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Stresses in Large Horizontal Cylindrical

Pressure Vessels on Two Saddle Supports

Original paper published in September 1951 "THE WELDING O!"N#L "ESE#"$H S!%%LE&ENT'" This
paper ()ntains re*isi)ns and additi)ns t) the )riginal paper based up)n +uesti)ns raised as t) intent and ()*erage'
Approximate stresses that exist in cylindrical vessels supported on two saddles at
various conditions and design of stiffening for vessels which require it
b, L' %' -i(.
The design )/ h)ri0)ntal (,lindri(al *essels 1ith dished
heads t) resist internal pressure is ()*ered b, e2isting
()des' H)1e*er3 the meth)d )/ supp)rt is le/t prett,
mu(h up t) the designer' In general the (,lindri(al shell
is made a uni/)rm thi(.ness 1hi(h is determined b, the
ma2imum (ir(um/erential stress due t) the internal
pressure' Sin(e the l)ngitudinal stress is )nl, )ne4hal/ )/
this (ir(um/erential stress3 these *essels ha*e a*ailable a
beam strength 1hi(h the t1)4saddle supp)rt
s,stem ideal /)r a 1ide range )/ pr)p)rti)ns' H)1e*er3
(ertain limitati)ns are ne(essar, t) ma.e designs
()nsistent 1ith the intent )/ the ()de'
The purp)se )/ this paper is t) indi(ate the
appr)2imate stresses that e2ist in (,lindri(al *essels
supp)rted )n t1) saddles at *ari)us l)(ati)ns' 5n)1ing
these stresses3 it is p)ssible t) determine 1hi(h *essels
ma, be designed /)r internal pressure al)ne3 and t) design
stru(turall, ade+uate and e()n)mi(al sti//ening /)r the
*essels 1hi(h re+uire it' 6)rmulas are de*el)ped t) ()*er
*ari)us ()nditi)ns3 and a (hart is gi*en 1hi(h ()*ers
supp)rt designs /)r pressure *essels made )/ mild steel /)r
st)rage )/ li+uid 1eighing 78 lb' per (u' /t'
In a paper
published in 1999 Herman S(h)rer p)inted
)ut that a length )/ (,lindri(al shell supp)rted b,
tangential end shears *ar,ing3 pr)p)rti)natel, t) the sine
)/ the (entral angle measured /r)m the t)p )/ the *essel
(an supp)rt its )1n metal 1eight and the /ull ()ntained
li+uid 1eight 1ith)ut (ir(um/erential bending m)ments in
the shell' T) ()mplete this anal,sis3 rings ar)und the
entire (ir(um/eren(e are re+uired at the supp)rting p)ints
L' %' -i(. is $hie/ Engineer 1ith the $hi(ag) :ridge ; Ir)n $)'3 Oa. :r)).3 Ill'
Reprinted from Welding Journal Research Supplement !"#!
trans/er these shears t) the /)undati)n 1ith)ut dist)rting
the (,lindri(al shell' Dis(ussi)ns )/ S(h)rer<s paper b, H'
$' :)ardman and )thers ga*e appr)2imate s)luti)ns /)r
the hal/ /ull ()nditi)n' When a ring )/ uni/)rm (r)ss
se(ti)n is supp)rted )n t1) *erti(al p)sts3 the /ull
()nditi)n g)*erns the design )/ the ring i/ the (entral
angle bet1een the p)st interse(ti)ns 1ith the ring is less
than 18=>3 and the hal/4/ull ()nditi)n g)*erns i/ this angle
is m)re than 18=>' H)1e*er3 the /ull ()nditi)n g)*erns the
design )/ rings supp)rted dire(tl, in )r ad?a(ent t)
&r' :)ardman<s dis(ussi)n als) p)inted )ut that the
heads ma, substitute /)r the rings pr)*ided the supp)rts
are near the heads' His unpublished paper has been used
su((ess/ull, sin(e 1971 /)r *essels supp)rted )n saddles
near the heads' His meth)d )/ anal,sis ()*ering supp)rts
near the heads is in(luded in this paper in a slightl,
m)di/ied /)rm'
Dis(ussi)ns )/ &r' S(h)rer<s paper als) ga*e su((ess/ul
and semi4su((ess/ul e2amples )/ unsti//ened (,lindri(al
shells supp)rted )n saddles3 but an anal,sis is la(.ing'
The semi4su((ess/ul e2amples indi(ated that the shells
had a(tuall, slumped d)1n )*er the h)rns )/ the saddles
1hile being /illed 1ith li+uid3 but had r)unded up again
1hen internal pressure 1as applied'
Testing d)ne b, )thers3
ga*e *er, use/ul results in the
ranges )/ their respe(ti*e tests3 but the in*estigat)rs
()n(luded that anal,sis 1as highl, indeterminate' In
re(ent ,ears the auth)r has parti(ipated in strain gage
sur*e,s )/ se*eral large *essels'
# t,pi(al test setup is
sh)1n in 6ig' 1'
In this paper an attempt has been made t) pr)du(e an
