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DANA MARDARE

MEDIATOR
Nr. 14 NOIEMBRIE 2011
Anul 2 Nr. 2
Mozaic mediere gndete diferit!
Mediation mosaic think different!
Pag. 4
ncrederea n mediere
Trust in mediation
Pag. 6
Jurnal de... edin!
Diary of... A court session!
Pag. 11
Medierea ca art a vindecrii
Mediation as a healing art
Pag. 17
Cnd eueaz medierea?
When does mediation fail?
Pag. 19
Optimist orbete
Blindingly optimistic
Pag. 32
Cine suntem i unde mergem
Who we are and where we go
Pag. 35
Zilele medierii la Bacu
The mediation days in Bacau
Pag. 36
LA MOMENTUL ACESTA, REVISTA LUNAR BILINGV
MEDIEREA TEHNIC I ART SE DISTRIBUIE N PESTE 70 DE LOCAII
N ROMNIA (ORGANIZAII PROFESIONALE DE MEDIATORI, INSTANE
DE JUDECAT, INM, CSM, M.J., UNIVERSITI, PRIMRII ETC),
PRECUM I N PESTE 10 LOCAII DIN EUROPA I USA
(ORGANIZAII INTERNAIONALE N ADR).
PERSONAL, MULUMESC CELOR CARE AU AJUTAT LA CRETEREA
CALITII MATERIALELOR PUBLICATE I DORESC S V ANUN C DIN
LUNA MARTIE REVISTA A FOST NREGISTRAT N CATALOGUL
REVISTELOR DE SPECIALITATE ALE BIBLIOTECII CENTRALE
UNIVERSITARE BUCURETI.
AT THIS MOMENT, THE MONTHLY BILINGUAL MAGAZINE MEDIATION
TECHNIQUE AND ART IS DISTRIBUTED IN OVER 70 LOCATIONS IN
ROMANIA (PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS OF MEDIATORS, COURTS,
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MAGISTRACY, SUPERIOR COUNCIL OF
MAGISTRACY, MINISTRY OF JUSTICE, UNIVERSITIES, MAYORS HALLS,
ETC), AND ALSO IN OVER 10 LOCATION FORM EUROPE AND USA
(INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN ADR).
I WISH TO THANK PERSONALLY TO ALL THOSE WHO HELPED INCREASE
THE QUALITY OF PUBLISHED ARTICLES AND I WISH TO ANNOUNCE
THAT AS OF MARCH 2011, THE MAGAZINE HAS BEEN REGISTERED IN
THE SPECIALIZED JOURNALS CATALOGUE OF CENTRAL UNIVERSITARY
LIBRARY OF BUCHAREST.
THE MUGUR MITROI MEDIATION TRAINING
SCHOOL PROVIDES, TOGETHER WITH THE
COURSE MANUAL, NEEDED IN ACQUIRING BASIC
KNOWLEDGE TO BECOME A MEDIATOR, THE TWO
WORKS CONCERNING PROCEDURE AND CON-
FLICT, NAMELY: THE GUIDE OF PROFESSIONAL
MEDIATOR AND MEDIATION AND CONFLICT,
WHILE THE MEDIATORS THAT WILL BE AUTHOR-
IZED WILL BE PROVIDED WITH FREE ADVERTIS-
ING FOR A PERIOD OF 90 DAYS ON THE WEBSITES
AFFILIATED TO FMMM:
WWW.PORTALMEDIERE.RO, WWW.MEDIERETV.RO,
MEDIEREATEHNICASIARTA.RO.
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MITROI V ASIGUR, ALTURI DE SUPORTUL DE
CURS, NECESARUL DOBNDIRII
CUNOTINELOR DE BAZ PENTRU A DEVENI
MEDIATOR I CELE DOU LUCRRI CE PRIVESC
PROCEDURA I CONFLICTUL - ANUME: GHIDUL
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I CONFLICT, IAR MEDIATORILOR CARE SE VOR
AUTORIZA LE ASIGUR PROMOVARE GRATUIT
PE O PERIOAD DE 90 DE ZILE N CADRUL
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mugur mitroi
www.fmmm.ro
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+40 753 103 613
medierea, tehnic i art
3
www.mediereatehnicasiarta.ro | www.portalmediere.ro | www.medieretv.ro
COLECTIVUL DE REDACIE:
Mugur Mitroi coordonator, Mdlina Calcan redactor ef
Lucia Ana Maria Zaharia magistrat, coordonator seciunea Magistraii despre mediere
conf. univ. dr. Gabriela Pohoata dr. n flosofe, Universitatea Cretin Dimitrie Cantemir
drd. Camelia Gagu mediator, avocat, Universitatea Cretin Dimitrie Cantemir
Elena Necula traductor
Valentin Rdulescu layout i tehnoredactare
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DIN CUPRINS
Mozaic mediere gndete diferit! ............................................ 4
Aurora Cirlig
Puterea de a fi ...................................................................................5
Alexandra-Georgia Varga
ncrederea n mediere .................................................................... 6
Camelia Gabriela Iusco
20 de ntrebri pe care oamenii i le pun despre mediere ...... 8
Jurnal de... edin! ........................................................................11
Dana Pantazi
Mediatori vs avocai? ................................................................... 12
Simona Aradei-Odenkirchen
Nu mai ocolii subiectul! Dai utilizatorilor o definiie
clasic a medierii! ...........................................................................13
Michael Leathes
Viitorul medierii... ca institutie a unei societati dezvoltate ......16
Stefania Saradici
Medierea ca art a vindecrii ....................................................17
Linda Lazarus
Dificultati in mediere. Cand esueaza medierea? ................... 19
Dana Maria Mardare
Mediere si conflict* ...................................................................... 22
Mugur Mitroi
Medierea de facilitare, evaluare i transformare .............. 26
Zena D. Zumeta, J.D.
Ctignd la negocierile de tipul "ctig-ctig" .............. 29
Larry Susskind
Optimist orbete ........................................................................... 32
Daniel Kershen
Ce este Mediarcom? ........................................................................33
Cine suntem si unde mergem ........................................................ 35
Valeria Ciupitu
Zilele medierii la Bacu .............................................................. 36
Gabriela Ichim
Mediation mosaic think different! .......................................... 4
Aurora Cirlig
The power of being .......................................................................... 5
Alexandra-Georgia Varga
Trust in mediation ........................................................................... 6
Camelia Gabriela Iusco
20 Questions people ask about mediation ................................. 8
Diary of... A court session! .......................................................... 11
Dana Pantazi
Mediators vs. Lawyers? ................................................................ 12
Simona Aradei-Odenkirchen
Stop shovelling smoke! Give users a classic definition of
mediation ......................................................................................... 13
Michael Leathes
Future of mediation... as institution of a developed society .... 16
Stefania Saradici
Mediation as a healing art ......................................................... 17
Linda Lazarus
Difficulties in mediation. When does mediation fail? ......... 19
Dana Maria Mardare
Mediation and conflict* .............................................................. 22
Mugur Mitroi
Facilitative, evaluative and transformative mediation ... 26
Zena D. Zumeta, J.D.
Winning at win-win negotiation! ............................................... 29
Larry Susskind
Blindingly optimistic .................................................................. 32
Daniel Kershen
What is Mediarcom? ...................................................................... 33
Who we are and where we go ...................................................... 35
Valeria Ciupitu
The mediation days in Bacau ....................................................... 36
Gabriela Ichim
medierea, tehnic i art
4
MOZAIC MEDIERE
GNDETE DIFERIT
S
untem de mult n faza de pio-
nierat a medierii, n care este
sufcient sa ai fer, intuiie i
noroc pentru a ajunge un media-
tor de succes. Mai mult dect orice,
conteaza relaiile interumane, felul
n care tii cum sa asculti, sa inter-
pretezi si sa rezolvi o disputa intre
doua parti.
Ce este comunicarea? Asa cum
spune John Fiske in cartea sa In-
troducere in stiintele comunicarii,
comunicarea este aceea activitate
uman pe care fecare dintre noi
o poate recunoate, ns puini o
pot defni satisfctor. Personal
vin, dupa 18 ani de lucru in cadrul
unei companii de telecomunicatii,
in acest nou domeniu, in aceasta
noua bransa. Nu am avut retineri
in momentul alegerii noului drum
pe care urmeaza, la fel ca multi alti
mediatori, sa il urmez.. Am avut
ocazia timp de 5 ani de zile, la com-
pania de unde vin, sa lucrez direct
si indirect cu oamenii, sa relatio-
nez si sa rezolv diferite probleme.
Experienta obtinuta in acest timp
m-a facut sa inteleg mult mai usor
oamenii iar rasplata era momen-
tul in care vedeam ca pleaca de la
mine multumiti de rezultat. La fel
e si in mediere. Este greu sa faci
oamenii sa consume un produs
nou pe piata fara o buna si reala
promovare. Medierile incep de cele
mai multe ori de la o intalnire intre
doi oameni. Eticheta in mediere ne
formeaza acel awareness personal
care face ca purtarea noastra sa fe
putin diferita decat a celor din jur,
ceva care-i face pe oameni sa ne
sune sau sa ne ceara ajutorul.
Principalele cuvinte cheie pentru
mediere sunt: negociere, facilitate,
incredere si neutralitate. Nu e des-
tul sa parcurgi doar prima etapa din
formarea ca mediator ci trebuie par-
curs in continuare acest drum de
formare continua. Matematic vor-
bind X si Y(partile afate in confict)
sunt doua variabile ce pot f medi-
ate printr-un proces de mediere iar
mediatorul poate estima rezultatul,
rezultat care uneori poate f dihoto-
mic(.diviziunea in doua parti a unui
concept, fara ca acesta sa isi piarda
intelesul initial). Cititnd articole si
carti din domeniul psihologiei scri-
se de: David Kenny, Reuben Baron,
David P. MacKinnon, Amanda J.
Fairchild, Matthew S. Fritz si altii
psihologi, mi-am dat seama ca am
un drum lung de urmat in privinta
studierii si aprofundarii tehnicilor
in mediere.
Recent, la Conferinta Internatio-
nala Justitie si Mediere, am avut pla-
cerea de a asculta profesionisti din
domeniul medierii, oameni care au
acceptat, si nu pentru prima data, sa
ne deschida ochii si sa ne intareasca
principiile. Ascultandu-I visam cu
ochii deschisi la momentul in care
vom ajunge si noi la un astfel de sta-
tut, la etapa in care medierea va f
cunoscuta si aplicata cu success in
toate ramurile confictuale.
Se tot scrie si se discuta pe tema
mediereii, insa, daca nu am ales
calea potrivita pentru promovare?
Poate era cazul sa intrebam oa-
menii daca considera utila aceasta
meserie si nu invers. Poate nu mai
existau discutii pe cat de bine pro-
moveaza unii si altii acest, NOU,
fenomen. Luat pulsul din strada
se vede nestiinta oamenilor in le-
gatura cu medierea si mediatorii.
Inversa promovare poate ne-ar aju-
ta maim ult si nu ar mai f cazul sa
asteptam ajutorul din alta parte. Se
scriu carti, reviste, ziare, care ajung
tot la . Mediatori. Nu e hilar acest
fapt? Ne continuam pregatirea pro-
fesionala dar de cea a celui care
poate benefcia-justitiabilul, la un
moment dat, cine se ocupa?
Aurora Cirlig
Mediator
Secretar Colegiul Mediatorilor
din Regiunea de Nord-Vest
MEDIATION MOSAIC
THINK DIFFERENT!
W
e are now for some time
in the pioneering phase
of mediation, where is
enough to have fair, intuition and
luck to become a successful media-
tor. More than anything, inter-hu-
man relationships, how you know
to listen, to interpret and solve a
dispute between two parties are the
elements that matter.
What is communication? As John
Fiske said in his book "Introduction
to Communication Sciences," com-
munication is that "human activity
each of us can recognize, but few
can defne satisfactorily." I personal-
ly come, afer 18 years in a telecom-
munications company, to work in
this new feld, in this new industry.
I was not reluctant when choosing
the new path I want to follow, like
many other mediators. I had the
opportunity for 5 years, in the com-
pany where I am coming from, to
work directly and indirectly with
people, to relate and resolve issues.
Experience gained during this time
made me understand people more
easily and the reward was when I
saw them leaving satisfed with the
result. Te same happens in media-
tion too. It is hard to make people
"consume" a new product on the
market without a good and real pro-
motion. Mediation ofen starts from
a meeting between two people. La-
bel in mediation forms that personal
"awareness" which makes our behav-
iour to be slightly diferent than the
others, something that makes peo-
ple call us or ask us for help.
Te main keywords for media-
tion are: negotiation, facility, trust
and neutrality. It's not enough
only to go through the frst stage
of training as a mediator, but one
must go further this continuous
training. Mathematically speaking,
X and Y (the parties to the confict)
are two variables that may be me-
diated through a process of media-
tion and the mediator can predict
the outcome, a result which can
sometimes be dichotomous (split of
a concept in two parts, without los-
ing the original meaning). Reading
psychology articles and books writ-
ten by: David Kenny, Reuben Baron,
David P. MacKinnon, Amanda
J. Fairchild, Matthew S. Fritz and
other psychologists, I realized that I
have a long way forward in terms of
studying and deepening in media-
tion techniques.
Recently, at the International
Conference Justice and Mediation, I
had the pleasure to listen to media-
tion professionals, people who have
accepted, not for the frst time, to
open our eyes and consolidate our
principles. Listening to them, I was
dreaming with eyes open at the mo-
ment when we reach such a status,
at the stage when mediation will be
known and applied successfully in
all branches of the confict
People keep writing and discuss-
ing about mediation, but what if we
havent chosen the right path for
promotion? Perhaps we should have
asked people if they considered this
profession useful, not the other way
around. Perhaps there were no dis-
cussions on how well some promote
this new phenomenon. Taking the
"pulse" of the street, one can notice
peoples ignorance about mediation
and mediators. Perhaps the reverse
promotion can help us more and
therefore we should no longer ex-
pect help from elsewhere. Books,
magazines, newspapers are being
written, but they reach...again the
mediators. Isnt this hilarious? We
continue our professional training
but who takes care of the profes-
sional training of the person who
might beneft the litigant?
Aurora Cirlig
Mediator
Secretary with the College of Me-
diators from North-West Region
medierea, tehnic i art
5
PUTEREA DE A FI
S
untem la sfritul anului 2011 i n
Cluj-Napoca am adunat zeci de
mii de procese pe rolul instanelor
judectoreti. Suntem, n esen, un ora
centru universitar, cu o via economico-
social dezvoltat i cu oameni mndri
c sunt clujeni. Ceea ce nu avem, dar n-
cercm s facem rost, ceea ce nu suntem,
dar ncercm s devenim are la baz ceea
ce am discutat i rediscutat de zeci de ani,
mentalitatea noastr. Cu toii suntem de
acord c ar trebui schimbat, dar nu fa-
cem prea puine n aceast privin.
Mentalitatea de grup funcioneaz ca
un sistem al mentalitilor individuale. Iar
mentalitatea individual se axeaz pe tan-
demul dintre informaie i putere.
Suntem sau nu suntem informai? Am
scris despre mediere i aplicabilitatea ei n
mai multe domenii, am modificat legis-
laia, am organizat dezbateri publice pe
tema medierii, am participat la seminarii
i conferine, am format mediatori profesi-
oniti. Nivelul avansat al tehnologiei infor-
maiei constituie un argument pentru teza
afirmativ da, suntem infomai, suntem
la un click distan de a cunoate. Cel care
se apr susinnd c nu tie poate aprea
drept un ignorant. Pe de alt parte, teza
opus ar fi nu, nu suntem informai
destul, informaia nu este consistent.
Cunoatem, dar nu cunoatem suficient
nct s ne simim n siguran. Dar ori-
care dintre aceste variante am aborda la
nivel personal, rmne o certitudine c
avem informaii despre mediere i rm-
ne la latitudinea fiecruia dac dorete s
cunoasc mai multe sau nu.
Puterea. Vrem s fim puternici, dar
ne-am obinuit s ne lsm condui, s
copiem fr s adaptm, s ieim n lume
dar s ne ntoarcem la fel de sraci, s le
dm altora puterea de a pune punctul pe
i lund decizii n locul nostru. S fie mai
comod? Poate, la prima vedere, ns efec-
tul comoditii const n depersonalizare.
Lipsa dorinei pentru mai multe infor-
maii i depersonalizarea venit din pasi-
vitate ne ghideaz de cele mai multe ori n
faa instanei de judecat unde dup mult
timp o parte pierde i ajunge s acuze jus-
tiia de corupie. Cealalt parte ctig un
rezultat, dar ajunge s-i piard resursele
(umane, financiare sau timp). Ctigul de-
vine deci discutabil, la fel ca dreptatea pen-
tru c depinde de prea multe necunoscute,
se ajusteaz n funcie de prea multe m-
prejurri. Scuza corupiei, la fel ca cea a
lipsei de informaie, apare ca desuet.
Cnd ctigul devine discutabil, pu-
terea individual scade i este greu de re-
cuperat. i pentru a deveni mai puternici
este necesar s putem lua propriile decizii
pentru c noi suntem singurii care ne tim
propriile nevoi i de aceea suntem singu-
rii care putem lua decizii asumate. Cu ct
suntem mai informai, cu att devenim
mai puternici. i ne pstrm puterea at-
ta timp ct continum s lum propriile
decizii n loc s lsm o alt persoan s ia
decizia n locul nostru.
n momentul n care mentalitatea indi-
vidual se schimb de la a alege pe un altul
pentru a decide pentru noi la a m alege
pe mine pentru a decide pentru mine,
vom nelege de ce medierea este cea mai
avantajoas procedur consacrat legislativ.
La modul general, orice conflict are
dou pri. Dar unde-s doi puterea nu
crete. Unde-s doi crete starea conflic-
tual, resursa financiar investit, resursa
uman ori timpul. De fapt, puterea crete
unde-s trei. Este nevoie doar de dou pri
i un mediator, iar dac prile se simt n
nesiguran pot fi asistate de un avocat.
Mediatorul este profesionistul care d pu-
tere fiecrei pri, n egal msur, pentru
a lua decizii asumate de fiecare parte, deci-
zii care pornesc din interiorul fiecrui in-
divid, decizii care nu sunt impuse. Cum de
poate face aa ceva un mediator? Va trebui
s alegem medierea pentru a nelege.
Este evident, nu orice conflict se poate
media. Mai nti pentru c legea n mod
expres scoate de sub aplicabilitatea medierii
anumite conflicte, iar mai apoi pentru c
mentalitatea in-
dividual a unora
dintre noi dorete
spectacolul unei
sli de judecat.
Acest spectacol
este uneori ne-
cesar, alteori ilu-
zoriu, dar este de
efect, chiar dac
pentru scurt timp.
Dac justiia
se nfptuiete
prin intermediul
instanelor de
judecat, atunci
poate c puterea
de a fi a fiecru-
ia dintre noi se
nfptuiete prin
intermediul medierii. Depinde de fiecare
dac alege ceea ce e just sau ceea ce i d
putere. Majoritatea dintre noi, cei care
am alege ca prim pas ntotdeauna medi-
erea, am simit c ceea ce este just nu ne
d uneori putere, dar ceea ce ne d putere
este ntotdeauna just pentru noi. Probabil
pentru c justiia este o valoare care nu se
schimb, dar se interpreteaz (i putem fi
victime ale acestei interpretri), pe cnd
puterea este o virtute, proprie i personal
a fiecruia, pe care o avem cu toii ntr-o
msur mai mare sau mai mic, dar pe
care toi, fr excepie, vrem s o mrim.
Concluzia acestor rnduri, care nu se
vor a fi o od medierii sau o golire a pro-
cedurii n faa instanei de judecat, este
una extrem de simpl dac dorim s
ncercm s lum propriile decizii pentru
propriile probleme, schimbndu-ne m-
car puin mentalitatea, atunci am putea
avea mult de ctigat n primul rnd pe
plan personal. Iar puterea de a fi a unei
comuniti st n puterea de a fi a fiecrui
membru al comunitii. Putem ncerca s
fim mai puternici?
Alexandra-Georgia Varga
Avocat, Baroul Cluj
Mediator, Colegiul Mediatorilor din
Regiunea de Nord-Vest
THE POWER OF BEING
W
e are now at the end of 2011
and we have gathered in Cluj-
Napoca tens of thousand of law-
suits pending before the courts. We are, in
essence, a university city with a developed
economic and social life and people who
are proud to be Cluj inhabitants. What
we do not have, but try to obtain, what
we are not, but try to become, is based on
what we have discussed and re-discussed
for decades, i.e. our mentality. We all
agree that it should change, but we do too
little in this regard.
Group mentality works as a system
of individual attitudes. And individual
mentality focuses on the information
and power tandem.
Are or are we not informed? I wrote
about mediation and its applicability in
several areas, I have changed the law, I have
organized public debates on mediation, I
have attended seminars and conferences, I
have trained professional mediators. The
advanced level of
information tech-
nology represents
an argument for
affirmative sen-
tence yes, we
are informed, we
are one click away
from knowing.
He who defends
arguing that he
does not know
may seem to be
an ignorant. On
the other hand,
the opposite sen-
tence would be
no, we are not in-
formed enough,
information is
not consistent. We know, but not enough
to feel safe. But no matter what of these
variants we approach at a personal level, it
remains a fact that we have information
about mediation and it is up to each one of
us to want to know more or not.
Power. We want to be powerful, but
we got used to allowing ourselves be led,
copy without adapting, see the world but
return as poor as before, give others the
power to make the point and take deci-
sions for us. Is this more convenient?
Perhaps, at a first look, but the effect of
convenience is depersonalization.
Lack of desire for more information
and depersonalization deriving from
passivity guide us most times before the
court, where eventually one of the parties
ends up losing and accuses justice of cor-
ruption. The other party wins a result, but
ends up losing resources (human, finan-
cial or time). The gain is therefore ques-
tionable, just like justice, because it de-
pends on too many unknowns, it adjusts
depending on too many circumstances.
The excuse of corruption, just like the
lack of information, appears as obsolete.
When the gain becomes questionable,
the individual power decreases and is
hard to recover. And to become stronger,
it is necessary to be able to make our
own decisions because we are the only
ones who know our own needs and that
is why we are the only ones who can
take decisions. The more informed, the
stronger we become. And we keep our
power as long as we continue to take our
own decisions rather than letting some-
one else make the decision for us.
The moment individual mentality
changes from choosing another person
to decide for you to choosing myself to
decide for myself, that is when we will
eventually understand why mediation
is the most advantageous legislative pro-
cedure.
Generally speaking, any conflict has
two sides. But where there are two, pow-
er does not increase. Where there are two,
the conflict, the financial resources in-
vested, human resources or time increas-
es. In fact, the power increases where
there are three. It takes only two parties
and a mediator, and if the parties feel in-
secure they may be assisted by a lawyer.
The mediator is the professional who
empowers each party equally to take de-
cisions assumed by each side, decisions
that come from inner, decisions that are
not imposed. How can a mediator do all
these things? You should choose media-
tion to be able to understand.
Obviously, not every conflict can be
mediated. Firstly, because the law ex-
pressly removes certain conflicts from
the applicability of mediation and sec-
ondly because the individual mental-
ity of some of us wants a courtroom
show. This show is sometimes necessary,
sometimes illusory, but it has a certain
effect, even if for a short period of time.
If justice is achieved through the
courts of law, then perhaps the power
of being for each one of us is achieved
through mediation. It depends on each
one of us to choose what is right or what
gives the power. Most of us, who would
always choose mediation as a first step,
felt that what is just sometimes does
not give us power, but whatever gives
us power is always right for us. Probably
because justice is a value that does not
change, but is interpretable (and we can
be victims of this interpretation), while
power is a virtue, own individual and
personal, that we all have at a certain
extent, but that we all, without exception,
want to increase.
The conclusion of these lines, that are
not intended to be an ode to mediation
or an emptying of the proceedings before
the court, is extremely simple if we try to
take our own decisions for own problems
by changing our mentality at least a bit,
then we may have much to gain person-
ally first. And the power of being of a com-
munity lies in the power of being of each
member in the community. Could we try
being more powerful?
Alexandra-Georgia Varga
Lawyer, Cluj Bar
Mediator, College of Mediators from
North-West Area
medierea, tehnic i art
6
NCREDEREA N MEDIERE
INTRODUCERE
ncrederea este esenial pentru
mediere. n timp ce literatura de
specialitate in domeniul medierii
subliniaz importana " construirii
ncrederii" i "dezvoltarea raportului
de ncredere" exist o lips de nele-
gere a ceea ce genereaz n mod spe-
cial ncrederea n domeniul medierii.
n acest articol am ncercat s
identifc i analizez comportamen-
te specifce, calitile personale i
strategii care promova ncrederea n
domeniul medierii. nelegerea sub-
tilitii a ceea ce de fapt genereaz
ncrederea n mediator, n procesul
de mediere, este important n spri-
jinirea mediatorilor n ncercarea lor
de a crea un mediu de mediere care
permite prilor realizeze cele mai
bune rezultate posibile.
IMPORTANA NCREDERII
N MEDIERE
Cuvntul cheie este ncrede-
rea. Dictinarul explicativ al limbii
romne defnete ncrederea ca s.f.
Aciunea de a (se) ncrede i rezulta-
tul ei; sentiment de siguran fa de
cinstea, buna-credin sau sinceritate
a cuiva; credin. Expr. Om (sau per-
soan) de (mare) ncredere = persoa-
n creia i se poate ncredina orice
secret, orice misiune".
Astfel din momentul in care intr
n substana unui confict, media-
torii se lupt s ctige ncrederea
prilor. Pe tot parcursul medierii
acetia ncearc s construiasc i s
menin ncrederea prilor n pro-
cesul de mediere, n mediator. Ast-
fel, cnd nivelul ncrederii este mare,
prile sunt mai puin defensive i
sunt mai doritoare s dezvluie i s
imparteasc amnunte, informaii
cu cealalt parte afat la masa me-
dierii, precum i n sesiunea separat
cu mediatorul amnunte sau in-
formaii care pot f cruciale pentru a
ajunge la o soluie mutual acceptat.
Ct este de important increderea
n mediere ? Consider c nici o alt
calitate nu este mai important n
procesul de mediere dect aceea de
a putea s inspiri i s construieti
ncredere.
NCREDEREA N MEDIATOR
Mediatorul este fgura central
n procesul de mediere. Fr me-
diator probabil prile vor rmne
n litigiu sau, cel puin n impas. n
schimb, alturi de mediator prile
au sperana de a ajunge la un acord
sau rezoluie
Rolul general al mediatorului
este de a facilita mpcarea prilor
sau de a ajunge la o soluie mutual
acceptat.
Mediatorii au rolul de a facilita
prilor avansarea n rezolvarea dis-
putei lor prin aciuni de ascultare,
empatizare, recunoatere, clarifcare,
probare .a.m.d.
Pentru ca prile s fe deschise
i dispuse s apeleze i s participe
la procesul de mediere trebuie s
perceap persoana mediatorului ca
find una de ncredere. n majorita-
tea cazurilor prile nu sunt familiare
cu mediatorul; prile i mediatorul
sunt strini. De obicei prima ntl-
nire cu mediatorul este fe ntlnirea
preliminar, fe prima sesiune a me-
dierii. n aceste condiii, mediatorul
trebuie s lucreze la stabilirea ncre-
derii rapid.
ntruct medierea este volunta-
r prile variaz n dorina lor de
a avea ncredere n mediator. De
exemplu, prile care au fost direci-
onate ctre medierea poate f suspi-
cioase sau reticente s aib ncredere
n mediator ntruct au senzaia ca
sunt obligate s participe la mediere.
Pe de alt parte parile care au ales
s participe la mediere vor f recepti-
ve i mai deschise n a avea ncredere
n mediator.
ns, indiferent dac prile au
dorina de a avea ncredere este rolul
mediatorului de a stabili ncrederea
acestora. Mediatorii cercettori i
specialiti au identifcat urmtoarele
caliti personale ale mediatorului
la fel de efciente n promovarea n-
crederii n mediator: empatia i cre-
dibilitatea. Acestea le vom dezvolta
succint mai jos.
EMPATIA
Empatia este capacitatea de a n-
telege i de a mprti sentimentele
celuilalt. Capacitatea mediatorului
de a empatiza cu prile afate n
confict a fost recunoscut ca find
fundamental n stabilirea ncrederii
n mediere. Aceasta, ntruct prile
litigante apeleaz la mediator pentru
TRUST IN MEDIATION
INTRODUCTION
Trust is essential for mediation.
While the specialized literature in
mediation stresses the importance
of "building confdence" and "de-
veloping the confdence relation-
ship" there is a lack of understand-
ing what generates the particular
confdence in mediation feld.
In this article I tried to identify
and analyze specifc behaviors, per-
sonal qualities and strategies that
promote confdence in mediation.
Understanding the subtlety of what
actually generates confdence in
mediation, within the mediation
process, is important to support
mediators in their attempt to cre-
ate a work environment that allows
parties to achieve the best possible
results.
THE IMPORTANCE OF TRUST IN
THE MEDIATION
Te key word is "confdence".
Te dictionary of the Romanian
language defnes trust as "the act
of trusting and its outcome, feeling
of safe towards the honesty, good
faith or sincerity of someone. Phrase:
Man (or person) of (high) confdence
= person who may be entrusted with
any secret, any mission."
So, once they enter the sub-
stance of confict, mediators strug-
gle to gain the trust of the parties.
Troughout the mediation they try
to build and maintain the conf-
dence of the parties in the media-
tion process, in the mediator. Tus,
when the confdence is high, par-
ties are less defensive and are will-
ing to disclose details and share
information with the other party at
the mediation table, as well in the
separate sessions with the mediator
details or information that may be
crucial to reach a mutually accept-
able solution.
How important is confdence in
mediation? I believe that no other
quality is more important in the
mediation process than to be able
to inspire and build confdence.
TRUST IN MEDIATOR
Te mediator is the central fgure
in the mediation process. Without
a mediator the parties will prob-
ably remain in dispute or at least,
trapped in a stalemate. Instead,
alongside the mediator the parties
hope to reach an agreement or res-
olution. Te general role of the me-
diator is to facilitate reconciliation
or to help parties reach a mutually
acceptable solution.
Mediators are designed to facili-
tate the parties advance in the reso-
lution of their confict by listening,
empathizing, recognition, clarifca-
tion, etc.
In order for the parties to be open
and willing to seek and participate
in the mediation process they must
perceive the mediator as a trustful
person. In most cases the parties
are not familiar with the mediator,
the parties and the mediator are
strangers. Usually, the frst meeting
is either the preliminary meeting
or the frst session of mediation. In
these circumstances, the mediator
should work to gain trust quickly.
Since mediation is voluntary,
parties vary in their desire to trust
the mediator. For example, the par-
ties who were directed to mediation
may be suspicious or reluctant to
trusting the mediator because they
feel they are obliged to participate
in mediation.
On the other hand, the parties
who chose to participate in me-
diation will be responsive and open
to trust the mediator. However,
whether the parties desire to have
confdence, the mediators role is to
establish confdence.
Researchers and specialists
have identifed the following
personal qualities of the mediator
equally efective in promoting trust
in the mediator: empathy and cred-
ibility. We will speak about them
later on.
EMPATHY
Empathy is the ability to under-
stand and share feelings to others.
Te mediator's ability to empathize
with the parties in confict has been
recognized as being fundamental
in establishing confdence in me-
diation. Tis is because litigants
resort to mediator for a confict
unresolved that has afected their
feelings one way or another, that is
why it is important for the mediator
medierea, tehnic i art
7
un confict nerezolvat care le-a afec-
tat ntr-un fel sau altul sentimentele,
de aceea este important ca media-
torul s neleag, s aprecieze i s
recunoasc sentimentele, temerile,
nevoile i ngrijorrile prilor.
CREDIBILITATEA
Credibilitatea mediatorului este
apreciat de unii mediatorii cerce-
ttori ca find de departe cea mai
important calitate a mediatorului.
Credibilitatea nseamn ncredere i
competen. Prile consider adesea
un mediator credibil acela care de-
monstreaz expertiz i competena
de a observa lucrurile n amnunt.
Astfel un mediator care este cre-
dibil, competent i experimentat va
avea mai degrab capacitatea de a
dobndi ncrederea prilor. Pe de
alt parte, un mediator care nu are
credibilitate i competen va crea
un sentiment de nesiguran prilor,
acestea punnd la ndoial capacita-
tea mediatorului de a fnaliza proce-
sul de mediere.
NCREDEREA N MEDIERE
Pe lng faptul c prile au n-
credere n mediator, ele trebuie s
aib ncredere i n medierea nsi.
Dei mediatorul acioneaz ca un
facilitator al medierii i nu poate f
separat de aceasta este important ca
prile s aib ncredere c medierea
este soluia rezolvrii confictului lor.
ncrederea n procesul medierii este
generata de dou componente: cre-
dibilitate i imparialitate
CREDIBILITATEA
Credibilitate procesul de mediere
este un fapt esenial i ea poate re-
zulta din dou surse: de la tere per-
soane (mediator, avocai, experi, alte
persoane care au apelat la mediere)
sau de la prile n confict.
n primul rnd mediatorul, avo-
catul, expertul sau alte persoane care
au apelat la mediere pot susine i
recomanda procesul de mediere ca
find cea mai efcient metod de
rezolvare a confictului. Aceast re-
comandare venit din partea unei
tere persoane poate conta foarte
mult pentru prile afate n confict
n determinarea alegerii lor de a ac-
cepta medierea.
n al doilea rnd, credibilitatea
vine i din faptul nelegerii de ctre
pri a ceea ce semnifc procesul
de mediere. De cele mai multe ori
prile nu neleg ce semnifc ntru
totul procesul medierii, iar aici i
revine mediatorului rolul de a ex-
plica aceasta. De aceea, este aproape
vital ca mediatorul s aloce timp s
explice prilor care este exact rolul
mediere, a structurii procesului de
mediere i nu n ultimul rnd al me-
diatorului.
De asemenea, este extrem de im-
portant ca mediatorul s explice pr-
ilor c medierea este confdenial.
De altfel, confdenialitatea medierii
este un element primordial n con-
struirea credibilitii procesului de
mediere. Confdenialitatea le cre-
eaz prilor sigurana c n timpul
medierii pot s se exprime liber i
onest ntr-un mediu protejat.
IMPARIALITATEA
Un proces de mediere imparial
faciliteaz dobndirea ncrederii:
prile au nevoie s simt c sunt tra-
tate egal. De aceea este important ca
mediatorul s depun eforturi pen-
tru a asigura imparialitatea medierii,
ntruct o lips de imparialitate poa-
te duce la pierderea ncrederii pri-
lor i la eecul procesului de mediere.
CONCLUZII
ncrederea determin comporta-
mentul prilor raportat la mediere:
ncrederea ajut prile s ncerce
soluionarea confictului ivit ntre ele,
determin un comportament pozitiv
fa de reuita procesului de medie-
re. De aceea este esenial ca prile s
aib ncredere, scopul acestui articol
find acela de a sublinia cteva aspec-
te importante de care trebuie s in
seama mediatorul n eforturile sale
de a cpta ncrederea prilor n per-
soana sa i a procesului de mediere.
Camelia Gabriela Iusco
Mediator
Colegiul Mediatorilor
din Regiunea de Nord-Vest
to understand, appreciate and rec-
ognize the feelings, fears, needs and
concerns of the parties.
CREDIBILITY
Te credibility of a mediator is
considered by some researchers
by far the most important quality
of the mediator. Credibility means
trust and competence. Te parties
ofen consider that a credible me-
diator is the one who demonstrates
expertise and competence to see
things in detail.
