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Effects of co-worker support and customer cooperation on service employee

attitudes and behaviour: Empirical evidence from the airline industry

Thanawut Limpanitgul
, Matthew J. Robson
, Julian Gould-Williams
, Weerawit Lertthaitrakul
Faculty of Management Sciences, Kasetsart University, 199 M.6 Sukhumvit Road, Si Racha, Chonburi 20230, Thailand
Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds, United Kingdom
Cardiff Business School, Cardiff University, United Kingdom
Faculty of Business Administration, Sripatum University, Thailand
a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history:
Received 3 October 2012
Accepted 24 May 2013
Available online
Co-worker support
Customer cooperation
Service employee
Job attitude
a b s t r a c t
The service marketing literature promotes the importance of customers and co-workers in providing
excellent service delivery. Using a sample of 335 cabin service attendants of a major ag-carrier airline,
we examine structural effects of support received from customers and co-workers on service employees
attitudes and behaviours. In support of our hypotheses, we identify that the relationships between
customer cooperation and external representation (i.e. the willingness of employees to promote the
organization to outsiders), and the relationship between co-worker support and internal inuence
(i.e. employees involvement in recommending service improvements) are fully mediated by job satis-
faction and organizational commitment. However, the data did not support two of our hypotheses,
namely the effect of organisational commitment on internal inuence, and the effect of customer
cooperation on organisational commitment. It is possible that these non signicant ndings are a
consequence of our respondents collectivistic values along with their differentiating between the or-
ganization and customers.
2013 The Authors.
1. Introduction
The tourism industry has grown to become one of the largest
and most important sectors in many countries. The industry con-
tributes more than nine percents of world GDP and represents ten
percent of employment worldwide (World Travel and Tourism
Council, 2011). This said, there are growing numbers of tourism-
related rms, resulting in intense competition between rival com-
panies. As such, the pursuit of service excellence is considered an
essential strategy (Gould-Williams, 1999). Increasing numbers of
service providers seek to deliver superior service to customers in
order to exceed customer expectations (Peccei & Rosenthal, 2001).
Scholars have suggested that quality can be enhanced when em-
ployees do that little bit extra for the customer (Ennew & Binks,
1999). As a result, a signicant number of studies of employee
extra-role behaviours have been carried out in various service
contexts. The empirical evidence to date supports the signicant
role of organisational citizenship behaviour (hereafter OCB), which
is dened as employee discretionary behaviour that is intended to
help either individuals or organisations (see Podsakoff, Whiting,
Podsakoff, & Blume, 2009 for review).
However, Bell and Menguc (2002) reported that most studies
rely on generic measures of OCB which are assumed to be appli-
cable across contexts. To date, little is known about citizenship
behaviours that are service-specic. The signicance of these
service-specic behaviours stems from an observation that some
forms of OCB might be more appropriate for some sectors than
others (Borman & Motowidlo, 1993). In the service sector, where
employees have special requirements on dimensions related to
dealing with customers and representing the organisation to out-
siders (p. 90), studies have attempted to identify specic forms of
service employee citizenship behaviour (SECB). One prevalent
stream of work (e.g. Bettencourt & Brown, 1997) has emphasised
prosocial service behaviour (PSB), which represents positive be-
haviours that service employees direct at customers and co-
workers. The service literature reveals two other dimensions of
employee behaviour, namely internal inuence and external rep-
resentation which are critical to the success of service organisations
(cf. Bowen & Schneider, 1985). According to Bettencourt, Gwinner,
and Meuter (2001), external representation reects allegiance to
the organisation through the promotion of its interests and image
to outsiders whereas internal inuence refers to involvement and
* Corresponding author.
E-mail addresses:, (T. Limpanitgul).
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management
j ournal homepage: ht t p: / / www. j ournal s. el sevi er. com/ j ournal - of - hospi t al i t y-
and- t ouri sm- management
1447-6770/$ e see front matter 2013 The Authors.
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management 20 (2013) 23e33
contribution of constructive ideas to improve service quality
delivered by the company and its workers. While the literature has
paid some attention to identifying drivers of PSB, the origins of
internal inuence and external representation remain largely un-
known. This is an issue as the drivers of internal inuence and
external representation may be different to those of PSB. In the
absence of evidence, it is possible for practitioners to assume that
components of SECB (i.e. PSB, internal inuence and external rep-
resentation) are equivalent, as in the recent case of Virgin Atlantic,
who red employees for negatively representing the organisation
to outsiders on Facebook on the basis that these individuals could
not possibly be good service providers (The Sun, 1 November
In service organisations, co-workers and customers are
considered important elements of service work (Korczynski, 2002;
Susskind, Kacmar, & Borchgrevink, 2007; Zeithaml, Bitner, &
Gremler, 2009). There are recognitions of the service provider-
customer interdependence (Netemeyer, Boles, McKee, &
McMurrian, 1997; Schneider & Bowen, 1992; 1995; Schneider
et al, 2003) and the essence of co-worker cooperation (Azzolini &
Shillaber, 1993) in the delivery of excellent service. However, only
few studies have examined these interpersonal exchange re-
lationships (Ladd & Henry, 2000; Sherony & Green, 2002). Specif-
ically in the service context, little attention has been given to the
support that employees may receive from other concerned parties
during service provision despite its promising effects on employee
responses (Yoon, Seo, & Yoon, 2004). The main objective of this
study is to provide a holistic understanding of SECB and support
received from co-workers and customers. In this respect, we
make two main contributions to the literature. First, the extant
literature reviewreveals that only a limited number of studies have
considered the effects of support on psychological and behavioural
responses of the service employee. In addition, existing con-
ceptualisations of relationships among these variables are some-
how mixed. Therefore, the present study seeks to empirically
provide evidence of the theoretically-anchored structural expla-
nation between support and service behaviour. Second, we focus on
identifying the drivers of multi-component SECB. To our knowl-
edge, no prior work has focused on the drivers of SECB as a whole
(incorporating PSB, internal inuence, and external representa-
tion), limiting managerial understanding of the facets of citizenship
Following the section addressing the development and con-
ceptualisation of service employee citizenship behaviour, we
introduce our theoretical model and develop our hypotheses. Then,
the paper describes the measurement process, including the sam-
ple characteristics obtained from a major ag-carrier airline
designed to test our proposed model and hypotheses. Finally, we
conclude the paper with discussions of the implications and limi-
tations of the ndings and suggest avenues for future research.
