0 evaluări0% au considerat acest document util (0 voturi)

4 vizualizări6 paginiJun 14, 2014

143 Tan AUPEC01paper Revised

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT sau citiți online pe Scribd

© All Rights Reserved

0 evaluări0% au considerat acest document util (0 voturi)

4 vizualizări6 pagini143 Tan AUPEC01paper Revised

© All Rights Reserved

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 6

For Maximum Power Operation

Kelvin Tan Syed Islam

Australian Cooperative Research Centre for Renewable Energy Ltd

Centre of Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technologies Australia (CRESTA)

Curtin University of Technology, WA

Abstract: This paper proposes a prototype version of the control strategy of a permanent magnet synchronous

generator for maximum power operation without mechanical sensors. This approach is based on the calculated

maximum rotor power vs. alternator frequency curve, and calculated maximum rotor power vs. rectified DC

voltage curve to obtain a maximum power output at a certain wind speed. This control allowed the permanent

magnet gener ator to operate at an optimal speed for a given wind speed. To show the feasibility of this

mechanical sensorless control strategy for maximum power estimation, a simple mathematical model of a

variable speed wind energy conversion system permanent magnet generator was developed. The mathematical

model was used to calculate the response of the wind energy conversion and to determine the maximum power

operating point. This paper also describes a theoretical aspect of this method. Digital simulation of the system

was performed to illustrate the advantages of this control strategy.

1. INTRODUCTION

Optimum wind energy extraction is achieved by

running the wind turbine generator (WTG) in

variable-speed variable-frequency mode. The rotor

speed is allowed to vary in sympathy with the wind

speed, by maintaining the tip speed ratio to the

value that maximizes aerodynamic efficiency. In

order to achieve this, the permanent magnet

synchronous generator (PMSG) load line should be

matched very closely to the maxi mum power line

of the wind turbine generator. In such a case, a

good matching exists between the generator and the

load for the best performance of the system and

maximum utilization of the wind driven PMSG.

However, the recent advancements in power

electronics and control strategies have made it

possible to regulate the voltage of the PMSG in

many different ways. When the generator torque

line can be controlled; the generator loading of the

turbine can be made to follow the desired locus

such as the optimum shaft power locus. In the

existing controller for the maximum power

extraction, most designed controllers use an

anemometer to measure wind speed for deriving the

demand shaft speed [1]. In most cases, one

anemometer reading could not provide adequate

information. The required information would need

to be provided through a number of anemometers at

some distance away from and surrounding the wind

turbine. Sensors measurement of mechanical

quantities such as shaft torque and rotation speed

may be required. These sensors increase the cost

and reduce the reliability of the overall system. To

achieve optimal power output, a sensorless scheme

will be proposed for extracting desired output

power from the permanent magnet generator over a

wide range of wind speeds. The proposed system

will increase the overall output of the generation

system with a minimal increase in controller

complexity.

2.MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE

ELEMENTS OF THE WIND ENERGY

CONVERSION SYSTEM

Fig. 1 Wind Energy Conversion System

The proposed scheme consists of a PMSG driven

by a fixed pitch wind turbine, a diode rectifier and a

PWM feeding a local load as shown in Fig. 1. A

brief description of each element of the wind

energy conversion system is shown in this section.

These models are expressed in the d-q rotor

reference frame. This eliminates all time-varying

inductances by referring the stator and rotor

variables to a frame of references, which rotates

with rotor

2.1 Power from wind turbine

Fig. 2 Power Coefficient vs. Tip Speed Ratio

with =0

The output mechanical power of the wind turbine

may be calculated from the following equation[1] :

Watts

3

w

AU C

2

1

m

P

= (1)

C

P

is the power coefficient, which is a function of

tip speed ratio and blade angle . This

relationship is usually provided by the

manufacturer in the form of a set of non-

dimensional curves. The power coefficient curve C

P

for the wind turbine used in this study is shown in

Fig. 2. The tip speed ratio is given by:

w

U

r

r

= (2)

Where

r = radius of the rotor [m]

= air density [Kgm

-3

]

A = wind turbine rotor swept area [m

2

]

Uw = wind speed [m/s]

r = mechanical angular velocity of the

generator

For a variable speed wind turbine with a pitch

control mechanism that alters the effective rotor

dynamic efficiency, optimum power can easily be

obtained using appropriate control. However, fixed

pitch wind turbine has been used in this prototype

wind energy conversion scheme (WECS).