Tus, a mediator who is credible,
competent and experienced will
rather have the ability to acquire
confdence of the parties. On the
other hand, a mediator who has
no credibility and competence will
create uncertainty to parties, who
will be questioning the mediator's
ability to complete the mediation
process.
TRUST IN MEDIATION
Besides the fact that the parties
trust the mediator, they must have
confdence in the mediation itself.
Although the mediator acts as a fa-
cilitator of mediation and can not
be separated from it, is important
for the parties to be confdent that
mediation is the solution to their
conficts resolution. Te conf-
dence in the mediation process
is generated by two components:
credibility and impartiality.
CREDIBILITY
Te credibility of the mediation
process is an essential fact and may
result from two sources: from third
parties (mediators, lawyers, experts
and other people who have turned
to mediation) or from the parties in
confict.
First, the mediator, lawyer, ex-
pert or other persons who used
mediation can support and rec-
ommend the mediation process as
being the most efective method to
resolve conficts. Te recommen-
dation made by a third party can
make a real diference to the con-
ficting parties in their choice to ac-
cept mediation.
Secondly, credibility also comes
from parties understanding what
the mediation process signifes.
Most times, the parties do not un-
derstand fully what the mediation
process means, and here intervenes
the mediator, who has the role of
explaining it.
Terefore, it is almost vital for
the mediator to spend time explain-
ing the parties what the role of me-
diation is exactly, the structure of
the mediation process and not last
of the mediator.
It is also extremely important for
the mediator to explain the parties
that mediation is confdential. In
fact, the confdentiality of media-
tion is a crucial element in building
credibility in the mediation process.
Confdentiality creates certainty
that during mediation the parties
can speak freely and honestly in a
protected environment.
IMPARTIALITY
An impartial mediation process
facilitates the acquiring of trust: the
parties need to feel they are treated
equally. It is therefore important for
the mediator to do his/her best ef-
forts to ensure impartial mediation,
as the lack of impartiality can lead
to loss of confdence of and the fail-
ure of the mediation process.
CONCLUSIONS
Trust determines the behavior
of parties in relation to mediation:
confdence helps the parties to seek
resolution for the confict arising
between them, determines a posi-
tive behavior towards the success of
the mediation process. It is there-
fore essential for the parties to have
confdence, the purpose of this ar-
ticle is to highlight some important
issues that the mediators need to
take into account in their eforts to
gain confdence in them and in the
process of mediation.
Camelia Gabriela Iusco
Mediator
College of Mediators
on North-West Area
medierea, tehnic i art
8
20 QUESTIONS PEOPLE ASK
ABOUT MEDIATION
1. WHAT IS THE ADVANTAGE OF
HAVING A MEDIATOR?
Te key advantage is the gate-
way provide to interest-based
negotiation by the presence of a
neutral person in the negotiating
frame one who can handle the
process and enable the parties
to negotiate based more on their
needs than on the positions that
have taken.
In most cultures, people tend
to negotiate from positions. Posi-
tional negotiation usually involves
extreme opening positions, a
compromise somewhere between
the parties opening positions,
a process of gradual and usu-
ally mutual concessions clouded
by tactics exaggerations, dis-
guised and undisguised threats,
overstatements and ofen lies and
trickery. Positional negotiation
fails if insufcient concessions
are made. Positional negotiation
is quite easy, and does not stretch
the players negotiating abilities.
Interest-based negotiation hap-
pens when the parties focus on
their needs and interests more
than on their positions, enabling
them to achieve more creative op-
tions for mutual gain. It is a more
collaborative, less combative ex-
perience aimed at maximizing the
value on the negotiating table of-
ten by bringing to the table value
that may not necessarily be there
initially.
Te presence of a skilled neutral
changes the negotiating dynamic
in a critical way. Te mediator
can help the parties to keep the
negotiation focused and framed
positively, and to consider their
positions and interests more ob-
jectively and realistically. Tis
calls for wide-ranging and excep-
tional skills on the mediators part,
and the parties need to be able to
trust the mediator. From the par-
ties perspective, a faster and high-
er quality outcome can usually be
expected from the engagement of
a competent, suitable mediator in
most negotiations.
2. HOW DO I GET THE OTHER
SIDE TO AGREE TO USE A
MEDIATOR?
Propose it, but do it in a way
that avoids conveying a sense of
weakness. Tis can be done by
explaining why it makes sense for
the other side as well as you. Te
most common shared reasons for
engaging in dispute resolution
mediation are:
it maximizes the chances if
there are any of reaching an
agreement
it keeps everyones costs to the
minimum (see Q5)
it prevents issues escalating out
of control
it is your policy to propose
mediation prior to engaging in
litigation
if litigation has started, it is
your policy to try and negotiate
outcomes if possible.
If there is no dispute, then
the weakness issue is less pro-
nounced, or is not a factor at all.
Te most common shared reasons
for engaging in deal mediation
are:
a mediator will help keep the
negotiation collaborative and
creative
the mediator will take the pro-
cess hassle out of the agenda
although there is a cost factor, it
is minor compared to the ben-
efts attainable.
3. ARE MEDIATORS BOUND BY A
PROFESSIONAL CODE OF
CONDUCT?
Tey certainly should be. Many
mediators are associated with one
or more provider institutions and
adopt their Code of Conduct. You
should always ask to see a copy of
the code and be sure you are com-
fortable with it. Most mediators
also carry a professional indem-
nity insurance policy, which it is
also wise to verify.
4. HOW DO I CHECK OUT A
MEDIATORS CREDENTIALS?
Ask for their Profle, resum or
CV. Te key things you should be
looking to satisfy yourself about
are the mediators competency,
and her/his suitability as a media-
tor in your situation. If the media-
tor is IMI Certifed, look them up
on www.IMImediation.org.
On competency, key questions
to ask are:
How experienced is the media-
tor?
What sort of feedback has the
mediator received from prior
users?
Which professional certifca-
tions does the mediator have?
On suitability, you need to con-
sider:
Will everyone be able to respect
and trust this person as the me-
diator?
If the issue is technical or spe-
cialised, the mediator handled
similar situations?
Are the mediators costs appro-
priate for your case?
Make a shortlist of several me-
diators and discuss the shortlist
with the other side. Try to agree on
20 DE NTREBRI PE CARE OAME-
NII I LE PUN DESPRE MEDIERE
1. CARE ESTE AVANTAJUL DE A
AVEA UN MEDIATOR?
Principalul avantaj este poarta
de acces pentru o negociere bazat
pe interese, data de prezena unei
persoane neutre n cadrul negocie-
rii - care se poate ocupa de proces i
care permite prilor s negocieze
mai mult pe baza nevoilor lor dect
pe poziiile luate.
n cele mai multe culturi, oamenii
tind s negocieze de pe poziii. Ne-
gocierea poziional implic adesea,
poziii extreme de deschidere, un
compromis undeva ntre deschide-
rea poziiilor, un proces de concesii
treptate i, de obicei, reciproce, um-
brite de "tactici" - exagerri, ame-
ninri deghizate i nedeghizate, su-
praevalurile i, adesea, minciuni i
nelciune. Negociere poziional
eueaz dac sunt fcute concesii
insufciente. Negocierea poziional
este destul de uoar i nu extinde
abilitile de negociere ale jucatorilor.
Negocierea bazat pe intere-
se apare atunci cnd prile se
concentreaz pe nevoi i interese
mai mult dect pe poziiile lor, per-
mindu-le s obin mai multe
opiuni creative pentru un ctig
reciproc. Este o experien mai
colaborativ, mai puin combative,
care vizeaz maximizarea valorii de
la masa negocierilor - de multe ori
prin aducerea la mas a unei valori
care iniial nu fusese acolo.
Prezena unui ter neutru schim-
b dinamica negocierilor ntr-un
mod critic. Mediatorul poate ajuta
prile s menin negocierile con-
centrate i ncadrate n mod pozitiv
i s ia n considerare poziiile i
interesele mai obiectiv i mai realist.
Acest lucru necesit competene
extinse i excepionale din partea
mediatorului, iar prile trebuie s
poat avea ncredere n mediator.
Din punctul de vedere al prilor,
un rezultat de calitate mai mare i
mai rapid poate f, de obicei, de a-
teptat de la angajarea unui mediator
competent, potrivit n cele mai mul-
te negocieri.
2. CUM S FAC CA CEALALT
PARTE S FIE DE ACORD S
APELEZE LA MEDIATOR?
Propunei medierea, dar ntr-un
mod care s evite transmiterea unui
sentiment de slbiciune. Acest lucru
poate f realizat prin a explica de ce
are sens pentru cealalt parte, pre-
cum i pentru dvs. Cele mai frec-
vente cauze comune pentru angaja-
rea n medierea litigiilor sunt:
maximizeaz ansele - dac exis-
t - de a ajunge la un acord
menine costurile tuturor la mi-
nim (a se vedea ntrebarea nr. 5)
previne scparea problemelor de
sub control
este politica dvs. de a propune
medierea nainte de angajarea
ntr-un litigiu
n cazul n care litigiul a nceput,
aceasta este politica dvs. de a n-
cerca i negocia rezultate, dac
este posibil.
Dac nu exist nici o disput,
atunci problema slbiciunii este
mai puin pronunat, sau nu este
un factor deloc. Cele mai frecvente
cauze comune pentru angajarea n
medierea de afacere sunt:
un mediator va ajuta la menine-
rea negocierilor colaborative i
creative
mediatorul va terge de pe
agend hara legat de proces
dei exist un factor de cost, aces-
ta este minor n comparaie cu
benefciile realizabile.
3. SUNT MEDIATORII OBLIGAI DE
UN ANUMIT COD DE ETIC
PROFESIONAL?
Cu siguran ar trebui s fe.
Numeroi mediatori sunt asociai
la una sau mai multe instituii fur-
nizoare i adopt Codul de conduit
al acestora. Ar trebui s cerei ntot-
deauna o copie a codului i asigu-
rai-v c v simii confortabil cu el.
Cei mai muli mediatori au o poli
de asigurare profesional, care este,
de asemenea, nelept de verifcat.
4. CUM VERIFIC RECOMANDRILE
UNUI MEDIATOR?
Cerei proflul sau CV-ul lui. Lu-
crurile eseniale la care ar trebui s
v uitai sunt competena mediato-
rului i adecvarea lui n calitate de
mediator pentru situaia dvs. n ca-
zul n care mediatorul este certifcat
IMI, cutai-l pe www.IMImediati-
on.org.
n privina competenei, ntreb-
rile-cheie sunt:
Ct de experimentat este media-
torul?
Ce fel de feedback a primit medi-
atorul de la utilizatorii anteriori?
Ce tipuri de certifcri profesio-
nale deine mediatorul?
n privina potrivirii sale, trebuie s
luai n considerare urmtoarele:
Va f capabil toat lumea s
respecte i s aib ncredere n
aceast persoan ca mediator?
Dac problema este de natur
tehnic sau de specialitate, s-a
mai ntlnit mediatorul cu situa-
ii similare?
Sunt costurile mediatorului potri-
vite pentru cazul dumneavoastr?
Facei o list scurt cuprinznd
civa mediatori i discutai-o cu
cealalt parte. ncercai s convenii
asupra unei prioriti.
medierea, tehnic i art
9
5. ESTE MEDIEREA COSTISITOARE?
Toate costurile sunt relative n
privina recuperrii i a alternative-
lor. Cu excepia situaiilor minore
luate n considerare pentru mediere,
de obicei, medierea este cel mai pu-
in costisitoare dintre alternative, de
multe ori mult mai puin costisitoa-
re dect a merge n instan. Multe
medieri, chiar i cele n care mizele
sunt foarte mari, sunt fnalizate n 2
zile, adesea ntr-una singur. n si-
tuaiile n curs de desfurare - de
exemplu, negocierea unui acord
sau n cazul n care scopul medierii
este acela de a repara relaiile, mai
degrab dect a soluiona un liti-
giu specifc, aceasta poate dura mai
mult. Dar prile pot ntrerupe un
proces de mediere n orice moment,
astfel c este posibil s se stabileas-
c un buget, s se pun de acord cu
mediatorul i atunci cnd este atin-
s limita bugetului poate f luat o
decizie privind terminarea procesu-
lui sau continuarea lui cu un buget
revizuit.
6. SE SPUNE C MEDIEREA ESTE
VOLUNTAR DAR CE IMPLIC
ACEST LUCRU?
Aceasta nseamn c, dei ar tre-
bui s ncercai medierea n mod po-
zitiv i cu bun-credin, dac ntr-
adevr credei c nu duce nicieri,
putei cere s fe ncheiat. Cealalt
parte poate face acelai lucru. Deci,
nu este obligatoriu s ajungi la un re-
zultat acceptat de toate prile i nu
trebuie s v simii sub presiunea
de a face un compromis mpotriva
judecatei dumneavoastr.
7. CT ESTE DE SUCCES ME-
DIEREA?
ntr-un cuvant - foarte. Cele mai
multe organisme furnizoare de me-
diere care au efectuat cercetri cu
privire la rata de succes a medierii
indic o rrat a succesului de apro-
ximativ 80%.Motivul pentru aceas-
ta este c, atunci cnd prile sunt
ntr-o situaie n care toi se simt
mputernicii s negocieze n mod
efcient, i i ating nevoile, n general
ei nu evit s fac acest lucru. Medi-
erea permite aceast mputernicire.
8. TREBUIE S MEDIEZ DAC
CEALALT PARTE PROPUNE ACEST
LUCRU?
Numai dac prilor le-a fost im-
pus de ctre instan s ncerce me-
dierea, sau numai dac se af sub
prevederile unui contract. Chiar i
atunci, cu condiia s abordeze me-
dierea cu bun credin i cu intenia
adevrat de a o face cu success, pot
decide s ntrerup medierea.
9. CUM AR TREBUI S M
PREGTESC PENTRU MEDIERE?
Dac suntei reprezentat juridic
si dorii ca avocatul dvs s fe pre-
zent la mediere, vei f ghidat de un
avocat. Dac avocatul va f prezent
sau nu, medierea este o soluie de
colaborare generatoare de ncercri,
mai degrab dect o oportunitate de
a nscrie puncte fa de cealalt par-
te. Asta pentru a nu spune c toate
prile ar trebui s aib posibilitatea
de a-i expune cazul, s-i susin
poziiile i s-i declare sentimente-
le - acestea pot f importante i eli-
beratoare. Cel mai important lucru
de reinut este s venii la mediere
dup o bun pregtire i dup ce
decidei ce avei nevoie ca un nivel
minim. i nu tratai mediatorul ca
un adversar sau un instrument care
s v reprezinte avei nevoie s v
ncredei n mediator, tiind c tot
ce spunei cu ncredere va f pstrat
n mod confdenial numai dac sau
pn cnd vei permite mediatoru-
lui s dezvluie.
Urmrii video despre mediere.
10. CUM GSESC MEDIATORUL
POTRIVIT?
ncepei cu Copacul decizional i
urmai linkurile. Asta nseamn s v
gndii dac situaia necesit un me-
diator cu abiliti ntr-o animit arie
de practic (sau mai mult de una), ce
stil de mediere este necesar, abilitile
de limb i culturale, locaia i dac
se prefer un proces administrat sau
neadministrat. inei minte, cealalt
parte poate avea o perspectiv asupra
tuturor sau oricaruia dintre aceste
lucruri. Apoi, putei s v conectai
preferinele privind aceste aspecte pe
motorul de cutare al IMI IMI Sear-
ch Engine. Dac acesta genereaz un
numr insufcient de opiuni, putei
schimba preferinele. Dupa asta,
cutai recomandri de la avocai sau
vizitai website-urile unuia sau mai
multor furnizori de mediere. Citii
rspunsul la ntrebarea nr. 4.
11. CE AM DE PIERDUT?
Nimic, cu excepia unui pic de
timp i a unor costuri mprtite.
12. CT VA DURA O MEDIERE?
Majoritatea medierilor dureaz
mai puin de doua zile. Vezi ntre-
barea nr. 5.
13. CINE AR TREBUI S PARTICIPE
NTR-O MEDIERE?
Asta depinde de circumstane i de
preferinele dumneavoastr. Medie-
rea este o negociere asistat i suntei
propriul dvs. negociator. Dac
suntei nsoii de un avocat, asigu-
rai-v c avocatul dvs. vine la medie-
re ca furnizor de soluii de colaborare
n primul rnd, i apoi n calitate de
consilier i apoi ca avocat n funcie
de cum se desfoar medierea.
14. DE CE S FOLOSESC UN
MEDIATOR PENTRU A NEGOCIA
CND NU EXIST NICIO DISPUT?
Dei medierea a fost folosit n
mod tradiional ca soluionare a
litigiilor, deoarece este deosebit de
util n gestionarea ostilitilor ntre
a priority.
5. IS MEDIATION COSTLY?
All costs are relative to the
payback and alternatives. Except
where minor situations are being
considered for mediation, usually
mediation is the least costly of the
alternatives, ofen far less costly
than going to court. Many media-
tions, even those where the stakes
are very high, are completed in
2 days, and ofen in one. In situ-
ations which are ongoing for
example the negotiation of a deal
or where the purpose of the me-
diation is to repair relationships
rather than settle a specifc dis-
pute, it may take longer. But par-
ties can discontinue a mediation
at any time, so it is possible to set
a budget, agree it with the media-
tor, and when the budget limit is
reached a decision can be taken
whether to end the process or
continue it with a revised budget.
6. MEDIATION IS SAID TO BE
VOLUNTARY BUT WHAT DOES
THAT IMPLY?
It means that although you
should try to use mediation
positively and in good faith, if
you really think it is not getting
anywhere you can ask for it to be
terminated. Te other side can
do the same. So it is not obliga-
tory to reach an outcome agreed
by all parties, and you should not
feel pressurised to compromise
against your better judgement.
7. HOW SUCCESSFUL IS
MEDIATION?
In a word very. Most media-
tion provider bodies that have
conducted research on the suc-
cess ratio of mediation quote an
approximately 80% chance of
success. Te reason for this is that
when parties are in a situation
where they all feel empowered to
negotiate efectively, and achieve
their needs, they generally do not
fail to do so. Mediation provides
that empowerment.
8. MUST I MEDIATE IF THE
OTHER SIDE PROPOSES IT?
Not unless the parties have
been ordered by a court to at-
tempt mediation, or unless they
are under a contractual require-
ment to do so. Even then, provid-
ed they approach the mediation
in good faith and with a genuine
intent to make it successful, they
can decide to discontinue the me-
diation.
9. HOW SHOULD I PREPARE FOR
A MEDIATION?
If you are legally represented,
and wish your counsel to be pre-
sent at the mediation, you will
be guided by counsel. Whether
legal counsel will be present or
not, mediation is a collaborative
solution generating attempt rath-
er than an opportunity to score
points against the other side. Tat
is not to say that all parties should
not have the opportunity to state
their case, argue their positions
and vent their feelings these can
be important and cathartic. Te
key thing to remember is to come
to the mediation afer preparing
well and deciding what you need
as a bare minimum. And dont
treat the mediator as an opponent
or a tool to represent you you
need to trust the mediator, know-
ing that anything you say in con-
fdence will be kept in confdence
unless or until you allow the me-
diator to disclose it. Watch a me-
diation video.
10. HOW DO I FIND THE RIGHT
MEDIATOR?
Start with the Decision Tree
and follow the links. Tis in-
volves considering whether the
situation requires a mediator
skilled in a particular practice
area (or more than one), what
mediation style is needed, lan-
guage and cultural skills, location,
and whether an administered or
non-administered process is pre-
ferred. Remember, the other side
may have views on all or any of
these things. You can then key in
your preferences on these aspects
at the IMI Search Engine. If this
generates an insufcient number
of choices, consider changing the
preferences. Afer that, seek rec-
ommendations from counsel or
visit the websites of one or more
of the mediation providers. Read
the answer to Q4.
11. WHAT DO I HAVE TO LOSE?
Nothing, with the exception of
a little time and a modest shared
cost.
12. HOW LONG WILL A MEDIA-
TION TAKE?
Most mediations take under 2
days. See Q5.
13. WHO SHOULD PARTICIPATE
IN A MEDIATION?
Tat depends on the circum-
stances and your preferences. Me-
diation is assisted negotiation and
you are your own negotiator. If you
are accompanied by counsel, make
sure your counsel comes to the
mediation as a collaborative solu-
tion provider frst, as your adviser
second, and as your advocate third
depending on how the mediation
goes.
14. WHY USE A MEDIATOR TO
NEGOTIATE A DEAL WHEN
THERE IS NO DISPUTE?
Te settlement of a dispute is
medierea, tehnic i art
10
pri, care caracterizeaz de obicei,
disputele, medierea are valori mult
mai mari n a permite negociatorilor
s-i fac treaba pe baza colaborrii
mai degrab dect pe baz de con-
fruntare sau poziionare. A se vedea
ntrebarea 1 i materialele IMI cu
privire la medierea de afaceri.
15. CND AR TREBUI S MEDIEZ?
Ca o generalitate, cu ct mai de-
vreme, cu att mai bine. Dac exist
un litigiu, tensiunile tind s escala-
deze de-a lungul timpului, ceea ce
face de acordul s fe mai greu de re-
alizat pe msur ce negocierea este
mai mult ntrziat. n cazul n care
nu exist nici un litigiu, acordurile
pot f mai greu de obinut odat ce
prile devin nrdcinate n po-
ziiile lor i i-ar pierde prestigiul
sau ar suferi alte consecine, dac
ar inversa cererile i declaraiile f-
cute anterior. Evitarea problemelor
este, n general, mai uor de realizat
dect rezolvarea lor dup ce acestea
au aprut. Acestea find spuse, exis-
t situaii n care faptele trebuie s
cristalizeze o negociere nainte de a
avea loc o negociere folositoare. Aa
cum poetul grec Hesiod a scris n
Works and Days (Munci i Zile) n
anul 660 .c. - Timpul este n toate
lucrurile cel mai important factor.
16. AR TREBUI S INSEREZ O
CLAUZ PRIVIND MEDIEREA
NTR-UN CONTRACT?
Fr ezitare, da. Asta face mult
mai uor ca prile s medieze mai
devreme, nainte de litigiu i evit
orice percepie de slbiciune n a
propune medierea. IMI a furnizat
ndrumare privind modelele de cla-
uze de mediere.
17. CT ESTE DE CONFIDENIAL
O MEDIERE?
Cu excepia cazurilor extreme
(cum ar f fapte penale sau cerine
specifce ale legii sau procesului juri-
dic), informaiile dezvluite mediato-
rului trebuie inute confdeniale de
ctre acesta, iar Codul de Conduit
loblig la acest angajament.
18. CARE SUNT DIFERITELE TIPURI
DE MEDIERE?
Sunt trei stiluri de mediere im-
portante de facilitare, de evaluare
i de transformare. Vezi informaiile
IMI privind stilurile de mediere.
Exist, de asemenea, hibrizi ai me-
dierii i alte procese care pot f luate
n considerare.
19. DE CE SUNT UNII OAMENI
FOARTE RETICENI LA MEDIERE?
Motivul cel mai probabil este
lipsa familiarizrii i preferina de
a rmne n zona lor de confort, n
care lucrurile sunt fcute ca nain-
te. Unii avocai sunt reticeni n a-i
sftui clienii s se angajeze n medi-
ere, pentru o multitudine de motive.
Depirea acestor blocaje necesit o
anumit insisten.
20. PE SCURT, DE CE A MEDIA?
Deoarece are sens n majoritatea
cazurilor.
n ADR in Business (Wolters
Kluwer 2011) (ADR n afaceri), un
grup de utilizatori corporatiti ai
serviciilor de mediere au scris un
capitol intitulat A face medierea
normalitatea, afrmnd:
Utilizatorii de servicii de
soluionare a disputelor de toate
felurile nu pot ignora rolul lor vital
n a se asigura c disputele care ar
benefcia de o soluionare timpu-
rie urmeaz o cale conceput s
mreasc posibilitatea ca medierea
s fe ncercat.
Contracte de toate felurile ar tre-
bui s conin clauze de soluionare
a disputelor, care includ medierea
ntr-o anumit faz a procesului,
de obicei nainte de arbitraj sau
litigiu, sau simultan cu nceperea
litigiului sau arbitrajului, dar na-
inte ca acestea s fe angajate. Nu-
meroase modele de clauze n pai
sunt disponibile online3, iar unele
companii i-au dezvoltat propri-
ile lor clauze preferate. Clauzele
contractuale care includ i pasul
medierii permit ambelor pri s
evite orice slbiciune care poate f
implicit ntr-o propunere de me-
diere i reprezint o bun practic
preventiv.
A ti unde s gseti mediatorul
potrivit este critic. ntotdeauna s
caui n mod independent rezu-
mate ale feedback-urilor pregtite
de utilizatorii precedeni reprezint
informaii vitale att despre
competena ct i potrivirea media-
torilor candidai.
Sunt multe alte activiti pe care
companiile le pot iniia pentru a
mbunti percepia altora asupra
medierii ca un instrument efcient
de soluionare. De exemplu, publi-
carea unei politici de soluionare a
confictelor care favorizeaz nego-
cierea timpurie i medierea nainte
de litigiu poate deveni o practic de
afaceri pentru promovarea medierii,
mai degrab dect a f vzut ca o
slbiciune implicit. Programele
interne de training din cadrul unei
companii pentru a crete atenia
managementului i a avocailor in-
terni sunt de asemenea importante
Firmele de avocatur sunt i ele
utilizatori, de obicei find originea
unei propuneri de mediere. Toate
de mai sus se aplic n mod egal, i
uneori chiar i mai semnifcativ, fr-
melor de avocatur. n mod parti-
cular, apreciem atunci cnd avocai
externi sunt pregtii s-i asiste
clienii n a recurge la mediere i s
se pregteasc n mod efcient pen-
tru a-i reprezenta n mediere.
Reprodus cu permisiunea Institu-
tului Internaional de Mediere www.
imimediation.org
just a deal. Although mediation
has traditionally been used for
resolving disputes because it is
particularly helpful in managing
the hostilities between parties that
typically characterise disputes,
mediation has far wider values
in terms of enabling negotiators
to do their job on a collaborative
rather than confrontational or
positional basis. See Q1 and IMIs
materials on deal mediation.
15. When should I mediate?
As a generality, the earlier the
better. If there is a dispute, tensions
tend to escalate over time, making
settlement harder to achieve the
longer a negotiation is delayed.
Where there is no dispute, agree-
ments can be harder to achieve
once parties become entrenched
in their positions and would lose
face, or sufer other consequences,
to reverse claims and statements
made earlier. Avoiding problems
is generally easier to achieve than
resolving them afer they have
arisen. Having said that, there
are situations where facts need to
crystallise before a useful negotia-
tion can take place. As the Greek
poet Hesiod wrote in Works and
Days in 660BC Timing is in all
things the most important factor.
16. SHOULD I INSERT A MEDIA-
TION CLAUSE INTO A CONTRACT?
Without hesitation, yes. Tis
makes it much easier for the par-
ties to mediate early, before liti-
gating, and avoides any weakness
perception in proposing media-
tion. IMI has provided guidance
on model mediation clauses.
17. HOW CONFIDENTIAL IS A
MEDIATION?
Except is extreme cases (such
as criminal illegalities or specifc
requirements of law and legal pro-
cess) information disclosed to me-
diators must be kept confdential
by mediators and their Codes of
Conduct bind them to that com-
mitment.
18. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT
KINDS OR TYPES OF MEDIA-
TION?
Tere are three main mediation
styles facilitative, evaluative and
transformative. See IMIs infor-
mation on mediation styles. Tere
are also hybrids of mediation and
other processes to consider.
19. WHY ARE SOME PEOPLE VERY
RELUCTANT TO MEDIATE?
Te most likely reason is lack
of familiarity, and a preference to
stick with their comfort zone of
doing things they way they have
been done before. Some lawyers
are reluctant to advise their cli-
ents to engage in mediation for a
variety of reasons. Overcoming
these blockages requires some
persistence.
20. IN A NUTSHELL, WHY
SHOULD I MEDIATE?
Because it makes sense in most
cases.
In ADR in Business (Wolters
Kluwer 2011) a group of corporate
users of mediation services wrote
a chapter titled Making Mediation
Mainstream in which they said:
Users of dispute resolution ser-
vices of all types cannot ignore
their vital role in ensuring that
disputes that would beneft from
an early resolution follow a path
designed to increase the likeli-
hood that mediation will be at-
tempted.
Contracts of all kinds should
feature multi-step dispute resolu-
tion clauses that include media-
tion at some stage of the process,
usually prior to arbitration or liti-
gation, or simultaneously with the
commencement of litigation or
arbitration but prior to them be-
ing employed. Numerous model
multi-step clauses are available
online and some companies have
developed their own preferred
clauses. Contractual clauses that
include a mediation step enable
both sides to avoid any perceived
weakness that may be implicit in a
proposal to mediate and represent
good preventive lawyering.
Knowing where to fnd the right
mediator is critical. Always seek-
ing independently-prepared sum-
maries of prior user feedback pro-
vides vital information about both
the competency and the suitability
of the candidate mediators.
Tere are many other activities
[users] can undertake to enhance
the perception of mediation as an
efective settlement tool by others.
For example, publishing a con-
fict resolution policy that favors
early negotiation and mediation
before litigating can make it a
business practice to propose me-
diation, rather than be seen as an
implicit weakness. Internal train-
ing programs within a company
to enhance both management and
in-house counsel awareness are
also key.
Law frms are also users, ofen
being the origin of a proposal to
mediate. All the above applies
equally, and sometimes more
poignantly, to law frms. In partic-
ular, we appreciate it when outside
counsel are trained in assisting cli-
ents to get to mediation and efec-
tively preparing and representing
them in mediations.
Reproduced with permission of
International Mediation Institute
www.imimediation.org
medierea, tehnic i art
11
JURNAL DE... EDIN!
Luni, 24 ianuarie 2011.
Judectoria Sectorului 4 Bucureti.
Ora 08.00.
O sal de judecat supraaglomerat.
Se studiaz lista de edin. Justiiabilii
se regsesc cu destul greutate, lista cu-
prinde un numr de 102 dosare pentru
termenul de astzi.
Ora 8.30.
Judectorul intr n sal. Declar des-
chise dezbaterile. Se iau cauzele la amna-
re. Dureaz aproximativ 2 ore.
Se iau cauzele la ordine. Oamenii
ncep s i piard rbdarea. Probabil
cei mai muli nici nu bnuiesc c nc
vor sta ore bune n sala de judecat s
i atepte rndul. O sal de judecat
supraaglomerat, edin public, fr
nicio intimitate
Oare aceti justiiabili cunosc faptul
c exist i alte ci de soluionare a con-
fictului lor, mai efciente?
Judectorul a identifcat cauzele din
lista de edin care s-ar preta la solui-
onare prin mediere i informeaz pr-
ile asupra acestei posibiliti i asupra
avantajelor medierii. Totui, prea puini
justiiabili se arat interesai de aceast
cale.
Din 102 dosare pe rol, ntr-un singur
dosar avnd ca obiect partaj de bunuri
comune, prile se prezint cu un acord
de mediere!
edina se ncheie la ora 16.30.
MEDIEREA, O ALTERNATIV LA
PROCESUL N INSTAN
Legea nr. 192/2006 privind medierea
i organizarea profesiei de mediator a
creat o nou profesie n Romnia, aceea
de mediator, cu atribuii clar defnite.
Unul dintre obiectivele adoptrii
acestei legi a fost acela de a degreva in-
stanele de judecat, suprancrcate, de
judecarea unor cauze, att nainte de
sesizarea instanei, dar i n cursul jude-
crii procesului.
ntruct marea majoritate a romni-
lor nu au o cultur a rezolvrii confic-
telor prin negociere, era de ateptat ca
aceast lege s nu-i fac att de uor
intrarea n viaa i contiina cetenilor.
Totui, pe parcursul celor civa ani de
la intrarea sa n vigoare, s-au fscut civa
pai n direcia implementrii procedurii
medierii ca alternativ la soluionarea n
instan a unor tipuri de conflicte. S-au
creat, n mai multe orae din Romnia,
centre de mediere i asociaii ale mediato-
rilor care deja colaboreaz foarte bine cu
instanele de judecat din oraele respecti-
ve, existnd statistici n sensul soluionrii
a din ce n ce mai multor cauze prin pro-
cedura medierii.
Totui, la nivelul unor instane aglo-
merate ca numr de dosare nregistrate,
legea medierii nc nu i-a fcut simite
benefciile n sensul degrevrii acestor
instane de numrul mare de dosare.
Astfel, n aceste instane, de la an la an,
se nregistraez un numr tot mai mare
de dosare.
Aceasta nseamn c mediatorii,
sprijinii de forul lor superior, Consi-
liul de Mediere, dar i de autoritile cu
atribuii n domeniu, ar trebui s-i in-
tensifce eforturile n sensul informrii
publicului larg asupra existenei cilor
alternative de soluionare a confictelor,
respectiv calea medierii, nc dinainte
ca aceste conficte s ajung n faa unui
judector.
Intensifcarea eforturilor n acest
sens ar aduce un real benefciu, n pri-
mul rnd cetenilor, acetia avnd des-
chis calea rezolvrii unei palete largi de
conficte civile, penale, comerciale, de
munc i n domeniul proteciei consu-
matorului ntr-un termen foarte scurt,
comparativ cu termenul de soluionare
n instan, cu costuri i stres minime,
n condiii de deplin confdenialitate.
Benefciul pentru instane este evi-
dent. Nu este de neglijat benefciul
mediatorilor: acetia nu vor mai rm-
ne la dispoziia instanei de judecat
n sensul de a atepta ca aceasta s
conving prile a apela la procedura
medierii.
Se vehiculeaz ideea unei supraregle-
mentri a medierii, n sensul ca aceast
procedur s fe obligatorie nainte de a
se ajunge n instan i ca o condiie pre-
alabil de sesizare a organelor judiciare
pentru orice tip de confict.
Cred c o astfel de abordare nu poate
aduce benefcii n sensul rezolvrii a ct
mai multor conficte prin mediere, de
vreme ce medierea n sine presupune
o component voluntar i se bazeaz
pe ncrederea pe care prile o acord
mediatorului. Este de esena medierii s
fe facultativ, neimpus, la latitudinea
prilor. Adoptarea unor astfel de regle-
mentri nu ar duce la niciun rezultat, de
vreme ce ine de natura uman rezisten-
a la orice este impus.
n ceea ce privete litigiile avnd ca
obiect desfacerea cstoriei prin divor,
cu cererile accesorii privind numele,
ncredinarea minorilor, plata pensiei
de ntreinere i stabilirea legturilor
personale n cadrul unui program
de vizitare, ca judector specializat n
soluionarea acestui tip de litigii, am
observat, n special odat cu intrarea
n vigoare la Legi nr.202/2010 privind
unele msuri pentu accelerarea soluio-
nrii proceselor, c marea majoritate a
acestor litigii se soluioneaz la primul
termen de judecat, prin acordul soilor,
astfel c impunerea condiiei prealabile
de a ncerca soluionarea litigiului prin
mediere este una excesiv.
Mai degrab, n domeniul dreptului
civil, atenia mediatorilor ar trebui s
se focalizeze pe litigiile avnd un obiect
material, respectiv partaje de bunuri co-
mune, moteniri, sistri de indiviziune,
pretenii, litigii a cror durat este, de
obicei, mult mai mare, atunci cnd se
alege calea soluionrii prin instan.
Dana Pantazi
Judecator
Judecatoria sect. 4 Bucuresti
DIARY OF A COURT SESSION!