appr)2imate anal,sis in*)l*ing (ertain empiri(al
assumpti)ns 1hi(h ma.e the the)reti(al anal,sis (l)sel,
appr)2imate the test results'
When a (,lindri(al *essel a(ts as its )1n (arr,ing beam
a(r)ss t1) s,mmetri(all, pla(ed saddle supp)rts3 )ne4hal/
)/ the t)tal l)ad 1ill be (arried b, ea(h supp)rt' This
1)uld be true e*en i/ )ne supp)rt sh)uld
Fig. 1 Strain gage test set up on 30, 000 gal. propane
The m)st e()n)mi(al l)(ati)n and t,pe )/ supp)rt
generall, depend up)n the strength )/ the *essel t) be
supp)rted and the ()st )/ the supp)rts3 )r )/ the supp)rts
and additi)nal sti//ening i/ re+uired' In a /e1 (ases the
ad*antage )/ pla(ing /ittings and piping in the b)tt)m )/
the *essel be,)nd the saddle 1ill g)*ern the l)(ati)n )/
the saddle'
The pressure4*essel ()des limit the ()nta(t angle )/
ea(h saddle t) a minimum )/ 18@> e2(ept /)r *er, small
*essels' In (ertain (ases a larger ()nta(t angle sh)uld be
used' Generall, the saddle 1idth is n)t a ()ntr)lling
/a(t)rA s) a n)minal 1idth )/ 18 in' /)r steel )r 15 in' /)r
()n(rete ma, be used' This 1idth sh)uld be in(reased /)r
e2tremel, hea*, *essels3 and in (ertain (ases it ma, be
desirable t) redu(e this 1idth /)r small *essels'
at )r near the saddles' Bessels must als) be rigid en)ugh
t) supp)rt n)rmal e2ternal l)ads su(h as 1ind'
Where li+uids )/ di//erent 1eights are t) be st)red )r
1here di//erent materials are t) be used3 a r)ugh design
ma, be )btained /r)m the (hart and this design sh)uld be
(he(.ed b, the appli(able /)rmulas )utlined in the
/)ll)1ing se(ti)ns' Table I )utlines the ()e//i(ients t) be
used 1ith the appli(able /)rmulas /)r *ari)us supp)rt
t,pes and l)(ati)ns' The n)tati)n used is listed at the end
)/ the paper under the heading N)men(lature'
The (,lindri(al shell a(ts as a beam )*er the t1)
supp)rts t) resist b, bending the uni/)rm l)ad )/ the
*essel and its ()ntents' The e+ui*alent length )/ the
*essel Csee 6igs' 8 and 9D e+uals CL E C7HF9DD3 (l)sel,3
and the t)tal 1eight )/ the *essel and its ()ntents e+uals
8G' H)1e*er3 it (an be sh)1n that the li+uid 1eight in a
hemispheri(al head adds )nl, a shear l)ad at its ?un(ti)n
1ith the (,linder' This (an be appr)2imated /)r heads
1here H o " b, representing the pressure )n the head
and the l)ngitudinal stress as a (l)(.1ise ()uple )n the
head sh)1n at the le/t )/ 6ig' 9' There/)re the *essel ma,
be ta.en as a beam l)aded as sh)1n in 6ig' 9A the m)ment
diagram determined b, stati(s is als) sh)1n' &a2imum
m)ments )((ur at the mid4span and )*er the supp)rts'
settle m)re than the )ther' This 1)uld als) be true i/ a
di//erential in temperature )r i/ the a2ial restraint )/ the
supp)rts sh)uld (ause the *essel a(ting as a beam t) b)1
up )r d)1n at the (enter' This /a(t al)ne gi*es the t1)4
supp)rt s,stem pre/eren(e )*er a multiple4supp)rt s,stem'
Thin41all *essels )/ large diameter are best supp)rted
near the heads pr)*ided the, (an supp)rt their )1n 1eight
and ()ntents bet1een supp)rts and pr)*ided the heads are
sti// en)ugh t) trans/er the l)ad t) the saddles' Thi(.41all
*essels t)) l)ng t) a(t as simple beams are best supp)rted
1here the ma2imum l)ngitudinal bending stress in the shell
at the saddles is nearl, e+ual t) the ma2imum l)ngitudinal
bending stress in the shell at the saddles is nearl, e+ual t)
the ma2imum l)ngitudinal bending stress at mid4span3
pr)*ided the shell is sti// en)ugh t) resist this bending and
t) trans/er the l)ad t) the saddles' Where the sti//ness
re+uired is n)t a*ailable in the shell al)ne3 ring sti//eners
must be added
6igure 8 indi(ates the m)st e()n)mi(al l)(ati)ns and
t,pes )/ supp)rts /)r large steel h)ri0)ntal pressure *essels
)n t1) supp)rts' # li+uid 1eight )/ 78 lb' per (u' /t' 1as
used be(ause it is representati*e )/ the *)latile li+uids
usuall, ass)(iated 1ith pressure *essels'
Tests ha*e sh)1n that e2(ept near the saddles a
(,lindri4(al shell ?ust /ull )/ li+uid has pra(ti(all, n)
(ir(um/eren4tial bending m)ments and there/)re beha*es