2.2 Permanent magnet synchronous generator

model

Model for the power producing capabilities of a

wind turbine has been previously developed [2, 3].

The outer-rotor PMSG described in the paper[4] is

used in this WECS mathematical model. The

PMSG dynamic equations are expressed in the d-q

reference frame, which eliminate all time-varying

inductances by referring the stator and rotor

variables to a frame of references, which rotates

with the rotor. The model of electrical dynamics in

terms of voltages and current can be given as[3]:

m r

d

i

d

L

r q

)i

q

L (R

q

v + + = (3)

q

i

q

L

r

d

)i

d

L (R

d

v + + = (4)

Where

R, L= Machine resistance and inductance per phase

v

d

, v

q

= 2-axis machine voltages

i

d

, i

q

= 2-axis machine currents

The above equations are derived assuming that the

q-axis is aligned with the stator terminal voltage

phasor (i.e.V

d

=0). The expression for the

electromagnetic torque in the rotor is written as:

( ) [ ]

q m d q q d e

i i i L L

2

P

2

3

T

= (5)

Where

P = number of poles of the PMSG

Te = electrical torque from the generator

m =amplitude of the flux linkages established a

permanent magnet

The relationship between the angular frequency of

the stator voltage (r ) and the mechanical angular

velocity of the rotor (m) may be expressed as:

m

2

p

r

= (6)

The mathematical prediction of voltage variation

with the load current from the PMSG at six

different rotational speeds is calculated and shown

in Fig. 3. It seems that there is a good agreement

between the predicted and experimental results.[4]

0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

14000

16000

18000

20000

22000

0 2 0 4 0 6 0 80 100 120

Frequency (Hz)

D

C

P

o

w

e

r

(

W

)

Fig. 3 calculated voltage regulation

of the PMSG

2.3 Uncontrolled Rectifier

As the wind speed is constantly varying, the PMSG

produces variable-voltage and variable-frequency

output, which cannot be fed directly to load. A 3-

phase diode rectifier, which is used to convert the

variable magnitude, variable frequency voltage at

the PMSG terminal to dc. Under the assumption

that the both commutating angle & commutating

inductance are negligible, the rectifier output

voltages (VR) and current (IR) expression may be

simplified and expressed in term of the peak phase

voltage and current (fundamental component) of

the generator [5, 6]:

d

v

p

3 3

R

V = (7)

q

i

3 2

p

R

I = (8)

The dc power available at the rectifier output is

converted to ac power using a PWM inverter. The

output of the wind turbine generator is controlled

by adjusting the modulation index M of the

reference sinusoidal signal of the PWM inverter,

and it ranges from 0 to 1. In order to make the

inverter of the AC-DC-AC link to track the

maximum power output from the WTG, the

sensorless controller is designed to determine the

operating dc voltage of the inverter at various

speeds. This will control the pulse width of the

PWM inverter and the power transferred to the

local load indirectly by controlling the power

extracted from the WTG.

3. WIND DRIVEN PMSG CHARACTERISTICS

In the proposed sensorless scheme, the inverter

input operating voltage is determined by a

mapping-power technique. In this technique, the

controller does not require a mathematical model of

the system/process being controlled. However, it is

important to understand the voltage, current and

power characteristics generated by the system at

various constant wind speeds. Fig. 1 shows the

components of a typical stand-alone wind energy

conversion system. Wind energy conversion system

is simulated using Matlab Simulink to calculate the

generator stator frequency, dc current and voltage

at the dc link at various wind speeds.

The dc power output characteristics at the dc link

are then calculated following a step change in

different operating dc voltages. The results of the

calculations are for wind speed range 3-11m/sec.