Monday, January 24, 2011
Bucharest, District 4 Court.
08.00 hours
A crowded courtroom. People
study the session list. Litigants fnd
their names quite hard, as the list
includes a number of 102 cases for
todays hearings.
8.30 hours.
Te judge enters the room. He
declares the debates open. He deals
with the causes delayed. It takes
about 2 hours.
Cases are handled systematically.
People are losing their patience.
Probably most do not suspect they
are still to wait for hours in court
for their turn. An overcrowded
courtroom, public hearing, with no
privacy.
Do these litigants know there are
other ways to resolve their confict,
more efciently?
Te judge identifed the causes
within the hearing list that might be
solved through mediation and in-
formed the parties on this possibil-
ity and the advantages of mediation.
However, few litigants are inter-
ested in this procedure.
Out of 102 cases pending, in just
one fle dealing with the split of
common goods, the parties reached
a mediation agreement!
Meeting ends at 16.30 hours.
MEDIATION, AN ALTERNATIVE TO
THE COURT TRIAL
Law no. 192/2006 on mediation
and the organization of the mediator
profession has created a new profes-
sion in Romania, that of a mediator,
with clearly defned responsibilities.
One of the objectives of this law
was to relieve the courts, overload-
ed with cases pending, both before
reaching the court, but also during
the trial proceedings.
Since the vast majority of Roma-
nians do not have a culture of con-
fict resolution through negotiation,
it was expected for this law not to
be so easily accepted into the life
and consciousness of citizens.
However, over the past few years
since it became efective, few steps
were made towards the implemen-
tation of mediation as an alterna-
tive procedure to solve some types
of conficts. In several cities from
Romania, mediation centers and
associations of mediators were cre-
ated and they already work very
well with the courts in those cities,
statistics showing that an increasing
number of cases are being solved
through the mediation procedure.
However, in some crowded
courts with lots of cases pending,
the mediation law has not demon-
strated its benefts, in the sense of
relieving the courts. Tus, in these
courts, from year to year, an in-
creasing number of cases is being
reported.
Tis means that mediators, sup-
ported by their higher forum, Me-
diation Council, but also by the
authorities with tasks in this area,
should intensify eforts to inform
the public on the existence of alter-
native ways for resolving conficts,
namely mediation, before these
conficts reach the judge.
Intensifying eforts in this
direction would bring real ben-
eft primarily to citizens, as they
would have a resolution for a wide
range of civil, criminal, commer-
cial, labor and consumer protec-
tion conficts within a very short
period of time compared to the
settlement in court, with mini-
mum costs and stress, in complete
confdentiality.
Te beneft for courts is obvi-
ous. It is not worth neglecting the
benefts for mediators: they will no
longer be at courts disposal in the
sense of "waiting" for the court to
convince the parties to seek media-
tion procedure.
People talk about the idea of over-
regulating the mediation, in the
sense that this procedure would be
mandatory before going to court and
as a prior condition to inform the le-
gal bodies for ant type of confict.
I think that such an approach
can not bring benefts in the sense
of resolving more conficts through
mediation, since mediation itself
entails a voluntary act and relies on
trust that the parties give to the me-
diator. Te very essence of media-
tion is the voluntary character, not
imposed, at parties decision. Te
adoption of such regulation would
not lead to any result, since its in
the human nature to resist anything
that is imposed.
Concerning litigations deal-
ing with divorces, with attached
claims about the name, custody of
children, alimony and visitation
program, as judge specialized in
solving this type of litigation, I have
noticed, especially since the law
202/2010 concerning some meas-
ures to speed up trials, came into
efect, that most of these disputes
are resolved at the frst hearing,
through spouses agreement, thus
trying to impose mediation as a
prior condition is excessive.
Rather, in civil law area, the at-
tention of mediators should focus
on disputes with a material object,
namely partition of common goods,
inheritance, claims, litigation for
which the fnalization takes longer
in a court of law.
Dana Pantazi
Judge
Bucharest District 4 Court
medierea, tehnic i art
12
MEDIATORI VS AVOCAI?

n 2000, cnd am nceput progra-


mele de mediere i rezolvare de
conficte, am avut ansa s m
pregtesc cu experi de excepie n
mediere din Canada, SUA i Marea
Britanie. Dintre ei, ca formare de
baz, erau psihologi, avocai, pro-
fesori. Pregtirea i lucrul cu aceti
experi a continuat civa ani de zile.
n toi aceti ani, nu s-a discutat i
nu am auzit de probleme ntre me-
diatori i avocai. Dimpotriv, Cen-
trul de Mediere Comunitar pe care
l-am iniiat, colabora cu Clinica Le-
gal n cadrul aceleiai organizaii.
Cazurile de conficte care apreau
erau distribuite, n funcie de situ-
aie, fe Serviciului de Mediere Co-
munitar, fe Clinicii Legale pentru
care lucrau avocai. Era o situaie f-
reasc. Exist cazuri de conficte n
care este nevoie de reprezentare le-
gal. Exist cazuri de conficte care
pot f rezolvate prin mediere, cu sau
fr reprezentare legal.
O lecie important din cadrul
pregtirii ca mediator este aceea
c mediatorul trebuie s accepte c
nu toate confictele pot f rezolvate
prin mediere. Etica mediatorului
impune ca acesta s informeze
prile atunci cnd consider c un
anumit caz nu se poate rezolva prin
mediere, datorit naturii cazului
sau datorit imposibilitii prilor
de a trece peste poziiile beligerante.
n 2008, participnd la un con-
gres internaional, a fost prima
dat cnd am auzit de competiie
ntre mediatori i avocai. A fost
o surpriz. Ani de zile, fusese clar
pentru mine c cele dou profesii
au domenii diferite de aplicare. A
fost interesant c persoana care a
menionat aceast problem era un
mediator fr prea mare succes. Era
frustrat i gsea avocaii vinovai
pentru faptul c nu avea destul de
multe cazuri. Firesc, l-am comparat
cu mediatorii cu care lucrasem an-
terior, mediatori de succes, dintre ei
avocai, dintre ei avnd alte profesii,
i care m nvaser c mediatorii
i avocaii colaboreaz pentru c au
domenii diferite de aplicare.
Ani mai trziu, aceast proble-
m apare n Romnia. 'Avocaii iau
cazurile mediatorilor?' 'Mediatorii
iau cazurile avocailor'. 'Cine este
mai bun, avocatul sau mediatorul?',
'Avocatul trebuie s fe automat i
mediator', 'Mediatorul, avocatul
sracilor'.
Din fericire, acesta este un rzboi
fr miz.
Din pcate, exist.
Aparent, avocaii i mediatorii au
aceeai pia, confictele. n realita-
te, cele dou profesii abordeaz as-
pecte complet diferite ale conficte-
lor. Mai important, este nevoie i va
f ntotdeauna nevoie de abordarea
ambelor aspecte.
Sarcina avocailor este de a abor-
da confictele din punctul de vedere
al drepturilor individuale sau de
grup i al normelor de drept. n
orice relaie contractual, scris sau
verbal, prile au fecare n parte
drepturi pentru care, dac sunt n-
clcate, se pot solicita i daune. De
asemenea, exist conficte cu pri-
vire la ncheierea de noi raporturi
juridice, cum ar f divorul, custo-
dia, sau rennoirea unui contract
comercial pe baza unuia preexis-
tent, sau negocierea i renegocierea
contractelor de munc. Sistemul de
justiie a aprut tocmai din nevoia
de a apra drepturi individuale sau
de grup. Avocaii sunt cei chemai
s sprijine pe cei care sunt n cu-
tarea unui drept, capabili s desci-
freze legile i s ofere aprare celor
care i solicit drepturile n cadrul
unui contract.
Sarcina mediatorilor este de a
ajuta prile s abordeze relaia
contractual (vorbim de un con-
tract n sens larg, scris sau verbal).
Mediatorul este interesat de ce au
prile n comun i vor s pstreze
pe viitor n comun. Prin mediere,
prile iau decizii de comun acord,
pe termen lung. Prile i exprim
interesele i nevoile, le neleg pe
ale celuilalt. Acordul semnat este
voluntar i responsabilizeaz pri-
le n ceea ce privete relaia.
n justiie, avocatul l ajut pe X
s ctige mpotriva lui Y i ine
de natura profesiei de avocat s fe
prtinitor i s urmreasc realiza-
rea exclusiv a interesului prii pe
care o reprezint. n mediere, X i
Y gsesc mpreun soluii de conti-
nuare a contractului sau terminare
n anumite condiii i ine de natu-
MEDIATORS VS. LAWYERS?
I
n 2000 when I have begun me-
diation and confict resolution
programs, I had the chance to
train myself with outstanding ex-
perts in mediation from Canada,
USA and the UK. Among them,
there were psychologists, lawyers,
teachers by their basic training.
Working and training with these
experts continued for some years.
All this time, I have not heard of any
discussion or problems between
mediators and lawyers. On the con-
trary, the Community Mediation
Center established by me used to
collaborate with the Legal Clinic
within the same organization. Te
cases of conficts that arose were
distributed, depending on the situ-
ation, to the Community Media-
tion Service or to the Legal Clinic
for which the lawyers were work-
ing. It was a natural situation. Tere
are cases of conficts in which legal
representation is needed. Tere are
cases of conficts that can be re-
solved through mediation, with or
without legal representation.
An important lesson during the
training as mediator is that the me-
diator must accept that not all con-
ficts can be solved through media-
tion. Te mediators ethics requires
him/her to inform the parties when
he/she considers that a case can not
be solved by mediation, due to the
nature of the case or due to parties
impossibility to overcome the war-
ring positions.
In 2008, participating in an in-
ternational congress, it was the frst
time I heard about the competition
between mediators and lawyers. It
was a surprise. For years, it had been
clear to me that the two professions
have diferent areas of application.
It was interesting that the person
who mentioned this problem was a
mediator without much success. He
was frustrated and found lawyers
guilty for not having enough cases.
Naturally, I compared him to the
mediators I had worked with previ-
ously, successful mediators, among
them lawyers, or people with other
professions, who had taught me
that mediators and attorneys work
together because they have difer-
ent felds of application.
Years later, this problem occurs
in Romania.Lawyers taking media-
tors cases? Mediators taking law-
yers cases? "'Who is better: the law-
yer or the mediator?', 'A lawyer shall
automatically be also a mediator',
'Te mediator, lawyer of the poor.
Fortunately, this is a war without a
stake.
Unfortunately, it exists.
Apparently, lawyers and media-
tors have the same market, i.e. the
conficts. In fact, the two profes-
sions address completely diferent
issues of conficts. More important-
ly, it is need and will always be need
for addressing both issues.
Te task of lawyers is to approach
conficts in terms of individual or
group rights and the rule of law. In
any contractual relationship, writ-
ten or oral, each party has rights
for which, if violated, one can seek
damages. Tere are also conficts
related to the conclusion of new
legal relationships, such as divorce,
custody, or renewal of a trade con-
tract or negotiation and renegotia-
tion of labor contracts. Te justice
system has emerged precisely from
the need to protect individual or
group rights. Lawyers are those
called to assist people who seek
a right, able to decript the laws
and ofer defence to those seeking
rights under a contract.
Te task of mediators is to help
the parties approach the contrac-
tual relationship (we refer to a
broad agreement, written or ver-
bal). Te mediator is interested in
what the parties have in common
and what they want to keep in the
future. Trough mediation, the
parties jointly make decisions on
long term. Te parties express their
interests and needs, understanding
the others. Te agreement signed is
voluntary and makes parties more
responsible about their relationship.
In court, the lawyer helps X to
win against Y and is in the the na-
ture of the legal profession for the
lawyer to be biased and focus on
the exclusive beneft of the party
he represents. In mediation, X
and Y fnd together solutions to
continue or terminate the contract
under certain conditions and is in
medierea, tehnic i art
13
ra profesiei de mediator ca acesta s
fe imparial i s urmreasc sati-
sfacerea intereselor reale ale ambe-
lor pri. Aadar, cele doua situaii
nu se exclud una pe alta i nu se af
n competiie. Este nevoie de jus-
tiie pentru protejarea drepturilor,
dup cum este nevoie de mediere
pentru a gsi soluii colaborative pe
termen lung.
Ca atare, cele dou profesii sunt
complet diferite i nu au aceeai
pia. Avocatul nu poate f mediator
pentru c este chemat s reprezin-
te i s protejeze drepturile uneia
dintre pri. Exist avocai care ne-
gociaz contracte care duc la relaii
excelente pe termen lung, dar chiar
i n aceast situaie, etica profesio-
nal i oblig s ia n calcul n pri-
mul rind interesele clienilor.
Mediatorul, pe de alt parte,
conform eticii profesionale, nu d
sfaturi juridice. Rolul su este de a
ajuta ambele pri s comunice mai
bine i s ia decizii de comun acord
n condiii de cooperare. Partea
de drepturi este rezervat exclusiv
avocailor. Mediatorul este obligat
s informeze prile despre acest
aspect i s sugereze ca acetia s
solicite sprijin legal dac au nevoie.
De asemenea, rolul mediatorului
nu este i nu ar trebui s fe acela
de a elibera acte tipizate prin care se
precizeaz c prile sunt de acord
s sting un confict, cu simplul
scop de a obine mai rapid o decizie
judectoreasc. Rolul mediatoru-
lui este de a soluiona n mod real
conficte.
Exist avocai care sunt exce-
leni mediatori. Dar, n momentul
cnd practic medierea, avocatul
i d jos haina de avocat. Practic
alt meserie. n rile cu experien-
n mediere s-a neles de mult
ct de important este medierea i
c aceasta nu este un pericol pen-
tru piaa avocatilor i nici invers.
American Bar Association (SUA)
a desfurat prin ABA CEELI ne-
numrate programe de pregtire a
avocailor din Europa de Est n do-
meniul medierii. ABA CEELI a in-
trodus medierea cu titlu de noutate
n cteva ri din regiune, pregtind
avocai n acest domeniu. Acesta ar
putea f un nceput de discuie des-
pre necesitatea pregtirii avocailor
care vor s devin mediatori, toc-
mai pentru c este o alt profesie.
Acesta este un domeniu de dez-
batere amplu i am ncercat aici
s atingem doar cteva aspecte.
Centrul Regional de Facilitare i
Negociere asist cu ngrijorare la
dezbaterile din Romnia pe tema
competiiei dintre mediatori i
avocai. Ateptm opinii din par-
tea ambelor profesii la www.rfnc.ro,
ofce@rfnc.ro, http://mediereablog.
blogspot.com/.
Simona Aradei-Odenkirchen
Director Executiv, Mediator, For-
mator i Evaluator n Mediere
Centrul Regional de Facilitare i
Negociere
the nature of the mediator profes-
sion to be impartial and follow the
real interests of both parties. So the
two situations do not exclude each
other and do not compete. Justice is
needed to protect the rights, as well
as mediation is needed to fnd long-
term collaborative solutions.
Terefore, the two professions
are completely diferent and do
not have the same market. A law-
yer can not be a mediator because
he/she is required to represent and
protect the rights of one of the par-
ties. Tere are lawyers who negoti-
ate contracts that lead to excellent
long-term relationships, but even
in this situation, professional eth-
ics oblige them to consider clients'
interests frst and foremost.
Mediators, on the other hand,
according to professional ethics, do
not give legal advice. Teir role is
to help both sides to communicate
better and make decisions jointly
in terms of cooperation. Te rights
side is reserved exclusively for law-
yers. Te mediator is obliged to in-
form the parties about this aspect
and suggests them to seek legal as-
sistance if needed.
Also, the role of the mediator is
not and should not be that of re-
leasing printed documents stating
that the parties agree to settle a
confict, with the simple aim to get
a court decision faster. Te role of
the mediator is to resolve conficts
efectively.
Tere are lawyers who are excel-
lent mediators. But when practicing
mediation, the lawyer undresses
the lawyers clothes. He/she prac-
tices another profession. In coun-
tries with experience in mediation
people have long understood the
importance of mediation and that
it is not a threat to lawyers market,
nor the other way around. Ameri-
can Bar Association (USA) carried
out through ABA CEELI numerous
training programs for lawyers in
Eastern Europe in mediation feld.
ABA CEELI introduced mediation
as a novelty in several countries in
the region, preparing the lawyers in
this feld. Tis could be the begin-
ning of a discussion about the need
to prepare lawyers who want to be-
come mediators, precisely because
it is a diferent profession.
Tis is a complex debate area
and we have only tried to focus on
few aspects. Te Regional Center
for Facilitation and Negotiation is
worryingly noticing the debates in
Romania over the competition be-
tween mediators and lawyers. We
are waiting for opinions on behalf
of both professions at www.rfnc.ro,
ofce@rfnc.ro, http://mediereablog.
blogspot.com/.
Simona Aradei-Odenkirchen
Executive Director , Mediator,
Trainer and Evaluator in Mediation
Regional Center for Facilitation
and Negotiation
NU MAI OCOLII SUBIECTUL!
DAI UTILIZATORILOR O
DEFINIIE CLASIC A MEDIERII!
INIIATOR MICHAEL LEATHES
P
rima femeie care a ctigat
Premiul Pulitzer pentru Lite-
ratur a fost Edith Wharton
n 1921, pentru romanul Vrsta
Inocenei (Age of Innocence).
Referindu-se la ceea ce este i nu
este clasic, Wharton scria: Un
clasic este clasic nu pentru c se
conformeaz cu anumite reguli
structurale, sau pentru c se po-
trivete anumitor defniii ... Este
clasic din cauza unei anumite
prospeimi venice i nestpnite.
Medierea are nevoie de o defniie
clasic proprie. Nu exist una. De
asemenea, trebuie s fe universal.
ntr-o arie larg populat de ctre
avocai, profesioniti care, dup
cum observa i marele jurist Oli-
ver Wendell Holmes Jr., petrec o
mare parte de timp ocolind su-
biectul, avem literalmente sute
de defniii diferite ale medie-
rii. Este o coagulare a creierului.
Calitatea delicat, dar puternic a
lui Edith Wharton privind prospe-
imea i caracterul nestpnit este
absent. Nu exist o defniie care
s i inspire pe cei care tiu puin
sau nimic despre mediere. Cele mai
multe sugereaz c medierea are
legatur cu soluionarea litigiilor.
Nici una nu este foarte scurt. O de-
fniie clasic trebuie s fe un atac
de gnduri asupra negnditului.
Conteaz o defniie clasic? Da!
Mai mult dect att, este vital pen-
tru creterea domeniului i a per-
cepiei sale pozitive de ctre cei
care consum serviciile sale. Toat
lumea tie ce este stomatologia sau
arhitectura, contabilitatea, dreptul
i medicina. Familiaritatea face ca
aceste profesii s fe mai sus de ne-
voia de defnire. Nu aa se ntmpl
cu medierea, n cel mai bun caz o
profesie emergent (dar nu nc
aprut), una pe care cei mai muli
oameni trebuie s o ntllneasc.
Fiecare instituie de mediere are
defniia proprie. Majoritatea au
STOP SHOVELLING SMOKE!
GIVE USERS A CLASSIC DEFINI-
TION OF MEDIATION
PROPOSER MICHAEL LEATHES
T
he frst woman to win the
Pulitzer Prize for Literature
was Edith Wharton in 1921,
for her novel An Age of Innocen-
ce. Addressing what is, and is not,
classic, Wharton wrote: A classic
is classic not because it conforms
to certain structural rules, or fts
certain defnitions It is classic
because of a certain eternal and
irrepressible freshness. Mediation
needs a classic defnition of itself.
One does not exist. It also needs to
be universal. In a feld widely po-
pulated by lawyers, professionals
who the great jurist Oliver Wendell
Holmes Jr. noted spend a great deal
of time shovelling smoke, we have
literally hundreds of diferent pu-
blished defnitions of mediation.
Its brain-curdling. Edith Whartons
delicate yet powerful quality of
eternal and irrepressible freshness
is notably absent. No defnition
inspires those who know little or
nothing about mediation. Most
convey the sense that mediation
is about dispute resolution. None
is really short. A classic defnition
needs to be an assault of thought on
the unthinking. Does a classic def-
nition matter? Yes! More than that,
it is vital to the growth of the feld
and its positive perception by those
that consume its services. Everyone
knows what dentistry is, or archi-
tecture, accountancy, law and me-
dicine. Popular familiarity renders
these professions above the need
of defnition. Not so with media-
tion, at best an emerging (but not
yet emerged) profession, one most
people have yet to encounter. Every
mediation institution has its own
defnition. Most are 20 to 60 words
strung in segmented, sometimes
complex, sentences.
Many though not all service
providers tend to see the world
more through their own private
lenses than from the vantage point
medierea, tehnic i art
14
ntre 20 i 60 de cuvinte nirate n
fraze segmentate, uneori comple-
xe. Muli-dei nu toi furnizorii
de servicii au tendina de a vedea
lumea mai mult prin propriile lor
lentile, dect din punctul de vede-
re al clienilor lor. Ei termin prin
descrierea a ceea ce fac, mai degra-
b dect a defni medierea n mod
corespunztor. n consecin, ei
limiteaz involuntar ceea ce medi-
erea este, sau ar putea f, n teme-
iul zonei nguste n care opereaz.
De exemplu, cele mai multe de-
fniii sugereaz c medierea este
un proces de soluionare a litigii-
lor, care implic faptul c utilizarea
unui mediator pentru a ajuta la
negocierea, s zicem, unui acord
de prenupial sau orice alt fel de
contract, nu este oarecum "medi-
ere." Cuvntul "ncredere" este, n
special absent n ciuda faptului c
profesorii se dau peste cap sublini-
ind importana sa pentru mediere.
Nu exist coeren. Toate aceste
elemente subliniaz fragmentarea
domeniul medierii, care ine pe loc
dezvoltarea acesteia ntr-o profesie
de nivel mondial independent.
Deoarece acest domeniu balcani-
zat merge pe vrfuri spre un set de
norme profesionale internaionale,
standarde voluntare i un cod de
etic coerent, cu siguran liderii
medierii pot cel puin s fe de acord
cu o defniie clasic, universal a
medierii, pentru benefciul utiliza-
torilor de pretutindeni. Aceast sar-
cin simpl nu poate eluda talentele
extraordinare din domeniu. Poate?
Richard Buckminster Fuller este
amintit pentru dou lucruri: pentru
brevetare cupolei geodezice i pen-
tru sfatul su adresat ntregii lumi
Indrznete sa fi naiv. Haidei s
acceptm provocarea lui: s fm suf-
cient de naivi pentru a oferi o defni-
ie de apte cuvinte a medierii bazat
pe patru cuvinte cheie: Consens,
Facilitare, ncredere i Neutralitate
care vizeaz realizarea unei defniii
clasice a medierii i care pot funcio-
na pentru toat lumea, peste tot i
n special pentru partea de cerere,
utilizatorii, prile i consilierii lor.
Dac este adoptat pe scar larg,
dac toat lumea ar ncepe utilizarea
acesteia, dicionarele din ntreaga
lume ar putea f informate. Dac
acest lucru s-ar ntmpla, impresia
creat n mintea potenialilor uti-
lizatori de servicii de mediere, ar f
electric. Aici, pentru prima dat, i
nu destul de repede, ar f ceva la care
ntreg domeniul medierii ar sub-
scrie i ar prezenta lumii o singur
identitate profesional, ceva care
poate inspira cu adevrat utilizatorii.
Aa cum spunea i Alexander Pope:
Exist o anumit mreie n simpli-
tate, care este mult peste orginali-
tatea spiritului. O posibil defniie
clasic este: Consensul facilitat de
ctre o persoan de ncredere neutr.
Consensul (latin sentio: "sim-
te") este realizat printr-o comuni-
care care supravieuiete persona-
litii, comportamentului, poziiilor,
ipotezelor, confuziilor, tacticilor,
adevrului pe jumtate, minciu-
nilor, nenelegerilor, vinei, istori-
ei, exagerrii, contra-revendicrii,
ameninrilor, agendelor ascunse,
confuziei ntre dorine i nevoi, dis-
tragerilor, diferenelor culturale i
altor interferene care caracterizea-
z adesea discuiile, negocierile i
dialogul. Implicarea unei persoane
neutre adecvate, competent, poate
ajuta prile s "simt" direcia prin
aceast mlatin spre un consens de
calitate mai mare, care este proba-
bil ntr-o negociere convenional,
ntr-un litigiu sau nu. Dinamica
unei prezene neutre poate infu-
ena comunicarea n moduri care
transcend capacitatea prilor, n
mod individual sau n comun, de
a a realiza de unul singur i anu-
me, pentru a o face mai mult bazat
pe interese, s se concentreze pe
explorarea opiunilor de ctig re-
ciproc i s sporeasc rolul prilor
ca i cuttori ai consensului.
Facilitarea (latin facilis: "a face mai
uor") este actul de a oferi asisten
pentru a uura prilor ncercarea
de a-i atinge scopul. Facilitarea
poate lua forme pasive i active i
poate s fe de nlesnire, evaluativ,
de transformare i normativ. Me-
diatorii evaluativi faciliteaz prin
exprimarea opiniilor proprii, dac
este ceea ce doresc prile s fac ei .
Medierea poate f, dar nu trebuie s
fe, pur facilitativ. Opiniile medi-
atorului pot rupe blocaje i facilita
calea de urmat. Nu ar trebui s ne
mpiedicm de propriile noastre
pre-dispoziii, obiceiuri, culturi i
abordri flozofce atunci cnd de-
fnim medierea.
ncrederea (nordic veche tra-
ustr: "puternic") necesit acceptarea
of their customers. Tey wind up
describing what they do, rather than
properly defning mediation itself.
Consequently, they unwittingly li-
mit what mediation is, or could be,
by virtue of the narrow zone within
which they operate. For example,
most defnitions suggest mediati-
on is a dispute resolution process,
which implies that using a mediator
to help negotiate, say, a pre-nupti-
al agreement or any other kind of
contract, is somehow not medi-
ation. Te word trust is notably
absent despite educators falling
over backwards emphasising its im-
portance to mediation. Tere is no
consistency. It all underscores the
fragmentation of the mediation feld
that holds back its progression into
an independent global profession.
As this balkanised feld tiptoes
toward a set of international profes-
sional norms, voluntary standards
and a consistent code of ethics, su-
rely mediations leaders can at least
agree a classic, universal defniti-
on of mediation, for the beneft of
the users out there. Tat straight-
forward task cannot elude the felds
extraordinary talents. Can it?
Richard Buckminster Fuller is
remembered for two things: pa-
tenting the geodesic dome, and his
advice to the world at large Dare
to be nave. Lets accept his chal-
lenge: to be nave enough to ofer a
seven-word defnition of mediation
based on four key words Consen-
sus, Facilitation, Trust and Neutra-
lity aimed at achieving a classic
defnition of mediation that can
work for everyone, everywhere
and especially for the demand side
the users, the parties and their advi-
sers. If widely adopted, if everyone
started using it, the worlds leading
dictionaries could be informed.
If this happened, the impression
created in the minds of potential
users of mediation services would
be electric. Here, for the frst time,
and not soon enough, would be so-
mething the entire mediation feld
could buy into, set aside market-
driven one-upmanship and present
a single professional identity to the
world, something that can really
inspire users. As Alexander Pope
put it: Tere is a certain majesty in
simplicity which is far above the
quaintness of wit. A possible classic
defnition is: Consensus facilitated
by a trusted neutral person.
Consensus (Latin sentio: feel)
is achieved through a communica-
tion that survives the personalities,
behavior, positions, assumptions,
obfuscation, indecisions, tactics,
half-truths, lies, misunderstan-
dings, blame, history, exaggerations,
counter-claims, threats, hidden
agendas, confusion between wants
and needs, distractions, cultural
diferences and other interferences
that ofen characterize discussions,
negotiations and dialog. Te in-
volvement of a suitable, competent
neutral can help the parties feel
their way through this quagmire to
a higher quality consensus than is
likely in a conventional negotiation,
whether in a dispute context or not.
Te dynamic of a neutral presence
can infuence the communication
in ways that transcend the capa-
city of the parties, individually or
jointly, to achieve alone namely,
to render it more interest-based, fo-
cus on exploring options for mutual
gain and enhance the parties roles
as consensus-seekers. Facilitation
(Latin facilis: make easier) is the
act of providing assistance to ease
the parties quest to achieve their
goal. Facilitation can take passive
and active forms, and can be faci-
litative, evaluative, transformative
and normative. Evaluative medi-
ators facilitate by expressing their
own opinions, if thats what the
parties want them to do. Mediati-
on can be, but need not be, purely
facilitative. Te mediators opini-
ons can break deadlocks and ease
the path forward. We should not
trip over our own pre-dispositions,
habits, cultures and philosophical
approaches when defning medi-
ation. Trust (Old Norse traustr:
strong) requires acceptance by the
parties that the neutral person has
the competency to facilitate the dis-
cussion efectively, including skills
to manage process, communicate,
maintain confdentiality, question,
build relationships, listen, analyze,
identify issues and generate options
for mutual gain. Trust also assumes
that, during mediation, the neutral
is felt by all parties to be the right
person to facilitate the discussion
in terms of competency, experi-
ence, expertise, standing and per-
sonality. Neutrality (Latin neuter:
medierea, tehnic i art
15
de ctre pri c persoana neutr are
competena de a facilita discuiile n
mod efcient, inclusiv abiliti de a
gestiona procesul, de a comunica, a
pstra confdenialitatea, de a pune
ntrebri, de a construi relaii, ascul-
ta, analiza, identifca problemele i
de a genera opiuni pentru un ctig
reciproc. ncrederea, de asemenea,
presupune ca n cursul medierii,
persoana neutr este simit de ctre
toate prile ca find persoana po-
trivit pentru a facilita discuia din
punct de vedere al competenei, ex-
perienei, expertizei i personalitii.
Neutralitatea (latin neutrer:
"nici") presupune c cei alei s
medieze sunt impariali i nu au
conficte de interese, nu sunt cu-
noscute i acceptate de ctre pri.
Att ncrederea ct i neutralitatea
presupun respect, un amestec impe-
tuos de felul n care mediatorii sunt
percepui, poziia lor, competena,
cunotinele, nelepciunea, istoria
i multe alte caracteristici subtile i
adesea neexprimate. Mediatorii tre-
buie s ctige ncredere pe msur
ce mediere progreseaz. Imparia-
litatea i absena confictelor de in-
terese sunt deseori menionate a f
caracteristicile vitale ale unui medi-
ator, dar am avut ocazia s vd cum
prile au folosit un mediator care
a fost pltit i chiar angajat de unul
dintre ele cu susinerea complet,
desigur, a celeilalte pri. Exist situ-
aii n care utilizarea parial a unui
mediator, unul cu un confict apa-
rent de interese, poate f cheia de aur
pentru succesul unei medieri, cu
condiia ca mediatorul s aib ncre-
derea tuturor c va aciona impari-
al. Exist multe astfel de cazuri n
arena politic. Opinia generalizat
este poate f mediatorul de ncre-
dere i respectat pe tot timpul medi-
erii i s acioneze neutru?
n articolul su din aprilie 2009
din Mediate.com, Sfritul medi-
erii: O divagaie fr grab privind
motivele pentru care domeniul va
eua i mediatorii vor prospera n
urmtoarele dou decade! (Te
End of Mediation: An Unhurried
Ramble On Why Te Field Will Fail
And Mediators Will Trive Over Te
Next Two Decades!) Peter Adler a
descris n mod util medierea ca f-
ind o mem. Interesant idee i nu
e nicio ndoial c medierea este o
mem, dar care nc nu spune exact
ceea e este medierea pentru utiliza-
torul obinuit. Mai multe motive, de
fapt, pentru o defniie scurt, clasic,
universal. Utilizatorii au nevoie ntr-
adevr de acest lucru. Dac partea de
servicii continu s ocoleasc aceast
problem, favoriznd o defniie sau
alta, lipsa cumplit a identitii clare a
medierii n ochii clienilor va perpe-
tua. Ce pierdere de oportunitate ar f!
Cineva trebuie s fe sufcient de
naiv; ndrznete s o prezini i
ateapt comentarii constructive
din partea prilor interesate din
lume medierii. Cu umilin spun
c o defniie clasic universal este:
Consensul facilitat de ctre o per-
soan neutr de ncredere. V rog
s nu rmnei tcui acordai-mi
un moment pentru a-mi spune ce
simii despre aceast problem, de
susinere sau nu. Doresc s public o
continuare, pentru a consolida im-
presiile exprimate.
i cnd am ajuns la o defniie
clasic, universal a medierii, avem
nevoie de un substantiv colectiv
pentru mediatori. Este mai mult
dect o simpl distracie; ar putea
ncuraja, de asemenea, mai puin
fragmentare i mai mult adunrile
trans-instituionale ale mediatori-
lor pentru a mprti experiene
i un efort colegial n vederea unor
standarde de practic mai mari i
mai mult profesionalism. Deci, ca
un substantiv colectiv posibil, ce
zicei de termenul branle (a pune n
micare)? Adevaraii profesioniti
sunt ambasadori ai profesiei lor. n
limba francez, branle nseamn
leagn; se metre en branle nseamn
a pune forele n micare ceea ce
ambasadorii ar trebui s fac. Edith
Wharton a trit n Frana, vorbea
franceza fuent i locul su de veci
este Cimitirul American din Ver-
sailles. Dac ar f astzi n via, s-ar
putea bucura de prospeimea sa
etern i nestpnit?
August 2011
Michael Leathes este fost con-
silier in-house n cadrul a diferite
corporaii i este director al Institu-
tului Internaional de Mediere (www.
IMImediation.org), o fundaie de
caritate, care este fnanat prin do-
naii de la prile interesate s pro-
moveze medierea i care stabilete
i ncurajeaz standardele profesio-
nale transparente n ntreaga lume.
Ateapt cu interes comentariile la
Michael.Leathes@IMImediation.org.
reprodus cu permisiunea Interna-
tional Mediation Institute
www.imimediation.org
neither) involves those chosen to
mediate being impartial and not
having conficts of interests that are
not known to and accepted by the
parties.
Both Trust and Neutrality invol-
ve respect, a heady mixture of how
mediators are perceived, their stan-
ding, competency, knowledge, wis-
dom, history and many other subtle
and ofen unexpressed characteris-
tics. Mediators have to earn trust as
the mediation progresses. Imparti-
ality, and absence of conficts of in-
terests, are ofen claimed to be vital
characteristics of a mediator, but I
have seen occasions where parties
used a mediator who was paid and
even employed by one of them
with the full support, of course, of
the other party. Tere are situations
where using a theoretically partial
mediator, one with an apparent
confict of interest, can be the gol-
den key to a successful mediation,
provided the mediator is trusted
by everyone to act impartially. Te-
re are many cases in the political
arena where this has occurred. Te
over-arching consideration is can
the mediator be trusted and respec-
ted all round, and act neutrally?
In his April 2009 thought pro-
voker in Mediate.com, Te End of
Mediation: An Unhurried Ramble
On Why Te Field Will Fail And
Mediators Will Trive Over Te
Next Two Decades! Peter Adler
helpfully described mediation as
a meme. Interesting idea, and no
doubt mediation is a meme, but
that still does not say exactly what
mediation is to the average user. All
the more reason, in fact, for a short,
classic, universal defnition. Users
really need this. If the service side
keeps shovelling smoke around the
issue, favouring one defnition or
another, mediations agonising lack
of clear identity in the eyes of its
customers will perpetuate. What a
waste of opportunity that would be.
Someone has to be nave enough;
dare to put it forward and expect
constructive comment from the
worlds mediation stakeholders. I
humbly submit that a classic, uni-
versal defnition is: Consensus faci-
litated by a trusted neutral person.