2. Conceptual background
2.1. Development of service employee citizenship behaviour
Based on the OCB literature, with particular reference to the role
of service employees, Bettencourt and Brown (1997) con-
ceptualised PSB as comprising of two dimensions of discretionary
behaviours which employees directed at external customers (i.e.
extra-role service delivery) and, internally, at their co-workers (i.e.
cooperation), as well as role-prescribed tasks that employees are
required to perform for customers. Taken together, PSB can be
dened as behaviours, both in-role and extra-role, directed towards
customers and co-workers that ultimately affect service perfor-
mance as perceived by customers (Bettencourt & Brown, 1997).
Later, Bettencourt et al. (2001) introduced a newtailored formof
OCB called service-oriented OCB which consists of three funda-
mental roles of service employees that derive from the position of
boundary spanners including loyalty, participation and service
delivery. Their conceptualisation of service-oriented OCB was
largely inuenced by concept of loyalty, participation, and consci-
entiousness introduced by Van Dyne, Graham, and Dienesch
In subsequent work (i.e. Bettencourt & Brown, 2003;
Bettencourt, Brown, & MacKenzie, 2005), two of the three com-
ponents of service-oriented OCB, loyalty and participation have
been renamed external representation and internal inuence,
respectively. Surprisingly, the later studies (i.e. Bettencourt &
Brown, 2003; Bettencourt et al., 2005; Bettencourt et al., 2001)
mainly focus on organisational-related citizenship behaviours (i.e.
external representation and internal inuence) and ignore the
importance of the extra-role customer service delivery element and
cooperation among co-workers proposed earlier (cf. Bettencourt &
Brown, 1997). To the best of the authors knowledge, no study has
simultaneously examined all these ve aspects of service-specic
OCB. Given that there is no existing term for the construct that
includes all these dimensions, the present study employs the label
SECB to distinguish this concept fromother terms of service-related
2.2. Conceptualisation of service employee citizenship behaviour
Inconsistency in OCB conceptualisations, that is, multi-
dimensional versus multi-component approaches, is evident in
the literature. This is also the case with tailored forms of OCB in the
services marketing context. The problem seems to be exacerbated
by the very small number of papers on tailored OCB related to the
service context. This said, there is growing evidence supporting the
conceptualisation of the three service delivery behaviours (i.e. in-
role service delivery, extra-role service delivery, and cooperation)
within a higher-order construct. There is no easy distinction be-
tween in-role and extra-role service behaviours. To this point,
Morrisons (1994) study showed that variation exists in how in-
dividuals implicitly dene and measure OCB. The boundary be-
tween what is perceived as in-role and extra-role varies; some
individuals view specic behaviours as in-role, while others view
these same behaviours as beyond their duties (Kwantes, Karam,
Kuo, & Towson, 2008). Lam, Hui, and Law (1999) demonstrated
empirically that employees in collectivistic societies (Hong Kong
and Japan) were more likely to dene OCBs as part of expected job
behaviour than employees in individualistic societies (Australia and
the United States). Employee perceptions of extra-role behaviours
as in-role may result in employee engagement of such behaviours
(Coyle-Shapiro, Kessler, & Purcell, 2004). It is, therefore, more
appropriate to consider extra-role and in-role behaviours within a
higher-order construct (Ackfeldt & Wong, 2006). Accordingly, we
employed a higher-order conceptualisation of the individual-
directed service-related behaviour constructs that comprise PSB.
Following prior studies (Bettencourt & Brown, 2003:
Bettencourt et al., 2005), the remaining two parts of SECB (i.e. in-
ternal inuence and external representation) are modelled as
separate, distinct components. The justication is that: (1) These
constructs are not closely connected to customer service delivery,
thus allowing the employee to more easily separate themselves
from their role-prescribed duties. Moornman and Blakely (1995)
concluded that individual initiative and loyal boosterism (i.e. in-
ternal inuence and external representation in our study) are easily
distinguishable from in-role behaviour. Additionally, external rep-
resentation, by denition, occurs outside the work setting; (2) With
reference to Williams and Andersons (1991) two-factor approach
T. Limpanitgul et al. / Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management 20 (2013) 23e33 24
to OCB (i.e. organisation-directed OCB and individual-directed
OCB), internal inuence and external representation constructs
are a conceptually distinct group of behaviours that is targeted to
improve the organisation rather than promoting customer service
per se.
3. Research hypotheses
3.1. Job satisfaction and organisational commitment
Although existing research has produced a considerable amount
of empirical evidence concerning the relationships between
employee job satisfaction, organisational commitment and OCB,
few OCB studies have examined these two attitudinal constructs at
the same time. With recognition of the interdependence between
job satisfaction and organisational commitment (Luthans, 2002;
Rayton, 2006) and the importance of both constructs in under-
standing employee behaviour (Harrison, Newman, & Roth, 2006;
Tett & Meyer, 1993), services scholars have called for further
studies to investigate and to incorporate both attitudinal variables
in future research on prosocial service behaviour (Ackfeldt & Wong,
2006; Bettencourt & Brown, 1997).