The results are shown in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5. These

form the output power curves of the PMSG at

various constant wind speeds, the generator

maximum power curves show the different

operating dc voltages and stator frequencies over a

range of wind speeds. In order to extract the p eak

power from the WTG at a given wind speed, the

WECS has to operate at the target maximum power

curve. The operating dc voltage and stator

frequency have to match closely to the maximum

power curve, as shown in Fig. 4 (maximum power

vs. stator frequency) and Fig. 5 (maximum power

vs. dc voltage).

Fig. 4 Predicted characteristic

(dc power-stator frequency ) of the WECS

Fig. 5 Predicted characteristic

(dc power-dc voltage ) of the WECS

0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

14000

16000

18000

20000

22000

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

DC Voltage ( V)

D

C

P

o

w

e

r

By combining the characteristics of the PMSG

which determine, dc power output at different wind

speeds, operating limit of the WECS system could

be drawn in the power-frequency or power-Vdc

plane. Such system limitation is shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 6 System limitation in the power

voltage plane

From Fig. 6, it is seen that the limitation on the left

is bounded by the minimum dc link voltage

required by the inverter. This line is due to the

voltage-current characteristic of the PMSG. At a

constant given wind speed, the PMSG is under

increasing load as the dc voltage decreases. When

the dc voltage is less then the minimum dc link

requirement, the operating of PMSG wind turbine

is in stalled region of operation. Any decrease in

the tip speed ratio will cause a further decrease until

the turbine stops. The upper limitation is bounded

by the rated wind speed (11m/s) and maximum

power capability of the PMSG. If the maximum

power limitation of the inverter is lower than the

maximum power capability of the PMSG. The

upper limitation is bounded by inverter power

limitation. The right limitation represents the

maximum speed of the wind turbine PMSG. The

system controller is constrained to operate within

the power limitations shown in Fig. 6. This is an

important consideration for the design of the

system controllers.

4. DESCRIPTION OF THE CONTROLLED

WECS STRUCTURE

The block diagram shown in Fig. 7 is the

preliminary design of the sensorless WECS

controlled system. In the preliminary design stage,

the system does not include the minimum dc link

limitation, cut-in and cutout wind speed control

features. To show the feasibility of this mechanical

sensorless control strategy for maximum power

estimation, a simple mathematical model of the

proposed control system is developed. The control

system consists of two signal-tracking loops,

namely the power-mapping" loop and alternator

frequency derivative loop. The tracking signals

required for both loops are the output power from

the WECS that is transferred to the dc link and

PMSG stator frequency.

It is recognized that the inverter has the flexibility

to operate over a wide range of dc input voltages.

At a given wind speed, the output dc link power is

used to estimate the optimal dc operating voltage

from the "power-mapping" maximum power vs. dc

voltage curve shown in Fig. 5. Due to the

sensitivity of P

dc

to the changes in V

dc

for the

PMSG, the P

dc

and V

dc

will continue to increase or

decrease till the intersection of P

dc

and V

dc

at the

maximum power for the given wind speed. The

stator frequency will also be changing (increasing

or decreasing) during the change of the operating

dc voltage. In the alternator frequency derivative

loop, the derivative control action provides a means

of obtaining the controller with higher sensitivity.

This derivative control responds to the rate of

changes of the stator frequency and can produce a

significant correction to the operating dc voltage.

The gain value from frequency derivative loop will

become zero when the operating dc voltage is

optimal one which leads to the maximum power

point. Using the results determined by both loops,

the controller allows the dc bus voltage to vary to

the maximum power operating point.

Fig.7 Block diagram of the sensorless WECS

controlled system

5. SIMULATION RESULTS

A mathematical simulation model of the proposed

WECS is developed. The WECS has been

simulated on a PC using Matlab Simulink software

Fig. 8 Simulation results depicting variation of system variables with step changes in wind velocity

and its toolbox packages. With the simulation

results, we are able to study most of the system

characteristics such as its tracking performance and

its ability to recover from large disturbances. Two

case studies are considered and described as

follows:-

5.1 Case 1: Step model of wind speed

The simulation result is shown in Fig. 8. The wind

speed is shown in the form of fast step variation

(from 5 to 11m/s). It seems that with increase in

wind speed, the sensorless controller increases the

operating dc voltage, which directly controls the

modulation index of the PWM inverter. This

increases the power output of the inverter and the

power transferred over the dc link. Also, the power

output of the rectifier drawn from the wind driven

PMSG increases, thereby ensuring the complete

utilization of available wind energy. As shown in

Fig. 8, the change in the peak power in the dc link

follows the wind speed profile. The peak power

shown in the Fig. 8(iii) is the actual maximum

power for each given wind speed. It is also observed

that the peaks in the error are recorded only in the

points of sudden change in the wind speed.