Please dont stay silent please take
a moment to let me know how you
feel about it, supportive or other-
wise. I aim to publish a follow up
consolidating the thoughts that are
expressed.
And when we have arrived at a
classic, universal defnition of me-
diation, we need a collective noun
for mediators. Its more than a bit
of fun; it might also encourage less
fragmentation and more cross-in-
stitutional gatherings of mediators
to share experiences, and a collegial
drive for higher practice standards
and more transparent professio-
nalism. So, as a possible collecti-
ve noun, how about a branle of
mediators? True professionals are
ambassadors for their calling. In
French, un branle is a swing; se me-
tre en branle is to swing forces into
motion as ambassadors should
do. Edith Wharton lived in France,
spoke fuent French, and her fnal
resting place is the American Ce-
metery in Versailles. Were she alive
today, might she rejoice in its eter-
nal and irrepressible freshness?
August 2011
Michael Leathes is a former
in-house counsel with a number of
corporations and serves as a direc-
tor of the International Mediation
Institute (www.IMImediation.org),
a charitable foundation that is fun-
ded by donations from stakeholders
to promote mediation and set and
encourage high and transparent pro-
fessional standards throughout the
world. He welcomes comments to
Michael.Leathes@IMImediation.org.
used with permission of Internati-
onal Mediation Institute
www.imimediation.org
medierea, tehnic i art
16
VIITORUL MEDIERII CA INSTITU-
TIE A UNEI SOCIETATI DEZVOLTATE
D
esi MEDIEREA este un do-
meniu aparut si dezvoltat
odata cu civilizatia, dupa mii
de ani este, RELATIV, necunoscut.
Istoricii ii situeaza aparitia in
perioada comertului fenician. Prac-
ticile din Grecia Antica si din Roma
Antica au adus un inteles adecvat
termenului de mediere.
Romanii au folosit mai multe
denumiri pentru persoanele care
se ocupau de acest proces, precum:
medium, interpolator, conciliator,
interlocutor, iar, in fnal, mediator.
In Evul Mediu, in unele tari prac-
tica de mediere a fost interzisa, iar
in altele putea f realizata doar de
catre autoritatile centrale. In anu-
mite culturi, mediatorul era consi-
derat o persoana sacra, ce merita un
respect deosebit, iar medierea mo-
derna a aparut in SUA la inceputul
anilor 70 scrie Alina Gorghiu
intr-un articol in care se pledeaza
pentru solutionarea confictelor
prin aceasta cale sau cum vreti s-o
numiti dvs. cititorii cunoscatori
ai domeniului metoda, profesie,
mijlocetc.
Am facut aceasta introducere
pentru a pune in valoare stadiul ac-
tual al acestei profesii in societatea
noastra.
Este unul din cele mai conve-
nabile, utile si civilizate mijloace
de abordare si stingere a conficte-
lor , indiferent de natura lor si care
asigura mentinerea unui nivel su-
perior de comunicare (va rog cititi
normal) pentru ca partile isi pot
transmite punctul de vedere despre
cauza neintelegerii intr-un mod
care permite clarifcarea discordan-
telor, punerea de acord a opiniilor
diferite dintr-un confict ( fe el si
aparent)
Medierea este calea prin care se
asigura comunicarea decenta, clari-
fcarea neconcordantelor de opinii,
acceptarea unor puncte de vedere
straine de personalitatea uneia sau
alteia din partile implicate intr-un
confict sau intr-o disputa.
Altfel spus, MEDIEREA este
mijlocul de asigurare a unui climat
social decent, superior, favorabil
progresului, ideilor de concurenta
loiala, capacitatii de comunicare
a omului modern,contemporan
supus unei diversitati de presiuni
economice-sociale-politice-infor-
matice-etniceetc.
Medierea este calea de comuni-
care intre o diversitate de tempera-
mente, profesii, personalitati, varste,
interese care nu isi gasesc un punct
comun, un limbaj comun, intre care
exista neconcordante aparente sau
de fond si are drept scop netezirea
cailor de comunicare, de stabilire a
unor relatii decente, pertinente, de
comunicare si convietuire decenta
si de acceptarea modului de gandi-
re si de existenta al unor persoane
care se considera oponente sau pre-
judiciate in interesele personale sau
de familie sau sociale sau profesio-
nale etc. (cu conditia de a nu
prejudicia climatul social, moral).
De aceea revin la o idee afrma-
ta timid si neexplicata aceea de
institutionalizare a medierii.
Institutionalizarea medierii in-
seamna in opinia mea intro-
ducerea acesteia in nomenclatorul
profesiilor necesare si utile la nive-
lul tuturor institutiilor publice, in
sensul asigurarii functiei de me-
diator in nomenclator si ocuparea
acesteia de persoana special pre-
gatita si responsabila in relatia pu-
blica si in comunicarea de calitate,
instruita, decenta, respectata si cu-
noscuta ca find un om de calitate
atat intre membrii comunitatii cat
si de reprezentantii institutiei.
Avand drept scop culegerea co-
recta si pertinenta a mesajului si
nevoii cetateanului, mediatorul
are rolul de a transmite masajul/
nemultumirea/reclamatia acestuia
catre autoritatea competenta si/sau
dupa caz informarea petentului
cu limitele institutiei, pentru a in-
telege competentele si caile legale
de actiune conform legii ( a nu
se confunda cu serviciul de relatii
publice al carui scop este de a pune
in valoare doar competentele legale
ale institutiei fara a tine seama de
nevoile individuale, specifce fe-
carui contribuabil, etnie, comuni-
tate, etc)
Un alt rol al mediatorului institu-
tiei ar putea f acela de a gestiona
(in interiorul structurii) relatiile
ierarhice sau dintre diverse com-
partimente, alte structuri interne si
de a asigura gestionarea si stingerea
unor conficte incipiente de mun-
ca, profesionale, etc. astfel incat sa
nu se mai ajunga la stari de confict
intre angajat si institutie, putandu-
se rezolva (prin regulamentul in-
tern, prin forme pertinente si legale
fara a mai f nevoie de existenta sau
invocarea unui confict acut in in-
stitutie care gebereaza disfunctii
si deteriorare imagine, precum si
alte consecinte.
In limbajul cadru inseamna
intermediere fe in interiorul in-
stitutiei, fe intre contribuabil si
institutie, in limitele legii (merita
subliniat in acest context dife-
renta dintre functia de mediator si
functia de consilier juridic) precum
si obligatia de a pune in valoare so-
lutiile propuse de parti astfel, in-
cat sa duca la stingerea confictului-
disputei-nemultumirilor
Acesta (mediatorul institutiei), ca
FUTURE OF MEDIATION AS INSTI-
TUTION OF A DEVELOPED SOCIETY
A
lthough mediation is a feld
that emerged and developed
at the same time with civili-
zation, thousands of years later it is
rather unknown.
Historians locate its appear-
ance during the Phoenician trade.
Practices of Ancient Greece and
Ancient Rome brought a proper
understanding of the term "me-
diation." Te Romans used several
names for people who dealt with
this process, such as medium, in-
terpolator, conciliator, interlocutor,
and fnally mediator.
In the Middle Ages, in some
countries the practice of media-
tion was prohibited, and in others
could only be achieved by central
authorities. In certain cultures, the
mediator was considered a sacred
person, who deserved great respect.
Modern mediation appeared in the
U.S. in the early '70s ..." writes Alina
Gorghiu in an article which advo-
cates for confict resolution through
this way or whatever you want to
call it you, readers who know the
feld method, profession, means
... etc.
I made this introduction to
highlight the current stage of
the profession in our society.
It is one of the most convenient,
useful and civilized means to ad-
dress and terminate conficts, re-
gardless of their nature and which
ensures the preservation of a high-
er level of communication (please
read normal) because the parties
are able to transmit their stand-
points about the cause of misun-
derstanding, in a way that clarifes
inconsistencies, diferent opinions
in a confict (even apparent). Me-
diation is a way to ensure decent
communication, clarify inconsist-
encies of opinions, to accept difer-
ent standpoints of the personalities
involved in a confict or dispute.
In other words, mediation is a
means of ensuring a decent social,
superior, favorable to progress
environment, ideas of fair com-
petition, communication capacity
of modern, contemporary man
subject to economic, social, politi-
cal, ethnic pressures etc.
Mediation is the way to com-
municate in a variety of tempera-
ments, occupations, personalities,
ages, interests that can not fnd a
common point, a common lan-
guage as there are apparent or sub-
stantive disagreements and aims at
"smoothing" the ways of communi-
cation, of establishing decent rela-
tions, relevant communication and
decent cohabitation relations and
acceptance of the way of thinking
and existence of people who con-
sider themselves opposing or dam-
aged in their personal, family, so-
cial or professional interests ... etc
.... (provided no harm is brought to
the social, moral climate).
Terefore I return to an idea
shyly afrmed and unexplained
that is, the institutionalization of
mediation. Institutionalization of
mediation means in my opinion
introducing it in the classifca-
tion of professions necessary and
useful in all public institutions,
in order to ensure the function of
mediator in the job classifcation
and its occupation by a person
specially trained and responsible
in the public relation and qualita-
tive, trained, decent, communica-
tion, respected and known as a
qualities person both among the
community members and the rep-
resentatives of the institution.
Focused on the accurate and
relevant collection of citizens mes-
sages and needs, the mediator has
the role to transmit the massage /
dissatisfaction / complaint to the
competent authorities and / or
depending on the case the infor-
mation of the complainant within
the limits of the institution, in
order to understand the skills and
legal ways of action according
to the law (do not confuse it with
the public relations service, whose
purpose is to emphasize only the
legal powers of the institutions
without taking into account the
individual, specifc needs of each
taxpayer, ethnicity, community,
etc.)
Another role of the institu-
tion mediator could be that of
managing (inside the structure)
the hierarchical relationships or
relations between various depart-
ments, other internal structures
and of managing and settling early
conficts work, professional con-
ficts, etc.. in order to avoid the
conficts between the employee
and the institution, with the possi-
bility to solve them through inter-
nal regulations, through pertinent
and legal means, without creating
a confict that generates malfunc-
tions and image deterioration.
In framework language it
means inter mediation either
within the institution or between
taxpayers and the institution, un-
der the limits of the law (it is worth
stressing in this context the
diference between the position
of a mediator and a legal counsel
position) and the duty to high-
light the solutions proposed by
the parties such as to lead to the
termination of the confict, dis-
pute, settlement, complaints ...
medierea, tehnic i art
17
un specialist in relatia de intelegere
si comunicare generala precum si
ca specialist in zona publica unde
functioneaza, va avea capacitatea
de a prelua esenta nevoii cetatea-
nului, a contribuabilului in general
(includem si persoanele juridice) o
va exprima in relatia cu serviciul/
compartimentul competent al in-
stitutiei publice si va putea, astfel,
asigura atat comunicarea cat si cu-
noasterea problemelor deosebite,
difcile.
Rolul esential al mediatorului ar
f acela de a gestiona si stinge con-
fictele, disputele, neconcordantele
in comunicare, in intelegerea sau
aplicarea legii, in relatiile din inte-
riorul unei structuri profesionale, a
unei structuri legaleetc. precum
si de a evidentia cauzele starilor de
nemultumire, de conficte, de neco-
municare, etc.
Altfel spus mediatorul instituti-
ei publice este persoana care poate
asigura o comunicare decenta, o
gestionare a comportamentelor si
atitudinilor publice si in interesul
tuturor partenerilor situatiei date
(in special in relatia institutie
cetatean).
In opinia mea aceasta forma a
medierii poate sa dezvolte consti-
ent si pertinent, medierea ca insti-
tutie distincta.
As face o comparatie (doar in
ideea similitudinii efectelor) cu
functia de consilier juridic.
Asa cum acesta din urma are
datoria si obligatia morala de a ve-
ghea la respectarea rigorilor legii
si trebuie sa fe impartial in aceas-
ta calitate, asa, mediatorul ar avea
datoria si obligatia morala de a
sesiza incoerenta comunicarii sau
difcultatile de acest tip, a relatiei de
preluare si prelucrare a problemei/
nemultumirii/reclamatiei in asa
maniera incat sa asigure comunica-
rea si transmiterea mesajului clar si
in concordanta cu interesul public
si coroborat cu interesul persoanei
fzice/juridice solicitante nemultu-
mite, insa, interesate in solutiona-
rea legala a interesului exprimat.
Altfel spus: Medierea, intr-un
cadru mai larg, poate insemna pre-
venirea confictelor sau dezvoltarea
mecanismelor de adresare a aces-
tora, dupa cum apar. (Alina Gor-
ghiu) la nivelul oricarei structuri
sociale sau profesionale.
Mai sper ca MEDIEREA poate
sa devina o profesie reala, agreata si
utila comunitatilor indiferent de
structura, conotatie politica, etnica,
sociala, s.a.m.d.
Stefania Saradici
Mediator, Adjud
Te institution mediator as a spe-
cialist in the understanding and
general communication, as well
as a specialist in the public area
where he/she works, will be able
to takeover the essence of the need
expressed by citizens, taxpayers
in general (legal entities also) and
express it within the competent
service / department of the public
institution and therefore he/she
will be able to provide both com-
munication and knowledge of the
special , difcult problems.
Te essential role of the mediator
would be to manage and terminate
conficts, disputes, inconsistencies
in communication within profes-
sional, legal structures... etc.. and to
highlight the causes of the discon-
tent, confict, non-communication,
etc.
In other words the mediator
of public institution is the person
who can provide decent commu-
nication, a management of public
behavior and attitudes, in the in-
terests of all partners involved in
the situation (in particular in the
institution citizen relation ).
In my opinion, this form of me-
diation can appropriately develop
mediation as distinct institution.
I would like to make a comparison
(only for the idea of similarity ef-
fects) with a legal advisor position.
As the latter has the duty and
moral obligation to ensure com-
pliance with the rigors of the law
and must be impartial in this ca-
pacity, the mediator also has the
duty and moral obligation to sig-
nal the incoherency of communi-
cation or difculties of this type,
the relationship of taking over and
processing the problem / dissatis-
faction / complaint in such a way
as to ensure communication and
transmission of a clear message
and consistent with public interest
and in connection with the inter-
est of the dissatisfed individual
/ legal entity, however, interested
in legal resolution of the interest
expressed.
In other words: "Mediation,
in a broader context, can mean
confict prevention of conficts
or development of mechanisms
to address them, as they appear."
(Alina Gorghiu) at the level of any
social or professional structure.
I also hope that mediation could
become a real profession, agreed
and useful to communities re-
gardless of structure, political, eth-
nic, social connotations, etc.

Stefania Saradici
Mediator, Adjud
MEDIEREA CA ART A VINDECRII
O CONVERSATIE INTRE LINDA
LAZARUS SI DANIEL BENOR
P
e 21 i 26 iulie 2005, Linda La-
zarus, editor pe probleme de
spiritualitate n cadrul Media-
te.Com, l-a intervievat pr Dr. Benor
despre relaiile dintre pacifcare i
vindecare.
Linda Lazarus (LL): Suntei bine
cunoscut pentru munca dumnea-
voastr care implic vindecarea. V
rog s-mi spunei despre aceast
preocupare.
Dr. Daniel Benor (DB): Formarea
mea este n psihologie, medicin,
psihiatrie i cercetare. Am explo-
rat, de asemenea, un spectru de
abordri privind auto-vindecarea
i bioenergia. Am ajuns s realizez
c oamenii au mai multe nivele la
care vindecarea poate aprea. i
am ajuns s m refer la propria-mi
persoan ca un vindector holistic
ceea ce inseamn ca ajut persoanele
cu probleme ale corpului, legate de
emoii, minte, relaii cu alte persoa-
ne i mediu, precum i cu viaa lor
spiritual.
LL: Ce este vindecarea?
DB: Cuvntul "vindecare" vine de la
cuvntul german "haelen" a face
un ntreg. Deci, vindecarea i ajut
pe oameni s gseasc acele pri
din ei nii care pot restaura inte-
gritate n viaa lor.
LL: Cum funcioneaz vindeca-
rea?
DB: Vindectorii lucreaz pe
mai multe nivele diferite. De exem-
plu, chirurgii i chiropracticienii se
concentreaz pe vindecarea corpu-
lui fzic. Vindecarea poate aprea,
de asemenea, la nivelul minii sau
al emoiilor prin intermediul inter-
veniilor psihologice. De exemplu,
o persoan care a avut o relaie
abuziv cu un printe, so sau anga-
jator ar putea avea difculti n afr-
marea nevoilor i drepturilor sale la
locul de munc sau n relaiile de
mai trziu. Deci, n aceast situaie,
un vindector l-ar ajuta pe individ
s se rentoarc la deplintate, aju-
tnd la tergerea cicatricilor create
de traume vechi.
LL: Dup cum tii, acesta este
un interviu pentru Mediate.Com i
majoritatea oamenilor care vor citi
acest interviu vor f mediatori. Ai
mediat vreodat?
DB: Da, fac mediere n terapia de
familie i, de asemenea, mediez n
spitalele i clinicile n care lucrez.
LL: n opinia dumneavoastr,
n plus fa de vindecarea per-
soanelor, este posibil vindecarea
relaiilor dintre oameni pen-
tru a-i ajuta s treac de la un loc
MEDIATION AS A HEALING ART:
A CONVERSATION WITH DANIEL
BENOR, M.D. BY LINDA LAZARUS
O
n July 21 and 26, 2005, Lin-
da Lazarus, the Spirituality
Editor of Mediate.Com, in-
terviewed Dr. Benor about the re-
lationships between peacemaking
and healing.
Linda Lazarus (LL): You are well
known for your work involving heal-
ing. Please tell me about that work.
Dr. Daniel Benor (DB): My train-
ing is in psychology, medicine, psy-
chiatry and research. I have also
explored a spectrum of self-healing
and bioenergy healing approaches.
What I have come to realize is that
people have many levels on which
healing can occur. And I have come
to refer to myself as a wholistic
healer meaning that I help people
with problems of body, emotions,
mind, relationships with other peo-
ple and the environment as well as
with their spiritual life.
LL: What is healing?
DB: Te word healing comes
from the German word haelen to
make whole. So healing helps people
fnd those parts of themselves that
can restore wholeness in their lives.
LL: How does healing work?
DB: Healers work on many difer-
ent levels. For example, surgeons
and chiropractors focus on heal-
ing the physical body. Healing can
also occur at the level of mind or
emotion through psychological in-
terventions. For example, a person
who has had an abusive relation-
ship with a parent, spouse or em-
ployer may have difculty asserting
his or her needs and rights in the
workplace or in later relationships.
So, in that situation, a healer would
help the individual return to whole-
ness by helping to clear the dross
and the scars created by the old
trauma.
LL: As you know, this is an in-
terview for Mediate.Com and
most of the people who will be
reading this interview will be me-
diators. Have you ever mediated?
DB: Yes, I do mediation in fam-
ily therapy and also mediate in the
hospitals and clinics where I work.
LL: In your view, in addition to
healing individuals, is it possible to
heal relationships between people
to help them move from a place
of confict to one of cooperation?
DB: Absolutely. Healers can work
on more than one person at a time.
A healer may work on a couple, a
family, an institution, or a large
group of people. In family therapy,
I ofen have warring parties come
medierea, tehnic i art
18
de confict la unul de cooperare?
DB: Absolut. Vindectorii pot lucra
pe mai multe persoane n acelai
timp. Un vindector poate lucra pe
un cuplu, o familie, o instituie sau
un grup mare de oameni. n terapia
de familie, adesea ntlnesc pri
afate n confict de ani de zile. Ei i
tiu reciproc punctele slabe i tind
s continue, pentru c triesc n re-
laii intime n cadrul familiei i se
simt blocai n aceste relaii. Ei simt
c nu doress, sau nu pot, pleca din
motive economice, religioase sau
morale, dar sunt profund nemul-
umii de relaie. Modelele lor de
comportament sunt oribile, deoa-
rece acestea au fost stabilite n ani
de relaii intime. i este extrem de
difcil s-i faci s se schimbe, dar de
multe ori o fac.
LL: Deci, considerai medierea o
art a vindecrii?
DB: Da. Absolut.
LL: Cum vindec un mediator
relaiile dintre oameni?
DB: Exist o serie de abor-
dri pentru vindecarea relaiilor
n confict. n primul rnd, este
important existena unui spaiu
neutru n care oamenii s se simt
n siguran i s poat recunoate
conficte mai vechi, pentru a putea
discuta alte probleme. Deseori, oa-
menii sunt rnii i furioi i rmn
blocai in trecut. Ca urmare, ei sunt
n imposibilitatea de a f prezeni n
momentul de fa, unde exist un
potenial pentru vindecarea relai-
ei. Este chiar mai greu pentru ei s
se uite la un viitor diferit, deoarece
sunt att de blocai n durerea i
furia din trecut. Prin crearea unui
spaiu neutru, mediatorul invit
participanii s interacioneze ntr-
un mod diferit, cum ar f meni-
nerea unui dialog respectuos. De
multe ori, oamenii ip unii la alii
pentru c se simt neauzii. Deci,
lsai fecare parte s vorbeasc i s
spun tot ce dorete, fr a-i ntre-
rupe i apoi verifcai dac cealalt
persoan a auzit corect ceea ce s-a
spus. Atunci cnd toate prile au
vorbit i s-au fcut auzite, atmosfe-
ra de multe ori se schimb n mod
dramatic. Deci, uile pot f deschise
doar prin a permite oamenilor s
spun ce-i frmnt.
Mediatorul poate servi i ca
model pentru prile implicate n
confict. n cazul n care mediatorul
poate demonstra un comportament
imparial i iubitor cu alte persoa-
ne, prile l pot copia i utiliza n
relaiile lor. Prin aducerea pri-
lor mpreun n aceeai camer i
meninerea unei atmosfere calme,
mediatorul poate oferi acestor oa-
meni o oportunitate de a vedea
cealalt persoan ntr-o lumin
care nu este negativ, o lumin
care este potenial vindectoare,
deoarece este pozitiv n natur.
De asemenea, este important pen-
tru mediator s nvee s priveasc
mai departe de furie, pentru a ve-
dea trauma care i face pe oameni
s fe mnioi. Mediatorul trebuie
s mai tie c este posibil s calme-
ze durerea i furia. Dac mediatorul
crede c este posibil s se renune
la furie i poate aduce vindecare,
este n msur s induc speran
persoanelor implicate n procesul
de mediere.
LL: Ce poate face un mediator
pentru a-i dezvolta abilitile de
vindecare? Ce msuri practice pot
f luate?
DB: Aceste ntrebri sunt exce-
lente. Primul lucru pe care un medi-
ator trebuie s l fac este s tearg
vasul prin care curge vindecarea.
Mediatorul trebuie s gseasc un
loc de iubire, vindecare i acceptare
cu sine, practica find n acest spaiu
atunci cnd este singur sau cu alte
persoane. Pentru a face acest lucru,
este necesar s te liniteti aadar
meditaia i rugciunea sunt cu ade-
vrat utile. Meditaia i rugciunea
ajut, de asemenea, mediatorul s-
i dezvolte disciplina necesar pen-
tru a-i controla gndurile i emo-
iile n timpul unei medieri, astfel
nct s fe n msur s se concen-
treze pe meninerea unei intenii de
vindecare i meninerea interaciu-
nilor de vindecare. Meditaia i ru-
gciunea, sunt i instrumente utile
pentru dezvoltarea detarii, pentru
a nu f tentai s inem partea cuiva
ntr-o disput mediat.
Dr. Benor poate f contactat
prin email la: DB@WholisticHealin-
gResearch.com.
Linda Lazarus este mediator,
trainer i avocat n practica privat
din cadrul Districtului Colum-
bia. Dna. Lazarus apare n cea mai
recent ediie a Who's Who n Drep-
tul American i pred de asemenea
yoga, qigong i meditaia la Gold's
Gym.
sursa: www.mediate.com
in who have been embattled for
years. Tey know each others weak
points and tend to harp on them
because they live in intimate re-
lationships within the family and
they feel locked into these relation-
ships. Tey feel that they do not
want to, or cannot, leave because of
economic, religious, or moral rea-
sons, but they are deeply unhappy
with the relationship. Teir pat-
terns of behavior are horrendous
because they have been established
over years of intimate relationships.
And it is tremendously challenging
to get them to change, but they of-
ten do.
LL: So do you consider me-
diation to be a healing art?
DB: Yes. Absolutely.
LL: How does a mediator heal
relationships between people?
DB: Tere are a number of ap-
proaches for healing conficted re-
lationships. First, it is important to
have a neutral space in which peo-
ple feel safe and can acknowledge
previous conficts and also discuss
other matters. Ofentimes, people
are hurt and angry and get stuck
in the past. As a result, they are
unable to stay in the present mo-
ment where there is a potential for
healing the relationship. It is even
harder for them to look at a difer-
ent future because they are so stuck
in the hurts and the angers of the
past. By creating a neutral space,
the mediator invites the partici-
pants to interact in a diferent way,
such as by maintaining a respectful
dialogue. Many times, people are
shouting at each other because they
feel unheard themselves. So, I allow
each of the parties to speak and to
have their full say without interrup-
tion and then check that the other
person has correctly heard what
was said. When all the parties have
spoken and been heard, the atmos-
phere ofen changes dramatically.
So doorways may be opened just by
allowing people to state where they
are coming from.
A mediator can also serve as a
model for the parties involved in
the confict. If a mediator can dem-
onstrate a dispassionate and loving
way of being with other people, the
parties can copy that conduct and
use it in their relationships. By
bringing the parties together in the
same room and maintaining a calm
atmosphere, the mediator may be
giving these people an opportunity
to see the other person in a light
that is not negative, a light that is
potentially a healing light because
it is positive in nature.
It is also impor-
tant for a mediator to
learn to look behind
anger to see the hurt
that leads people to
be angry. A mediator
must also know that
it is possible to relieve
the hurt and relieve
the anger. If a me-
diator believes that it
is possible to let go
of anger and bring
about healing, he or
she is able to invoke
hope in the people in-
volved in the media-
tion process.
LL: What can
a mediator do to
develop his or her
healing abilities?
What practical
steps can be taken?
DB: Tose are excellent questions.
Te frst thing that a mediator must
do is to clear the vessel through
which the healing fows. A media-
tor must fnd a place of love, heal-
ing and acceptance within herself
or himself, and practice being in
that space when alone and with
other people. To do that, it is nec-
essary to quiet oneself so medita-
tion and prayer are really helpful.
Meditation and prayer also help
a mediator to develop the disci-
pline needed to control his or her
thoughts and emotions during a
mediation so that he or she is able
to focus on holding a healing intent
and maintaining healing interac-
tions. Meditation and prayer are
also useful tools for developing de-
tachment and not being tempted to
take sides in a mediated dispute.
Dr. Benor may be reached by
sending an e-mail message to: DB@
WholisticHealingResearch.com
Linda Lazarus is a mediator,
trainer and lawyer in private prac-
tice in the District of Columbia. Ms.
Lazarus is listed in the most recent
edition of Who's Who in American
Law and also teaches yoga, qigong
and meditation at Gold's Gym.
source: www.mediate.com
medierea, tehnic i art
19
DIFICULTATI IN MEDIERE
CAND ESUEAZA MEDIEREA?
DIFICULTATI PROCEDURALE SI
SITUATII DEOSEBITE
M
edierea functioneaza in
peste 85% din cazuri, potri-
vit statisticilor americane
1
.
De cele mai multe ori medierea este
ultima sansa a partilor de a ajunge
la o intelegere amiabila, cu costuri
reduse. Atata timp cat partile sunt
dispuse sa negocieze, atunci medi-
erea poate efcientiza acest proces.
Iar daca negocierea este in impas,
medierea poate oferi solutii creative
pentru a trece peste ele.
Exista insa si momente cand me-
dierea esueaza, fe din cauza naturii
confictului nepotrivit pentru me-
diere, fe pentru ca mediatorul se
confrunta cu difcultati pe care nu le
poate transforma in solutii positive.
De multe ori esecul este cauzat
de probleme procedurale precum
cunostintele insufciente ale
partilor despre confictul pentru
care se afa in mediere,
lipsa de putere de decizie a uneia
dintre partile afate la masa me-
dierii,
un comportament agresiv verbal
sau fzic al partilor si pe care me-
diatorul nu-l poate canalize spre
o solutie avantajoasa acceptata
de ambele parti
Alteori, partile nu vin la masa
medierii in buna credinta si nu sunt
dispuse cu adevarat sa faca compro-
misuri pentru a ajunge la o situatie
win-win. In astfel de cazuri, instan-
ta de judecata este cadrul potrivita
pentru rezolvare.
DIFICULTATILE MEDIATORULUI
Chiar si in timpul medierilor de
succes, mediatorii se pot lovi de
momente difcile. In ciuda faptului
ca cele doua parti se afa la masa
medierii si doresc rezolvarea situ-
atiei, mediatorul se poate lovi de
imposibilitatea de crea o relatie cu
sau intre parti.
Iata cateva motive pentru care
medierea poate esua:
1. Incapacitatea mediatorului
de a stabili de la inceput tonul
calm, de incredere, respect si con-
fdentialitate.
Trebuie sa tinem cont de faptul
ca partile vin la mediator dupa o
perioada de tensionare si suspiciu-
ne unele fata de celelalte. Partile vor
raspunde pozitiv la tonul calm si
respectuos al mediatorului.
Inca de la prima intalnire, medi-
atorul trebuie sa sublinieze carac-
terul confdential al procesului de
mediere, ca o distinctie majora fata
de instanta de judecata. De atlfel,
legea prevede acest aspect, iar ne-
respectarea acestui principiu fun-
damental poate duce la pierderea
1 http://www.adrr.com/adr1/essayc.htm
dreptului sau de libera practica.
Unul dintre aspectele pe care
mediatorul trebuie sa le aminteasca
este faptul ca la sfarsitul procesului
de mediere, va distruge toate noti-
tele pe care si le face pe parcursul
sesiunilor commune si separate.
2. Incapacitatea mediatorului
de a asigura si dovedi partilor
neutralitatea si impartialitatea,
stirbind astfel increderea pe care
acestea ar trebui sa i-o acorde.
Mediatorul se poate afa in situa-
tia difcila de a f acuzat de una din-
tre parti de partinire sau de o mai
mare simpatie pentru cealalta parte.
Inainte de a f mediator, el este
om, supus erorilor si emiterii de ju-
decati despre partile si situatiile in
care se afa. Este aproape imposibil
sa nu isi formeze o parere despre
situatia mediate; el poate ramane
totusi impartial si neutru, alegand
sa nu vorbeasca si sa nu aplice cele
gandite. Ramanand in continuare
neutru si impartial, el incurajeaza
partile sa negocieze direct. In mo-
mentul in care partile sunt direct
implicate in procesul decizional,
ele sunt primele care vor reactio-
na daca mediatorul se lasa prins in
capcana impunerii unei solutii.
3. Esuarea mediatorului in a
explica pe intelesul partilor toti
termenii procedurii, pentru a le
inlatura orice semne de intrebare
partilor afate in mediere
Mediatorul trebuie sa se asigure
ca a expus clar si pe intelesul parti-
lor toate elementele specifce medi-
erii. Astfel, partile sunt deschise si
pregatite pentru intreaga procedura.
De asemenea un rezumat def-
citar al situatiilor expuse de parti
poate constitui o piedica in soluti-
onarea situatiei. Acelasi lucru este
valabil si in cazul in care mediato-
rul pune intrebari fara un rationa-
ment specifc, care nu ajuta partile
sa-si exprime nevoile si emotiile, sa
dea dovada de empatie si sa gaseas-
ca solutii alternative pentru rezol-
varea situatiei.
DIFFICULTIES IN MEDIATION
WHEN DOES MEDIATION FAIL?
PROCEDURAL DIFFICULTIES AND
SPECIAL SITUATIONS
M
ediation works in over
85% of cases, according to
U.S. statistics.
1
Most of the
time, mediation is the "last chance"
of the parties to reach an amicable
settlement, at low cost. As long as
the parties are willing to negotiate,
then mediation can streamline the
process. And if the negotiation is in
deadlocks, mediation can ofer cre-
ative solutions to overcome them.
Tere are also times when me-
diation fails, either because of
the nature of the confict unsuit-
able for mediation, either be-
cause the mediator is confronted
with difculties that he/she can-
not turn into positive solutions.
Ofen failure is caused by proce-
dural problems such as:
Insufcient knowledge of the
parties about the confict for
which they mediate,
Lack of decision-making power
of one of the parties at the me-
diation table,
Verbally or physically aggressive
behaviour of the parties, that the
mediator cannot channel it into
a win-win solution for both sides.
Other times, the parties do not
come to the mediation table in
good faith and are not really willing
to compromise to reach a "win-win"
situation. In such cases, the court of
law is appropriate for resolution.
MEDIATORS DIFFICULTIES
Even during a successful me-
diation, mediators can come across
difcult times. Despite the fact that
the two parties sit at the mediation
table and want to solve the situa-
tion, the mediator might fnd him/
herself in the impossibility of creat-
ing a relationship with or between
the parties.
Here are some reasons why me-
diation may fail:
1. Mediators inability to estab-
1 http://www.adrr.com/adr1/essayc.htm
lish from the beginning the calm,
confdence, respect and confden-
tiality tone.
We have to keep in mind that the
parties come to mediation afer a
period of tensions and suspicions
for one another. Parties will re-
spond positively to the calm and
respectful tone of the mediator.
Right from the frst meeting, the
mediator should emphasize the
confdentiality of the mediation
process as a major distinction from
the court. In fact, the law requires
this, and the failure to obey this
fundamental principle may lead
to losing the free practice right.
One of the issues the mediator has
to mention is that at the end of the
mediation he/she would destroy all
notes taken during separate and
joint sessions.
2. Mediators incapacity to en-
sure and prove neutrality and
impartiality to the parties, thus
harming the confdence hey
should have
Te mediator may be in the dif-
fcult situation of being accused by
one of the parties of bias or of greater
sympathy showed to the other party.
Before being a mediator, he/she
is human, subject to errors and
issuing judgments about the par-
ties and situations they are in. It's
almost impossible not to form an
opinion about the situations medi-
ated; however he/she can still re-
main impartial and neutral, choos-
ing not to speak and not to apply
his/her thoughts. Still remaining
neutral and impartial, he/she en-
courages the parties to negotiate
directly. When the parties are di-
rectly involved in decision making
process, they are the frst to react if
the mediator is trapped into impos-
ing a solution.
3. Mediators failure in explain-
ing both parties the meaning of
all terms within the procedure, in
order to remove any questions for
the parties in mediation.
Te mediator must ensure that
he/she presented all the specifc
elements of mediation clearly and
understandably for both parties.
Consequently, the parties are open
and ready for the entire procedure.
Also, a poor summary of the facts
presented by the parties might be
an obstacle in resolving the situa-
tion. Te same happens if the me-
diator asks questions without a spe-
cifc reasoning, which does not help
the parties to express needs and
emotions, to show empathy and
fnd alternative solutions to resolve
the situation.
4. Mediators failure in detach-
ing from a legal dialogue may ob-
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medierea, tehnic i art
22
4. Esuarea mediatorului de a se
desprinde de un dialog in termeni
juridici poate impiedica ajunge-
rea la un accord
Multi dintre actualii mediatori
au studii juridice. In timp ce acest
lucru este un plus din punct de ve-
dere al familiaritatii cu legislatia in
vigoare, poate f si un minus: spre
deosebire de instanta de judecata,
medierea este un cadru care incu-
rajeaza dialogul, respectul si pastra-
rea relatiilor dintre parti. Tendinta
de a vorbi despre legi si norme
dezumanizeaza si mentine dialo-
gul fragmentat atat de obisnuit in
salile de judecata. Partea de pathos,
sentimente si trairi este liantul din-
tre oameni, chiar si in situatiile de
confict comerciale. Esuarea me-
diatorului de a accentua mai mult
umanul si mai putin legea, poate
crea difcultati si un eventual esec
al medierii.
