side
is above the turn-on voltage). This is caused by electrons from the n
region in the LED giving up light as they fall into holes in the p region.
This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light
(corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy
gap of the semiconductor.

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THEORY

Like a normal diode, the LED consists of a chip of semiconducting
material doped with impurities to create a p-n junction. As in other
diodes, current flows easily from the p-side, or anode, to the n-side, or
cathode, but not in the reverse direction. Charge-carrierselectrons
and holesflow into the junction from electrodes with different
voltages. When an electron meets a hole, it falls into a lower energy
level, and releases energy in the form of a photon.
The wavelength of the light emitted, and therefore its color, depends
on the band gap energy of the materials forming the p-n junction. In
silicon or germanium diodes, the electrons and holes recombine by a
non-radiative transition which produces no optical emission, because
these are indirect band gap materials. The materials used for the LED

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have a direct band gap with energies corresponding to near-infrared,
visible or near-ultraviolet light.
Conventional LEDs are made from a variety of inorganic semiconductor
materials; the following table shows some of the available colors with
wavelength range, voltage drop and material:

Color Wavelength (nm) Voltage (V) Semiconductor Material

Infrared > 760 V < 1.9
Gallium arsenide (GaAs)
Aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs)

Red 610 < < 760 1.63 < V < 2.03
Aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs)
Gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP)
Aluminium gallium indium phosphide (AlGaInP)
Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP)

Orange 590 < < 610 2.03 < V < 2.10
Gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP)
Aluminium gallium indium phosphide (AlGaInP)
Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP)

Yellow 570 < < 590 2.10 < V < 2.18
Gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP)
Aluminium gallium indium phosphide (AlGaInP)
Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP)

Green 500 < < 570 1.9 < V < 4.0
Indium gallium nitride (InGaN) / Gallium(III) nitride (GaN)
Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP)
Aluminium gallium indium phosphide (AlGaInP)
Aluminium gallium phosphide (AlGaP)

Blue 450 < < 500 2.48 < V < 3.7
Zinc selenide (ZnSe)
Indium gallium nitride (InGaN)
Silicon carbide (SiC) as substrate
Silicon (Si) as substrate (under development)

Violet 400 < < 450 2.76 < V < 4.0 Indium gallium nitride (InGaN)

Purple multiple types 2.48 < V < 3.7
Dual blue/red LEDs,
blue with red phosphor,
or white with purple plastic

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An LED is a two terminal semiconductor light source. In the unbiased
condition a potential barrier is developed across the p-n junction of the
LED. When we connect the LED to an external voltage in the forward
biased direction, the height of potential barrier across the p-n junction
is reduced. At a particular voltage the height of potential barrier
becomes very low and the LED starts glowing, i.e., in the forward biased
condition electrons crossing the junction are excited, and when they
return to their normal state, energy is emitted. This particular voltage is
called the knee voltage or the threshold voltage. Once the knee voltage
is reached, the current may increase but the voltage does not change.
The light energy emitted during forward biasing is given as,

(1)
Where
c - Velocity of light.
h -Plancks constant.
- Wavelength of light.

If V is the forward voltage applied across the LED when it begins to emit
light (the knee voltage), the energy given to electrons crossing the
junction is,

(2)


Equating (1) and (2), we get

(3)



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The knee voltage V can be measured for LEDs with different values of
(wavelength of light).

) (4)

Now from equation (4), we see that the slope s of a graph of V on the
vertical axis vs. 1/ on the horizontal axis is

(5)
To determine Plancks constant h, we take the slope s from our graph
and calculate


Using the known value


Alternatively, we can write equation (3) as










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REQUIREMENTS

0-10 V power supply
One way key
Rheostat
Ammeter
Voltmeter
1 K resistor
Different known wavelength LEDs (Light-Emitting Diodes)













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PROCEDURE
Connections are made as shown in circuit diagram.
Insert key to start the experiment.
Adjust the rheostat value till the LED starts glowing, or in the
case of the IR diode, whose light is not visible, until the ammeter
indicates that current has begun to increase.
Corresponding voltage across the LED is measured using a
voltmeter, which is the knee voltage.

Repeat, by changing the LED and note down the corresponding
knee voltage.

Using the formula given, find the value of the Planck's constant.





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OBSERVATIONS

Color of LED Wavelength
(nm)
Knee Voltage
(V)

Kgm
2
s
-1

Red 630

1.9 6.568 x10
-34

Green 510

2.4 6.552 x10
-34

Blue 470 2.6 6.565 x10
-34



Yellow 590 2.2 6.604 x10
-34















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CONCLUSION
The actual value of Plancks constant is 6.626 x10
-34
Kgm
2
s
-1
and the
values in the above experiment are precise as well as in the close
conformity with the actual value of the Plancks constant.

















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PHOTO GALLERY



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BIBLIOGRAPHY
www.google.com
NCERT Class XII