as a beam 1ith a se(ti)n m)dulus IF( H r
H)1e*er3 in the regi)n ab)*e ea(h saddle
bending m)ments are intr)du(ed all)1ing the unsti//ened
upper p)rti)n )/ the shell t) de/le(t3 thus it
ine//e(ti*e as a beam' This redu(es the e//e(ti*e (r)ss
se(ti)n a(ting as a beam ?ust as th)ugh the shell 1ere split
al)ng a h)ri0)ntal line at a le*el ab)*e the
Fig. 3 Cylindrical shell acting as beam over supports
saddle' CSee 6ig' 7 CaD'D I/ this e//e(ti*e ar( is represented
b, 8- C- in radiansD it (an be sh)1n that the se(ti)n
m)dulus be()mesI
Strain gage studies indi(ate that this e//e(ti*e ar( is
appr)2imatel, e+ual t) the ()nta(t angle plus )ne4si2th )/
the unsti//ened shell as indi(ated in Se(ti)n #4# )/ 6ig'
7' O/ ()urse3 i/ the shell is sti//ened b, a head )r
()mplete ring sti//ener near the saddle the e//e(ti*e ar(3
8-3 e+uals the entire (r)ss se(ti)n3 and IF( H Xr
51 is a ()nstant /)r a gi*en set )/ ()nditi)ns3 but
a(tuall, *aries 1ith the rati)s #FL and HFL a "FL /)r
di//erent saddle angles' 6)r ()n*enien(e3 51 is pl)tted in
6ig' 5 against #FL /)r *ari)us t,pes )/ saddle supp)rts3
assuming ()nser*ati*e *alues )/ H H @ 1hen the mid4span
g)*erns and H H " 1hen the shell se(ti)n at the saddle
g)*erns' # ma2imum *alue )/ "FL H @'@9 1as assumed
be(ause )ther /a(t)rs g)*ern the design /)r larger *alues
)/ this rati)' #s in a beam the mid4span g)*erns /)r the
smaller *alues )/ #FL and the shell se(ti)n at the saddle
g)*erns /)r the larger *alues )/ #FLA h)1e*er3 the p)int
1here the ending stress in the shell is e+ual at mid4span
and at the saddle *aries 1ith the saddle angle be(ause )/
the redu(ed e//e(ti*e (r)ss se(ti)n' 6ig' 5# in #pp' :
gi*es a((eptable *alues at 51'
This ma2imum bending stress3 S13 ma, be either
tensi)n )r ()mpressi)n' The tensi)n stress 1hen
()mbined 1ith the a2ial stress due t) internal pressure
sh)uld n)t e2(eed the all)1able tensi)n stress )/ the
material times the e//i4(ien(, )/ the girth ?)ints' The
()mpressi)n stress sh)uld n)t e2(eed )ne hal/ )/ the
()mpressi)n ,ield p)int )/ the material )r the *alue gi*en
1hi(h is based up)n the a((epted /)rmula /)r bu(.ling )/
sh)rt steel (,lindri(al ()lumnsJ' The ()mpressi)n
$See also per %&'()*+, -S./ Code Section Vl0l 1i23 !3
Sin(e m)st *essels are )/ uni/)rm shell thi(.ness3 the
design /)rmula in*)l*es )nl, the ma2imum *alue )/ the
l)ngitudinal bending stress' Di*iding the ma2imum
m)ment b, the se(ti)n m)dulus gi*es the ma2imum a2ial
stress in lb' per s+' in' in the shell due t) bending as a
beam3 )r
Fig. 5 Plot o longitudinal bending! moment constant, ".
C+, .4./5T 10-&R-. 05 6T3'L7S
Fig. # $oad transer to saddle by tangenti al shear stresses
in cylindrical shell
stress is n)t a /a(t)r in a steel *essel 1here tFr c @'@@5
and the *essel is designed t) be /ull, stressed under
internal pressure'
6igure 7 CdD sh)1s the t)tal shear diagram /)r *essels
supp)rted in saddles a1a, /r)m the heads'
Where the shell is held r)und3 the tangential shearing
stresses *ar, dire(tl, 1ith the sine )/ the (entral angle 3
as sh)1n in Se(ti)n :4: )/ 6ig' 73 and the ma2imum
)((urs at the e+uat)r'
H)1e*er3 i/ the shell is /ree t) de/)rm ab)*e the saddle3
the tangential shearing stresses a(t )n a redu(ed e//e(ti*e
(r)ss se(ti)n and the ma2imum )((urs at the h)rn )/ the
saddle' This is appr)2imated b, assuming the shears
()ntinue t) *ar, as the sin but )nl, a(t )n t1i(e the ar(
gi*en b, C F8 E _ F8@D )r C 4 _ D as sh)1n in Se(ti)n #4# )/
6ig' 7' The summati)n )/ the *erti(al ()mp)nents )/ these
assumed shears must e+ual the ma2imum t)tal shear'
The ma2imum tangential shear stress 1ill )((ur )n the
(enter side )/ the saddle pr)*ided the saddle is be,)nd the
in/luen(e )/ the head but n)t past the +uarter p)int )/ the
*essel' Then 1ith saddles a1a, /r)m the heads the
ma2imum shear stress in lb' per s+' in' is gi*en b,
Balues )/ 58 listed in Table I /)r *ari)us t,pes )/ supp)rts