5. Esuarea mediatorului de a
renunta la o optiune respinsa de
catre parti, daca el considera ca
este cea mai buna solutie.
Mediatorul are rolul de a ajuta
partile sa analizeze toate aspectele
si motivele situatiei. Prin intrebari,
el asista partile sa faca unele schim-
bari sau concesii, lasandu-le totoda-
ta sa ajunga la o intelegere reciproc
acceptata. Din nou, el trebuie sa-si
dovedeasca neutralitatea si imparti-
alitatea prin a lasa partile sa ajunga
la propria intelegere.
Mediatorul poate indruma parti-
le catre un coleg mediator in cazul
in care constata reticenta acestora
in ciuda respectarii tuturor pasilor
procesului de mediere si a ocolirii
tuturor acestor situatii difcile.
Dana Maria Mardare
Mediator
Human Toolkit
struct reaching an agreement
Many of the current mediators
have legal training. While this is
a plus in terms of familiarity with
the law in place, it can also be a mi-
nus: unlike the court, mediation is
a framework that encourages dia-
logue, respect and preservation of
relationships between the parties.
Te tendency to talk about laws and
rules dehumanizes and maintains
the fragmented dialogue which is
so common in the courtroom. Te
pathos, feelings and experiences is
the bond between people, even in
trade confict situations. Mediators
failure in emphasizing humanity
more and law less may create dif-
fculties and a likely failure of me-
diation.
5. Mediators failure to give up
an option rejected by the parties,
if he/she sees it as the best solution.
Te mediators role is to help
the parties analyze all aspects and
reasons for the situation. Trough
questions, he/she assists the parties
to make some changes or conces-
sions, letting them also reach a mu-
tually acceptable agreement. Again,
he/she must prove neutrality and
impartiality by allowing the par-
ties to reach their own agreement.
Te mediator may direct the par-
ties to a fellow mediator if he/she
notices their reluctance despite
obeying all steps of the mediation
process and bypassing all these dif-
fcult situations.
Dana Maria Mardare
Mediator
Human Toolkit
MEDIERE SI CONFLICT*
Analiza confictului Sume de dispute (partea a 7-a)
*Bucureti, Editura Rotech Pro, 2010, ISBN 978-973-8285-61-3
PROCEDURA MEDIERII
Ca i modalitate de lucru, medi-
erea const n poziionarea prilor
prezente, de recomandat, fa n
fa iar mediatorul va f aezat la o
distan relativ egal fa de pri.
Medierea poate avea loc la o
mas sufcient de mare pentru a pu-
tea cuprinde toate prile prezente
n aa fel nct acestea s nu se sim-
t stighere din cauza spaiului prea
mic sau prea mare, dar sufcient
pentru a putea permite mediatoru-
lui s obin, pentru sine i pentru
pri, intimitatea necesar n cazul
n care aceasta se impune. Pe tot
parcursul medierii att prile, ct
i mediatorul vor simi nevoia s
delimiteze spaiul pe care l ocup,
iar acest lucru trebuie s devin o
atitudine freasc i nu una strict
formal, convenional.
Procedura medierii cuprinde o n-
tlnire comun, a tuturor prilor, n
prezena mediatorului, denumit ge-
neric sesiune comun, care poate f
urmat de ntlniri separate ale pr-
ilor cu mediatorul n mod alterna-
tiv denumite n continuare sesiuni
separate, dup care pot f intercalate
sesiuni comune cu sesiuni separate
pn la soluionarea disputei.
Medierea poate f abordat i n
alte variante care presupun de la
bun nceput sesiuni separate care
pot continua pn la nchiderea me-
dierii, soldate cu o sesiune comun
fnal sau nu, dar i o singur sesiune
comun de la nceput pn la sfrit.
Stilul adoptat n desfurarea
procedurii de mediere rmne s
fe apreciat de mediator raportat la
atitudinea prilor i la gradul de
cooperare al acestora.
Este recomandat ca toate aceste
sesiuni s se desfoare ntr-o singur
unitate de timp de 60-120 de minute.
n timpul sesiunilor separate,
prile care ateapt pentru a par-
ticipa la sesiunea separat care le
este destinat, de recomandat, tre-
buie s primeasca o sarcin care
are drept rol meninerea acestora
conectate la procesul medierii.
Mediatorul aduce la cunotina
prilor faptul c i va lua notie care-
l vor ajuta s neleag ntreaga situa-
ie care a dus la naterea confictului.
Pe tot parcursul procesului, atmo-
sfera trebuie s fe degajat, aspect
care le permite prilor s dezvolte
opiuni fr a f ncorsetai de reguli
stricte care nu le permit s-i canali-
zeze atenia ctre problema lor.
MEDIATION AND CONFLICT*
Analysis of confict Sum of disputes (part 7)
*Bucharest, Rotech Pro Publishing House, 2010, ISBN 978-973-8285-61-3
MEDIATION PROCEDURE
As a work method, mediation
consists in positioning the present
parties, best recommended, face to
face and the mediator at a rather
equal distance to the parties.
Mediation can take place at a ta-
ble large enough to gather all parties
present so they do not feel awkward
because of the space too small or
too big, but enough to allow the me-
diator to obtain, for himself/herself
and for the parties, the necessary
privacy, if required. Troughout the
mediation, both the parties and the
mediator will feel the need to de-
fne the space they occupy, and this
must become a natural attitude, not
a strictly formal, conventional one.
Te mediation procedure includes
a joint meeting of all parties, in the
presence of the mediator, generically
called "joint session," which may be
followed by separate meetings of the
parties with the mediator, hereinaf-
ter referred to as "separate sessions,"
afer which there may be interleaved
joint and separate sessions until the
dispute is solved.
Mediation can be approached in
other variants entailing right from
the beginning separate sessions
which can continue until the me-
diation is closed, resulting in a fnal
joint session or not, but also one
joint session from start to fnish.
Te style adopted during media-
tion is to be decided by the media-
tor in relation to the parties attitude
and their degree of cooperation. It
is recommended for these sessions
to take place in a single unit for 60-
120 minutes.
During separate sessions, the
parties waiting to participate in sep-
arate sessions should be given a task
aimed at maintaining them con-
nected to the process of mediation.
Te mediator informs the parties
that he/she will take notes that help
him/her understand the whole situ-
ation which led to the birth of the
confict.
Troughout the process, the at-
mosphere should be relaxed, some-
thing that allows the parties develop
options without being constrained
by strict rules which do not allow
them focus on the problem.
Te mediator creates a favorable
atmosphere and keeps it favorable
to complete mediation, as follows:
schedules mediation sessions, de-
pending on the parties availability.
medierea, tehnic i art
23
Mediatorul creaz atmosfera i
acesta o menine favorabil pentru
a fnaliza mediera, astfel:
Stabilete sesiunile de mediere,
programnd medierea n funcie de
disponibilitatea prilor.
Sesiunea comun
Se ntlnete n comun cu prile
spaiul celor trei pentru consili-
ere:
explic procesul medierii me-
dierea este o procedur volunta-
r prin care prile, n prezena
unui mediator neutru, imparial
i ntr-o total confdenialita-
te, prin soluiile gsite chiar de
acestea, vor soluiona disputa
nscut.
explic scopul medierii i anu-
me intenia mediatorului ca m-
preun cu prile s gseasc o
soluie care aparine n totalitate
acestora, find gsit de acestea,
de pri i nu de mediator.
ascult prezentarea/varianta f-
ecrei pri, noteaz elementele
urmrite de acesta i ncearc s
creioneze un tablou de ansamblu.
clarifc poziiile iniiale ale pr-
ilor clarifcarea acestor poziii
presupune ca mediatorul s n-
cerce, prin tehnicile aplicate, s
permit prilor s prezinte situ-
aia creat aa cum fecare parte
o percepe. Relatarea datelor de
ctre pri se face n aa fel nct
n sesiunea comun partea care
st i ascult poate interveni n
vederea completrii percepiei
opozantului/cealalt parte, per-
cepie evident subiectiv. Se ur-
mrete ca n sesiunea comun
mediatorul s poate avea o pre-
zentare general a confictului,
pe ct posibil s aib exprimat
opiunea fecrei pri.
decide cnd va trece la sesiunile
separate, n ce moment al medi-
erii, i poate solicita acest lucru
prilor atunci cnd medierea
a ajuns ntr-un punct inert sau
cnd o parte refuz s mai cola-
boreze n prezena celeilalte pri
sau cnd, din cauza tonului ridi-
cat al discuiilor, medierea risc a
se nchide fr a avea un rezultat
pozitiv.
decide care parte rmne n pri-
ma sesiune separat i hotrte
ce va face partea cealalt. Decizia
trebuie luat avnd n vedere ba-
gajul de informaii comunicat de
pri, posibilitatea, ct i deschi-
derea prilor cu privire la dorin-
a acestora de a comunica.
Sesiunile separate
Rolul sesiunilor separate l re-
prezint posibilitatea mediatoru-
lui de a se apropia de pri fr ca
acesta s-i piard neutralitatea, dar
lrgete canalul de comunicare cu
prile prin simpla creare a cadru-
lui mai restrns, spaiul celor doi
i nu spaiul celor trei, a;a cum se
ntmpl n sesiunea comun, me-
diator i parte.
Rezultatul direct al micorrii
spaiului l constituie recanalizarea
efortului consumat n a contraar-
gumenta relatrile prii care nu
mai este prezent nspre mediator
i acest fapt duce la o abunden
de informaii care trebuie culese de
acesta n vederea completrii tablo-
ului iniial. Obinerea de informaii
suplimentare poate rezolva sau cla-
rifca dorinele i nevoile prii sau
poate chiar dezvlui aspecte pe care
partea a refuzat intenionat s le
prezinte, considernd c acestea l
dezavantajeaz sau erau catalogate
drept atuuri i puteau f folosite ca
argumente fnale.
Mediatorul este dator s explice
prii realitatea, realitate care poa-
te f deformat n proiecia acesteia,
find infuenat de factori care sunt
externi, raportat la izvorul confic-
tului i nu au o legatur direct cu
acesta. Factorii pot f determinai
de o scar de evaluare a prii care
nu corespunde cu realitatea datelor
prezente ntre cele dou pri, de
deformri intenionate care sunt re-
zultatul motivaiilor personale ale
prii sau motivaii ale conexiunilor
externe, conexiuni legate direct de
relaiile sociale/familie, loc de mun-
c, mediu de afaceri, etc.
Realitatea prii nu corespunde
ntotdeauna cu realitatea opozantu-
lui, i atunci mediatorul are sarcina
de a gsi zone de intersecie non-
confictuale ale celor dou realiti,
zone care permit crearea unui canal
de comunicare.
Joint session
He/she meets jointly with the
parties the space of the three for
counseling:
Explains the process of media-
tion mediation is a voluntary
process by which parties, in the
presence of a neutral, impartial
mediator and in complete conf-
dentiality, and will settle the dis-
pute occurred through solutions
they found themselves
Explains the purpose of mediati-
on namely the intention of the
mediator, that, together with the
parties, they will fnd a solution
that belongs to them entirely, be-
ing found by them, the parties,
not by the mediator
Listens to the presentation / ver-
sion of each party, notes items
and tries to outline a general
picture
Clarifes the parties initial po-
sitions to clarify this position
means that the mediator tries,
through techniques applied, to
allow the parties present the si-
tuation created as perceived by
each party. Te data is presented
by the parties is such a way that
the other party listening may
intervene in order to complete
the perception of the opponent/
the other party, an obviously
subjective perception. Te joint
sessions aim is to ofer the me-
diator the chance to get a general
overview on the confict, and if
possible to have the option from
each party
Decides when to move to sepa-
rate sessions, in what moment
of mediation, and may request
it to the parties when mediation
reached an inert point or one of the
parties refuses to cooperate in the
presence of the other party or when,
due to high tone of discussions, me-
diation is likely to close without a
positive result
Decides which party remains in
the frst separate session and de-
cides what the other party will do.
Te decision must be made taking
into account the information com-
municated by the parties, the possi-
bilities and the parties willingness
to communicate.
Separate sessions
Te role of separate sessions con-
sists in the mediators possibility to
get closer to parties without losing
neutrality, but widens the channel
of communication with the parties
by simply creating a smaller frame
the space of the two not the space
of the three, as happens in the joint
session, mediator and party.
Te direct result of the narrowing
space is the re-focalization of the
efort consumed to counter-argue
the position of the party that is no
longer present towards the media-
tor and this leads to an abundance
of information to be collected by
the mediator in order to complete
the original painting. Obtaining
additional information may resolve
or clarify wishes and needs of the
party or even reveal aspects that the
party intentionally refused to pro-
vide, considering it a disadvantage
or was classifed as strengths and
could be used as fnal arguments.
Te mediator is obliged to ex-
plain the reality to the party, a re-
ality that can be distorted, being
infuenced by external factors, in
relation to the source of the confict
and not directly related to it. Tese
factors can be determined by a rat-
ing scale of the party that does not
match the reality of data presented
between the two parties, by inten-
tional distortions which are the
result of partys personal motiva-
tions or motivations determined by
external connections, connections
directly related to social / family,
work, business relationships.
One partys reality does not al-
ways match the reality of the op-
ponent, thus the mediator has
the role of fnding non-confict
intersection area between the two
realities, areas that allows crea-
tion of a communication channel.
Following the description of reality
by the mediator and the discovery
of non-confict intersections, the
mediator is bound to develop, to-
gether with the party, options that
seem benefcial to both parties
and tries to verify whether these
options have direct consent of the
medierea, tehnic i art
24
n urma descrierii realitii de
ctre mediator i a descoperirii de
ctre acesta a interseciilor non-
confictuale, acesta este dator s
dezvolte cu partea opiuni care par
avantajoase ambelor pri i s n-
cerce s verifce dac aceste opiuni
au acordul nemijlocit al prii. Ast-
fel, mediatorul prezint variante de
opiuni i cere acordul prii n a
propune aceste variante opozantu-
lui, partea care nu se af n sesiune.
Ca urmare a dezvoltrii de va-
riante avantajoase, mediatorul
ncearc s obin o poziie clar
a prii n vederea transmiterii c-
tre cealalt parte. Poziia se poate
obine printr-o rezumare exact
a solicitrilor pe care partea le-a
prezentat i ncercarea de a prinde
de ctre mediator scara valoric
a doleanelor enumerate de parte.
Astfel, mediatorul rezum de mai
multe ori solicitrile prii, ncer-
cnd de fecare dat s inverseze
ordinea solicitrilor formulate de
parte pentru a realiza importana i
necesitatea fecrei cerine. n cazul
n care partea sesizeaz c cererile
acesteia nu sunt formulate aa cum
ar dori, aceasta va interveni i va ar-
gumenta de ce consider c trebuie
s fe prezentate n ordinea aleas i
nu altfel.
La fnalul sesiunii separate medi-
atorul obine poziia clar a prii
i, n urmatoarea sesiune separat,
cu acordul primei pri, acesta o va
transmite.
Mediatorul traseaz sarcina i
pentru aceast parte, dup care in-
tr n sesiune separat cu opozantul.
Sesiunile separate pot f ntr-
un numr nelimitat, dar este de
recomandat ca mediatorul s nu
abuzeze de acest lucru, aceasta, n
urma observrii existenei progre-
sului din partea prilor, va hotr
o sesiune comun fnal sau inter-
mediar, n funcie de clarifcarea
dorinelor i nevoilor prilor i de
descoperirea zonei de intersecie a
acestora.
Chiar dac medierea nu s-a sol-
dat cu o nelegere, mediatorul tre-
buie s fe convins c medierea nu
a euat, prile fcnd un progres
prin simpla poziie activ a acestora
i are datoria de a ncuraja.
Sesiunea comun fnal
NCHIDEREA SESIUNILOR DE
MEDIERE
Procedura de mediere se ncheie:
prin ncheierea unei nelegeri
totale;
prin ncheierea unei nelegeri
pariale;
prin constatarea, de ctre media-
tor, c medierea a euat;
prin voina prii de a denuna
contractul de mediere.
1. NELEGEREA TOTAL
n cazul n care se ajunge la o
nelegere a prilor cu privire la
rezolvarea concret a disputei lor,
se va semna un acord n care va f
trecut rezultatul la care s-a ajuns
prin mediere, i anume condiiile
i aspectele asupra crora prile
au consimit. Referitor la forma
pe care trebuie s o mbrace acest
acord, artm c acesta trebuie
realizat n scris, nefind sufcient
voina prilor neconcretizat n re-
alizarea unui nscris care s certifce
rezultatul medierii.
Valoarea probant pe care o are
un asemenea nscris este aceea dat
de articolul 1176 Cod Civil care
privete nscrisul ca un contract
sub semnatur privat ncheiat n-
tre prile medierii, i anume ,,actul
sub semnatur privat, recunoscut
de acela cruia i se opune, sau privit,
dup lege, ca recunoscut, are acelai
efect ca actul autentic, ntre aceia
care l-au subscris i ntre cei care
reprezint drepturile lor.
Astfel, prile au posibilitatea
autentifcrii acestui nscris la un
notar public sau s-l supun ncu-
viinrii instanei, n cazul n care
exist un dosar pe rolul instanei de
judecat, iar judectorul va pronun-
a, n aceste condiii, o hotrre de
expedient n cuprinsul creia vor f
trecui termenii contractului stabi-
lit de ctre pri.
Acordul va putea f realizat de
ctre avocaii prilor care au rolul
de a asigura compatibilitile aces-
tuia cu legile n vigoare, prevenind
astfel strecurarea unor greeli care
ar putea da natere unor viitoare
disensiuni, iar, n cazul n care pr-
ile nu sunt reprezentate de avocai,
mediatorul poate s redacteze el n-
sui acordul i s-l supun aprobrii
prilor, ns, aa cum am artat, el
nu are putere decizional asupra
prilor.
2. NELEGERE PARIAL
Este posibil ca la fnalul sesiunii
de mediere prile s ajung la un
party. Tus, the mediator presents
variants of options and asks for the
partys agreement to propose these
variants to the opposing party, the
party not attending the session.
Following the development of
advantageous variants, the media-
tor tries to obtain a clear position
from the party to transmit it to the
other. Te position can be obtained
by summarizing the exact requests
the party presented and the media-
tors attempt to catch the value scale
of the claims presented by the party.
Tus, the mediator summarizes the
requests formulated by the party
several times, trying each time to
reverse the order of requests made
by the party in order to realize the
importance and necessity of each
requirement. If the party notices
that its requirements are not for-
mulated as wished, it will intervene
and argue why it thinks they should
be presented in the order chosen,
not otherwise.
At the end of the separate session,
the mediator obtains the clear stand
of the party and in the following
separate session, he/she will for-
ward it, with the frst partys consent.
Te mediator sets the task for
this party too, aferwards entering
the separate session with the oppo-
nent party.
Te number of the separate ses-
sions can be unlimited, but it is
recommended that the mediator
should not abuse this and afer ob-
serving the progress from both par-
ties, he/she will decide the fnal or
intermediate joint session, depend-
ing on the clarifcation of parties
wishes and needs and discovery of
the intersection area.
Even if mediation failed to pro-
duce an agreement, the mediator
must be convinced that mediation
has not failed, the parties making
progress simply by their active po-
sition and has a duty to encourage
them.
Final joint session
CLOSING MEDIATION SESSIONS
Te mediation procedure ends:
By concluding a total agreement;
By concluding a partial agree-
ment;
Observation, by the mediator,
that mediation failed;
By partys will to denounce the
mediation agreement.
1. TOTAL AGREEMENT
If the parties reach an agreement
on efective resolving of their dis-
pute, an agreement will be signed,
including the outcome of media-
tion, namely the conditions and
issues on which the parties have
agreed. Regarding the form of this
agreement, its worth mentioning
that it has to be done in writing, as
the parties will is not enough to
certify the result of mediation.
Te probative value of such writ-
ten document is given by article
1176 in the Civil Code which sees
the document as a contract un-
der private signature concluded
between the mediation parties,
namely the paper under private
signature has the same efect as
an authentic document, between
those who have subscribed and
those representing their rights."
Tus, the parties can authenticate
this document to a notary public or
submit it to the consent of the court,
if there is a pending court case and
the judge will rule, in these circum-
stances, a decision which will con-
tain the contract terms set by the
parties.
Te agreement may be drawn
up by parties lawyers who are de-
signed to ensure its compatibility
with the law in place, thus prevent-
ing slipping of mistakes that could
lead to future disagreements and,
if the parties are not represented
by lawyers, the mediator is able to
draw up the agreement and submit
it to the parties approval, however,
as noted, it has no power of deci-
sion on the parties.
2. PARTIAL AGREEMENT
It is possible that at the end of the
mediation session the parties reach
a consensus only on some aspects
of the confict, therefore a partial
agreement will be signed and will
include the clauses on which the
parties have agreed, specifying also
the areas where parties failed to
reach an agreement.
Te partial agreement has the
same efect as a total agreement, the
parties will then have the possibility
to solve the issues failed in media-
tion through a court of law.
3. MEDIATORS GIVING UP
In all cases, if one of the funda-
mental principles of mediation is
violated, namely the mediators im-
medierea, tehnic i art
25
consens numai cu privire la unele
aspecte ale confictului, caz n care
se va ncheia un acord parial care
va cuprinde clauzele asupra crora
prile au convenit, specifcndu-se
totodat i aspectele asupra crora
prile nu au reuit s ajung la o
nelegere.
Acordul parial are aceleai efecte
ca i o nelegere total, urmnd ca
prile s aib ulterior deschis ca-
lea justiiei n vederea rezolvrii i a
aspectelor care nu au fost soluiona-
te prin mediere.
3.RENUNAREA DE CTRE
MEDIATOR
n toate situaiile n care se ncal-
c unul din principiile fundamen-
tale ale medierii, i anume obligaia
imparialitii i neutralitii medi-
atorului, acesta este obligat s adu-
c la cunotina prilor acest lucru,
iar soarta continurii procedurii de
mediere va depinde numai de pri,
existnd astfel trei situaii posibile:
fe continuarea medierii, situaie
n care prile acord n continu-
are deplin ncredere persoanei
mediatorului i-i vor cere acestu-
ia s continue procedura,
fe nlocuirea mediatorului, situ-
aie dat de pierderea ncrederii
prilor n mediator, dar care
totui consider medierea cea
mai bun soluie de rezolvare a
problemei lor, i continu astfel
medierea cu un alt mediator ales
de pe tabloul mediatorilor,
fe renunarea la mediere, situa-
ie dat de pierderea ncrederii
n persoana mediatorului, con-
cretizat n refuzul prilor de
a continua procedura, urmnd
a-i rezolva confictul la instana
de judecat.
De asemenea, i mediatorul, prin
voina lui, poate dispune nchide-
rea medierii atunci cnd consider
c scopul medierii nu mai poate f
atins. Dar acest drept al su nu poa-
te f folosit discreionar, deoarece el,
ca parte n mediere, are obligaia de
a depune toate eforturile n vederea
ajungerii la un rezultat favorabil.
4. DENUNTAREA CONTRACTULUI
DE CTRE UNA DINTRE PRI
Deoarece medierea este prin de-
fniie o procedur voluntar, nimic
nu poate mpiedica vreuna dintre
pri s denune contractul de me-
diere, acest fapt concretizndu-se n
respectarea dreptului de deplin li-
bertate i autonomie a prii n ceea
ce privete medierea.
De asemenea, chiar prile, de
comun acord, pot decide depunerea
contractului de mediere la mediator
i renunarea astfel la mediere.
O alta situaie este atunci cnd
una dintre pri, fr a denuna
contractul de mediere, nu se mai
prezint la mediere n ziua stabilit
de comun acord, astfel nct proce-
dura medierii nu se poate realiza.
Un rol important i aparine medi-
atorului, care are obligaia de a afa
voina real a prii care lipsete i
s reprogrameze o nou sesiune de
mediere, perioad n care va con-
tacta partea, i, dac va stabili c
intenia real i exprimat a prii
este de a nu participa la mediere,
va aduce la cunotina prii care a
fost prezent refuzul celeilalte pri,
i, procednd n consecin, va n-
chide medierea.
n concluzie, n toate cele patru
cazuri enumerate, mediatorul este
obligat s ncheie un proces verbal
care va cuprinde numele prilor, al
mediatorului, data, rezultatul me-
dierii dat de voina prii/prilor
de a renuna la mediere, semntura
prilor.
Acest proces verbal se va nche-
ia n attea exemplare cte pri
sunt, iar mediatorul va nmna un
exemplar fecrei pri, pstrndu-
i pentru sine un exemplar care se
va arhiva.
De precizat c, indiferent de re-
zultatul medierii, mediatorul nu
trebuie s-i piard tonul optimist,
relaxat, care s induc prii o stare
de ncredere n capacitatea i profe-
sionalismul mediatorului, s felicite
prile n caz de reuit, iar, n caz
de eec, s mulumeasc prilor
pentru c au fcut eforturi pentru a
ajunge la o nelegere amiabil.
Nu de puine ori, n cazul unor
medieri care nu s-au fnalizat printr-
o nelegere, prile au reuit totui
s ajung la o nelegere, pn la f-
nalizarea procesului n instan i
acest lucru se datoreaz medierii i
mediatorului care a reuit s gseasc
modaliti de comunicare ntre pr-
ile implicate ntr-un confict, crend
astfel premisele mpcrii, dat find
faptul c orice nenelegere se dato-
reaz ntr-o anumit msur imposi-
bilitii de comunicare ntre pri.
Mugur Mitroi
continuarea in numarul urmator
partiality and neutrality, he/she is
obliged to inform the parties about
it, and the continuation of the me-
diation process will depend only on
the parties, there being three pos-
sible scenarios:
either continuation of mediation,
a case in which the parties con-
tinue to fully trust the mediator
and ask him/her to continue the
procedure
either the mediator will be repla-
ced, when the parties lost their
confdence in the mediator, but
still believe the best solution to
resolve their problem is media-
tion, thus mediation continues
with another mediator chosen
from the Panel of mediators,
or giving up mediation when
confdence in the mediator was
lost and the parties refuse to con-
tinue the procedure, deciding to
solve the confict in a court of law.
Also the mediator, by his/her will,
may order the closure of mediation
if he/she considers that mediations
purpose can not be reached any-
more. But this right cannot be used
discretionarily, due to the fact that
he/she, as part in the mediation,
is required to make every efort to
reach a favorable result
4. DENOUNCING THE AGREEMENT
BY ONE OF THE PARTIES
Because mediation is a voluntary
process by defnition, nothing can
prevent any of the parties to termi-
nate the mediation agreement, this
materializing in full respect for the
freedom and autonomy rights of
the party in the mediation.
Also, even the parties, by mutual
agreement, can decide the submit-
tal of the mediation agreement to
the mediator, thus giving up media-
tion.
Another situation is when one
of the parties, without terminating
the mediation agreement, no longer
comes to mediation at the day mu-
tually agreed, thus the mediation
procedure can not be achieved. An
important role belongs to the me-
diator, who is required to fnd out
the real will of the missing party and
reschedule a new mediation session,
during which he/she will contact the
party, and if noticing that the real
intention of the party is to not par-
ticipate in mediation, the mediator
will inform the other party present
about the refusal, and consequently
he/she closes up mediation.
In conclusion, in all four cas-
es listed above, the mediator is
obliged to draw up a report which
will include the names of the par-
ties, of the mediator, the day, the
outcome of mediation given by the
party/parties will to give up media-
tion, parties signature.
Tis report will have as many
copies as the number of parties in-
volved, and the mediator will hand
over a copy to each party, keep-
ing one for himself/herself, a copy
which will be archived.
Its worth mentioning that, re-
gardless of the outcome of me-
diation, the mediator must not lose
the optimist, relaxed tone , which
induces a state of confdence in the
mediators ability and professional-
ism, must congratulate the parties in
case of success, and in case of failure,
thank the parties for having made ef-
forts to reach an amicable agreement.
Ofen, in cases of mediation which
die not fnalize with a consensus, the
parties however managed to reach
an agreement until the completion
of the court process and this is due
to mediation and the mediator, who
managed to fnd ways of communi-
cation between the parties in confict,
thus creating premises for reconcili-
ation, given that any misunderstand-
ing is determined, to a certain extent,
by the impossibility of communica-
tion between the parties.
Mugur Mitroi
to be continued
medierea, tehnic i art
26
STILURI DE MEDIERE:
MEDIEREA DE FACILITARE,
EVALUARE I TRANSFORMARE
Acest articol a aprut iniial n ne-
wsletter-ul Asociaiei Naionale pen-
tru Medierea de Comunitate i este
reprodus cu permisiunea autoarei i
a NAFCM.
M
ediatorii din ntreaga ar
nu se simt n largul lor cu
ceea ce se numete mediere
n domeniul lor, i nu numai. Unele
abordri privind medierea nu sunt
considerate ca find medieri "reale"
sau nu sunt ceea ce au vrut clienii.
n plus, numeroi clieni i avocai
sunt confuzi cu privire la ceea ce
este i nu este medierea, i nu sunt
siguri de ceea ce vor primi n cazul
n care merg la mediere.
MEDIEREA DE FACILITARE
n anii 1960 i 1970, exista doar
un singur tip de mediere predat
i practicat, care este acum este
numit "mediere de facilitare." n
medierea de facilitare, mediatorul
structureaz un proces pentru a
asista prile n a ajunge la o rezo-
luie de comun acord. Mediatorul
pune ntrebri; valideaz i norma-
lizeaz punctele de vedere ale pri-
lor; caut interesele mai departe de
poziiile adoptate de ctre pri i
asist prile n gsirea i analiza op-
iunilor pentru soluionare. Media-
torul de facilitare nu face recoman-
dri prilor, d sfaturi sau opinii
cu privire la rezultatul cazului, sau
prezice ce ar face o instan n acest
caz. Mediatorul este responsabil de
acest proces, n timp ce prile sunt
responsabile de rezultat.
Mediatorii de facilitare doresc s
se asigure c prile ajung la acord
pe baza unor informaii i nelegere.
Ei in n principal sesiuni comune
cu toate prile prezente, astfel nct
prile pot auzi reciproc punctele de
vedere, dar ine i ntlniri obinuite.
Ei doresc ca prile s aib o infu-
en major asupra deciziilor luate,
mai degrab dect avocaii prilor.
Medierea de facilitare s-a dez-
voltat n epoca centrelor voluntare
de soluionare a litigiilor, n care
mediatorilor voluntari nu li se cerea
s aib expertiz de fond n ceea ce
privete zona de litigiu i n care de
cele mai multe ori nu au fost i avo-
cai prezeni. Mediatorii voluntari
veneau din toate mediile. Aceste
lucruri sunt nc adevrate i astzi,
dar, n plus, numeroi mediatori
profesioniti, cu i fr experien
de fond, practic de asemenea me-
dierea de facilitare.
MEDIEREA DE EVALUARE
Medierea de evaluare este un
proces dup modelul conferinelor
de soluionare inute de ctre ju-
dectori. Un mediator de evaluare
asist prile pentru a ajunge la un
acord subliniind punctele slabe
ale cazului lor, i prezice ceea ce
ar putea s fac un judector sau
un juriu. Un mediator de evaluare
ar putea face recomandri formale
sau informale prilor cu privire la
rezultatul problemelor lor. Medi-
atorii de evaluare se preocup cu
drepturile legale ale prilor, mai
degrab dect cu nevoile i intere-
sele lor, i evalueaz pe baza unor
concepte juridice de echitate. Me-
diatorii de evaluare se ntlnesc cel
mai frecvent n ntlniri separate
cu prile i avocaii lor, practicnd
"diplomaia de transfer." Ei ajut pr-
ile i avocaii s-i evalueze situaia
juridic i costurile vs benefciile de
a urma o rezoluie juridic mai de-
grab dect un acord prin mediere.
Mediatorul de evaluare structureaz
procesului i, n mod direct, in-
fueneaz rezultatul medierii.
Medierea de evaluare a aprut n
cazurile de medieri mandatate sau
transferate de instan. Avocaii n
mod normal lucreaz cu instana
pentru a alege mediatorul, i sunt
participani activi n cadrul medie-
rii. Prile sunt cel mai adesea pre-
zente la mediere, dar mediatorul se
poate ntlni cu avocaii lor n parti-
cular, dar i cu prile i avocaii lor.
Exist o presupunere n medierea
de evaluare c mediatorul are o ex-
perien de fond sau expertiz juri-
dic n domeniul litigiului. Datorit
legturii ntre medierea de evaluare
i instanele i din cauza nivelului
lor de confort cu conferinele de so-
luionare, majoritatea mediatorilor
de evaluare sunt avocai.
MEDIEREA DE TRANSFORMARE
Medierea de transformare este
cel mai nou concept dintre cele
trei, numit aa de ctre Folger i
Bush n cartea lor PROMISIUNEA
MEDIERII (THE PROMISE OF
MEDIATION) din 1994. Medierea
de transformare se bazeaz pe va-
lorile de "mputernicire" a fecareia
dintre pri pe ct de mult posibil
i "recunoaterea" de ctre fecare
dintre pri a nevoilor, intereselor,
valorilor i punctelor de vedere ale
celeilalte pri. Potenialul medie-
rii de transformare este c oricare
dintre pri sau ambele sau rela-
iile dintre ele pot f transformate
n timpul medierii. Mediatorii de
transformare se ntlnesc cu prile
mpreun, deoarece numai ele pot
oferi "recunoatere"una celeilalte.
n unele privine, valorile me-
dierii de transformare le oglindesc
pe cele ale medierii de facilitare
timpurii, privind interesul de a m-
puternici prile i de a transforma.
STYLES OF MEDIATION:
FACILITATIVE, EVALUATIVE AND
TRANSFORMATIVE MEDIATION
Tis article frst appeared in the
Newsletter of the National Associa-
tion for Community Mediation and
is reproduced with kind permission
of the author and the NAFCM.
M
ediators around the coun-
try fnd themselves uncom-
fortable with what is being
called mediation in their own and
other areas. Accusations are made
that one or another approach to
mediation is not "real" mediation
or are not what clients wanted. In
addition, many clients and attor-
neys are confused about what me-
diation is and is not, and are not
sure what they will get if they go
to mediation.
FACILITATIVE MEDIATION
In the 1960's and 1970's, there
was only one type of mediation be-
ing taught and practiced, which is
now being called "Facilitative Me-
diation". In facilitative mediation,
the mediator structures a process
to assist the parties in reaching a
mutually agreeable resolution. Te
mediator asks questions; validates
and normalizes parties' points of
view; searches for interests un-
derneath the positions taken by
parties; and assists the parties in
fnding and analyzing options for
resolution. Te facilitative media-
tor does not make recommenda-
tions to the parties, give his or
her own advice or opinion as to
the outcome of the case, or pre-
dict what a court would do in the
case. Te mediator is in charge
of the process, while the par-
ties are in charge of the outcome.
Facilitative mediators want to en-
sure that parties come to agree-
ments based on information and
understanding.
Tey predominantly hold joint
sessions with all parties present
so that the parties can hear each
other's points of view, but hold
caucuses regularly. Tey want the
parties to have the major infuence
on decisions made, rather than the
parties attorneys.