Although job satisfaction and organisational commitment are
job attitudes, job satisfaction is believed to cause organisational
commitment because it is more specic, less stable, and more
rapidly formed (Williams & Hazer, 1986). Job satisfaction reects
immediate reactions to job facets (Locke, 1976), thus forming soon
after organisation entry. On the other hand, commitment is thought
to develop more slowly in the workplace, and after the individual
possesses a good understanding not only of the job but also of
organisational goals and values, performance expectations and
their consequences, and the implications of membership mainte-
nance (Mowday, Porter, & Steers, 1982). Thus, organisational
commitment is seen as forming and stabilising sometime after
organisational entry with more immediate formation of job satis-
faction acting as one of its many determinants (Vanderberg
&Lance, 1992, p. 154). Previous evidence consistently supports the
view that job satisfaction among service employees leads to higher
levels of organisational commitment (e.g. Bettencourt & Brown,
2003; Bettencourt et al., 2005; Brown & Peterson, 1994; Lee,
Nam, Park, & Lee, 2006; MacKenzie, Podsakoff, & Ahearne, 1998).
In particular, prior work appears to favour the causal precedence of
job satisfaction in the development of emotional attachment of
employees. We thus propose positive relationships between job
satisfaction and organisational commitment.
H1: There is a positive relationship between job satisfaction and
organisational commitment
3.2. Job satisfaction and SECB
The notion that job attitudes are related to job performance
continues to attract much attention in organisation studies
(Bowling, 2007). Job satisfaction is asserted to be the focal
employee attitude from both research and practical perspectives
(Saari & Judge, 2004). Two inuential denitions of job satisfaction
were offered by Locke (1969, 1976). Locke rst dened job satis-
faction as the pleasurable emotional state resulting from the
appraisal of ones job as achieving or facilitating ones job values
(1969, p. 317), and subsequently in his chapter in the Handbook of
Industrial Psychology as a pleasurable or positive emotional state
resulting from an appraisal of ones job or job experiences (Locke,
1976, p. 310). Thus, as an attitude, job satisfaction is a positive (or
negative) evaluative judgement one makes about ones job or job
situation (Weiss, 2002, p. 175).
Reciprocity norms suggest that employees who are satised with
their job are more likely to engage in service-oriented behaviours
than those who are dissatised with their jobs (Bettencourt et al.,
2001; Netemeyer et al., 1997). Additionally, it is proposed from a
social exchange perspective that extra-role behaviour is a means by
which employees reciprocate organisational situations with which
they are satised. Exchange of socio-emotional resources between
employees and organisations was implicitly supported by the meta-
analytic study of Hoffman, Blair, Meriac, and Woehr (2007), which
suggested that OCB related more closely to work attitudes than task
performance. Prior work has revealed that job satisfaction appears to
be one of the most robust predictors of various traditional forms of
OCB (e.g. Bettencourt & Brown, 1997; 2003; Donavan, Brown, &
Mowen, 2004; Farh, Podsakoff, & Organ, 1990; Hoffman et al.,
2007; Lee et al., 2006; MacKenzie et al., 1998; Netemeyer et al.,
1997; Niehoff & Moorman, 1993; Organ & Ryan, 1995; Organ, 1988;
Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Paine, & Bachrach,, 2000; Smith, Organ, &
Near, 1983; Todd & Kent, 2006). Thus, the present study
H2: There are positive relationships between job satisfaction
and prosocial service behaviour (H2a), internal inuence (H2b),
and external representation (H2c)
3.3. Organisational commitment and SECB
Organisational commitment is another job attitude that has
attracted considerable research attention among management
theorists as it has been found to lead to important work-related
behaviours (Meyer & Allen, 1997). Organisational commitment in-
volves the emotional attachment of individuals to the organisation
(Meyer & Allen, 1991). As a result of such attachment, it is likely that
individuals will perceive the organisations problems and outcomes
as their own. Indeed, all forms of behaviour that are benecial to
the organisation can be anticipated as a result of employee
commitment. Based on social exchange theory, it is asserted that
employees who are committed to their company will exert them-
selves on the job (Organ, 1988), with increased effort being the
means by which employees reciprocate rewards or benets
received from co-workers, supervisors and/or the organisation as a
whole (Lee, 2001). Morrison (1994) pointed out that employees
with a high level of affective commitment perceive their roles more
expansively and, thus, are more likely to engage in prosocial
organisational behaviours. Previous studies have found empirical
support that a high level of commitment is related to manifesta-
tions of behaviours that fall beyond role-prescribed duties (e.g.
Ackfeldt & Wong, 2006; Baruch, OCreevy, Hind, & Vigoda-Gadot,
2004; Bettencourt & Brown, 2003; Chen & Francesco, 2003; Cro-
panzano & Mitchell, 2005; Kwantes, 2003; MacKenzie et al., 1998;
Organ & Ryan, 1995). Thus:
H3: There are positive relationships between organisational
commitment and prosocial service behaviour (H3a), internal in-
uence (H3b), and external representation (H3c)
3.4. Co-worker support and job attitudes
The shift of job content fromsteady and routine individual tasks
to more complex and collective tasks (Harrison, Johns, &
Martocchio, 2000) has enhanced co-workers salience and their
essential inuence (Chiaburu & Harrison, 2008). Co-workers are
not only an important part of the social environment, they can also
literally dene it (Schneider, 1987). Scholars observe that service
employees who experience conict between their true feelings
and their expressed feelings d emotional labour (see Hochschild,
1983) d often form a community with fellow co-workers at
which they can express their true feelings in order to cope and thus
T. Limpanitgul et al. / Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management 20 (2013) 23e33 25
reduce stress at work (Hochschild, 1983; Korczynski, 2003). Addi-
tionally, co-workers themselves inuence working environments
and depending on whether the inuence is perceived as positive or
negative, this in turn will further effect employee attitudes at work.