are )btained /r)m the e2pressi)ns gi*en /)r the ma2imum
shears in 6ig' 73 and the appendi2'
6igure 7 C/D indi(ates the t)tal shear diagram /)r *essels
supp)rted )n saddles near the heads' In this (ase the head
sti//ens the shell in the regi)n )/ the saddle' This (auses
m)st )/ the tangential shearing stress t) be (arried a(r)ss
the saddle t) the head3 and then the l)ad is trans/erred
ba(. t) the head side )/ the saddle b, tangential shearing
stresses applied t) an ar( slightl, larger than the ()nta(t
angle )/ the saddle' Se(ti)n $4$ )/ 6ig' 7 indi(ates this
shear distributi)nA that is3 the shears *ar, as the sin and
a(t d)1n1ard ab)*e angle _ and a(t up1ard bel)1 angle
_ 3 The summati)n )/ the d)1n1ard *erti(al ()mp)nents
must balan(e the summati)n )/ the up1ard *erti(al
()mp)nents' Then 1ith saddles at the heads the ma2imum
shear stress in lb' per s+' in' is gi*en b,
in the shell3 )r
in the head'
Balues )/ K2 gi*en in Table I /)r di//erent si0e saddles at the
heads are )btained /r)m the e2pressi)n gi*en /)r the ma2imum
shear stress in Se(ti)n $4$ )/ 6ig'7 ; appendi2'
The tangential shear stress sh)uld n)t e2(eed @'K )/ the
all)1able tensi)n stress'
In the plane )/ the saddle the l)ad must be trans/erred
/r)m the (,lindri(al shell t) the saddleI #s 1as p)inted
)ut in the pre*i)us se(ti)n the tangential shears ad?ust
their distributi)n in )rder t) ma.e this trans/er 1ith a
minimum am)unt )/ (ir(um/erential bending and
dist)rti)n' The e*aluati)n )/ these shears 1as +uite
empiri(al e2(ept /)r the (ase )/ the ring sti//ener in the
plane )/ the saddle' E*aluati)n )/ the (ir(um/erential
bending stresses is e*en m)re di//i(ult'
Starting 1ith a ring in the plane )/ the saddle3 the shear
distributi)n is .n)1n' The bending m)ment at an, p)int
ab)*e the saddle ma, be ()mputed b, an, )/ the meth)ds
)/ indeterminate stru(tures' I/ the ring is assumed uni/)rm
in (r)ss se(ti)n and /i2ed at the h)rns )/ the saddles3 the
m)ment3 & 3 in in'4lb' at an, p)int # is gi*en b,I
This is sh)1n s(hemati(all, in 6ig' =' N)te that _ must be
in radians in the /)rmula'
The ma2imum m)ment )((urs 1hen H_ ' Substituting
_ /)r and 5= /)r the e2pressi)n in the bra(.ets di*ided b,
3 the ma2imum (ir(um/erential bending m)ment in in'4lb'
When the shell is supp)rted )n a saddle and there is n)
ring sti//ener the shears tend t) bun(h up near the h)rn )/
the saddle3 s) that the a(tual ma2imum (ir(um/erential
bending m)ment in the shell is ()nsiderabl, less than &_
as (al(ulated ab)*e /)r a ring sti//ener in the plane )/ the
saddle' The e2a(t anal,sis is n)t .n)1nA h)1e*er3 stresses
(al(ulated )n the assumpti)n
Fig. % Circumerenti al bending ! moment diagram, ring in
plane o saddle
that a 1ide 1idth )/ shell is e//e(ti*e in resisting the
h,p)theti(al m)ment3 &_ 3 agree ()nser*ati*el, 1ith the
results )/ strain gage sur*e,s' It 1as /)und that this
e//e(ti*e 1idth )/ shell sh)uld be e+ual t) 7 times the
shell radius )r e+ual t) )ne4hal/ the length )/ the *essel3
1hi(he*er is smaller' It sh)uld be .ept in mind that use )/
this seemingl, e2(essi*e 1idth )/ shell is an arti/i(e
1hereb, the h,p)theti(al m)ment &_ is made t) render
(al(ulated stresses in reas)nable a(()rd 1ith a(tual
When the saddles are near the heads3 the shears (arr,
t) the head and are then trans/erred ba(. t) the saddle'
#gain the shears tend t) ()n(entrate near the h)rn )/ the
saddle' :e(ause )/ the relati*el, sh)rt sti// members this
trans/er redu(es the (ir(um/erential bending m)ment still
T) intr)du(e the e//e(t )/ the head the ma2imum
m)ment is ta.en as
Where 59 e+uals 5= 1hen #F" is greater than 1' Balues )/
59 are pl)tted in 6ig' L using the assumpti)n that this
m)ment is di*ided b, /)ur 1hen A/R is less than @'5'
Fig. & Plot o circumerenti al bending ! moment constant,
The (hange in shear distributi)n als) redu(es the dire(t
l)ad at the h)rns )/ the saddleA this is assumed t) be GF7
/)r shells 1ith)ut added sti//eners' H)1e*er3 sin(e this