Facilitative mediation grew up
in the era of volunteer dispute reso-
lution centers, in which the volun-
teer mediators were not required
to have substantive expertise con-
cerning the area of the dispute, and
in which most ofen there were no
attorneys present. Te volunteer
mediators came from all back-
grounds. Tese things are still true
today, but in addition many profes-
sional mediators, with and without
substantive expertise, also practice
facilitative mediation.
EVALUATIVE MEDIATION
Evaluative mediation is a pro-
cess modeled on settlement con-
ferences held by judges. An evalu-
ative mediator assists the parties
in reaching resolution by pointing
out the weaknesses of their cases,
and predicting what a judge or jury
would be likely to do. An evalua-
tive mediator might make formal
or informal recommendations to
the parties as to the outcome of the
issues. Evaluative mediators are
concerned with the legal rights of
the parties rather than needs and
interests, and evaluate based on le-
gal concepts of fairness. Evaluative
mediators meet most ofen in sepa-
rate meetings with the parties and
their attorneys, practicing "shuttle
diplomacy". Tey help the parties
and attorneys evaluate their legal
position and the costs vs. the ben-
efts of pursuing a legal resolution
rather than settling in mediation.
Te evaluative mediator structures
the process, and directly infu-
ences the outcome of mediation.
Evaluative mediation emerged in
court-mandated or court-referred
mediation. Attorneys normally
work with the court to choose the
mediator, and are active partici-
pants in the mediation. Te parties
are most ofen present in the me-
diation, but the mediator may meet
with the attorneys alone as well as
with the parties and their attorneys.
Tere is an assumption in evalua-
tive mediation that the mediator
has substantive expertise or legal
expertise in the substantive area of
the dispute. Because of the connec-
tion between evaluative mediation
and the courts, and because of their
comfort level with settlement con-
ferences, most evaluative media-
tors are attorneys.
TRANSFORMATIVE MEDIATION
Transformative mediation is the
newest concept of the three, named
by Folger and Bush in their book
THE PROMISE OF MEDIATION
in 1994. Transformative mediation
is based on the values of "empow-
erment" of each of the parties as
much as possible, and "recognition"
by each of the parties of the other
parties' needs, interests, values
and points of view. Te potential
for transformative mediation is
that any or all parties or their re-
lationships may be transformed
during the mediation. Trans-
formative mediators meet with
parties together, since only they
can give each other "recognition".
In some ways, the values of trans-
formative mediation mirror those
medierea, tehnic i art
27
Mediatorii de facilitare de nceput
se ateptau s transforme societatea
pe deplin cu aceste tehnici pro-pa-
ce. i asta au fcut. Mediatorii de
transformare moderni doresc s
continue acest proces, permind i
susinnd prile n mediere pentru
a determina direcia propriului pro-
ces. n medierea de transformare,
prile structureaz att procesul
ct i rezultatul medierii, iar medi-
atorul urmeaz exemplul lor.
ARGUMENTE PRO I CONTRA
Susintorii spun c medierea
de facilitare i de transformare m-
puternicesc prile i le ajut s i
asume responsabilitatea pentru
disputele proprii, precum i pentru
soluionarea litigiilor. Oponenii
spun c medierea de facilitare i de
transformare dureaz prea mult, i
de prea multe ori se termin fr un
acord. Ei se tem ca rezultatele pot f
contrare standardelor de corectitu-
dine i de faptul c mediatorii din
aceste abordri nu pot proteja par-
tea mai slab.
Susintorii medierii de trans-
formare spun ca mediatorii de fa-
cilitare i evaluare pun o presiune
prea mare asupra clienilor pentru
a ajunge la o rezoluie. Ei cred c
prile sunt cele care ar trebui s
decid dac doresc ntr-adevr o
soluionare, nu mediatorul.
Susintorii medierii de evaluare
spun c prile doresc un rspuns
n cazul n care nu pot ajunge la un
acord i vor s tie c rspunsul lor
este corect. Ei arat spre numrul
tot mai mare de clieni ai medierii
de evaluare pentru a demonstra c
piaa susine acest tip de mediere
mai mult dect altele. Oponenii
medierii de evaluare spun c po-
pularitatea acesteia se datoreaz
miopiei avocailor, care aleg medi-
erea de evaluare deoarece sunt fa-
miliarizai cu acest proces. Ei cred
c prile nu ar alege medierea de
evaluare dac li s-ar oferi sufciente
informaii pentru a face o alegere.
Sunt, de asemenea, ngrijorai c
mediatorul de evaluare poate s nu
fe corect n evaluarea cazului.
SENTIMENTE PUTERNICE
Mediatorii au tendina s aib
sentimente puternice n legtura cu
aceste stiluri de mediere. Cele mai
multe cusuri de formare n mediere
continu s se axeze pe abordarea
de facilitare, dei unii dintre avo-
caii-mediatori se formeaz n mo-
delul de evaluare, iar Folger i Bush
au un plus de formatori care predau
abordarea de transformare. Multe
standarde de mediere (de la orga-
nizaiile naionale i de stat, precum
i programe de mediere legislative
i judiciare) nu menioneaz nimic
despre aceast problem, n timp ce
altele interzic evaluarea, iar altele o
necesit. De exemplu, Standardele
Consiliului de mediere din Illinois
IV (C) privind Interesul Superior
al Copilului menioneaz: "n timp
ce mediatorul are datoria de a f im-
parial, mediatorul are, de aseme-
nea, responsabilitatea de a promova
interesele superioare ale copiilor
i a altor persoane care nu sunt n
msur s-i da consimmntul in-
format, voluntar... Dac mediatorul
consider c orice acord propus nu
protejeaz interesul superior al co-
piilor, mediatorul are datoria de a
informa cuplul n legtur cu ceea
ce cred el.
Un alt exemplu al acestor sen-
timente puternice este c n anul
1997, standardele profesionale
pentru mediatori din Florida au
fost revizuite, i comisia s-a blo-
cat pe tema evalurii n domeniul
medierii. Regula actual spune c
"un mediator nu ar trebui s ofere
informaii pe care nu este califcat
s le ofere" (articolul 10.090 litera
(a)) i "un mediator nu ar trebui s
ofere o opinie cu privire la modul
n care instana, pentru cazul care
i-a fost repartizat, va rezolva litigiu-
lui "(articolul 10.090 (d)). Comisia
a ales dou opiuni pentru un nou
standard pe aceast tem: prima op-
iune ar interzice oferirea de opinii,
cu excepia sublinierii rezultatelor
posibile ale cazului; opiunea a doua
afrm c mediatorul ar putea oferi
informaii i sfaturi dac media-
torul este califcat s le ofere, atta
timp ct mediatorul nu ncalc im-
parialitatea sau auto-determinarea
prilor. Dup ce a primit observa-
ii cu privire la aceste dou opiuni,
ambele au fost retrase i comisia
ncearc din nou. Observaiile au
fost multe i puternice. La ncepu-
tul anului 2000, noua reglementare
a fost scris pentru a refecta opi-
unea a doua.
ntr-o nou lege a Curii Michigan
n vigoare din 1 august 2000, care auto-
rizeaz judectorii s transfere cazurile
pentru mediere, Curtea Suprem din
Michigan a difereniat procesele de faci-
litare de cele de evaluare. Regula preve-
de ca instanele pot ordona prilor pro-
cese de facilitare, dar nu i de evaluare.
of early facilitative mediation, in
its interest in empowering parties
and transformation. Early facilita-
tive mediators fully expected to
transform society with these pro-
peace techniques. And they did.
Modern transformative mediators
want to continue that process by
allowing and supporting the par-
ties in mediation to determine the
direction of their own process. In
transformative mediation, the par-
ties structure both the process and
the outcome of mediation, and the
mediator follows their lead.
PROS AND CONS
Supporters say that facilitative
and transformative mediation em-
power parties, and help the parties
take responsibility for their own
disputes and the resolution of the
disputes. Detractors say that facili-
tative and transformative media-
tion takes too long, and too ofen
ends without agreement. Tey
worry that outcomes can be con-
trary to standards of fairness and
that mediators in these approaches
cannot protect the weaker party.
Supporters of transformative me-
diation say that facilitative and
evaluative mediators put too much
pressure on clients to reach a reso-
lution. Tey believe that the clients
should decide whether they really
want a resolution, not the mediator.
Supporters of evaluative media-
tion say that clients want an an-
swer if they cant reach agreement,
and they want to know that their
answer is fair. Tey point to ever-
increasing numbers of clients for
evaluative mediation to show that
the market supports this type of
mediation more than others. De-
tractors of evaluative mediation
say that its popularity is due to the
myopia of attorneys who choose
evaluative mediation because they
are familiar with the process. Tey
believe that the clients would not
choose evaluative mediation if
given enough information to make
a choice. Tey also worry that the
evaluative mediator may not be
correct in his or her evaluation of
the case.
STRONG FEELINGS
Mediators tend to feel strongly
about these styles of mediation.
Most mediation training still
teaches the facilitative approach,
although some attorney-mediators
train in the evaluative model, and
Folger and Bush have a comple-
ment of trainers teaching the trans-
formative approach. Many media-
tion standards (from national and
state mediation organizations, and
state legislative and judicial media-
tion programs) are silent on this
issue; others prohibit evaluation,
and a few require it. For example,
the Mediation Council of Illinois
Standard IV (C) Best Interests of
Children states: "While the media-
tor has a duty to be impartial, the
mediator also has a responsibility
to promote the best interests of the
children and other persons who
are unable to give voluntary, in-
formed consent... If the mediator
believes that any proposed agree-
ment does not protect the best in-
terests of the children, the media-
tor has a duty to inform the couple
of his or her belief and its basis."
Another example of these strong
feelings is that in 1997, Floridas
professional standards for media-
tors were reviewed, and the com-
mittee got stuck on the issue of
evaluation in mediation. Te cur-
rent rule says "a mediator should
not ofer information that a me-
diator is not qualifed to provide"
(Rule 10.090(a)) and "a mediator
should not ofer an opinion as to
how the court in which the case
has been fled will resolve the dis-
pute" (Rule 10.090(d)). Te com-
mittee came out with two options
for a new standard on this issue:
Option One would prohibit giving
opinions except to point out pos-
sible outcomes of the case; Option
Two states that the mediator could
provide information and advice
the mediator is qualifed to provide,
as long as the mediator does not vi-
olate mediator impartiality or the
self-determination of the parties.
Afer receiving comments on these
two options, both were withdrawn
and the committee is trying again.
Te comments were many and
strong. Early in 2000, the new rule
was written to refect Option Two.
In a new Michigan Court Rule ef-
fective August 1,2000, which au-
thorizes judges to order cases to
mediation, the Supreme Court of
Michigan diferentiated facilita-
tive processes from evaluative pro-
cesses. Te rule states that courts
may order parties to facilitative
processes, but not to evaluative
processes.
medierea, tehnic i art
28
PREOCUPRI
Se pare c preocuprile sunt
mai mult legate de medierea de
evaluare i de transformare dect
de medierea de facilitare. Mediere
de facilitare pare acceptabil pen-
tru aproape toat lumea, dei unii
o consider mai puin folositoare
sau o mai mare consumatoare de
timp. Cu toate acestea, multe critici
au fost formulate mpotriva medi-
erii de evaluare ca find coercitiv,
de sus n jos, greu de manevrat i
nu este imparial. Medierea de
transformare este criticat ca f-
ind prea idealist, nu sufcient de
concentrat i nu este folositoare
pentru probleme de afaceri sau
instan. Mediatorii de evaluare i
transformare, desigur, ar disputa
aceste caracterizri. Sam Imperati,
de exemplu, vede medierea de eva-
luare ca variind de la uor la dif-
cil: de la prezentarea unor opiuni,
pn la juocul de-a avocatul diavo-
lului, de la prezentarea unor proble-
me juridice sau de aprare, la a oferi
opinii sau consiliere cu privire la
rezultate. Prin urmare, el consider
c nu este oportun s se presupun
c medierea de evaluare este n mod
necesar greoaie. Folger i Bush, pe
de alt parte a discuiei, vd medi-
ere de transformare ca fexibil i
adaptabil tuturor tipurilor de litigii.
O alt preocupare este faptul c
muli avocai i clieni nu tiu ce pot
obine atunci cnd ajung n biroul
mediatorului. Unii oameni simt c
mediatorii ar trebui s dezvluie,
nainte de apariia clienilor n bi-
rou, sau cel puin nainte de a se
angaja n mediere, care este stilul
sau stilurile folosite. Ali mediatori
doresc fexibilitatea de a decide care
abordare s o foloseasc o dat ce
neleg nevoile unui caz particular.
STILURI VS. CONTINUU
Samuel Imperati i Leonard
Riskin cred c aceste stiluri sunt
mai mult un continuu dect dife-
rene distincte. Studiul SPIDR Ca-
pitolul Nord-Vest i alte sondaje
mai puin formale au constatat c
cei mai muli mediatori utilizeaz
unele tehnici de facilitare i unele
de evaluare, bazate pe abilitile in-
dividuale i predileciile i nevoile
unui caz particular. Folger i Bush
vd mai multe diferene distincte n
stiluri, n special, diferena de "sus-
jos" vs "jos-sus" mediere. Adic, ei
cred c medierea de evaluare i de
facilitare poate lua informaiile ju-
ridice prea n serios i c rezoluiile
provenind de la pri sunt mult mai
profunde, de durat, i valoroase.
Cu toate acestea, n discuiile infor-
male, muli practicani care folosesc
modelul de transformare spun c
amestec tehnicile de facilitare cu
cele de transformare, mai degrab
dect s foloseasc una sau alta n
exclusivitate. S-ar prea c, n gene-
ral, mediatorii sunt pe un continuu,
de la medierea de facilitare la medi-
erea de evaluare, dar nu se af clar
ntr-o tabr sau alta.
CONCLUZII
Este loc n practica medierii
pentru mai multe stiluri, inclusiv
medierea de facilitare, de evaluare
i de transformare. Fiecare are uti-
litatea sa i locul su n panteonul
de procese de soluionare a litigiilor.
Imperati consider c cei mai muli
mediatori utilizeaz o combinaie
a acestor stiluri, n funcie de caz
i prile n mediere, precum i de
propria lor abordare asupra medi-
erii. Unii mediatori sofsticai i
consiliaz clienii i avocaii cu pri-
vire la stilul despre care ei cred c
ar f cel mai efcient pentru cazul lor.
Unele pri i avocai sunt sufcient
de sofsticate pentru a cunoate di-
ferena dintre tipurile de mediere i
a cere mediatorilor un anumit tip
ntr-un caz specifc. Se pare c ar f
util pentru mediatori, cel puin, s
articuleze prilor i avocailor stilul
(stilurile) pe care le folosesc n ge-
neral i ipotezele i valorile pe care
aceste stiluri se bazeaz. Acest lucru
va permite clienilor sa fe consuma-
tori mai buni i mai mulumii, iar
domeniului medierii s fe mai clar
cu privire la ceea ce ofer. Nu poa-
te dect mbunti credibilitatea i
utilitatea medierii.
BIBLIOGRAFIE:
Leonard L. Riskin, Mediator
Orientations, Strategies, and Tech-
niques, ALTERNATIVES TO THE
HIGH COST OF LITIGATION 111
(1994).
Samuel J. Imperati, Mediator
Practice Models: Te Intersection of
Ethics and Stylistic Practices in Me-
diation, 706 WILLAMETTE LAW
REVIEW 33:3, Summer 1997.
Robert A. Baruch Bush and Jo-
seph P. Folger, THE PROMISE OF
MEDIATION, Jossey-Bass, 1994.
William L. Ury, Jeanne M.
Brett and Stephen B. Goldberg,
GETTING DISPUTES RESOLVED,
Jossey-Bass, 1988.
Association of Family and Conci-
liation Courts/Academy of Family
Mediators Standards of Practice.
Joint Committee Standards of
Practice (American Arbitration
Association, SPIDR and ABA).
Mediation Council of Illinois
Standards of Practice.
State of Florida Standards of
Practice for Mediators.
State of Michigan Court Rule
3.216 on Domestic Relations Medi-
ation, 8/1/00 changes.
Zena D. Zumeta, J.D.
reprodus cu permisiunea
International Mediation Institute
www.imimediation.org
CONCERNS
Tere seem to be more concerns
about evaluative and transforma-
tive mediation than facilitative
mediation. Facilitative mediation
seems acceptable to almost eve-
ryone, although some fnd it less
useful or more time consuming.
However, much criticism has been
leveled against evaluative media-
tion as being coercive, top-down,
heavy-handed and not impartial.
Transformative mediation is criti-
cized for being too idealistic, not
focused enough, and not useful for
business or court matters. Evalua-
tive and transformative mediators,
of course, would challenge these
characterizations. Sam Imperati, for
example, sees evaluative mediation
as ranging from sof to hard: from
raising options, to playing devil's
advocate, to raising legal issues or
defenses, to ofering opinions or
advice on outcomes. He therefore
believes that it is not appropriate to
assume that evaluative mediation
is necessarily heavy-handed. Folg-
er and Bush, on the other side of
the discussion, see transformative
mediation as ultimately fexible
and suited to all types of disputes.
Another concern is that many at-
torneys and clients do not know
what they may get when they end
up in a mediators ofce. Some
people feel that mediators ought
to disclose prior to clients appear-
ing in their ofces, or at least prior
to their committing to mediation,
which style or styles they use. Oth-
er mediators want the fexibility to
decide which approach to use once
they understand the needs of the
particular case.
STYLES VS. CONTINUUM
Samuel Imperati and Leonard
Riskin believe these styles are more
a continuum than distinct difer-
ences, from least interventionist to
most interventionist. Te North-
west Chapter SPIDR Survey and
other less formal surveys have not-
ed that most mediators use some
facilitative and some evaluative
techniques, based on individual
skills and predilections and the
needs of a particular case. Folger
and Bush see more distinct difer-
ences in styles, particularly the dif-
ference of "top-down" vs. "bottom-
up" mediation. Tat is, they believe
that evaluative and facilitative me-
diation may take legal information
too seriously, and that resolutions
coming from the parties are much
more deep, lasting, and valuable.
However, in informal discussions,
many practitioners who utilize the
transformative model state that
they mix facilitative and trans-
formative techniques rather than
using one or the other exclusively.
It would seem that in general me-
diators are on a continuum from
transformative to facilitative to
evaluative mediation, but are not
squarely within one camp or an-
other.
CONCLUSIONS
Tere is room in mediation
practice for many styles, includ-
ing facilitative, evaluative and
transformative mediation. Each
has its usefulness and its place in
the pantheon of dispute resolution
processes. Imperati believes that
most mediators use a combination
of these styles, depending on the
case and the parties in mediation,
as well as their own main approach
to mediation. Some sophisticated
mediators advise clients and at-
torneys about the style they think
would be most efective for their
case. Some parties and attorneys
are sophisticated enough to know
the diference between types of
mediation and to ask mediators
for a specifc type in a specifc case.
It appears that it would be helpful
for mediators at the very least, to
articulate to parties and attorneys
the style(s) they generally use, and
the assumptions and values these
styles are based on. Tis will al-
low clients to be better and more
satisfed consumers, and the feld
of mediation to be clearer on what
it is ofering. It can only enhance
the credibility and usefulness of
mediation.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Leonard L. Riskin, Mediator
Orientations, Strategies, and Tech-
niques, ALTERNATIVES TO THE
HIGH COST OF LITIGATION
111 (1994).
Samuel J. Imperati, Mediator
Practice Models: Te Intersection
of Ethics and Stylistic Practices in
Mediation, 706 WILLAMETTE
LAW REVIEW 33:3, Summer 1997.
Robert A. Baruch Bush and Jo-
seph P. Folger, THE PROMISE OF
MEDIATION, Jossey-Bass, 1994.
William L. Ury, Jeanne M.
Brett and Stephen B. Goldberg,
GETTING DISPUTES RESOL-
VED, Jossey-Bass, 1988.
Association of Family and Con-
ciliation Courts/Academy of Fami-
ly Mediators Standards of Practice.
Joint Committee Standards of
Practice (American Arbitration
Association, SPIDR and ABA).
Mediation Council of Illinois
Standards of Practice.
State of Florida Standards of
Practice for Mediators.
State of Michigan Court Rule
3.216 on Domestic Relations Medi-
ation, 8/1/00 changes.
Zena D. Zumeta, J.D.

reproduced with permission of
International Mediation Institute
www.imimediation.org
medierea, tehnic i art
29
CTIGND LA NEGOCIERILE
DE TIPUL "CTIG-CTIG"
A
ud expresia ctig-ctig
("win-win") tot timpul. Nu
sunt, ns, sigur c muli
dintre oamenii care o folosesc tiu
despre ce vorbesc. Am o bnuia-
l c presupun n mod greit c
dac toat lumea doar ar coopera,
atunci toate prile ar obine ceea
ce doresc. Asta, desigur, este ridicol.
Aproape c nu exist negociere n
care cineva poate obine tot ceea ce-
i dorete. Iar cooperarea, sau chiar
compromisul, nu este problema aici.
GNDIND CLAR DESPRE
CTIG-CTIG
Nimeni ntr-o negociere nu ar
trebui s fe de acord cu ceva care
este mai ru pentru el dect cazul
n care nu se-ar ajunge la acel acord
deloc. Roger Fisher i Bill Ury au
fcut aceast remarc acum treizeci
de ani n Getting to yes (A ajunge
la da). n primul rnd, gndete-te
ce i-ar aduce lipsa unui acord, apoi
ncearc s generezi ceva (o limit
inferioar) care este mai bun dect
att, dar atunci cnd te afi ntr-o
negociere real nu respinge ceva ce
este mai bun dect limita inferioar
stabilit de tine, chiar dac nu-i va
aduce tot ce i-ai dori. Fisher i Ury
au numit acest punct de comparaie
cea mai buna alternativ la acordul
negociat (Batna Best Alternative
to the Negotiated Agreement). O
negociere ctig-ctig este ceva
care aduce tuturor prilor un re-
zultat mai bun dect Batna stabilit.
Nu se obine n mod necesar tot
ceea ce i-ar dori oricare dintre
pri.
Analitii deciziilor (cum ar f
Howard Raifa) vorbesc despre ace-
eai idee n termenii unui pre de
rezervare al negociatorului suma
pe care a stabilit-o nainte, n func-
ie de care nu va accepta mai puin
sau nu va plti mai mult. Lsnd la
o parte pentru un moment faptul
c BATNA i preurile de rezerva-
re sunt uneori greu de estimat sau
"de tiut" n avans, o negociere c-
tig-ctig poate f considerat ca o
afacere, n care toate prile "ctig"
n raport cu cele mai bune estimri
ale limitei inferioare.
INTRAREA N ZONA DE
TRANZACIONARE
Dup cum au explicat muli ex-
peri de negociere, nceputul unei
negocieri este greu pentru c toate
prile cred ca tiu ce vor, toi cred
c tiu ce dorete cealalt parte (i) i
toi s-au hotrt cu privire la ce vor
accepta i ce nu. Dac apoi acetia
i petrec timpul mpingnd obiec-
tivele, uneori chiar exagernd cu
"ceea ce trebuie sa aib," i prezen-
tnd argumentele n anticiparea la
ceea ce alii vor spune, atunci pro-
babil c nu vor obine o afacere. Pe
de alt parte, nu au de ales dect s
le arate "oamenilor lor" c ncearc
din greu s fe victorioi. Deci, exist
mult micare pierdut, mult exa-
gerare i mult lucruri fcute pentru
spectacol. La un moment dat, totui,
de obicei n spatele cortinei, feca-
re parte trebuie s re-evalueze. "O
s fu n msur s obin ceva egal
sau mai mult dect punctul limit?"
"tiu c nu pot obine tot ce am ce-
rut, dar o parte din aceste cerine au
fost inventate oricum." Majoritatea
oamenilor cred c ntr-o situaie de
negociere, trebuie s ceri mai mult
dect ceea ce vrei cu adevarat, astfel
nct s poi face concesii i totui
s obii inta ta real.
Desigur, aceast strategie se poa-
te ntoarce mpotriva ta. n cazul
n care clienii aud c faci cereri
scandaloase i apoi nu ai succes,
poate f imposibil s mai dai na-
poi de la aceste cerine, fr a-i
tirbi reputaia. Adevrul este c,
dac toat lumea ar f sincer cu
privire la interesele lor cele mai
importante (de exemplu, lucru-
rile care sunt importante pentru
ei ntr-o anumit ordine), i dac
s-ar f simit bine s vorbeasc des-
pre aceste elemente, negociatorii
s-ar putea atunci angaja ntr-un
proces productiv de rezolvare a
problemelor pentru a vedea ce fel
de nelegeri ar putea (sau nu) per-
mite prilor s ndeplineasc sau
s depeasc limitele lor realiste.
n cazul n care deschiderea unei
negocieri nu nstrineaz toate
prile (deoarece una sau mai mul-
te pri au luat o poziie absolut
scandaloas pentru motive tacti-
ce i au fcut acest lucru ntr-un
mod nesuferit), ele pot intra apoi
n "zona de tranzacionare." Aces-
ta este spaiul de negociere, n care
WINNING AT WIN-WIN
NEGOTIATION!
I
hear the phrase "win-win" all
the time. I'm not sure that
very many people who use it
know what they are talking about.
I have a hunch they mistakenly
assume that if everyone would
just cooperate, then all parties
would get what they want. That,
of course, is ridiculous. There are
almost no negotiations in which
everyone can get everything they
want. And cooperation or even
compromise isn't the issue.
THINKING CLEARLY ABOUT
WIN-WIN
No one should agree to any-
thing in a negotiation that is
worse for them than what they are
likely to get if no deal is reached.
Roger Fisher and Bill Ury made
this point thirty years ago in Get-
ting To Yes. First, figure out what
no agreement is most likely going
to leave you with, try to generate
something (a walk-away) that's
better than that, but when you are
in an actual negotiation don't re-
ject something that's better than
your realistic walk-away, even if
it won't get you everything you'd
like to have. Fisher and Ury called
this point of comparison, your
Best Alternative to the Negotiated
Agreement (BATNA). A win-win
negotiation is something that gets
all sides an outcome better than
their BATNA. It doesn't neces-
sarily get anyone everything that
they might want.
Decision analysts (like Howard
Raiffa) talk about the same idea
in terms of a negotiator's Reser-
vation Price the amount that
they've decided ahead of time
they won't accept "less than" or
"pay more than." Putting aside
for a moment that BATNAs and
Reservation Prices are sometimes
hard to estimate or "know" ahead
of time, a win-win negotiation
can be thought of as a deal in
which all sides "gain" relative to
their best estimates of their walk-
aways.
ENTERING THE TRADING ZONE
As many negotiation experts
have explained, the beginning of
a negotiation is hard because the
parties all think they know what
they want, all think they know
what the other side(s) want and
have all worked through with
their own constituents what they
will and won't accept. If they then
spend all their time pushing their
own objectives, sometimes even
exaggerating "what they have to
have," and giving arguments in
anticipation of what others will
say, they probably won't get a deal.
On the other hand, they have no
choice but to show their "peo-
ple" that they are trying hard to
be victorious. So, there is a lot of
wasted motion, a lot of exaggera-
tion and a lot that's done for show.
At some point, though, usually
behind-the-scenes, each party
has to re-assess. "Am I going to
be able to get something equal to
or better than my walk-away." "I
know I can't get everything I have
demanded, but a lot of that was
made up anyway." Most people
think that in a bargaining situ-
ation, you have to ask for more
than what you really want so that
you can make concessions and
still end up with your real goal.
Of course, that strategy can back-
fire. If your constituency hears
you make outrageous opening de-
mands and then you don't "bring
home the bacon," it may not be
possible to back down from those
demands without losing face. The
fact is, that if everyone were be-
ing completely honest about their
most important interests (i.e. the
things that are important to them
in rank order), and they all felt
comfortable talking about these
items, the negotiators could then
engage in productive joint prob-
lem-solving to see what sort of
trades might (or might not) per-
mit all parties to meet or exceed
their realistic walk-aways.
If the opening of a negotiation
doesn't alienate all the parties
(because one or more sides has
taken an absolutely outrageous
stand for tactical reasons and did
so in an obnoxious way), they
can then enter the "trading zone."
This is the negotiation space in
which parties try out various
new ideas and possible trades.
medierea, tehnic i art
30
prile ncearc diferite idei noi i
trguri posibile. "Acum, c am auzit
ceea ce este cu adevrat important
pentru tine, dac i-a da X, mi-ai
da Y?" Aceste tipuri de oferte legate
sunt cheia pentru crearea de valoa-
re. Dac eu am ceva ce vrei tu foarte
mult si nu este att de important
pentru mine, i tu ai ceva ce eu pof-
tesc i nu este esenial pentru tine,
atunci cnd tranzacionm aceste
dou lucruri, asta creeaz valoare.
Nu e nici un compromis. Totui,
putem face acest lucru numai dac
ne putem gsi drumul spre zona de
tranzacionare. .
Fisher i Ury arat faptul c pr-
ile trebuie s fe dispuse s se an-
gajeze n "inventare fr angajare",
pentru ca acest lucru s se ntm-
ple. Exist alte proceduri care pot f
de asemenea folosite pentru a face
acest lucru s funcioneze. Odat
ajunse n zona de tranzacionare,
ns, prile trebuie s fac tot po-
sibilul pentru a explora numeroase
"ce-ar f dac?" pentru a vedea dac
pot crea valoare. Apoi, odat ce au
creat toa valoarea pe care au putut
o crea, prile trebuie s se ntoarc
i s vad dac pot stabili mpreun
un "pachet", care asigur tuturor
ceva mai mult dect Batna sau pre-
ul lor de rezervare. Procesul devi-
ne mult mai complicat atunci cnd
sunt implicate valori sau drepturi i
nu doar interese, dar aceeai abor-
dare a ctigurilor reciproce (Mutu-
al Gains Approach MGA) poate f
folosit chiar i n aceste situaii.
i dac prile nu i-au fcut te-
mele sau nu sunt autorizate s fac
o tranzacie "rezonabil"? Cheia
pentru negocierea ctig-ctig nu
este compromisul, ci faptul de a
ajunge n zona de tranzacionare i
a crea valoare ct mai mult posibil.
n cazul n care toate negocierile
ar implica doar dou pri i ne-
gociatorii nu ar trebui s raporteze
nimnui, procesul nu ar f aa de
greu. Dar, de cele mai multe ori,
negociatorii au pe altcineva (de
multe clieni diveri i agitai) cro-
ra trebuie s le raporteze i crora
trebuie s le dea socoteal. Acest lu-
cru face ca mutarea n zona de tran-
zacionare s fe mult mai difcil.
Gndii-v la negociatorii care-i
reprezint ara ntr-o negociere a
unui tratat multinaional. Fieca-
re negociator petrece luni de zile
vorbind cu diferite agenii i actori
politici din interiorul rii lor, n-
cercnd s ajung la un echilibru
delicat ntre ceea ce ar trebui sub-
liniat i ceea ce ar trebui sacrifcat
atunci cnd negocierile formale n-
tre mai multe ri ncep. Apoi, cnd
negociatorii stau unul lng altul
n sale aceea mare, fecare citete
versiunea la care au lucrat cu aa
grij. Nu conteaz dac declaraiile
ofciale pe care fecare negociator le
d par s ignore ceea ce vorbitorii
anteriori din sala mare spuseser.
Adevrul este c exact asta se n-
tmpl.Negociatorul joac pentru
ara sa. Orice abatere de la versiu-
nea dj pregtit ar f, probabil, un
motiv pentru a-l tr pe negociator
napoi n ara lui i i s-ar cere de-
misia. Dar, seara, la bar, atunci cnd
negociatorii de ar stau de vorb
informal, apar pachete noi i noi
tranzacii sunt explorate. i pentru
c sfritul celor dou sptmni
de negociere formal se apropie,
preedintele de edin nmneaz
o versiune revizuit a textului tra-
tatului.
Aceasta este destul de diferit
fa de versiunea la care care -
rile munciser ultimele ase luni.
Versiunea anterioar reprezint
ceea ce au considerat la momentul
cnd au ajutat la scrierea discursu-
lui de deschidere pentru sala mare.
Acum, totu, negociatorul trebuie
s suneacas. (i, n fecare ar
,acas reprezentat fguri sau set de
actori politici diferii). Au o alegere
de fcut (i aproape nici un timp
rmas s o fac). "Sprijinim versi-
unea revizuit a tratatului pe care
preedintele a prezentat-o adunrii
n ultimul minut?" Da sau nu? Nu
mai e timp pentru revizuiri ulteri-
oare, toat lumea are programate
zboruri de ntors n cteva ore. Mai
mult dect att, ntr-o negociere a
unui tratat internaional, preedin-
tele nu va cere prilor s voteze.
Mai degrab, el va ntreba, "Aud
un consens? Sprijinii versiunea
revizuit a tratatului propus?" Este
n ntregime decizia preedintelui
dac "aude" consens. Pe moment,
negociatorii au opiunea semnrii
documentului n drum spre u.
Apoi, fecare negociator trebuie s
se ntoarc n ara lor de origine i
s cute ratifcare (n cazul Ameri-
cii, printr-un vot al Senatului State-
lor Unite).
Gndii-v la bietul negociator
de ar care nu i-a fcut temele
din timp sau nu a dat negociatoru-
lui su spaiu de manevr. Nu pot
avea un impact prea mare asupra
rezultatului fnal, deoarece nu pot
participa la discuiile de tranzacii
informale. n mod ideal, un nego-
ciator trebuie s tie care sunt cele
mai importante interese ale rii
proprii (i care sunt metodele bune
de a le ndeplini). Negociatorul
poate avea, de asemenea, instruc-
iuni s ia o poziie de deschidere
puternic, dar n acelai timp, poate
s fe mputernicit s utilizeze orice
canale informale pentru a intra n
zona de tranzacionare informal i
a vedea ce opiuni noi pot f create.
Pn la momentele fnale, negocia-
torul doar exploreaz "ce-ar f dac."
Atunci cnd preedintele elaboreaz
proiectul fnal al tratatului propus,
negociatorul trebuie s tie pe cine
poate apela pentru a obine un da
sau un nu (cu toate c trebuie s fe
n msur s raporteze c a gsit o
"Now that I've heard what's re-
ally important to you, what if I
gave you X, would you give me
Y?" Those kinds of linked offers
are the key to creating value. If
I have something you want very
much and it's not that important
to me, and you have something
I covet, and it is not crucial to
you, when we trade those two
things, that creates value. That's
not compromise. We can only do
this, however, if we can find our
way into the trading zone. Fisher
and Ury point out that parties
have to be willing to engaging
in "inventing without commit-
ting" for this to happen. There
are other procedures that can
also be used to make this work.
Once in the trading zone, though,
the parties have to do all they can
to explore numerous "what-if 's?"
to see if they can create value.
Then, once they have created all
the value they possibly can, the
parties need to go back and see if
they can put together a "package"
that ensures everyone something
above their BATNA or their Res-
ervation Price. The process gets
more complicated when values or
rights are involved and not just
interests, but the same Mutual
Gains Approach (MGA) can be
used even in those situations.
What If the Parties Haven't
Done Their Homework or Aren't
Authorized to Make a "Reason-
able" Deal?
The key to win-win negotiation
is not compromise, it is getting
into the trading zone and creat-
ing as much value as possible. If
all negotiations involved just two
parties and those negotiators
didn't have to report to anyone,
the process would not be that dif-
ficult. But, most of the time, nego-
tiators have someone else (often
a diverse and fractious constitu-
ency) to whom they must report,
and to whom they are account-
able. This makes moving into the
trading zone more difficult.