According to Thoits (1983), the provision of support from people
who are similar to the support recipients and who share similar
work experiences is likely to be more effective than support
received from persons in out-groups.
Ladd and Henry (2000, p. 2034) dene co-worker support as
employees global beliefs concerning their co-workers attitudes
toward them. On this basis, perceived co-worker support is the
team-level equivalent of perceived organisational support. The
difference is that co-worker support is likely to be more discre-
tionary than vertical support (i.e. organisational/supervisor sup-
port) which is governed by authority ranking (Chiaburu & Harrison,
2008). Job satisfaction is considered a pleasurable or positive
emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job or job
experience (Locke, 1976). As such, job satisfaction should be posi-
tively associated with co-worker support. A possible rationale for
this assertion is that the employees evaluation of co-workers is one
of the most important determinants of overall job satisfaction
(Luthans, 2002; Smith, Kendall, & Hulin, 1969). Research has shown
that job satisfaction and organisational commitment are highly
correlated (Rayton, 2006), and as such, it can be expected that
determinants of job satisfaction will also inuence organisational
commitment. Empirical research has also found that co-worker
support effects job satisfaction and organisational commitment
(Chiaburu & Harrison, 2008; Ducharme & Martin, 2000; Iverson,
1996; Iverson & Bittigieg, 1999; Iverson & Deery, 1997; Lance,
1991; Paulin, Ferguson, & Bergeron, 2006). Thus we hypothesise;
H4: Co-worker support has positive effects on job satisfaction
(H4a) and organisational commitment (H4b)
3.5. Customer cooperation and job attitudes
Customer cooperation is one of the three components of
customer voluntary performance-CVP (i.e. loyalty, participation,
and cooperation) introduced by Bettencourt (1997). Customer
cooperation is regarded as an important fundamental part of the
customers experience and perceived quality. Research has indi-
cated, from both customers and providers perspectives, that
smooth cooperation is important and is valued as a fundamental
component of a service (Bostrom, 1995). As CVP has just recently
started attracting research attention (see Rosenbaum & Massiah,
2007) and the available studies on CVP place focus only on
exploring determinants of such behaviour (cf. Bettencourt, 1997;
Rosenbaum & Massiah, 2007), the employee psychological and
behavioural consequences of CVP, and in particular customer
cooperation, remain largely unknown.
As service providers are on the interface between the organi-
sation and the customer (Schneider & Bowen, 1995), their behav-
iours are not only affected by organisational practices but also by
customer behaviours (Ryan, Schmit, & Johnson, 1996; Schneider,
White, & Paul, 1998). Several commentators consider the role
played by customers in the service process to be so important that
customers should be considered as partial employees (see Bowen,
1986; Mills, 1986). When customers are considered a part of the
service team, the argument regarding effects of their behaviours on
service employee attitudes are strengthened. As was argued in the
case of co-workers, Korczynski (2003) points out that the customer
can be a vital source of work experience for service employees.
Several scholars have suggested that positive customer behaviours
(e.g. participation and cooperation) can co-create pleasant service
experiences (Bitner, Faranda, Hubbert, & Zeithaml, 1997; Ennew &
Binks, 1996; Van Dolen, De Ruyter, & Lemmink, 2004). We believe
that such pleasant service encounters created by positive customer
behaviour not only results in customer positive emotional out-
comes (e.g. customer satisfaction), but also employees psycho-
logical responses to the service work. Drawing from the above
discussion, the following hypotheses are proposed:
H5: Customer cooperation has positive effects on job satisfac-
tion (H5a) and organisational commitment (H5b)
3.6. Co-worker support, customer cooperation, and SECB
The previous sections have discussed the effects of co-worker
support and customer cooperation on job satisfaction and organ-
isational commitment. As of yet it is unclear how co-worker sup-
port and customer cooperation should be integrated into
explaining service employee behaviour. Several studies report
direct effects of social support on performance, whereas others
found that the effect of social support on job performance is
mediated by job attitudes. Bagozzi (1992) suggests that individual
behaviour is a function of the experiences they encounter in the
work environment, referred to as outcome-desired experiences.
Such experiences have been classied as outcome-desired conict
or fullment. Outcome-desired conicts occur when an individual
fails to meet a goal or experiences an unpleasant event whereas,
outcome-desired fullment occurs when a goal is met or the in-
dividual has a pleasant experience. These outcome-desired expe-
riences are followed by negative or positive emotional responses
respectively. Consequently, negative responses will result in coping
intentions to reduce the conict while positive responses will result
in coping intentions to maintain, increase, or share the experience.
In turn, behaviours follow each of the coping intentions. According
to Schmit and Allsecheid (1995), the essential attribution of this
model is that it elaborates on a more general framework developed
by Lazarus (1991) that links appraisal, emotional responses, and
coping in a sequential process.
This attitude-intention-behaviour framework has been success-
fully applied to explain both consumer behaviours (e.g. Gotlieb,
Grewal, & Brown, 1994; Schoefer & Ennew, 2005) and employee
behavioural intentions (e.g. Chen & Chiu, 2008; Paulin et al., 2006;
Schmit & Allsecheid, 1995). Also, it was found that conceptual
models of several scholarly studies appear to correspond with
Bagozzis (1992) framework (e.g. Bettencourt et al., 2005; Lee et al.,
2006), even though there was no explicit reference to this frame-
work. As outlined earlier, co-worker support and customer coopera-
tion affect the extent to which employees can achieve their service-
related goals and, subsequent work experience. Another factor in-
volves the employees own appraisal (or assessment) of the support
provided by co-workers and/or customers which has been shown to
be substantially related to job attitudes (e.g. Chen & Chiu, 2008; Ng &
Sorensen, 2008; Paulinet al., 2006; Sherony&Green, 2002; Yoonet al.,
2004). The extant literature has also revealed a robustness of the job
attitude-performance link. The present study was therefore designed
to put the relationship between co-worker support, customer coop-
eration, employee attitudes and SECB into the comprehensive con-
ceptual framework (Bagozzi, 1992; see Fig. 1). Thus,
H6: The effects of co-worker support on SECB are mediated by
job attitudes.