l)ad e2ists3 the e//e(ti*e 1idth )/ the shell 1hi(h resists
this dire(t l)ad is limited t) that p)rti)n 1hi(h is
sti//ened b, the ()nta(t )/ the saddle' It is assumed that 5t
ea(h side )/ the saddle a(ts 1ith the p)rti)n dire(tl, )*er
the saddle' See #ppendi2 :'
Internal pressure stresses d) n)t add dire(tl, t) the
l)(al bending stresses3 be(ause the shell r)unds up under
pressure' There/)re the ma2imum (ir(um/erential
()mbined stress in the shell is ()mpressi*e3 )((urs at the
h)rn )/ the saddle3 and is due t) l)(al bending and dire(t
stress' This ma2imum ()mbined stress in lb' per s+' in' is
gi*en b,
be e+ual t) 1'5@ times the tensi)n all)1able pr)*ided the
()mpressi*e strength )/ the material e+uals the tensile
strength' In the /irst pla(e 1hen the regi)n at the h)rn )/
the saddle ,ields3 it a(ts as a hinge3 and the upper p)rti)n
)/ the shell ()ntinues t) resist the l)ads as a t1)4hinged
ar(h' There 1)uld be little dist)rti)n until a se()nd p)int
near the e+uat)r started t) ,ield' Se()ndl,3 i/ rings are
added t) redu(e this l)(al stress3 a l)(al l)ngitudinal
bending stress )((urs at the edge )/ the ring under
This l)(al stress 1)uld be 1'K times the design
ring stress i/ the rings 1ere in/initel, rigid' Weld seams in
the shell sh)uld n)t be l)(ated near the h)rn )/ the saddle
1here the ma2imum m)ment )((urs'
L)ng *essels 1ith *er, small tFr *alues are sus(eptible
t) dist)rti)n /r)m uns,mmetri(al e2ternal l)ads su(h as
1ind' It is assumed that *a(uum relie/ *al*es 1ill be
pr)*ided 1here re+uiredA s) it is n)t ne(essar, t) design
against a /ull *a(uum' H)1e*er3 e2perien(e indi(ates that
*essels designed t) 1ithstand 1 lb' per s+' in' e2ternal
pressure (an su((ess/ull, resist e2ternal l)ads
en()untered in n)rmal ser*i(e'
#ssume the e2ternal pressure is 1 lb' per s+' in' in the
/)rmulas used t) determine the sl)ping p)rti)n )/ the
e2ternal pressure (hart in the 195@ #'S'&'E' !n/ired
%ressure Bessel $)de' Then 1hen the *essel is
unsti//ened bet1een the heads3 the ma2imum length in
/eet bet1een sti//eners Cthe headsD is gi*en appr)2imatel,
When ring sti//eners are added t) the *essel at the
supp)rts3 the ma2imum length in /eet bet1een sti//eners
is gi*en b,
It seems reas)nable t) all)1 this ()mbined stress t)
J N)teI 6)r multiple supp)rtsI
LHT1i(e the length )/ p)rti)n )/ shell (arried b,
I/ LcK" use 1st /)rmula'
When the head sti//ness is utili0ed b, pla(ing the
saddle (l)se t) the heads3 the tangential shear stresses
(ause an additi)nal stress in the head 1hi(h is additi*e t)
the pressure stress' "e/erring t) Se(ti)n $4$ )/ 6ig' 73 it
(an be seen that the tangential shearing stresses ha*e
h)ri0)ntal ()mp)nents 1hi(h 1)uld (ause *ar,ing
h)ri0)ntal tensi)n stresses a(r)ss the entire height )/ the
head i/ the head 1ere a /lat dis.' The real a(ti)n in a
dished head 1)uld be a ()mbinati)n )/ ring a(ti)n and
dire(t stressA h)1e*er3 /)r simpli(it, the a(ti)n )n a /lat
dis. is ()nsidered reas)nable /)r design purp)ses'
#ssume that the summati)n )/ the h)ri0)ntal
()mp)nents )/ the tangential shears is resisted b, the
*erti(al (r)ss se(ti)n )/ the /lat head at the (enter line3
and assume that the ma2imum stress is 1'5 times the
a*er4age stress' Then the ma2imum additi)nal stress in
the head in lb' per s+' in' is gi*en b,
This stress sh)uld be ()mbined 1ith the stress in the
head due t) internal pressure' H)1e*er3 it is
re()mmended that this ()mbined stress be all)1ed t) be
85M greater than the all)1able tensi)n stress be(ause )/
the nature )/ the stress and be(ause )/ the meth)d )/
6igure K indi(ates the saddle rea(ti)ns3 assuming the
sur/a(es )/ the shell and saddle are in /ri(ti)nless ()nta(t
1ith)ut atta(hment' The sum )/ the assumed tangential
shears )n b)th edges )/ the saddle at an, p)int # is als)
sh)1n in 6ig' K' These /)r(es a(ting )n the shell band
dire(tl, )*er the saddle (ause ring ()mpressi)n in the
shell band' Sin(e the saddle rea(ti)ns are radial3 the, pass
