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1. Briefly describe what a manager would need to do to be an active listener when

communicating with subordinates.

When a manager embodies the role of an active listener, they are in essence consciously
listening and repeating the message content back to the source of the message, in order to
demonstrate a level of concern and understanding. If a manager was to act as active
listener during communications with their employees, they would first need to carefully
listen for the message content and identify the feelings and emotions of the speaker. The
manager must then note respond to these feelings, to ensure the employee is aware their
message has been recognised, and then restate the message back, to facilitate and
encourage further communication surrounding the issue.

2. What is competitive advantage and why is it important to contemporary organisations?

Competitive advantage can be defined as the advantage an organisation has over its
competitors, that allows it to better interact with the market and environmental forces. A
companys competitive advantage often stems from its core objectives and competencies,
that assist with improving operations beyond that of competing organisations. This is a
crucial element of all contemporary organisations, as the ability to consistently perform at a
high level than competitors provides the company with a level of value that cannot be
quickly replicated or matched by rivals.

3. Why do companies engage in international business?

International business can be defined as the activities of any organisations that conduct and
operate commercial businesses across various national borders. These global companies
generate profits through the creation, distribution and provision of goods and services
within several countries, and are the core driver of world economies and trade. Companies
engage in international business as a means of creating additional profits, expanding
customers and consumer bases and broadening their workforce with greater diversity and
culture. In addition, as the result of todays economy, many companies are turning to
international business as a method of outsourcing labour and financial costs to developing
nations, in order to maintain sustainable profits.

4. In your own words, briefly explain the steps in the planning process.

5. How can organisations incorporate the principles of sustainability into their organisational
change strategies?

6. What is the external environment of an organisation? Use examples to illustrate your

7. What is the difference between an optimising decision and a satisficing decision?

8. What difference do environment and technology make in organisational design?

9. How do internal recruitment and external recruitment compare in terms of advantages and
disadvantages for the employer?

10. What are the main advantages of scenario planning?

11. In your own words, briefly explain the steps in the controlling process.

12. Explain how perceptual distortions might influence human behaviour in the workplace.

13. How would a manager know that his or her team was suffering from groupthink (give two
symptoms) and explain what could he or she do about it (give two responses)?

14. Why does a person need both position power and personal power to achieve long-term
managerial effectiveness?

15. What is the relationship between a teams cohesiveness, performance norm and
performance results?