H7: The effects of customer cooperation on SECB are mediated
by job attitudes.
4. Research methodology
4.1. Context of the study
Among travel and tourism industries, the airline industry is
considered as an ideal context for employee citizenship behaviour
T. Limpanitgul et al. / Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management 20 (2013) 23e33 26
studies for three main reasons. First, the airline industry is widely
recognised as a vital component of the world economy, facilitating
international trade and investment. According to IATA (2008), the
global commercial aviation industry generates approximately $510
billion in revenue in 2007 and is forecast to generate this amount
throughout the next decade. In the United States alone, the airline
industry employs about half a million people (Bureau of Labour
Statistics, 2011). Second, air transport is considered as the key
element in the tourism industry (Hanlon, 1999). The interplay be-
tween air transport and the tourismindustry is well recognised as it
facilitates the growth of tourism (Wheatcroft, 1998). Air transport
can be viewed as the main door to a nations tourism industry. For
example, approximately 85 percent of international tourists arrive
by air when visiting Thailand (TourismAuthority of Thailand, 2011).
Third, the characteristics of cabin service work are conducive to the
study of citizenship behaviours. For instance, cabin service work is
of relatively long duration (usually involving many hours of in-
teractions between ight attendants and passengers) in compari-
son to other service work (i.e. retail banking or grocery store work),
providing ight attendants increased opportunities to engage in
citizenship behaviours. Although it is recognised that the main
activities of cabin work are safety and customer services, in normal
ight conditions excellent customer service is likely to be the main
focus of the crew. However, to the best knowledge of the author, no
citizenship behaviour study has been conducted in the airline in-
dustry, thus suggesting a need for research to explore this industry.
Thus, we would argue that this research context is particularly
important and relevant to the study of citizenship behaviours.
4.2. Sample and data collection
The present study collected data using a questionnaire. A total of
650 copies of the questionnaire were distributed among a national
airlines cabin crew. The questionnaires were distributed and
collected (in sealed envelopes) through the companys manage-
ment structure. Accordingly, it was important to guarantee
respondent anonymity in order to limit social desirability. This
process resulted in the return of 341 completed questionnaires. Due
to missing values six of the returned questionnaires were dis-
carded. Thus, the nal number of usable questionnaires was 335,
creating an effective response rate of 53.60%. To conrm the
generalizability of the research ndings, testing of non-response
bias was conducted. A series of t-tests (two-tailed) were conduct-
ed for the main study variables and demographic variables for early
and late respondents. The results showed no signicant differences
in responses between the two groups. Hence, non-response bias
was assumed not to be a serious problem in this study.
The respondents consisted of male (45.4%). Approximately, 80
percent of the respondents were single and aged below 35 years
old. Almost all of them hold at least a rst degree and identied
themselves as of Thai ethnic background. Their average annual
income was 12,120 GBP. Most of the respondents held a position of
full ight attendant and had worked in the organisation for no
more than ve years.
4.3. Measures
All the constructs were operationalised using Likert-type rating
scales anchored by 1 strongly disagree and 7 strongly agree.
Job satisfaction was measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction Ques-
tionnaire (Weiss, Davis, England, & Lofquist, 1967) consisting of
twenty positively worded items measuring three different
aspectsdintrinsic, extrinsic and globaldof job satisfaction. This
twenty-item measure has been shown to possess good psycho-
metric properties (Weiss et al., 1967). Questions developed by
Meyer and Allen (1991) were used to measure the affective
component of organisational commitment. This scale has been used
frequently in prior marketing research, and found to have gener-
alizability across cultures (e.g. Ko, Price, & Mueller, 1997; Lee, Allen,
Meyer, & Rhee, 2001). Prosocial service behaviour comprising three
latent dimensions was measured by 15 items developed in
Bettencourt and Browns (1997) study, ve questions capturing
each dimension. Internal inuence and external representation were
measured by ten items developed by Bettencourt et al. (2005). As a
result of pre-study eldwork, some items relating to employee
behaviours were slightly reworded to suit the research context. Co-
worker support was measured by four items followed fromLadd and
Henry (2000). Three items modied from Graham (1991); Van
Dyne et al. (1994); & Bettencourt (1997) was used to measure
Customer cooperation. Modications on items measuring customer
cooperation were made with accordance to the interview data
conducted beforehand. (See Appendix for items used in the present
The present study followed the questionnaire development
process outlined by Churchill and Iacobucci (2002). Once the
questionnaire had been generated, the source version was trans-
lated into Thai following Douglas and Craigs (2006, 2007) robust
procedures for conducting cross-culture research. To detail, the
source questionnaire was separately translated fromEnglish toThai
by two independent translators who hold a PhD in the eld of
English linguistics and are familiar with technical terms in business
areas, thus resulting in two versions of target questionnaire. The
translators along with an independent academic researcher were
then invited to a meeting to adjust and nalise the Thai-version
questionnaire. The rened version of the questionnaire was then
sent to an academic ofcer who is a specialist in Thai linguistic to
check for wording ambiguities and appropriate use of the language.
The target questionnaire was then extensively pretested with po-
tential informants prior to the main data collection phrase.
Amendments were made accordingly. This collaborative translation
approach brings together disciplinary expertise and cultural
knowledge so that the conceptual equivalence between the source
and target questionnaires is ensured.