thr)ugh the (enter @' m)ments ab)ut p)int O
indi(ates that the ring ()mpressi)n at an, p)int # is gi*en
b, the summati)n )/ the tangential shears bet1een _ and '
Fig. ' $oads and reactions on
This ring ()mpressi)n is ma2imum at the b)tt)m3 1here
H ' #gain a 1idth )/ shell e+ual t) 5t ea(h side )/ the
saddle plus the 1idth )/ the saddle is assumed t) resist this
/)r(e' See #ppendi2 :' Then the stress in lb' per s+' in'
due t) ring ()mpressi)n is gi*en b,
The ring ()mpressi)n stress sh)uld n)t e2(eed )ne4hal/
)/ the ()mpressi)n ,ield p)int )/ the material'
The stress ma, be redu(ed b, atta(hing a 1ear plate
s)me1hat larger than the sur/a(e )/ the saddle t) the shell
dire(tl, )*er the saddle' The thi(.ness t used in the
/)rmulas /)r the assumed (,lindri(al shell thi(.ness ma,
be ta.en as Ct1 E t8D /)r S5 C1here t1 H shell thi(.ness and t8
H 1ear plate thi(.nessD3 pr)*ided the 1idth )/ the added
plate e+uals at least Cb E 1@t1D CSee #ppendi2 :D'
The thi(.ness t ma, be ta.en as Ct1 E t8D in the /)rmula
/)r S83 pr)*ided the plate e2tends rF1@ in(hes ab)*e the
h)rn )/ the saddle near the head3 and pr)*ided the plate
e2tends bet1een the saddle and an ad?a(ent sti//ener ring'
C#ls) (he(. /)r S8 stress in the shell at the e+uat)r'D
The thi(.ness t ma, he ta.en as Ct1 E t8D in the /irst term
)/ the /)rmula /)r S9 pr)*ided the plate e2tends rF1@
in(hes ab)*e the h)rn )/ the saddle near the head'
H)1e*er3 Ct1
E t8
D sh)uld be substituted /)r t
in the
se()nd term' The ()mbined (ir(um/erential stress CS9D at
the t)p edge )/ the 1ear plate sh)uld als) be (he(.ed
using the shell plate thi(.ness t1 and the 1idth )/ the 1ear
plate' When (he(.ing at this p)int3 the *alue )/ 59 sh)uld
be redu(ed b, e2trap)lati)n in 6igure L assuming e+ual
t) the (entral angle )/ the 1ear plate but n)t m)re than the
saddle angle plus 18 '
When the saddles must be l)(ated a1a, /r)m the heads
and 1hen the shell al)ne (ann)t resist the (ir(um/erential
bending3 ring sti//eners sh)uld be added at )r near the
supp)rts' :e(ause the si0e )/ rings in*)l*ed d)es n)t
1arrant /urther re/inement3 the /)rmulas de*el)ped in this
paper assume that the added rings are ()ntinu)us 1ith a
uni/)rm (r)ss se(ti)n' The ring sti//ener must be atta(hed
t) the shell3 and the p)rti)n )/ the shell rein/)r(ed b, the
sti//ener plus a 1idth )/ shell e+ual t) 5t ea(h side ma, be
assumed t) a(t 1ith ea(h sti//ener' The ring radius is
assumed e+ual t) r'
When n sti//eners are added dire(tl, )*er the saddle as
sh)1n in 6ig' 7 C(D3 the tangential shear distributi)n is
.n)1n' The e+uati)n /)r the resulting bending m)ment at
an, p)int 1as de*el)ped pre*i)usl,3 and the resulting
m)ment diagram is sh)1n in 6ig' =' The ma2imum
m)ment )((urs at the h)rn )/ the saddle and is gi*en in
in'4lb' /)r ea(h sti//ener b,
5n)1ing the ma2imum m)ment &_ and the m)ment at
the t)p )/ the *essel3 &t3 the dire(t l)ad at the p)int )/
ma2imum m)ment ma, be /)und b, stati(s' Then the
dire(t l)ad at the h)rn )/ the saddle is gi*en in p)unds b,
I/ n sti//eners are added ad?a(ent t) the saddle as
sh)1n in 6ig' 7 CbD3 the rings 1ill a(t t)gether and ea(h
1ill be l)aded 1ith shears distributed as in Se(ti)n :4:
)n )ne side but 1ill be supp)rted )n the saddle side
b, a shear distributi)n similar t) that sh)1n in Se(ti)n
#4#' $)nser*ati*el,3 the supp)rt ma, be assumed t) be
tangential and ()n(entrated at the h)rn )/ the saddle' This
is sh)1n s(hemati(all, in 6ig' 9A the resulting bending
m)ment diagram is als) indi(ated' This bending m)ment
in in'4lb' at an, p)int # ab)*e the h)rn )/ the saddle is
gi*en b,
6)r the range )/ saddle angles ()nsidered M is
ma2imum near the e+uat)r 1here H ' This m)ment and
the dire(t stress ma, be /)und using a pr)(edure similar
t) that used /)r the sti//ener in the plane )/ the saddle'
Substituting /)r and K6 /)r the e2pressi)n in the
bra(.ets di*ided b, 8 3 the ma2imum m)ment in ea(h
ring ad?a(ent t) the saddle is gi*en in in'4lb' b,