Think about negotiators who
represent their county in a multi-
national treaty negotiation. Each
negotiator spends months talking
with different agencies and po-
litical actors inside their country,
trying to reach a delicate balance
on what to stress and what to sac-
rifice when formal multi-country
negotiations begin. Then, when
the negotiators sit across from
each other in the big hall, each
reads the script that they worked
out so carefully back home. It
doesn't matter if the formal state-
ments that each negotiator gives
appear to ignore what previous
speakers in the big hall have said.
The fact is, that's exactly what's
happening. The negotiator is play-
ing to his or her home crowd. Any
deviation from the pre-prepared
script would probably be cause
to drag the negotiator home and
demand their resignation. But, at
night, at the bar, when the coun-
try negotiators chat informally,
new packages emerge, and new
trades are explored. As the end of
the two week formal negotiation
period is about to draw to a close,
the chair of the session hands out
a revised version of the treaty text.
This is quite different from the
one that countries spent the pre-
vious six months reviewing. That
earlier version was what they con-
sidered when they helped to write
their opening speech for the big
hall. Now, however, the negotia-
tor has to call "home." (And, in
each country home is represented
by a different political figure or
set of actors.) They have a choice
to make (and almost no time to
make it). "Do we support the re-
vised version of the treaty that the
chair has sprung on the assembly
at the last minute?" Yes, or no?
There's no time for further revi-
sions, everyone has return flights
scheduled in a few hours. Moreo-
ver, in an international treaty ne-
gotiation, the chair won't ask the
parties to vote. Rather, he or she
will ask, "Do I hear consensus? Do
you support the revised version of
the proposed treaty?" It is entirely
up to the chair whether he or she
"hears" consensus. At the point,
the country negotiators have the
option of signing the document
on their way out their door. Then,
each negotiator has to go back to
their home legislature and seek
ratification (in America's case by
a vote of the United States Senate).
Think of the poor negotiator for
a country that didn't do its home-
work ahead of time, or didn't give
it's negotiator any room to ma-
neuver. They can't have much im-
pact on the final outcome because
they can't participate in the dis-
cussion of informal trades. Ideally,
a negotiator needs to know what
his or her country's most impor-
tant interests are (and which of
many ways of meeting them will
be OK). The negotiator may also
have instructions to take a strong
opening stand, but at the same
time be empowered to use what-
ever informal channels are open
to enter the informal trading zone
and see what new options can be
created. Until the final moments,
the negotiator is just exploring
"what-if 's." When the chair pro-
duces the final draft of the pro-
posed treaty, the negotiator needs
to know who they can call to get
a yes or a no (although they must
be able to report that they have
found a way to ensure that their
country's most important inter-
ests have been met).
medierea, tehnic i art
31
modalitate de a se asigura c cele
mai importante interese ale rii lor
au fost ndeplinite).
CT POI I CT AR TREBUI S
FACI PENTRU CEALALT PARTE?
Nu este nimic mai frustrant de-
ct s ncerci s negociezi cu cineva
care nu este pregtit (de exemplu,
nu tie care sunt cu adevarat intere-
sele grupului), nu este autorizat s
intre n discuii informale cu privi-
re la modalitile de creare a valo-
rii, i nu este abilitat s se angajeze
n altceva dect ceea ce grupul lui
a discutat nainte ca negocierile s
nceap. Dac stai la mas (n sala
cea mare), cu negociatori care se
af n una dintre aceste trei pozi-
ii, ce poi i ce trebuie s faci? n
primul rnd, chiar dac este extrem
de trziu n cadrul jocului, ai putea
ncuraja cellalt negociator s ia
legtura cu grupul su pentru a cla-
rifca care sunt interesele lor cu ade-
vrat. Acest lucru ar trebui s ia for-
ma unei analize Batna sau al limitei
inferioare. ("Cu ce vom rmne,
n mod realist, n cazul n care nu
exist un acord?" Nu: ce vom cere?)
Acest lucru va ajuta negociatorul
s evite greeala de a refuza oferte
"destul de bune." n al doilea rnd,
avei posibilitatea de a construi mai
multe "pachete alternative" pentru
ca negociatorul s le prezinte (ra-
pid) grupului su. Fiecare ar tre-
bui s precizeze de ce i cum un
anumit pachet va ajuta grupul se
ndeplineasc cele mai multe inte-
rese, i la ce costuri i cu ce riscuri.
n al treilea rnd, putei pregti un
pic cellalt negociator, sugernd
ceea ce ar putea spune clienilor si,
ca rspuns la criticile diverse sau
reclamaii. Desigur, n cazul n care
negocierea este gestionat de ctre
o parte neutr (un mediator sau un
facilitator), atunci orice participant
poate avea o conversaie privat cu
acea persoan, fr a f nevoie s
dezvluie oricrei alte pri ct sunt
ei de nepregtii cu adevrat (sau
ct de ncurcai sunt clienii lor).
AADAR, CND TREBUIE S FAC
UN COMPROMIS?
Nicio parte a negocierii nu ar
trebui s accepte vreodat un acord
care este mai ru pentru ea dect
absena unui acord. Dar, un grup
poate f foarte nesigur cu privire la
modul de a prezice ceea ce nseam-
n cu adevrat nici un acord. ("Dac
nu ajungem la un acord acum, ce se
va ntmpla n continuare i care
vor f efectele?") Deci, ei ar putea
spune da la ceva care se dovedete,
n retrospectiv, a f mai puin de
dorit pentru ei dect s spun nu.
Dar, nici un negociator nu ar trebui
s convin vreodat cu bun tiin
la ceva care "rnete" pe clienii
si (adic, este mai ru dect un
nu), doar pentru a f plcut. Rela-
iile bune de lucru (i mai ales n-
crederea) nu sunt obinute cednd
presiunii. Mai degrab, ele sunt
un produs al tuturor prilor care
acioneaz n ceea ce Fisher i Ury
ar numi o "cale cu principii". i, a
spune c un principiu de negociere
este c nimeni nu ar trebui nicioda-
t s dea de poman interesele lui
n sperana de a "cumpera" o relaie
bun. Tot ceea va face, cum Fisher
i Ury artau, va f s nvee cellalte
pri c acelai comportament este
de ateptat n viitor.
"BINE PENTRU TINE, GROZAV
PENTRU MINE"
Deci, n realitate, un rezultat
ctig-ctig este unul care aduce
prilor mai mult dect le-ar f ga-
rantat orice fel de acord. Dar, asta
nu nseamn c toate prile "obin
aceeai sum." E posibil s-mi plac
un acord pentru c m situeaz
mult deasupra Batna estimat. Tu
ai putea accepta, cu ciud, acordul
meu propus, pentru c i aduce mai
mult dect ar f posibil dac nu s-ar
ajunge la niciun acord. Acordurile
ctig-ctig nu promit prilor c-
tiguri egale sau similare. Ele doar
promit c toate prile pentru c
intr n zona de tranzacionare, se
angajeaz n comun n rezolvare a
problemelor i sunt de acord s fe
realiste, chiar sincere, n legtur cu
interesele lor cele mai mari obin
un rezultat care este mai bun dect
estimrile lor cele mai realiste pri-
vind ceea ce ar f obinut dac ar f
plecat fr nici un acord.
Astfel, calea de a "ctiga" la ne-
gocierea de tipul ctig-ctig este
s v asigurai c venii cu un acord
propus care este "bun" pentru cea-
lalt parte (i) i "grozav" pentru tine.
Poi face acest lucru doar muncind
din greu pentru a descoperi i a
rspunde celor mai importante in-
terese ale celorlalte pri. Oricare
ar f "poziia de deschidere" (pentru
a-i asigura "oamenii" c lupi din
greu n numele lor), trebuie s fi n
msur s te mui de acolo n zona
de tranzacionare i s funcionezi
efectiv n mediul acela de i dac?.
Apoi, trebuie s ai mandatul potri-
vit de la ai ti. Asta nseamn c
trebuie s f elaborat din timp o n-
elegere clar a intereselor priorita-
re ale grupului tu. i, trebuie s tii
pe cine poi suna pentru autorizare
ntrrii ntr-un acord anticipat n
ultima clip, atta timp ct pachetul
depete estimarea realist a gru-
pului privind ceea ce ar nsemna
lipsa unui acord.
Larry Susskind
Fondator al CBI i profesor la In-
stitutul de Tehnologie Massachusetts
i vice-preedinte al Programului de
Negociere n cadrul Facultii de
Drept Harvard.
Surs: www.theconsensusbuildin-
gapproach.blogspot.com
HOW MUCH CAN AND SHOULD
YOU DO FOR THE OTHER SIDE?
There's nothing more frustrat-
ing than trying to negotiate with
someone who isn't prepared (i.e.
doesn't know what their group's
interests really are), isn't author-
ized to enter into informal discus-
sions about ways of creating value,
and isn't empowered to commit
to anything other than what their
group discussed before the nego-
tiations began. If you are sitting at
the table (in the big hall) with ne-
gotiators who are in one of these
three positions, what can and
should you do? First, even though
it is awfully late in the game, you
might encourage the other nego-
tiator to be in touch with his or
her group to clarify what their key
interests really are. This should
take the form of a BATNA or
walk-away analysis. ("What are
we going to be left with, realisti-
cally, if there is no agreement?"
Not, what will we demand?) This
will help the negotiator avoid the
bad mistake of turning down
"pretty good" offers. Second, you
can construct several "alternative
packages" for the negotiator to
bring back (quickly) to his or her
group. Each should spell out why
and how a package will help the
group meets in most important
interests, and at what cost and
with what risks. Third, you can
coach the other negotiator a bit,
teasing out for them what they
might say to their constituents
in response to various criticisms
or complaints. Of course, if the
negotiation is being managed by
a neutral party (a mediator or a
facilitator), then any participant
can have a private conversation
with that individual without hav-
ing to reveal to any other parties
how unprepared they really are
(or how mixed up their constitu-
ency might be).
SO, WHEN SHOULD YOU
COMPROMISE?
No negotiating party should
ever accept an agreement that is
worse for them than no agree-
ment. But, a group may be very
uncertain about how to predict
what no agreement really means.
("If we don't reach agreement now,
what will happen next and what
effects will that have?") So, they
might say yes to something that
turns out, in retrospect, to be less
desirable for them that having
said no. But, no negotiator should
ever agree to something that
knowingly "hurts" their constitu-
ency (i.e is worse than what no
agreement held in store for them)
just to be liked. Good working
relationships (and particularly
trust) are not achieved by caving
in to pressure. Rather, they are a
by-product of all sides acting in
what Fisher and Ury would call
a "principled way." And, I would
argue that one principle of nego-
tiation is that no one should ever
"give away" their interests in the
hope of "buying" a good relation-
ship. All that will do, as Fisher
and Ury point out, is teach the
other parties that the same behav-
ior be expected in the future.
"GOOD FOR YOU, GREAT FOR ME"
So, in actuality, a win-win out-
come is one that gets all parties
more than what no agreement
would have guaranteed them. But,
that doesn't mean that all parties
"gain the same amount." I might
like an agreement because it get's
me well above my BATNA. You
might grudgingly accept my pro-
posed agreement because it gets
you more than what you are likely
to get if we reach no agreement at
all. Win-win agreements do no
promise all sides equal or similar
gains. They only promise that all
sides because they enter into
the trading zone, engage in joint
problem-solving, and agree to be
realistic, even honest, about their
highest priority interests get
an outcome that is better than
their most realistic estimate of
what they would have ended up
with had they walked away with
no agreement.
Thus, the way to "win" at "win-
win" negotiation is to make sure
that you come up with a proposed
agreement that is "good" for other
side(s) and "great" for you. You
can only do this by working hard
to uncover and respond to the
most important interests of the
other parties. Whatever "opening"
stand you take (to ensure your
"people" that you are fighting hard
on their behalf ), you have to be
able to move from there into the
trading zone and function effec-
tively in that "what-iffing" envi-
ronment. Then, you must have the
right mandate from your "side."
That is, you need to have worked
out ahead of time a clear under-
standing of your group's priority
interests. And, you need to know
who you can call for authoriza-
tion to enter into an anticipated
agreement at the last minute as
long as the package exceeds your
group's realistic estimate of what
no agreement means to them.
Larry Susskind
Founder of CBI and Professor
at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology and Vice-Chair for In-
struction at the Program on Nego-
tiation at Harvard Law School
Source: www.theconsensus-
buildingapproach.blogspot.com
medierea, tehnic i art
32
OPTIMIST ORBETE
O
cercetarea din acest we-
ekend a dezvluit moti-
vul din spatele nclinaiei
omului de a rmne pozitiv, chiar
i n faa unei grave adversiti,
menioneaz BBC. Se pare c "a
rde n faa pericolului" nu este
neaprat curaj, ci mai degrab o
tendin a creierului uman de a
ignora practic orice informaie
care dizolv nuana de roz asupra
lumii. Nu mai e de rs!
Studiul, publicat n Nature Ne-
uroscience n aceast sptmn,
identifc un proces "defect" n
lobul frontal, care i determin pe
oameni s accepte cu bucurie veti
care le permit s reduc percepia
legat de risc n orice situaie dat,
n timp ce resping n linii mari
tot ceea ce indic faptul c riscu-
rile sunt de fapt mai mari dect se
credea anterior. (Aceasta cerceta-
re este strns legat de studiul lui
Margaret Hefernan despre "orbire
voit," pe care l putei citi pe blog-
ul CEDR) Acest "fenomen de op-
timism" este ceva cu care media-
torii, lucrnd cu prile implicate
n confict, se confrunt de multe
ori i trebuie s gestioneze n mod
efcient.
Participanii la studiu, find
monitorizai pe RMN, s-au con-
fruntat cu o serie de evenimen-
te de via negative, cum ar f
apariia cancerului sau un acci-
dent de main. Ei au fost rugai
s evalueze riscul acestui eveni-
ment care li se ntmpl, i avnd
avnd n vedere evaluarea lor, le-
au fost prezentate date statistice
reale. Dac statisticile au fost mai
mici dect riscul lor ateptat, par-
ticipanii au fost dornici s reduc
riscul semnifcativ pentru a se ali-
nia cu dovezile prezentate de sta-
tistici. n schimb, dac evaluarea
riscului de ctre participani a fost
mai mic dect dovezile prezenta-
te, participanii nu au fost dispui
s accepte acest lucru i au men-
inut subestimarea unor catastrofe
care ar putea s li se ntmple.
Rezultatele RMN au artat c
atunci cnd li s-au prezentat infor-
maii negative, cei cu o dispoziie
sanguin au prezentat activitate
pn la ultimul lob frontal, n
timp ce, n cazul respondenilor
posaci, doar puini au artat o
activitate complet. Deoarece ac-
tivitatea lobului frontal este legat
de prelucrare erorilor, oamenii de
tiin au dedus c cei care sunt
mai nclinai s prezic rezultatele
pozitive nu sunt convini de o do-
vad care este mpotriva perspec-
tivelor lor optimiste.
Lumea tiinei a dezbtut de ce
optimismul este un element att
de puternic n comportament,
chiar i atunci cnd se confrunt
cu informaii care sunt complet
mpotriva prediciilor noastre
roz. Se pare c exist un proces de
fltrare observabil, care apare n
creierul uman pentru a gestiona
aceast disonan temporar, per-
mind optimismului s ctige n
mod consecvent.
Acest lucru poate f observat
destul de clar ntr-un confict.
Adesea, persoanelor afate ntr-un
confict li se va prea extrem de
greu s recunoasc i s preia im-
plicaiile informaiilor care con-
trazic ceea ce ei cred a f adevrat
sau corect. Prile afate n confict
de multe ori constat c senti-
mentele lor profunde de dreptate
i ateptrile ulterioare de succes
le pot mpiedica s vad toate
ramifcaiile posibile ale aciunilor
lor n cadrul unui confict.
Un mediator CEDR este special
instruit pentru a gestiona testarea
realitilor, i, ca atare, o negare a
riscurilor poteniale i capcanelor
care se af pe drumul spre solu-
ionare. Prin intermediul medi-
erii, prile sunt ncurajate s se
uite la imaginea de ansamblu, s
se dea un pas napoi i s dezvol-
te o viziune complet a ceea ce
se ntmpl. Optimismul este n
mod natural ilustrat n explorarea
"celei mai bune alternative la un
acord negociat" (Batna). O parte
a rolului mediatorilor este de a
facilita dezvoltarea unei nelegeri
mai holistice a litigiului, i astfel ar
trebui s abordeze ceea ce prile
vd ca "cea mai proast alternati-
v posibil la un acord negociat"
(WATNA).
Optimismul este esenial pen-
tru condiia uman, conducn-
du-ne la atingerea obiectivelor
noastre i la depunerea de eforturi
pentru a le atinge. Totui, aa cum
relev acest studiu, uneori acelai
optimism ne poate mpiedica s
fm capabili de a vedea riscul asu-
mat n urmrirea acestor obiec-
tive. n confict, riscurile sunt de
multe ori mari, iar n multe cazuri
mai mari dect prile au vrut
s cread, ns medierea ofer o
oportunitate ca prile s se aeze
i s le recunoasc pentru ei nii
i s evalueze realist ct sunt de
periculoase.
Experiena noastr, spre deo-
sebire de aceast cercetare, este
c, n litigiu, aceast recunoatere
a realitilor, att pozitive, ct i
negative, are un efect de atenuarea
privind modul n care prile per-
cep confictul.
Daniel Kershen
coordonator al
CEDR Foundation Project
Sursa: www.cedr.com
BLINDINGLY OPTIMISTIC
R
esearch this weekend has
revealed the reason behind
the human proclivity of
remaining positive, even in the
face of grave adversity reports
the BBC. It turns out that laugh-
ing in the face of danger is not
necessarily down to bravery or
courage, but rather a propensity
for the human brain to virtually
ignore any information that dis-
solves their rose-tinted world-
view. Not laughing anymore!
The study, published in Na-
ture Neuroscience this week,
identifies a faulty process in
our frontal lobe that leads peo-
ple to happily accept news that
allows them to reduce their
perception of risk in any given
situation, whilst they broadly
dismiss anything that indicates
that the risks are actually higher
than previously thought. (This
research relates closely to Mar-
garet Heffernans insightful work
in wilful blindness, which you
can read about on the CEDR
Blog here.) This optimism phe-
nomenon is something that
mediators, working with parties
in conflict, often encounter and
have to manage effectively.
Participants in the study,
whilst being monitored in a MRI
scan, were faced with a series of
possible negative life events such
as developing cancer or being in
a car accident. They were asked
to rate the risk of this event
happening to them, and having
given their evaluation, were pre-
sented with the actual statistical
evidence. If the evidence was
lower than their expected risk,
participants were keen to down-
grade their risk significantly to
align with the evidence. Con-
versely if the participants evalu-
ation of risk was lower than the
evidence presented, the partici-
pants were loath to accept this
and maintained the underesti-
mation of some catastrophe oc-
curring to them.
The MRI results revealed that
when given negative informa-
tion, those of a sanguine dispo-
sition presented the least frontal
lobe activity, whereas the mo-
rose few showed the most activ-
ity. Since frontal lobe activity is
linked with processing errors,
scientists have deciphered that
those who are more inclined to
predict positive outcomes are
not swayed by evidence that goes
against their optimistic outlook.
The world of science has de-
bated why optimism is such a
powerful driver in behaviour,
even when faced with informa-
tion that goes completely against
our rosy prediction. It appears
now that there exists an observa-
ble filtering process occurring in
the human brain to manage this
momentary dissonance, letting
optimism consistently win out.
This is something that can be
observed in conflict quite clearly.
Often individuals in conflict will
find it especially hard to recog-
nise and take on board the im-
plications of information that
contradicts what they believe to
be true or fair. Conflicting par-
ties often find that their deep
seeded feelings of righteousness,
and subsequent expectations for
success can hinder them from
seeing all the possible ramifica-
tions of their actions in a con-
flict.
A CEDR mediator is spe-
cifically trained to manage the
testing of realities, and as such
the negation of potential risks
and pitfalls that lie on the road
to resolution. Through media-
tion the parties are encouraged
to look at the whole picture, to
stand back from the situation
and develop a more rounded
view of whats going on. Opti-
mism is naturally illustrated in
exploring the parties best alter-
native to a negotiated agreement
(BATNA). Part of the mediators
role is to facilitate the develop-
ment of a more holistic under-
standing of the dispute, and so
should also address what the
parties see as their worst pos-
sible alternative to a negotiated
agreement (WATNA).
Optimism is key to the hu-
man condition, driving us to
reach for our goals and strive to
achieve. However as this study
reveals, sometimes that same
optimism can prevent us from
being able to see the risk that we
may be taking in pursuing those
goals. In conflict the risks are
often great, and in many cases
greater than parties let them-
selves believe, however the me-
diation provides an opportunity
for the parties to sit down and
recognise these for themselves
and realistically evaluate how
dangerous they are.
Our experience, contrary to
this research, is that in disputes
this recognition of realities,
both positive and negative, does
have a mitigating effect on how
the parties perceive the conflict
to play out.
Daniel Kershen
CEDR Foundation Project
Co-ordinator
Source: www.cedr.com
medierea, tehnic i art
33
CE ESTE MEDIARCOM?
M
EDIARCOM a fost nfin-
at n 2004 de mediatori
i directori mediatori, cu
experien n medierea de afaceri,
comercial i corporate.
Sandra Estanque Mediator.
Sandra este specializat n medie-
rea de comunitate. Deine o diplo-
ma n tiinele comunitare i sociale
i este supervizor n formarea me-
diatorilor.
Joo Guerreiro Mediator,
avocat, specializat pe medierea de
familie. Face parte din consiliul
Associao de Mediao Familiar
(Asociaia Medierii de Familie)
Jos Vasconcelos-Sousa Me-
diator specializat n medierea de
afaceri. Deine un MBA la MIT's
Sloan School of Management i este
co-preedintele Comitetului pentru
Medierea Comercial din cadrul
Seciei Comerciale a ACR.
Georg Dutschke doctorat
(ABT) pe tema impactului noilor
tehnologii n cadrul organizaiilor,
manager specializat n dezvoltarea
i marketingul organizaional.
MEDIACOM a stabilit liste cu
mediatori certifcai, pregtii pen-
tru a media o gam larg de confic-
te, n numeroase limbi.
MEDIARCOM de asemenea
furnizeaz training i servicii de
consultare n mediere i negociere.
La MEDIARCOM, medierea
este practicat conform standar-
delor internaionale aa cum sunt
defnite de ABA Asociaia Barolu-
lui American <http://www.abanet.
org/home.cfm>, ACR Asociaia
pentru Soluionarea Confictelor
<http://www.acrnet.org/>, AAA
Asociaia American de Arbitraj
<http://www.adr.org/> Standar-
dele de Conduit pentru Media-
tori <http://www.acrnet.org/pdfs/
modelstandards12-29-2004.pdf>,
Codul European de Conduit
pentru Mediatori <http://europa.
eu.int/comm/justice_home/ejn/
adr/adr_ec_code_conduct_en.pdf>
i standardele naionale (cum ar f
CEDR Codul de Conduit pentru
Mediatori).
CUM POT INCLUDE N CONTRAC-
TELE MELE RECURSUL LA
MEDIERE?
Medierea poate preveni litigiile
costisitoare i poate determina so-
luii la timp pentru dispute i con-
ficte. Costurile sczute ale medierii
o fac mai uor de folosit.
MEDIARCOM sugereaz ca in-
divizii, organizaiile i companiile
s includ o clauz de mediere n
contractele lor, prin care prile se
pun de acord s foloseasc medie-
rea nainte de arbitraj sau aciunea
juridic.
Prile acestui contract,
.........A.......... and .........B..........,
sunt de acord ca orice disput
rezultnd din acest contract sau
legat de el, se vor supune, n mod
obligatoriu i ca o prim opiune,
naintea altor mijloace de solui-
onare a disputelor, medierii la un
Centru MEDIARCOM pentru
Soluionarea Confictelor, la care
prile sunt membre.
La MEDIARCOM folosim o
procedur clar pas cu pas explicat
prilor la nceputul medierii.
Nu toate litigiile sunt efectiv de
mediat, astfel c la MEDIARCOM
oferim, de obicei, o evaluare nainte
de a ne angaja n mediere.
Medierea va avea loc de preferin-
ntr-un mediu calm i neutru. n
fecare sesiune, prile vor f ghida-
te i ajutate de ctre mediator, fe n
sesiuni comune sau n ntlniri se-
parate, n cutarea de soluii pentru
confictul lor.
Mediatorii experi ai MEDIAR-
COM au obinut o gam larg de
acorduri la sfritul a trei sesiuni n
medie, de cte 2 3 ore.
CARE SUNT PAII N MEDIERE?
Procesul de mediere urmeaz
un anumit numr de pai care pot
f sintetizai n urmtoarea ordine:
1. Cererea de mediere 2. Evaluarea
posibilitilor de mediere 3. Con-
tactele preliminarii ale MEDIAR-
COM cu prile 4. Prile cad de
acord sa recurg la mediere (n
cazul n care medierea nu o fcut
obiectul unei clauze contractuale)
5. reuniuni pregtitoare separate
(sau videoconferine), cu prile i
avocaii lor 6. Mediatorii MEDIAR-
COM sunt alei conform obiectului
litigiului 7. Acordul cu privire la
procedurile de mediere 8. Semna-
rea de ctre pr a unui consim-
mnt privind forma medierii 9.
edinele de mediere (plenare sau
de grup) 10. Dac se ajunge la un
acord, se scrie i se verifc acordul
11. Semnarea acordului i distruge-
rea notielor mediatorului.
CARE SUNT AVANTAJELE
FOLOSIRII MEDIERII PENTRU
FIRMA MEA SI PENTRU MINE?
Exist mai multe avantaje care
revin persoanelor fzice, compa-
niilor, organizaiilor instituiilor
atunci cnd se utilizeaz medierea.
WHAT IS MEDIARCOM?
M
EDIARCOM was estab-
lished in 2004 by mediators
and manager-mediators
with experience in business, com-
mercial and corporate mediation.
Sandra Estanque Mediator.
Sandra specializes in community
mediation. She holds a degree in
Social and Community Sciences
and she is a supervisor in media-
tion training.
Joo Guerreiro Mediator,
lawyer, specializing in family me-
diation. He is on the board of the
Associao de Mediao Familiar
(Family Mediation Association.)
Jos Vasconcelos-Sousa Me-
diator specializing in business
mediation. MIT's Sloan School of
Management MBA and co-chair
of the Committee for Commercial
Mediation of the Commercial Sec-
tion of the ACR.
Georg Dutschke PhD (ABT)
on the impact of new technologies
in organizations, manager special-
ized in organization development
and marketing.
MEDIACOM has established
lists of qualifed mediators pre-
pared to mediate in a wide range of
issues and languages.
MEDIARCOM also provides
training, coaching and consulting
services in mediation and negotiation.
At MEDIARCOM mediation
is practiced according to inter-
nationally established standards
such as defned by ABA American
Bar Association , ACR Associa-
tion for Confict Resolution, AAA
American Arbitration Association's
Model Standards Of Conduct For
Mediators, the European Code of
Conduct for Mediators and na-
tional standards (such as the CEDR
Code of Conduct for Mediators).
HOW CAN I INCLUDE IN MY
CONTRACTS RECOURSE TO
MEDIATION?
Mediation may prevent costly lit-
igation and can enhance the timely
solution to disputes and conficts.
Te low cost of mediation makes it
easy to use it ofen.
MEDIARCOM suggests that in-
dividuals, organizations and com-
panies include a mediation clause
in their contracts, where the parties
agree to use mediation before us-
ing arbitration or judiciary action.
Te parties to this contract,
.........A.......... and .........B..........,
agree that any dispute resulting
from this contract or related to it,
will be submitted, compulsorily
and as a frst recourse, before any
other means of dispute resolution,
to mediation at a MEDIARCOM
Centre for Confict Resolution, to
which the parties are members .
At MEDIARCOM we use a clear
step-by-step procedure divulged at
the onset of mediation to the par-
ties to the dispute.
Not all disputes are efectively
mediated and at MEDIARCOM we
usually provide an Evaluation be-
fore we commit to mediate.
Te mediation will take place
preferably in a calm and neutral
environment. In each session the
parties will be guided and helped
by the mediator, either in joint or
caucus sessions, in the search for
resolution to their confict.
MEDIARCOM expert media-
tors have achieved a wide range of
agreement at the end of an average
of three, 2 to 3 hour, sessions.
WHAT ARE THE STEPS IN
MEDIATION?
Te process of mediation follows
a certain number of steps that may
be synthesized in the following se-
quence:
1. Request for mediation
2. Evaluation of the possibility to
mediate
3. Preliminary contacts by ME-
DIARCOM with the parties
4. Te parties agree to mediate (if
mediation hasn't been the object of
agreement in advance, for instance
in a contractual mediation clause)
5. Separate preparatory meetings
(or videoconferencing) with the
parties and their lawyers
6. Te MEDIARCOM
mediator(s) are chosen according
to the subject of the dispute
7. Agreement about the media-
tion procedures
8. Signing by the parties of a
Consent to Mediate Form
9. Mediation sessions (either ple-
nary or caucus)
10. If an agreement is reached
writing and verifcation of the
agreement
11. Signing of the agreement and
shredding of the mediator's notes
WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF
USING MEDIATION FOR MY
COMPANY AND MYSELF?
Tere are several advantages
that accrue to individuals, compa-
nies, organizations and institutions
when using mediation.
Te mediated parties usually cite
medierea, tehnic i art
34
Prile mediate citeaz, de obicei,
urmtoarele avantaje la utilizarea
medierii: intimitate total (media-
torul i prile convin asupra conf-
denialitii la debutul medierii, iar
mediatorul nu va f martor n cazul
unei aciuni n justiie); simplitatea
procesului (medierea este un pro-
ces privat, prin urmare, prile sunt
libere s cute un rezultat reciproc
interesant); prile dein controlul
asupra rezultatului (medierea este
un proces voluntar n cazul n care
deciziile sunt luate de ctre prile
mediate); rapiditate pentru a ob-
ine soluionare (un numr mare
de dispute ajung la soluionare n
trei sesiuni de 2-3 ore. Aceste sesi-
uni au loc de obicei la intervale de
timp apropiate ntre ele); costuri
mai mici dect alte metode de re-
zolvare a confictelor (n general,
medierea este o opiune cu costuri
reduse n comparaie cu arbitrajul
sau aciunea n justiie); prezena
mediatorului n discuie are o infu-
en pozitiv (prezena mediatoru-
lui i modul n care el organizeaz
i gestioneaz procesul de mediere
stabilete un mediu viitor orientat
pe rezolvarea problemelor).
AM DEJA UN AVOCAT. DE CE AR
TREBUI SA FOLOSESC SERVICIILE
DVS.?
Serviciile MEDIARCOM vor
efectua o evaluare preliminar a
disputei pentru a stabili dac medi-
erea poate f util.
Medierea permite restabilirea
sau mbuntirea comunicrii n-
tre pri. n mediere se pune accen-
tul pe o soluionare care va satisface
interesele prilor. Nu exist cti-
gtori sau nvini. relaiile prezente
i viitoare dintre pri sunt o preo-
cupare a mediatorului.
Avocaii tuturor prilor mediate
au un rol important i necesar n
cadrul procesului, asistnd i consi-
liind clienii cu privire la diferite so-
luii pentru disput. MEDIARCOM
nu ofer consiliere juridic. Media-
torul nu reprezint prile mediate.
Acesta este rolul avocailor prilor.
Mediatorul este "echidistant" n
ceea ce privete prile mediate i nu
are nicio putere de decizie. Obiecti-
vul mediatorului este de a facilita
i de a sprijini procesul de discuie
ntr-un mod organizat, dirijndu-l
ctre soluii agreate de pri.
ESTE MEDIEREA EFICIENT N
TOATE TIPURILE DE CONFLICTE?
La MEDIARCOM, conside-
rm medierea ideal atunci cnd
interdependena exist sau este
perceput de ctre pri, atunci
cnd o relaie prezent continu i
n cazul n care prile neleg avan-
tajele unei interaciuni mai efcien-
te pentru atingerea obiectivelor lor.
Medierea poate avea un efect
preventiv asupra viitorului, un
efect de soluionare pentru confic-
te declarate costisitoare. Medierea
pentru prevenirea confictelor vi-
itoare este utilizat atunci cnd se
stabilesc contracte, asociaii n par-
ticipaiune i asociaii de companii
pentru scopuri specifce i n toate
tipurile de construire a consensului
i a acordului.
Medierea este, de asemenea,
utilizat n mod efcient n lucrul
n echip, n procedurile comisiilor,
consiliilor public-private i altor or-
ganisme mixte de luare a deciziilor.
Medierea de soluionare poate f
util n toate etapele unui confict
fe c este vorba de un stadiu latent,
declarat sau avansat al unui confict.
Medierea poate f, de asemenea, de
succes atunci cnd exist proceduri
judiciare n curs de desfurare.
Medierea poate f utilizat n ori-
ce moment al unui litigiu i permite
restabilirea negocierilor directe n-
tre pri.
CUM TIU C CEEA CE ESTE
CONVENIT N TIMPUL MEDIERII
ESTE NDEPLINIT?
Acordul realizat n mediere este
un contract ntre pri. Aceasta nu
mpiedic litigii viitoare n instan-
n cazul n care prile consider
necesar.
Ca i n cazul celorlalte obligaii
contractuale, prile sunt libere s
stabileasc coninutul acordurilor
realizate n cadrul medierii. Textul
poate include clauze de stimulare
i sancionare, precum i garaniile
pentru ndeplinirea ei.
Acest contract, ca orice alt con-
tract, dac nu este ndeplinit de
ctre pri, poate face obiectul unei
noi medieri, arbitraj sau aciune n
instan.
La MEDIARCOM, ni se pare util
ca avocaii prilor s fe implicai
n toate etapele procesului de medi-
ere i n special n scrierea acordu-
lui fnal.
UNDE AU LOC SESIUNILE DE
MEDIERE?
Sesiunile de mediere se desf-
oar n locaii sugerate de MEDI-
ARCOM. Sesiunile pot avea loc la
birourile MEDIARCOM sau ntr-o
o locaie neutr convenit de pri-
le mediate.
Locul de desfurare ar trebui s
ofere un mediu calm, n care pot f
efectuate ntlnirile cu toate prile
i reuniunile. Prin acordul ntre
pri, orice locaie cu aceste carac-
teristici poate f utilizat pentru se-
siunile de mediere.
CT DUREAZ UN PROCES DE
MEDIERE?
Numarul de edinte de mediere
necesare pentru a se ajunge la un
acord depinde de complexitatea li-
tigiului sau confictului.
Mediatorii experi ai MEDIAR-
COM au obinut o gam larg de
acorduri la sfritul unei medieri
the following advantages from us-
ing mediation:
Complete privacy (the mediator
and the parties agree upon conf-
dentiality on the onset of mediation
and the mediator will not be a wit-
ness in the event of a court action);
Process simplicity (mediation is a
private process therefore the medi-
ated parties are free to search for a
mutually interesting outcome); Te
mediated parties have control over
the outcome (mediation is a vol-
unteer process where the decisions
are taken by the mediated parties);
Rapidity to achieve resolution (a
large number of disputes advance
to resolution in mediation in three,
two to three hour, sessions. Tese
sessions are usually held at close
time intervals between them); Low-
er cost than other confict resolu-
tion methods (generally mediation
is a low cost option when compared
to arbitration or court action); Te
mediators presence in the discus-
sion has a positive infuence (the
presence of the mediator or media-
tors and the way he or she organizes
and manages the mediation process
establishes a problem solving future
oriented environment).
I ALREADY HAVE A LAWYER. WHY
SHOULD I USE YOUR SERVICES?