4.4. Common method bias
In this study, it was not appropriate to handle the issue of
common method bias by using other-rating (e.g. supervisor-rating)
for OCB. Due to the nature of service delivery in the airline business
(i.e. space and logistical issues), many of the OCBs investigated
would not readily be evident to an alternative rating source (Allen,
Barnard, Rush, & Russell, 2000; Organ & Konovsky, 1989). For
pragmatic reasons, prospective informants were asked to rate their
perceptions of own service delivery performance.
Nevertheless, we employed procedural (i.e. psychological sep-
aration and assuring anonymity and condentiality) as well as
statistical remedies suggested by Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Lee, and
Podsakoff (2003), to control the common method variance.
Due to the fact that theory and research on the topic of prosocial
behaviour has presumed a social desirability element to the
Fig. 1. Conceptual model.
T. Limpanitgul et al. / Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management 20 (2013) 23e33 27
behaviours (Nienoff, 2001), the present study therefore identies
social desirability as the main source of OCB. We were able to
directly measure and assess social desirability bias with ve items
borrowed from Reynolds (1982) short-form social desirability
5. Analysis and results
The present study utilised AMOS 6 to examine the measurement
model and test the proposed structural relationships between the
constructs. Prior to the analysis, multivariate assumptions
(i.e. normality, multicollinearity, and outliers) were diagnosed. The
results revealed that the data met all requirements so that
normality and other assumptions were not a serious concern in
interpreting the study results.
5.1. Measurement validation
The rst step in the analysis was to examine the measurement
relationships and evaluate the reliability and validity of the con-
structs. To do this, all constructs with original numbers of items
were entered into exploratory factor analysis with Varimax rota-
tion. The results showed relatively few items with cross-loadings
over .30 (Rentz, Shepherd, Tashchian, Dabholkar, & Ladd, 2002).
Such items were removed after careful scrutiny of the impact on
scale content validity. The items retained from this stage were
subject to conrmatory factor analysis.
Overall the measurement model tted the data well (all factor
loadings were signicant at p <.001, and the goodness of t indices
were: c
(df) 592.730
, CFI .939, TLI .929, RMSEA .049).
All of the factor inter-correlations are signicant (p < .05). Com-
posite reliability and variance extracted (calculated by the formula
provided by Hair, Anderson, Tatham, & Black, 1998) scores show
that all constructs possess internal consistency (Composite
reliability > .70) and convergent validity (average variance
extracted > .50). The presence of discriminant validity was
demonstrated by the fact that of all square roots of variance
extracted estimates are larger than the corresponding inter-
construct correlation estimates (see Table 1).
5.2. Structural model
The goodness-of-t statistics for the conceptual model indicate
that the model ts the data well and provide the support for the
model (c
(df) 673.757
, CFI .922, TLI .913, RMSEA .055).
The standardized parameter and their t-values displayed in Table 2
were examined to test hypotheses. Overall, nine of the eleven re-
lationships hypothesising direct effects are found to be statistically
signicant (p < .01). Consistent with the majority of previous
studies, the results show signicant associations between job
satisfaction and organisational commitment (b .38, p < .001),
prosocial service behaviour (b .57, p < .001), internal inuence
(b .68, p < .001), and external representation (b .51, p < .001).
Therefore, H1 and H2 are accepted. H3 is only partially supported as
the results reveal that organisational commitment only has direct
relationships with prosocial service behaviour (H3a, b .28,
p < .001) and external representation (H3c, b .28, p < .001), but
not internal inuence (H3b, b .04, p > .05). The paths from co-
worker support to job satisfaction and organisational commit-
ment are positive and signicant (b .44, p < .001 and b .21,
p < .01, respectively), thus lending support H4. H5 predicting
positive relationships between customer cooperation and
employee job attitudes received partial support as only the esti-
mates from customer cooperation to job satisfaction is found to be
signicant (H5a, b .25, p < .001).
5.3. Test of mediation effect
Hypothesis 6 and 7 predicted that job attitudes would mediate
the effects of co-worker support and customer cooperation on
SECB, respectively. To test for mediation effects we followed the
requirements outlined by Baron and Kenny (1986). In doing so,
three different structural models were estimated (see Table 3). The
basic requirements for mediation are that independent variables
must signicantly affect proposed mediators in the rst model, and,
in the second model, the independent variables must have signif-
icant direct relationships with dependent variables. The third
model included all the variables (i.e. independent, mediator, and
dependent variables). The specic requirements for partial medi-
ation are that the mediator must affect the dependent variables in
this model, the direction of effect must be as hypothesised, and the
effect of the independent variables in this model must be less than
that noted in the second model. For full mediation, the signicant
relationships between independent variables and dependent vari-
ables in Model 2 must become non-signicant in Model 3 after the
mediator is added to the analysis (see Table 3).
Table 1
Means, SD, latent construct inter-correlations, and reliability estimates.
Construct Means (SD) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1. PSB 5.79 (.74) .68, .72
2. Internal inuence 5.29 (.90) .62 .75, .84
3. External representation 5.78 (.85) .62 .60 .72, .76
4. Organisational commitment 5.60 (1.15) .51 .38 .51 .83, .87
5. Job satisfaction 5.13 (.69) .61 .66 .56 .45 -, .86
6. Co-worker support 5.00 (.91) .31 .38 .25 .38 .57 .78, .86
7. Customer cooperation 4.00 (1.33) .21 .24 .22 .13 .43 .37 .81, .85
Sub-diagonal entries are the latent construct inter-correlations. The rst entry on the diagonal is square root of the AVE, whilst the second entry is the composite reliability
Table 2
Results of hypotheses concerning direct relationship.
H Hypothesised relationship Std. estimate t-value Result
H1 JS /AC .38 4.599*** Supported
H2a JS /PSB .57 5.858*** Supported
H2b JS /INT .68 9.631*** Supported
H2c JS /EXT .51 6.836*** Supported
H3a AC /PSB .28 3.595*** Supported
H3b AC /INT .04 0.701 Not supported
H3c AC /EXT .28 4.020*** Supported
H4a CWS /JS .44 6.653*** Supported
H4b CWS /AC .21 2.852** Supported
H5a CSC /JS .25 3.875*** Supported
H5b CSC /AC -.11 1.692 Not supported
(df) 673.757
, CFI .922, TLI .913, RMSEA .055.