5n)1ing the m)ments & and &t3 the dire(t l)ad at
ma, be /)und b, stati(s and is gi*en b,
Then the ma2imum ()mbined stress due t) li+uid l)ad
in ea(h ring used t) sti//en the shell at )r near the saddle
is gi*en in lb' per s+' in' b,
1here _ H the area and IF( H the se(ti)n m)dulus )/ the
(r)ss se(ti)n )/ the ()mp)site ring sti//ener' When a ring
is atta(hed t) the inside sur/a(e )/ the shell dire(tl, )*er
the saddle )r t) the )utside sur/a(e )/ the shell ad?a(ent
t) the saddle3 the ma2imum ()mbined stress is
()mpressi)n at the shell' H)1e*er3 i/ the ring is atta(hed
t) the )pp)site sur/a(e3 the ma2imum ()mbined stress
ma, be either ()mpressi)n in the )uter /lange due t)
li+uid )r tensi)n at the shell due t) li+uid and internal
The ma2imum ()mbined ()mpressi)n stress due t)
li+uid sh)uld n)t e2(eed )ne4hal/ )/ the ()mpressi)n
,ield p)int )/ the material' The ma2imum ()mbined
tensi)n stress due t) li+uid and pressure sh)uld n)t
e2(eed the all)1able tensi)n stress )/ the material'
Ea(h saddle sh)uld be rigid en)ugh t) pre*ent the
separati)n )/ the h)rns )/ the saddleA there/)re the saddle
sh)uld be designed /)r a /ull 1ater l)ad' The h)rn )/ the
saddle sh)uld be ta.en at the interse(ti)n )/ the )uter
edge )/ the 1eb 1ith the t)p /lange )/ a steel saddle' The
minimum se(ti)n at the l)1 p)int )/ either a steel )r
()n(rete saddle must resist a t)tal /)r(e3 63 in p)unds3
e+ual t) the summati)n )/ the h)ri0)ntal ()mp)nents )/
the rea(ti)ns )n )ne4hal/ )/ the saddle' Then
Fig. ( Circumerenti al bending ! moment diagram,
The e//e(ti*e se(ti)n resisting this l)ad sh)uld be limited
t) the metal (r)ss se(ti)n 1ithin a distan(e e+ual t) rF9
bel)1 the shell' This (r)ss se(ti)n sh)uld be limited t)
the rein/)r(ing steel 1ithin the distan(e rF9 in ()n(rete
saddles' The a*erage stress sh)uld n)t e2(eed t1)4thirds
)/ the tensi)n all)1able )/ the material' # l)1 all)1able
stress is re()mmended be(ause the e//e(t )/ the
(ir(um/erential bending in the shell at the h)rn )/ the
saddle has been negle(ted'
The upper and l)1er /langes )/ a steel saddle sh)uld be
designed t) resist bending )*er the 1ebCsD3 and the
1ebCsD sh)uld be sti//ened a(()rding t) the #'I'S'$'
spe(i/i(ati)ns against bu(.ling' The ()nta(t area bet1een
the shell and ()n(rete saddle )r bet1een the metal saddle
and the ()n(rete /)undati)n sh)uld be ade+uate t) supp)rt
the bearing l)ads'
Where e2treme m)*ements are anti(ipated )r 1here the
saddles are 1elded t) the shell3 bearings )r r)(.ers sh)uld
be pr)*ided at )ne saddle' !nder n)rmal ()nditi)ns a sheet
)/ elasti( 1aterpr))/ material at least 1F7 in' thi(. bet1een
the shell and a ()n(rete saddle 1ill su//i(e'
The /)rmulas de*el)ped b, )utline in the te2t are
de*el)ped mathemati(all, here under headings ()r4
resp)nding t) th)se )/ the te2t'
The pertinent assumpti)ns and statements appearing in
the te2t ha*e n)t been repeated'
Ma$#mum Lon%#tu"#nal Ste&&
"e/erring t) 6ig' 93 the bending m)ment in /t'4lb' at
the saddle is
e//e(ti*e ' I/ e+uals an, (entral
measured /r)m the b)tt)m3 the m)ment )/ inertia is

The se(ti)n m)dulus /)r the tensi)n side )/ the e+ui*alent
beam is
The bending m)ment in /t'4lb' at the mid span is
The se(ti)n m)dulus H r
t3 and
Tan%ent#al S'ea Ste&&
Se(ti)n :4: )/ 6ig' 7 indi(ates the pl)t )/ the shears
ad?a(ent t) a sti//ener' The summati)n )/ the *erti(al
()mp)nents )/ the shears )n ea(h side )/ the sti//ener
must e+ual the l)ad )n the saddle G' "e/erring t) 6ig' 7
CdD the sum )/ the shears )n b)th sides )/ the sti//ener at
an, p)int is G sin F r' Then the summati)n )/ the
*erti(al ()mp)nents is gi*en b,
The ma2imum shear stress )((urs at the e+uat)r 1hen sin
H 1 and 58 H 1F H @'919'
Se(ti)n #4# )/ 6ig' 7 indi(ates the pl)t )/ the shears
ar( r

"e/erring t) Se(ti)n #4# )/ 6ig' 7 the (entr)id )/ the

Then the stress in the shell at the saddle in lb' per s+' in'
is gi*en b,
in an unsti//ened shell' #gain this summati)n )/ the