MEDIARCOM services will per-
form a Preliminary Evaluation of
the dispute to establish if mediation
may be useful.
Mediation allows for re-estab-
lishing or improving communica-
tion between the parties. In me-
diation the focus is on a resolution
that will satisfy the parties interests.
Tere are no winners or losers. Pre-
sent and future relations between
the parties are a concern of the me-
diator.
Lawyers from all the mediated
parties have a relevant and neces-
sary role in the process, assisting
and counselling their clients on the
diferent solutions for the dispute.
MEDIARCOM does not provide
juridical counsel. Te mediator
does not represent the mediated
parties. Tat is the role of the par-
ties lawyers.
Te mediator is equidistant in
regards the mediated parties and he
or she has no decision power. Te
mediators objective is to facilitate
and support the discussion process
in an organized fashion, directing it
to solutions agreeable to the parties.
IS MEDIATION EFFECTIVE IN ALL
KINDS OF CONFLICTS?
At MEDIARCOM we consider
mediation ideal when interde-
pendency exists or is perceived by
the parties, when a continued re-
lationship is present and when the
parties understand the advantages
of a more efective interaction to
achieve their objectives.
Mediation can have a preventive
efect on future, costly, conficts or
a resolutionary efect for declared
costly conficts. Mediation for pre-
venting future confict is used when
establishing contracts, joint ven-
tures, and associations of compa-
nies for specifc purposes and in all
types of consensus and agreement
building.
Mediation is also used efectively
in teamwork, committee proceed-
ings, public-private councils and
other mixed decision-making bod-
ies.
Resolutionary mediation can be
useful at all stages of a confict be
it in latent, declared or advanced
stages of a confict. Mediation can
also be successful when there are
judiciary proceedings under way.
Mediation can be used at any
moment of a dispute and allows for
re-establishing direct negotiations
between the parties.
HOW DO I KNOW THAT WHATEVER
IS AGREED UPON IN MEDIATION
IS FULFILLED?
Te agreement achieved in me-
diation is a contract between the
parties. It does not prevent future
litigation in court if the parties fnd
it necessary.
As with all other contractual obli-
gations the parties are free to estab-
lish the contents of the agreement
achieved in mediation. Te text
may include incentive and penali-
zation clauses as well as guaranties
for its fulflment.
Tis contract, like any contract, if
not fulflled by the parties may be
the object of a new mediation, arbi-
tration or court action.
At MEDIARCOM we fnd it use-
ful for the lawyers for the parties to
be involved at all stages of the me-
diation process and particularly in
the writing of the fnal agreement.
WHERE DO THE MEDIATION
SESSIONS TAKE PLACE?
Te mediation sessions take
place at venues suggested by ME-
DIARCOM. Te sessions may take
place at MEDIARCOM ofces or a
neutral location agreed upon by the
mediated parties.
Te venue should provide a
calm environment where meet-
ings with all the parties, as well as
separate, caucus, meetings, may be
conducted. By agreement between
the parties any location with these
characteristics may be used for the
mediation sessions.
HOW LONG DOES A MEDIATION
PROCESS TAKE?
Te number of necessary me-
diation sessions necessary to reach
agreement depends on the com-
plexity of the dispute or confict.
MEDIARCOM expert media-
tors have achieved a wide range of
medierea, tehnic i art
35
care dureaz n medie trei zile a
cte 2 3 ore.
Dac la sfritul edinei a treia
prile nu simt c a avut loc o evo-
luie pozitiv n direcia unui acord,
atunci mediatorul va sugera, de
obicei, suspendarea medierii.
n medierile de succes, mai multe
sesiuni pot f necesare pentru a scrie
acordul, dup ce acordul a fost atins.
CT COST MEDIEREA?
Costul unei medieri de succes
este mai mic dect costul altor opi-
uni de soluionare a confictelor. La
MEDIARCOM exist o tax iniial,
administrativ, pentru deschidere
procedurii i evaluarea posibilitii
de a media. Fiecare sesiune de me-
diere este pltit pe ora de mediere.
n medierea ntre societi ar putea
exista o plat n legtur cu caracte-
risticile companiei.MEDIARCOM
va oferi ntotdeauna o evaluare cla-
r a costurilor posibile.
CINE PLTETE?
Fiecare parte mediat va pl-
ti MEDIARCOM o tax iniial
administrativ, pentru a ncepe
procedura. MEDIARCOM propu-
ne o mprire egal a plilor ntre
pri. Cu toate acestea, prile sunt
libere s convin asupra unei alte
distribuii a costurilor de mediere.
Formula convenit pentru plata ta-
xei va f inclus ntr-un document
semnat de ctre pri nainte de a
ncepe mediere.
CINE SUNT MEDIATORII?
Mediatorii sunt profesioniti cu
pregtire formal n metodele, pro-
cedurile i codul de conduit pen-
tru mediatori ai MEDIARCOM.
Toi mediatorii de pe listele ME-
DIARCOM au parcurs cursurile de
formare n mediere ale MEDIAR-
COM munca lor este suprave-
gheat i evaluat n mod regulat.
Toi mediatorii MEDIARCOM au
urmat cursuri de formare n medi-
ere i au avut practic n domeniul
medierii, n anumite zone care sunt
eligibile pentru mediere, n cazurile
aduse la MEDIARCOM.
DAC NU SE AJUNGE LA UN
ACORD?
n cazul n care prile nu ajung
la un acord printr-un proces de
mediere, ei pot opta pentru utili-
zarea altor metode de soluionare
a litigiilor. Medierea nu mpiedic
utilizarea arbitrajului sau a aciunii
judiciare. Potrivit regulamentului
MEDIARCOM, mediatorul sau
mediatorii prezeni la mediere sunt
mpiedicai s depun mrturie n
instan sau s divulge coninutul
sesiunilor de mediere.Pentru a le
arta clienilor notri angajamentul
privind aceast regul, mediatorul
va rupe n buci, n timpul ultimei
sesiuni, notiele luate pe parcursul
medierii.
CINE IA PARTE LA MEDIERE?
Potrivit mediatorilor experi de
la MEDIARCOM este important
ca factorii cheie de decizie pentru
fecare parte mediat s fe prezeni
n mediere. n cazul n care nu este
posibil, atunci cineva care are pute-
rea de a se angaja n numele prii
trebuie s fe prezent. Unul sau doi
mediatori MEDIARCOM vor f
prezeni precum i avocaii prilor
n cazul n care prile doresc acest
lucru. Altor participani li se per-
mite accesul, n cazul n care prile
simt c este necesar,dar prezena
lor trebuie s fe convenit nainte
de sesiune, de ctre toate prile i
mediatorul (i).
Sursa:
http://www.mediarcom.com
agreement at the end of an average
of three, 2 to 3 hour, sessions.
If at the end of the third session
the parties do not feel that a posi-
tive evolution has taken place in
the direction of agreement then
the mediator will usually advise the
suspension of the mediation.
In successful mediations more
sessions may be necessary for writ-
ing the agreement, afer agreement
has been reached.
HOW MUCH DOES MEDIATION COST?
Te cost of a successful media-
tion is lower than the cost of other
confict resolution options. At ME-
DIARCOM there is an initial, ad-
ministrative, fee for opening the
proceedings and evaluation of the
possibility to mediate. Each me-
diation session is paid on a fee per
hour of mediation. In mediation
between companies there may be
a payment related to the character-
istics of the companies. MEDIAR-
COM will always provide a clear
evaluation of potential cost.
WHO PAYS?
Each mediated party will pay ME-
DIARCOM an initial, administrative,
fee to start the proceedings. MEDI-
ARCOM proposes an equal split of
fee payments between the parties.
However the parties are free to agree
on a diferent distribution of media-
tion costs. Te agreed upon formula
for splitting fee payments will be in-
cluded in a document signed by the
parties before mediation starts.
WHO ARE THE MEDIATORS?
Te mediators are professionals
with formal training in the methods,
proceedings and code of conduct
for mediators of MEDIARCOM.
All mediators on the MEDI-
ARCOM lists have gone through
MEDIARCOM mediation training
their work is supervised and eval-
uated regularly. All MEDIARCOM
mediators had mediation training
and have had practice in mediation
in the specifc areas they are eligible
to mediate in cases brought to ME-
DIARCOM.
WHAT IF AN AGREEMENT IS NOT
REACHED?
In the event that the parties do
not reach agreement through a
mediation process they can opt for
the use of other dispute resolution
method. Mediation does not pre-
vent the use of arbitration or judici-
ary action. According to MEDIAR-
COM regulation the mediator or
mediators present at mediation are
precluded to testifying in court or
divulge the contents of the media-
tion sessions. To show our clients
our commitment to this rule the
mediator(s) will shred the notes he
or she may have taken during me-
diation at the last session.
WHO TAKES PART IN THE
MEDIATION?
According to the expert media-
tors at MEDIARCOM it is impor-
tant that the key decision makers
for each mediated party be present
in mediation. If that is not possible
then someone who has the power
to commit for the party needs to
be present. One or two MEDIAR-
COM mediators will be present and
the lawyers for the parties will also
be present if the parties so desire.
Other participants are allowed if
the parties feel they are necessary
but their presence has to be agreed
upon ahead of the session by all the
parties and the mediator(s).
Source:
http://www.mediarcom.com
CINE SUNTEM SI UNDE MERGEM
J
oi primesc un telefon inopinat
la capatul caruia o am ca in-
terlocutoare pe dna. Gabriela
Ichim, vicepresedinte al As. Cen-
trul de Mediere Bacau.
Dna. Ichim ma anunta cu multa
bunavointa ca sunt invitata la Ba-
cau ca sa-mi ridic premiul in cadrul
decernarii lui la Conferinta Me-
dierea de la teorie la practica care
incepea a doua zi, adica vineri la
orele 19,00.
Stirea a fost surprinzatoare, nesti-
ind initial carui fapt datorez aceasta
onoare. Intotdeauna lucrurile au
importanta lor si sunt strans legate
unele de altele. Vorba veche ceea ce
semeni, tot aceea vei culege a func-
tionat si in aceasta conjunctura.
Desi stiam de acest eveniment de
la Bacau, nu-mi propusesem sa par-
ticip la el din diverse considerente.
In acel moment al primirii vestii,
programul meu pentru cele doua
zile era altul. O eventuala schim-
bare in agenda mea insemnau re-
nuntari majore. Insa, faptul ca eram
fericita castigatoare a unui premiu
neasteptat, primul de acest fel, m-a
facut sa-mi reconsider pozitia si sa
caut solutii pentru a putea solutio-
na problema ivita.
Ziua de 28 octombrie 2011 imi
va ramane mereu in amintire. Am
cel putin trei motive pentru a nu
o uita. Primul este acela ca au avut
loc alegerile pentru membrii noului
Consiliu de Mediere. Evident ca la
ora 10,00 am fost la sediu pentru a
vota. Al doilea este faptul ca am pri-
mit pentru prima data un premiu
nesperat, pentru un lucru pe care
l-am facut din constiinta si pentru
care nu asteptam niciun fel de re-
WHO WE ARE AND WHERE WE GO
T
hursday, I received an unex-
pected call from Ms. Gabriela
Ichim, Vice president of the
Bacau Mediation Center Associa-
tion.
Ms. Ichim kindly announced me
that I was invited to Bacau to collect
my prize at the awarding ceremony
within the "Mediation, from theory
to practice" Conference that was to
begin the following day, i.e. on Fri-
day at 19.00 hours.
Te news was surprising, initially
not knowing to which actually I
owe this honor. Tings have always
their importance and are closely re-
lated to each other. Te old saying
"what you sow, you harvest" func-
tioned in this situation too.
Although I knew about this
event in Bacau, I decided not to
attend it due to various reasons.
At the time of receiving the news,
my schedule for the two days
was different. A likely change
in my agenda would mean ma-
jor losses. But being the happy
winner of an unexpected prize,
the first of this kind, made me
reconsider my position and seek
solutions to deal with the prob-
lem encountered.
I will always remember the day
of October 28, 2011. I have at
least three reasons not to forget it.
The first is that elections for the
members of the new Mediation
Council were held. Obviously,
at 10.00 oclock in the morning
I went to the head office to vote.
Second, is was for the first time I
received an unexpected award for
something I did out of my con-
sciousness and for which I wasnt
medierea, tehnic i art
36
compensa. Anume,
in Proiectul lansat
de UCMR Relan-
sarea medierii prin
informare si impli-
care am participat
la un sondaj de
opinie cu 3-4 luni
in urma, program
de care si uitasem.
Iar in al trei-lea
rand continutul
premiului a fost
destul de surprin-
zator. Constand in
participarea la un
curs de perfecti-
onare in Analiza
confictului cotat
cu 16 puncte profe-
sionale si avandu-l
ca formator pe Dl.
Mugur Mitroi, pre-
sedintele UCMR.
Este putin sau
mult, am realizat
eu lucruri marete
sau prea putine,
nu stiu exact. Importanti sunt alti
factori. Daca cu opt ore in urma, in
acea zi treceam pe langa presedin-
tele UCMR si-l salutam in curtea
Consiliului de Mediere, mergand
la vot, viata avea sa-mi ofere o se-
rie de surprize mai tarziu si in zile-
le urmatoare, primind de la acesta
o recunoastere si un curs gratuit.
Mergand mai departe, am cunoscut
persoane implicate in fenomenul
medierii, persoane calde, constiin-
cioase, muncitoare si demne, ala-
turi de care poti sa muncesti pe rup-
te dar poti si sa formezi un cor sau
cu care poti dansa brasoveanca.
Am realizat ca dincolo de orice
bariere comunicationale, cei mai
importanti sunt oamenii, principii-
le si valorile pe care fecare si le cul-
tiva, onestitatea si implicarea dezin-
teresata, atitudinea corecta fata de
munca si implicit profesionalismul.
Intr-o fraza: samanta plantata, uda-
ta, plivita si ingrijita corespunzator,
care mai tarziu iti va da rodul mult
asteptat si dorit.
Multumesc Mugur pentru ge-
nerozitate si apreciere, multumesc
Gabrielei pentru alegerea si corec-
titudinea ei, multumesc tuturor ce-
lor care timp de doua zile, la Bacau,
m-au primit si m-au tratat cu multa
caldura, ca pe propriul lor coleg,
chiar daca fac parte din organizatii
concurente cu a lor.
Cum nimic in viata nu-i intam-
plator, nici medierea in Romania
nu este o intamplare. Este o saman-
ta care a fost plantata. Depinde de
noi cum vom obtine roadele.
Valeria Ciupitu
Mediator
expecting any reward. Namely,
within the project launched by
UCMR "Re-launch of mediation
through information and involve-
ment," I participated in a survey
3-4 months before, a program that
I had even forgotten about. Third,
the prize itself was quite surpris-
ing, namely the participation in a
training course in "Conflict anal-
ysis" rated 16 professional points,
held by Mr. Mugur Mitroi, Presi-
dent of UCMR.
Whether is less or more, whether
I achieved great or little things I do
not know exactly. Other factors are
important. Eight hours before that
day I was passing by the UCMR
President and saluting him in the
Mediation Council backyard, while
going to voting, but life was about
to ofer me a series of surprises
later on that day
and the following
ones, receiving this
recognition and
a free course. Go-
ing forward, I met
people involved in
the mediation phe-
nomenon, warm,
c o ns c i e nt i o u s ,
hardworking and
dignifed people,
with whom you
can work hard, but
you also can form
a choir or dance
"Brasoveanca" (Ro-
manian dance)
I realized that be-
yond any commu-
nication barrier, the
most important are
the people, princi-
ples and values each
cultivates, honesty
and selfess involve-
ment, the right at-
titude towards work
and implicitly the professionalism.
In a phrase: the seed planted, wa-
tered, weeded and care for it, which
will give you the long expected and
desired harvest later on.
Tank you Mugur for your gen-
erosity and appreciation, I thank
Gabriela for her choice and fairness,
I thank all those who, for two days
in Bacau, welcomed me and treated
me with great warmth, as if I were
their colleague, even though I am
part of organizations competing
with them.
As "Nothing in life is accidental,"
mediation in Romania is not an ac-
cident either. It is a seed that was
planted. It depends on us how we
get the fruits.
Valeria Ciupitu
Mediator
ZILELE MEDIERII LA BACU
I
n zilele de 28 si 29 octombrie
2011 la sediul Consiliului Jude-
ean Bacu i la Arena Mall, a
avut loc, Prima ediie a, , Zilelor
Medierii la Bacu", manifestare
organizat de Asociaia Centrul de
mediere Bacu i Uniunea Centre-
lor de mediere din Romnia.
Evenimentul a avut drept scop
implementarea medierii n comu-
nitatea bcuan.
MEDIEREA ESTE CEA MAI
EFICIENTA METOD DE SOLU-
IONARE A CONFLICTELOR PE
CALE AMIABIL pentru c presu-
pune TIMP I COSTURI REDUSE
de soluionare a litigiilor, dar mai
ales ofera prilor SANSE REALE
I EGALE DE CTIG.
Medierea este o procedur prin
care prile ajutate i asistate de o
ter persoan specializat, reuesc
s DECID ELE NSELE asupra
modului de stingere a litigiului lor,
evitnd astfel timpul ndelungat de
soluionare a confictului, costurile
mari, incertitudinea rezultatului f-
nal, publicitatea, stresul, etc. Unul
din marile avantaje ale procedurii
medierii este RESTITUIREA TA-
XEI DE TIMBRU pltita de prti
instanelor de judecat pentru in-
vestirea acestora.
La eveniment au participat; Mari-
cica Coa - Vicepresedinte la Consi-
liul Bacu, Munteanu Elena - Con-
sultant Cancelaria Prefectului, Elena
Mitea -senator, Carmen Cioltan-
Consilier Judeean, Lcrmioara
Moglan Vicepreedinte la Curtea de
THE MEDIATION DAYS IN BACAU
O
n October 28 and 29, the
Bacu County Council and
Arena Mall hosted the frst
event dedicated to the Days of
Mediation in Bacu, organized by
the Bacu Mediation Center As-
sociation and the Union of Media-
tion Centers from Romania.
Te event aimed at implementing
mediation in the Bacu community.
Mediation is the most efcient
method to solve conficts amicably, as
it implies low time and money costs,
but more importantly, it ofers the
parties real and equal gain chances.
Mediation is a procedure by
which the parties, helped and as-
sisted by a third specialized per-
son, manage to decide themselves
on the way to terminate the con-
fict between them, thus avoiding
the long time for solving the issue,
the high costs, the incertitude of
the fnal result, publicity, stress,
etc. One of the most important ad-
vantages of mediation procedure
is the restitution of the stamp fee
paid by the parties to the courts of
law when investing them.
Te event was attended by Ma-
ricica Coa Vice president of the
Bacu Council, Munteanu Elena
Consultant within the Prefects
Ofce Chancellery, Elena Mitea
senator, Carmen Cioltan county
councilor, Lcrmioara Mog-
lan Vice president of the Bacu
Court of Appeals, Maria Munte-
anu President of the Bacu Tri-
bunal, Simona Panfl president
medierea, tehnic i art
37
Apel Bacu, Maria Munteanu Prese-
dinte la Tribunalului Bacu, Simona
Panfl - Presedinte la Judectoria
Podul Turcului, Maria Oborocianu
- Magistrat la Tribunalul Bacu, Mi-
haela Crciun -Magistrat Judecto-
ria Bacu, Adina Ioni - Magistrat
la Judectoria Buhui, Mugur Bog-
dan Mitroi - Preedinte la Uniunea
Centrelor de Mediere din Romnia,
Candet Gigi Nucu -Decan al Baro-
ului Bacu, Ghigea Vasile -Decan
al Colegiului Consilierilor juridici,
Carmen Zaharia Ciorcil-Notar
public, Mintean Mircea- Director
executiv DFPB, Valerica Mtel
-lector- formator, consilier juridic
la Casa de Asigurri de Pensii Ba-
cu, Lcrmioara Mocanu- lector
universitar, doctor -Reprezentant
Universitatea Petre Andrei din Iai,
Carmen Georgeta Fifrig- reprezen-
tant Serviciul de Asisten Social
Bacu, Marioara Maxina-Psiholog,
Costic Rusu- Viceprimar Com St-
nieti Jud Bacu, etc.
Agenda lucrrilor, , Zilelor Me-
dierii" a cuprins mai multe actiuni.
1. O Conferinta intitulat , , Me-
dierea de la teorie la practic" si
a vizat ntlnirea reprezentanilor
autoritilor, instanelor de judecat,
institutiilor i oamenilor politici, cu
mediatorii din judeul Bacu si din
alte judete. Astfel participantii peste
100 la numr au luat cunotint de
evolutia medierii pe ntreg teritoriul
rii i de necesitatea continu de a
gsi noi modaliti de impunere a
medierii ca ACTIVITATE de IN-
TERES PUBLIC, aa cum este con-
sfnit de art 4 din Legea 192/ 2006.
2. , , Caravana Medierii" a fost
destinat ntlnirii publicului larg
cu mediatorii din Bacu si difuza-
rea ctre acesta, a unui numr de
500 de exemplare ale revistei de
specialitate, , Medierea Tehnic i
Art", numr consacrat Centrului
de mediere din Bacu.
3. , , Sptmna medierii gratu-
ite" un proiect pilot unic pe terito-
riul Romniei, ce a vizat nscrierea
participantilor prezeni la , , Ca-
ravana Medierii" ntr-un program
de medieri GRATUITE care s fe
oferite de membrii Asocatiei. Ac-
tiunea a fost ncununat de succes.
Cetenii s-au artat interesati de
procedura medierii pentru c lu-
nd contact direct cu specialistii
din domeniu, au putut s neleag
mai bine PRINCIPIILE I AVAN-
TAJELE MEDIERII i au decis c
merit s profte de aceast ans ce
li s-a oferit.
4. Masa Rotund din 29 octom-
brie a reunit iari reprezentani ai
instanelor de judecat i mediatori
din alte judete. Mediatori de succes
ca; Mugur Bogdan Mitroi din Cra-
iova, Marina Ioana Alexandru din
Bucureti, Anca Simona Cnep din
Galai, Corina Andrei din Botoani,
Simona Tocitu din Constanta, Gri-
gora Ctlin din Botoani, Mirela
Merluc din Piatra Neam, au dis-
cutat despre ; evoluia medierii pn
n prezent, promovarea medierii,
gradul de aplicabilitate al acesteia la
instanele de judecat din localiti-
le lor, necesitatea unei pregatiri pro-
fesionale continui, necesitatea unei
practici unitare n domeniul medi-
erii la nivel naional, dar i despre
calitile unui mediator de succes.
Prin interventiile magistratilor
bcuani prezenti la aceste mani-
festri, s-a remarcat INTERESUL,
DESCHIDEREA i SPRIJINUL
acordat pn n prezent de Curtea
de Apel, Tribunalul i Judectoria
Bacu tuturor mediatorilor din ju-
de pentru ca procedura medierii
sa fe mai bine implementat n
comunitate i mai usor nsuit de
justiiabili.
De asemenea, colegii mediatori
din alte judee, au adus n discuie
i strategiile pe care le-au aplicat
pentru depirea piedicilor, ivite pe
parcursul promovrii i practicrii
medierii.
Un lucru si mai remarcabil este
faptul c att ct a fost posibil, ca
timp alocat acestor manifestri, la
eveniment au fost reprezentate insti-
tuiile care se confrunt cu cele mai
multe petitii i conficte n desfu-
rare sau n devenire. Nu a lipsit nici
Biserica care prin reprezentantul
su Preotul Ciuche Eugen Ciprian
consilier n cadrul sectorului social
-flantropic al Episcopiei Romanului
i Bacului ne-a sustinut n demer-
surile noastre de a implementa me-
dierea n comunitile religioase.
Mai mentionm un fapt luda-
bil i anume faptul c tot n 28 oc-
tombrie 2011, Centrul Regional de
mediere din Bacu, a inaugurat n
colaborare cu Tribunalul Bacu i
Judectoria Bacu, la sediul Jude-
ctoriei Bacu, Biroul de informare
a justiiabilor de ctre mediatori,
care va funciona ncepnd cu 1
nov 2011. Se poate spune ca ambele
Centre de mediere au acionat prin
iniiativele ntreprinse n aceast
sptmn, n interesul i n bebe-
fciul ceteanului i justiiabilului
bcuan. Activitatea de mediere
ca activitate de interes public, i
va aduce contribuia la nfptui-
rea actului de justiie, numai dac
toate instituiile abilitate i vor da
concursul n acest sens i mai ales,
dac cetenii nelegnd avantajele
procedurii medierii vor apela ct
mai des la aceasta pentru stingerea
pe cale amiabil a litigiului dintre ei.
Orice persoan afata n confict,
are DREPTUL de a f informat prin
toate mijloacele posibile despre exis-
tenta acestei alternative, ns alege-
rea modului de stingere a litigiului,
i aparine n exclusivitate.
Gabriela Ichim
Avocat. Mediator
Vicepreedinte Uniunea Centrelor
de Mediere din Romnia
of the Podul Turcului Court, Ma-
ria Oborocianu judge with the
Bacu Tribunal, Mihaela Crciun
judge Bacu Court, Adina Ioni
judge with Buhui Court, Mu-
gur Bogdan Mitroi president
of the Union of Mediation Cent-
ers from Romania, Candet Gigi
Nucu Dean of Bacu Bar, Ghigea
Vasile Dean at the Legal Coun-
cilors College, Carmen Zaharia
Ciorcil notary public, Mintean
Mircea executive director DFPB,
Valerica Mtel lecturer train-
er, legal councilor with the Bacu
Insurance and Pension House,
Lcrmioara Mocanu university
lecturer, PhD representative of
the Iai Petre Andrei University,
Carmen Georgeta Fifrig repre-
sentative of the Bacu Social Assis-
tance Service, Marioara Maxina
psychologist, Costic Rusu Vice
mayor Stnieti village, Bacu
County, etc.
Te Days of Mediation agenda
included several actions.
1. Te Mediation, from theory
to practice" conference, which
aimed at organizing a meeting
between the representatives of au-
thorities, courts, institutions and
politicians, with the mediators
from Bacu and other counties.
Tose more than 100 participants
learned about the evolution of
mediation throughout the coun-
try and the continuous need to
fnd new ways to impose media-
tion as public interest activity, as
approved by article 4 of Law
192/2006;
2. Te Mediation Caravan" im-
plied the meeting of the public
with the Bacu mediators and dis-
tribution of 500 copies of the Me-
diation technique and art" maga-
zine, a special issue dedicated to
the Bacau Mediation Center;
3. Free mediation week, a
unique pilot project in Romania,
which registered the participants
attending the Mediation Caravan
in a free mediation program to be
ofered by the Associations mem-
bers. Te action was a real success.
Citizens have shown interest in
the mediation procedure, given
that they were able to take direct
contact with specialists in the feld
and were able to understand better
the PRINCIPLES AND ADVAN-
TAGES of mediation and decided
it was worth taking this chance
they were given;
4. Te Round Table held on
October 29 gathered again the
representatives of the courts and
mediators from other counties.
Successful mediators such as: Mu-
gur Bogdan Mitroi from Craiova,
Marina Ioana Alexandru from
Bucharest, Anca Simona Cnep
from Galai, Corina Andrei from
Botoani, Simona Tocitu from
Constanta, Grigora Ctlin from
Botoani, Mirela Merluc from
Piatra Neam talked about: the
evolution of mediation so far,
promotion of mediation, the ap-
plicability of mediation within
the courts from cities represented,
the need for a continuous profes-
sional training, the need for a uni-
tary practice in mediation feld at
country level, but also about the
qualities of a successful mediators.
Te interventions made by the
Bacu judges attending this event
highlighted the interest, openness
and the support given so far by: the
Bacu Court of Appeals, Tribunal
and Court of Law to all mediators
in the county, so that the mediation
procedure is best implemented in
the community and made more
understandable to the litigants.
Also, the peer mediators from
other counties also discussed
about the strategies they applied
to overcome the impediments that
occurred during promotion and
practicing mediation.
A remarkable aspect is the fact
that the event was also attended,
within the limits of the time pos-
sibilities, by the representatives of
the institutions which confront the
highest number of petitions and
pending conficts. Te Church was
also present, through its representa-
tive Priest Ciuche Eugen Ciprian, a
councilor at the social-philanthrop-
ic segment of the Roman and Bacu
Episcopacy, who supported in our
attempts to implement mediation
in the religious communities.
Its also worth mentioning that
on October 28, 2011 the Regional
Mediation Center from Bacu in-
augurated, in collaboration with
Bacu Tribunal and Court of Law,
at the Bacu Court premises, an
information ofce on mediation
for litigants, which is to func-
tion starting November 1, 2011.
We may say that both Mediation
Centers acted through the initia-
tives taken this week, in the inter-
est and for the beneft of the Bacu
citizens and litigants. Mediation,
as activity of public interest will
bring its contribution to the ac-
complishment of the justice act,
only if all institutions author-
ized work for this and especially
if the citizens, understanding the
advantages of mediation, use this
procedure as ofen as possible to
amicably terminate the litigation
between them.
Any person in confict has the
right to be informed through all pos-
sible means about the existence of
this alternative, however the way in
which the confict is terminated be-
longs exclusively to that person.
Gabriela Ichim
Lawyer. Mediator
Vice president of the Union of
Mediation Centers from Romania
Iunie 2011 Bucureti Iulie 2011 Brila August 2011 Braov
Septembrie 2011 Constana Octombrie 2011 Bacu
Noiembrie 2011 Cluj-Napoca Decembrie 2011 Ploieti
Ianuarie 2012 Tulcea Februarie 2012 Galai Martie 2012 Iai
Aprilie 2012 Baia Mare Mai 2012 Bucureti Iunie 2012 Arad
medierea, tehnic i art
39
Uniunea Centrelor de Mediere din Romania
Str. I.C. Brtianu, Nr. 39, Apt. 1C, Cluj Napoca - CLUJ
Mail: ofce@mediere-nv.ro
Telefon: 0747.22.67.68, 07472-CMRNV
Fax: 0264 591 356
Site: http://mediere-nv.ro/
ISSN 2069-1378 10,00 LEI
Lista membrilor Colegiului Mediatorilor
din Regiunea de Nord-Vest Cluj-Napoca
Nr.
crt.
NUME SI
PRENUME
Adresa Telefon & E-mail
1
JEFLEA SORIN-
NARCIZ
Cluj Napoca, str. 21
Decembrie nr. 134/21
0744.631.086
sorin.jefea@mediere-nv.ro
sorin.jefea@yahoo.com
2
PANTEL
CRISTINA-
MIHAELA
Cluj Napoca, str. M.
Eminescu nr. 13/1
0740.624.750
cristina.pantel@mediere-nv.ro
cristina.pantel@gmail.com
3 CIRLIG AURORA Cluj Napoca, str.
0743.566.096
aurora.cirlig@mediere-nv.ro
aurora.cirlig@gmail.com
4
VISAN OANA
BIANCA
Cluj Napoca,
0735.535.999
oana.visan@mediere-nv.ro
oana.visan@gmail.com
5
FLORE
MARIUS-
NICOLAE
Cluj Napoca, str.
0725.349.974
marius.fore@mediere-nv.ro
mariusfore@btrl.ro
6
GHEORGHIES
VIORICA
Cluj Napoca, str.Avram
Iancu nr. 49
0743.013.636
viorica.gheorghies@mediere-nv.ro
viorica.gheorghies@gmail.com
7
CRISAN
CAMELIA
GABRIELA
Cluj Napoca, str.
0740.086.463
camelia.crisan@mediere-nv.ro
camigabicrisan@yahoo.com
8 TODA CIPRIAN
Cluj Napoca, str.
Alexandru Vaida
Voievod nr. 59
0745.668.320
ciprian.toda@mediere-nv.ro
ciprian.toda@ocaziiauto.ro
9
ONAC CORINA-
ANGELA
Cluj Napoca, str. 21
Decembrie 1989,
nr.93/62
0745.922.733
corina.onac@mediere-nv.ro
corinaonac@yahoo.com
10
DEATCU
MIRCEA
SERGIU
Cluj Napoca, Aleea
Baita, nr.5/28
0736.680.136
mircea.deatcu@mediere-nv.ro
msd2x2002@yahoo.com
11
OLTEAN
STEFANIA
SANDA
Cluj Napoca, str.
0745.424.001
sanda.oltean@mediere-nv.ro
stefaniasanda@yahoo.com
12
BOTA DANIELA-
ANCA
Cluj Napoca, str.
0745.641.247
anca.bota@mediere-nv.ro
bria_ancadaniela@yahoo.com
13
CODREAN DAN-
CRISTIAN
Cluj Napoca, str.
0744.477.399
dan.codrean@mediere-nv.ro
codreandan82@yahoo.com
14
TOADERE
IOANA
Cluj Napoca, str.
0742.060.499
ioana.toadere@mediere-nv.ro
toadere_ioana@yahoo.com
Nr.
crt.
NUME SI
PRENUME
Adresa Telefon & E-mail
15
REBELEANU
ADINA
Cluj Napoca, str.
0766.454.052
adina.rebeleanu@mediere-nv.ro
adinarebeleanu@yahoo.com
16
SUCIU
CRISTINA-
MARIA
Cluj Napoca, str.
0722.577.638
cristina.suciu@mediere-nv.ro
inalia_s@yahoo.com
17
CUCULEANU
LAURENTIU-
CATALIN
Turda, jud Cluj str.
0722.517.408
catalin.cuculeanu@mediere-nv.ro
ccuculeanu@personal.ro
18
RUSU RARES
STELIAN
Cluj Napoca, str.
0722.110.120
rares.rusu@mediere-nv.ro
rares.rusu@yahoo.com
19 JUHASZ IOSIF
Floresti, Jud. Cluj, str.
Ghe. Doja bl. F, sc. 2,
ap. 25A
0741.387.882
iosif.juhasz@mediere-nv.ro
offce@juhasz.ro
20
HOSSU ANDREI
HOREA
Cluj Napoca, str.
0731.250.903
andrei.hossu@mediere-nv.ro
andreihossu@yahoo.com
21
GECSE-
BORGOVAN
ALEXANDRU
Cluj Napoca, str.
0744.773.509
alexandru.gecse@mediere-nv.ro
gecsed@yahoo.com
22
RUSU
AUGUSTIN-
MIRCEA
Turda, jud. Cluj, str.
George Cosbuc
nr.11/3
0741.050.682
mircea.rusu@mediere-nv.ro
mircea.rusu@ymail.com
23
MOROSANU
GRIGORE-
FLORIN
Cluj Napoca
0740.248.139
forin.morosanu@mediere-nv.ro
forin_morosanu@yahoo.com
24
PINTILIE
IOANA-MONICA
Cluj Napoca
0752.271.557
monica.pintilie@mediere-nv.ro
monica31pintilie@gmail.com
25
ANDREICA
RADU CORNEL
Cluj Napoca
0745.777.746
radu.andreica@mediere-nv.ro
26
DENITIU
MIHAELA
Cluj Napoca, str.
Plopilor nr.30-32, bl
L3, ap.40
0741.284.038
mihaela1170@yahoo.co.uk
27
VARGA
ALEXANDRA
GEORGIA
Cluj Napoca, str.
Avram Iancu nr.7, ap.1
0724.707.390
alexandravarga@yahoo.com
28
GOCAN
LIDICICA
Cluj Napoca, str.
Pitesti nr.1, ap 31
0744.842.268
gocan.lidicica@cluj.astral.ro
29
GURZAU
ADRIAN
Cluj Napoca
adrian.gurzau@mediere-nv.ro
adrian.gurzau@gmail.com