5.2 Case 2 : Random variation of wind speed

On achieving the goal of efficiently tracking the

maximum output power from the wind, the designed

controller should respond to the wide variation of

wind speed. The variation of wind profile is shown

in Fig. 9(i). In the case when the wind is fluctuating

with a non-uniform distribution, the output power

from the inverter will not be smooth. From Fig.

9(iv), it is clear that that the two profiles, operating

dc voltage and required operating voltage for

maximum power, are close to each other within

almost the whole wind variation. Therefore, the peak

power shown in Fig. 9(iii) is close to the actual

maximum power for each variation of wind speed.

On the other hand, comparing the error signal obtain

from operating dc voltage and required operating

voltage for maximum power, there is a high value of

error signal at starting of each sudden change of

wind speed. This is due to high gain in the alternator

frequency derivative loop and slow response of the

system. A more intelligent controller may be

required for higher tracking performance with fast

response and robust control.

6. CONCLUSION

The paper presents modeling and simulation result

of a prototype variable speed sensorless WECS. The

variable amplitude, variable frequency voltage at the

PMSG terminals is first rectified in a diode rectifier

and the dc power is transferred over the dc link to a

PWM inverter feeding to a local load. A sensorless

controller is used to determine the optimal operating

dc voltage which is then used to control the of

modulation index of the PWM inverter to utilize

Fig. 9 Simulation results depicting variation of system variables with random changes in wind velocity

completely the available wind energy. The proposed

control system consists of two loops, namely the

mapping-power" loop and differentiation of

alternator frequency loop. Using the results

determined by both loops, the controller allows the

dc bus voltage to vary to the maximum power

operating point. Two case studies are considered,

namely the (a) Step model of wind speed, and (b)

random variation of wind speed. Both have proved

the feasibility and maximum power tracking

capabilities of the designed sensorless controller.

But due to slow response of the prototype controller,

an alternative controller based on the fuzzy set

theory or PID controller will be proposed in a future

publication.

7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

"The work described in this paper has been

supported by the Australian Cooperative Research

Centre for Renewable Energy Ltd (ACRE). ACRE's

activities are funded by the Australian

Commonwealth's Cooperative Research Centres

Program. Mr. Kelvin Tan has been supported by an

ACRE Postgraduate Research Scholarship. All

authors wish to thank CRESTA, School of Electrical

Engineering at Curtin University of Technology for

supporting the research work.

8. REFERENCES

[1] L. L. Freris, Wind energy conversion system:

Prentice Hall, 1990.

[2] A. J. G. Westlake, J. R. Bumby and E.

Spooner, "Damping the power-angle

oscillations of a permanent -magnet

synchronous generator with particular

reference to wind applications," IEE Proc.-

Electr. Power Appl, vol. 143, no. 3, May 1996,

pp.269-280.

[3] B. S. Borowy and Z. M. Salameh, "Dynamic

response of a stand-alone wind energy

conversion system with battery energy storage

to a wind gust," IEEE Transactions on Energy

Conversion, vol. 12, no. 1, March 1997, pp.73-

78.

[4] J. Y. Chen and C. V. Nayar, "A low speed,

high touque, direct coupled permanent magnet

generator for wind turbine application.,"

presented at Proceedings of Solar'97 -

Australian and New Zealand Solar Energy

Society, 1997.

[5] P. C. Krause, O. Wasynczuk and S. D.

Sudhoff, Analysis of electric machinery: IEEE

Press, 1994.

[6] N. Mohan, T. M. Undeland and W. P. Robbins,

Power Electronic: Converter, application and

design: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. , 1995 .