*erti(al ()mp)nents )/ the shears )n ea(h side )/ the
saddle must e+ual the l)ad )n the saddle' Then the t)tal
shear at an, p)int is
and the summati)n )/ the *erti(al ()mp)nents is gi*en
The ma2imum shear )((urs 1here H _ and
Se(ti)n $4$ )/ 6ig' 7 indi(ates the shear trans/er a(r)ss
the saddle t) the head and ba(. t) the head side )/ the
saddle' Here the summati)n )/ the *erti(al ()mp)nents )/
the shears )n ar( _ a(ting d)1n1ard must e+ual the
summati)n )/ the *erti(al ()mp)nent )/ the shears )n the
l)1er ar( C _ a(ting up1ard' Then
The ma2imum shear )((urs 1here 8 H _ and
C#cum(eent#al Ste&& at Hon o( Sa""le
See under the heading Design )/ "ing Sti//eners'
A""#t#onal Ste&& #n Hea" U&e" a& St#((ene
"e/erring t) Se(ti)n $4$ )/ 6ig' 73 the tangential
shears ha*e h)ri0)ntal ()mp)nents 1hi(h (ause tensi)n
a(r)ss the head' The summati)n )/ these ()mp)nents )n
the *erti(al a2is is
Then assuming this l)ad is resisted b, 8rth' and that the
ma2imum stress is 1'5 times the a*erage
Wea Plate&
The ring ()mpressi)n at an, p)int in the shell )*er the
saddle is gi*en b, the summati)n )/ the tangential shears
)*er the ar( H C N_ D sh)1n in Se(ti)n #4# )r $4$ )/ 6ig'
7 )r in 6ig' K' Then
The ring ()mpressi)n be()mes a ma2imum in the shell
at the b)tt)m )/ the saddle' Or i/ H this e2pressi)n
De&#%n o( R#n% St#((ene&
St#((ene #n Plane o( Sa""le
"e/erring t) 6ig' =3 the ar(h ab)*e the h)rns )/ the
saddle resists the tangential shear l)ad' #ssuming this
ar(h /i2ed at the t)p )/ the saddles3 the bending m)ment
ma, be /)und using ()lumn anal)g,'
I/ the ar(h is (ut at the t)p3 the stati( m)ment at an,
p)int # is
Then the &sFEI diagram is the l)ad )n the anal)g)us
The area )/ this anal)g)us ()lumn is
The (entr)id is sin _ F_ r! and the m)ment )/ inertia
ab)ut the h)ri0)ntal a2is is
The l)ad )n the anal)g)us ()lumn is
The m)ment ab)ut the h)ri0)ntal a2is is
Then the indeterminate m)ment is
The distan(e /r)m the neutral a2is t) p)int # is gi*en
6inall,3 the ()mbined m)ment is gi*en b,
This is the ma2imum 1hen H _ " then
:e(ause )/ s,mmetr, the shear stress is 0er) at the t)p
)/ the *esselA there/)re3 the dire(t l)ad in the ring at the
t)p )/ the *essel3 %t3 ma, be /)und b, m)ments )n
the ar( _ ab)ut the h)rn )/ the saddle' Then
The dire(t l)ad3 %_ 3 at H _ 3 the p)int )/ ma2imum
m)ment ma, be /)und b, m)ments ab)ut the
(enter' Then
Substituting the *alue ab)*e /)r %t3 and s)l*ing /)r %_ 3
I/ the rings are ad?a(ent t) the saddle3 5= and 5L ma,
be /)und in a similar manner3 e2(ept that the stati(
stru(ture 1)uld be()me the entire ring split at the t)p and
l)aded as indi(ated in 6ig' 9'
De&#%n o( Sa""le&
The summati)n )/ the h)ri0)ntal ()mp)nents )/ the
radial rea(ti)ns )n )ne4hal/ )/ the Saddle sh)1n in 6ig' K
must be resisted b, the saddle at H ' Then this
h)ri0)ntal /)r(e is gi*en b,
The bending at the h)rn 1)uld (hange the saddle
rea(ti)n distributi)n3 and in(rease this h)ri0)ntal /)r(e'
#/ter the arti(le had been published3 (ertain
re/inements seemed desirableA there/)re3 the /)ll)1ing
has been added t) ta.e greater ad*antage )/ the inherent
sti//ness )/ these *essels' The meth)ds )utlined in the
paper 1ill gi*e ()nser*ati*e results'
The e//e(ti*e 1idth )/ shell has been limited t) 1@t in
)rder t) prepare the (hart )/ 6ig' 8' It has been sh)1n
that this e//e(ti*e 1idth ma, be ta.en as 1'5= rt ' That
is3 1here 5t ea(h side )/ the saddle )r sti//ener has been
used3 the m)re liberal *alue )/ @'LK rt ea(h side ()uld
be used'
Fig, 5.# Plot o longitudinal bending moment constant "1
A!!en"#$ )
The *alues pl)tted in 6ig' 5 /)r 51 ()*er ()nser*ati*el,
all t,pes )/ heads bet1een H H @ and H H "' &)re liberal
*alues are gi*en in 6ig' 5# /)r hemispheri(al and 8 t) 1
ellips)idal heads /)r *alues )/ HFL bet1een @ and @'1'
The minimum *alues )/ 51 gi*en in Table I ha*e n)t
been listed /)r spe(i/i( *alues )/ "FL and HFLA s) the,
are ()nser*ati*e' Spe(i/i( minimum *alues )/ 51 ma, be
read /r)m 6ig' 5#'