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Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas

dU dW PdV = =
By definition, we have dQ=0
Then, from 1
st
Law, we have,
Isothermal
1
P
V

1
P
V

Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas

Now, we use the trick that for an ideal gas, dU is the same for all
processes with the same dT = T
f
T
i
. As stated previously, we can
calculate dU using,
v
dU nC dT =
Then 1
st
law gives,
v
nRT
nC dT PdV dV
V
= =
(In the last step, we used
Ideal Gas Law: PV=nRT)
Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas
Rearrange terms, we have,
0
v
dT R dV
T C V
+ =
Using the relations for the molar specific heats,
1 1
p v p
v v v
C C C
R
C C C

= = =
( 1) 0
dT dV
T V
+ =
Then, we have,
Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas
Integrating this equation, we have,
( )
1
( 1) constant
ln ( 1)ln constant
ln constant
dT dV
T V
T V
TV

+ =
+ =
=
} }
1
constant TV

=
Using the Ideal Gas Law again, we can replace T with ,
PV
nR
1
constant
PV
V
nR

=
constant PV

=
(alternate form)
Note: T has to be in K.
Work in an Adiabatic Process (Ideal Gas)
( 0) dU dW dQ = =
We know that,
Using the same trick on dU, we can calculate the work done
in an adiabatic process if we know the changes in state
variables.
v
dW dU nC dT = =
2 1
( )
v
W nC T T =
( )
2 2 1 1
v
C
W PV PV
R
= or
insulation
Expanding gas push piston up work is
done by gas W > 0 AU <0 (energy
flows out of gas)
For an Ideal Gas, U is a function of T only,
So, AU <0 also implies AT <0
(temperature drops!)
Gas expands into vacuum no work done W=0
1
st
law gives AU =0
U remains unchanged and T is a constant!
D
fire piston
Examples
Fire Piston (demo)
Example 19.68 (Comparison of processes)
Fire Piston History
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fire_piston
Fire piston calculations
http://complex.gmu.edu/www-phys/phys262/soln/fire_piston.pdf
Example 19.68 calculations
http://complex.gmu.edu/www-phys/phys262/soln/ex19.66.pdf
a) Isothermal
c) Isobaric
2
V Given initial state
1 1
, P V final
3 diff ways:
isotherms
Chapter 20: The 2
nd
Law of
Thermodynamics
Preferential Direction in
Thermodynamic Processes
Heat Engine and Efficiency
The 2
nd
Law of
Thermodynamics
The Carnot Cycle (the most
efficient heat engine)
Entropy
Entropy and Disorder
Preferred Direction of Natural
Processes
Processes not observed in nature:
Example 1:
Ball absorbing heat energy
from surrounding
Then, converts it into mechanical
energy and starts to bounce and roll
Note: energy is conserved (1
st
Law is NOT violated): heat mechanical eng.
BUT, we dont observe this process in nature while the reverse does!
Preferred Direction of Natural
Processes
Example 2:
cold hot
Q
Two objects are in thermal contact and heat
flows from the cold object to the hot object.
Again, energy is conserved (1
st
Law is NOT violated):
BUT, we dont observe this process in nature while the reverse does!
( ) ( ) 0
hot cold
Q absorbed Q release
Disorder and Thermodynamic
Processes
The 2
nd
Law of Thermodynamics is the physical
principle which will delineate the preferred direction
of natural processes.
We will also see that
The direction of
preferred natural
processes
The degree of
randomness (disorder) of
the resulting state
All natural processes in isolation will tend toward
the state of disorder !
The 2
nd
Law of Thermodynamics
Historically, there are more than one but equivalent
way to state the 2
nd
Law:
To address the condition in example #2, here is the
Clausius Statement on the 2
nd
Law:
It is impossible for any process to have as its sole
result the transfer of heat from a cooler to a hotter
body.
The 2
nd
Law of Thermodynamics
There is also the Kelvin-Plancks Statement:
It is impossible for any system to undergo a cyclic
process in which it absorbs heat from a reservoir at a
given temperature and converts the heat completely
into mechanical work.
This implies that all heat engines have limited efficiency !
(efficiency of real mechanical engines ~15 to 40%)
To understand this form of the 2
nd
Law, we need to look at a toy model:
heat engine
Heat Engines
Definition: A device that converts a
given amount of heat into
mechanical energy.
All heat engines carry some working
substance thru a cyclic process:
Engine releases residual heat to cold
reservoir at T
C
Mechanical work is done by engine
Engine absorbs heat from hot
reservoir at T
H
D
stering
Work Done by an Heat Engine
The engine works in a cyclic process,
0 U
1
st
Law gives,
0
net
U Q W
net
Q W
where,
net H C H C
Q Q Q Q Q
explicit signs for heats
Efficiency for a Heat Engine
Thermal Efficiency e is defined as the ratio of the
mechanical energy output to the heat energy input,
H
W
e
Q

what you get out

what you put in

Substituting W=Q
H
+Q
C
, we have
e
H C
H H
Q Q W
Q Q

1 1
C C
H H
Q Q
Q Q

using explicit signs here
A perfect (100% efficient) heat engine
|Q
H
|
1
perfect
e
A perfect heat engine means 100%
efficiency (e=1). This means that
1 1 means 0
C
C
H
Q
e Q
Q

All heat absorbed from reservoir T
H
is
converted into mechanical work W.
No residual heat is released back.
The Kelvin-Plancks statement of the 2
nd
Law does not allow this !
1
realistic
e
2
nd
Law, Disorder, & Available Energy
Two Forms of Energy in any Thermal Process:
Internal Energy
Macroscopic Mechanical Energy
In the Kinetic-Molecular Model,
this consists of the KE and PE
associated with all the randomly
moving microscopic molecules.
The pistons motion in an
automobile engine results from the
coordinated macroscopic motion
of the molecules.
(One typically cannot control the
individual random motions of all
these molecules.)
(Energy associated with this
coordinated [ordered] motion can
be used for useful work.)
2
nd
Law, Disorder, & Available Energy
In a natural process (a block sliding to a stop),
e.g.
v
f
slightly warmer
due to friction
stopped
The coordinated motion of the block is converted into the KE & PE of the
slightly more agitated random motions of the molecules in the block.
Macroscopic Mechanical Energy (KE of the block) is converted into
Internal Energy through heat exchanges as a result of friction.
2
nd
Law, Disorder, & Available Energy
Now consider the reverse direction it is unlikely that one can coordinate
ALL the randomly moving molecules in a concerted fashion. In other
words, one typically cannot convert the internal energy of a system
completely back to macroscopic mechanical energy.
However, this does not mean that internal energy is not accessible. An Heat
Engine is exactly the machine that can perform this conversion but only
partially.
The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics is basically
a statement limiting the availability of internal
energy for useful mechanical work.
The Carnot Cycle (The Most Efficient
Heat Engine)
A reversible cycle described by Sadi Carnot in
1824.
The Carnot Theorem gives the theoretical limit
to the thermal efficiency of any heat engine.
The Carnot cycle consists of:
Two reversible isothermal processes