***p < .001, **p < .01.
T. Limpanitgul et al. / Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management 20 (2013) 23e33 28
The results revealed that co-worker support (i.e. an independent
variable) signicantly affected both job attitude variables (i.e. pro-
posed mediators) in Model 1, and also signicantlyaffected all of the
dependent variables (SECB) in the second model. The signicant
relationship between co-worker support and internal inuence in
Model 2 (b .37, p <.001) became insignicant (b .11, p >.05) in
Model 3 inwhich the mediators are added, thus providing evidence
to support the mediation effect of job attitudes on the CWS /INT
relationship. Even though, the CWS /PSB and CWS /EXT re-
lationships are signicant, the effects are negative (i.e. not in the
proposed direction). As a result, H6 is only partially supported.
Regarding the moderating effect of job attitudes on the relationship
between customer cooperation and service employee citizenship
behaviours, the results provide partial support to H7 as job satis-
factionmediates only the effect of customer cooperationonexternal
representation. To detail, customer cooperation signicantly affects
only job satisfaction in the rst model, leaving organisational
commitment irrelevant for further analysis. The results in Model 2
indicate no direct associations between customer cooperation and
prosocial service behaviour (b .12, p > .05) and internal inuence
(b .12, p > .05). As such, there can be no mediation effect.
5.4. Assessment of social desirability bias
Once the trimmed model was established, the effects of social
desirability bias on the structural paths were examined. A stringent
procedure was conducted to assess the extent to which social
desirability bias inuenced the results. Specically, the recom-
mendations of Williams and Anderson (1994) and Podsakoff et al.
(2003) were followed. Because tests for common method bias us-
ing structural equation modelling require direct effects and multi-
item construct measures (Andrews, Netemeyer, Burton, Moberg,
& Cristiansen, 2004; also see Robson, Katsikeas, & Bello, 2008),
the current study estimated the impact of such bias for the
CWS /AC, AC /PSB, and AC /EXT paths. Social desirability
was loaded on all indicators of the constructs of interest. The
goodness-of-t indices (c
(df) 735.439
, CFI .903, TLI .886,
RMSEA .058) showed that the model with social desirability bias
ts the data adequately. However, the results revealed that the
inclusion of social desirability bias did not attenuate the signi-
cance level of the path estimates between the constructs of interest
(the three paths remained at p < .001). Thus, such bias does not
fully explain the results.
6. Discussion
The basic premise of this study is that the support received from
co-workers and customers has indirect effects, mediated by job
satisfaction and organisational commitment, on levels of SECB
engaged by employees. To a large extent, the studys results pre-
sented here are consistent with the theoretical framework and
previous OCB studies in that our data provide evidence supporting
nine of the eleven sub hypotheses outlined in Table 2. In keeping
with the conceptual model, there is evidence of direct relationships
between job satisfaction and all three forms of service employee
citizenship behaviours (i.e. PSB, INT, and EXT). The results provide
additional evidence supporting job satisfaction as an importance
predictor of various forms of OCB.
Organisational commitment was not found to have effects on
levels of internal inuence amongst service employees. This nding
does not support our conceptual model nor is it consistent with the
evidence presented in previous studies. There are several expla-
nations for this non-signicant relationship. First, organisational
commitment amongst participants in this study and the nature of
internal inuence are culturally different. Whereas organisational
commitment reects the extent to which individuals identify with
organisational values and goals (Mowday et al., 1982), internal in-
uence is a function of both commitment and culture (Kwantes,
2003). Here it is likely that collectivist values undermine in-
dividuals willingness to engage in activities that promote internal
inuence, and thus is less likely to be predicted by organisational
commitment. Also, internal inuence may be perceived as sub-
ordinates willingness to challenge the leaders authority (Paine &
Organ, 2000), along with breaking the harmony of the group/so-
ciety (i.e. the core value of collectivism). Hence, the extent to which
employees showand engage in activities that inuence the internal
workings of the organisation would largely depend on factors other
than organisational commitment. Taken together, it is plausible to
believe that the non-signicant relationship between organisa-
tional commitment and internal inuence is culturally specic. A
thorough scrutiny of previous work implicitly supports our
assumption here because the authors found that studies reporting
signicant relationships between organisational commitment and
internal inuence were conducted in individualist societies (e.g.
Bettencourt & Brown, 2003; Bettencourt et al., 2005)
Contrary to our expectation, the relationship between
customer cooperation and organisational commitment was
insignicant whereas customer cooperation had a signicant
impact on job satisfaction. This nding suggests that an increase
in customer cooperation does not directly have any impact on
employees level of organisational commitment. The results sup-
port the argument that job satisfaction and organisational
commitment are two different psychological responses to
customer cooperation and that organisational commitment is
viewed as a more robust construct which takes time to develop or
change (Mowday et al., 1982). Therefore, work related factors that
vary on a day-to-day basis are less likely to lead to changes in
affective commitment but may inuence a workers job satisfac-
tion. The effects reported here may also reect that employees
differentiate between customers and the work organisation and
as such, do not associate customer cooperation with
Table 3
Comparing the estimates between Models 1, 2 and 3.
Relationship Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
t-value Std.
t-value Std.
CWS /JS .49 7.287*** e e .52 7.623***
CWS /AC .41 5.719*** e e .41 5.743***
CSC /JS .25 3.845*** e e .25 3.902***
CSC /AC -.02 -.266
e e .02 .279
CWS /PSB e e .30 3.421*** .31 2.839**
CWS /INT e e .37 5.174*** .11 1.318
CWS /EXT e e .23 3.025** .35 3.776***
CSC /PSB e e .12 1.423
.08 .928
CSC /INT e e .12 1.730
.08 1.165
CSC /EXT e e .16 2.125* .02 2.98
JS /PSB e e e e .81 5.770***
JS /INT e e e e .78 8.369***
JS /EXT e e e e .74 7.041***
AC /PSB e e e e .38 4.602***
AC /INT e e e e .11 1.793
AC /EXT e e e e .39 5.409***
***p < .001, **p < .01,*p < .05 ns non signicant.
Model 1: c
(df) 94.325
, CFI .969, TLI .958, RMSEA .064.
Model 2: c
(df) 659.1962
, CFI .880, TLI .864, RMSEA .072.
Model 3: c
(df) 670.714
, CFI .922, TLI .911, RMSEA .055.
Measurement properties for social desirability construct are adequate (stand-
ardised loadings > .50 and Cronbachs alpha .74).
T. Limpanitgul et al. / Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management 20 (2013) 23e33 29
organisational values, thus resulting in the non signicant effect
on organisational commitment. Both explanations are supported
by the result that co-worker support, which varies less on a day-
to-day basis and has a stronger relation to the organisation, has an
impact on affective commitment.
Regarding the effects of support on SECB, job satisfaction was
found to fully mediate the effect of customer cooperation on
external representation whereas the effect of co-worker support on
internal inuence was found to be fully mediated by job satisfaction
and organisational commitment. This study provides a better un-
derstanding of the mechanism by which ones support relates to
service employee behaviours. Although there are hypotheses con-
cerning mediation effect which were not supported, this is an area
that was lacking in the literature and therefore such ndings are
important as they provide new information to the literature.
7. Limitations and avenues for future research
Caution should be exercised in attempts to generalise from
these ndings. The study respondents are employees of a single
organisation operating in the airline industry based in Thailand,
which may limit the generalizability of our ndings. On the other
hand, the company is a founder member of a global code sharing
strategic alliance. Whether or not the ndings possess external
validity is a matter for future research work. As the AC /INT and
CSC /AC paths were not found to be statistically signicant in the
present studys sample which was collected from just one organi-
sation, it may be interesting to see if this result is generalisable to a
sample collected from many organisations based in different in-
dustries. Also, future studies may also wish to consider the
moderating roles of other factors, such as individual dispositions
and traits and/or different types of organisational cultures.
Moreover, the study is cross-sectional. We can only conclude
that our model is a feasible explanation of the observed relation-
ships in the data, hence meaning that our ability to infer causality of
behaviour is limited. The direction of paths in our model relies
heavily on prior empirical and conceptual studies. Finally, our
ndings shed light on the mediating role of different job attitudes
on the relationship between support and behaviours. In particular,
it is possible that the structural relationships between support, job
attitudes and behaviours of various types are different. Future
studies may investigate whether this assumption holds.
Conict of interest
We certify that we have no afliations with or involvement in
any organization or entity with any nancial interest or non-
nancial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this
Appendix 1. Items used in the present study
Service employee citizenship behaviour
Extra-role customer service
In-role customer service
Internal inuence
External representation
Job attitudes.
Job satisfaction
1. I voluntarily assist passengers even if it means going
beyond job requirements
2. I do not help passengers with problems beyond what is
expected or required*
3. I often go above and beyond the call of duty when serving
4. I willingly go out of my way to make a passenger satised
5. I frequently go out the way to help a passenger
1. I perform all those tasks for passengers that are required of
2. I meet formal performance requirements when serving
3. I full responsibilities to passengers as specied in the job
4. I adequately complete all expected passenger-service
5. I help passengers with those things which are required of
1. I help other employees who have heavy workloads
2. I am always ready to lend a helping hand to those
employees around me
3. I help orient new employees even though it is not required
4. I do not voluntarily give my time to help other employees*
5. I willingly help others who have work related problems
6. I do not tell outsiders this is a great place to work*
1. I make constructive suggestions for service improvement
2. I contribute many ideas for customer promotions and
3. I share creative solutions to customer problems with other
team members
4. I encourage co-workers to contribute ideas and suggestions
for service improvement
1. I do not tell outsiders this is a great place to work*
2. I generate favourable goodwill for the company
3. I say good things about the company to others
4. I encourage friends and family to use the companys
products and services
1. I am able to keep myself busy all the time
2. I have chance to work alone on the job
3. I have chance to do different things from time to time
4. I have chance to be somebody in the community
5. I am satised with the way my boss handle his/her workers
6. My supervisor has competence in making decisions
7. I am able to do things that dont go against my conscience
8. I am satised with the way my job provides for steady
9. I have chance to do things for other people
T. Limpanitgul et al. / Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management 20 (2013) 23e33 30
Organisational commitment
Co-worker support
Customer cooperation
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with this organisation
2. I really feel as if this organisations problems are my own
3. I do not feel a strong sense of belonging to my organization*
4. I do not feel emotionally attached to this organisation*
5. I do not feel like part of the family at my organisation*
6. This organisation has a great deal of personal meaning
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10. I have chance to tell people what to do
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5. Even if I did the best job possible, my co-workers would
fail to notice*
6. My co-workers care about my general satisfaction at work
7. My co-workers show very little concern for me*
8. My co-workers care about my opinions
9. My co-workers are complimentary of my accomplishment
at work
1. Passengers try to keep the plane clean (e.g. not leaving
rubbish in the oor)
2. Passengers carefully observe the rules and policies of the
3. Passengers always treat the airlines staff with kindness
and respect
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ready to accept substitutes when something is not
5. Passengers give me full cooperation when requested
6. Passengers endeavour to avoid requesting tasks that are
not required of me (e.g. putting carry-on bag in
overhead bin)
* Reverse coding.
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