Sunteți pe pagina 1din 10

A Case Study in Organizational Communications

The United States Army Officeof the Chief of Public Affairs


Author: Paul R. Hayes
January 15, 2007

1
Office Chief Public Affairs
Resource
Management
Division- Pentagon
Contracting
Funding
Army Public Affairs Center
FT Meade, MD
Training
Policy and Doctrine
Organization / Personnel
Materiel Development
Advice to the Commander / staff
Media facilitation
Information Strategies
Community Relations
PA planning
PA training
Core Functions
Public Affairs fulfills the Armys obligation to
keep the American people and the Army
informed, and helps to establish the conditions
that lead to confidence in Americas Army and
its readiness to conduct operations in
peacetime, conflict and war.
Mission
Community Relations
Division - Pentagon
Marketing Team
Community Relations Team
Executive Communications
Team
Plans & Guidance Division -
Pentagon
Operations, Intelligence &
Logistics Team
Weapons, Environment &
Technology Team
Personnel and Human
Resources Team
Projects Team
Analysis and Assessment
Team
Media Relations Division -
Pentagon
Operations, Intelligence &
Logistics Team
Weapons, Environment &
Technology Team
Personnel and Human
Resources Team
Army Leadership Support
Team
Personnel
Management-
Alexandria, Va
Officer management
NCO Management
Civilian Management
Assignments
Assigned to US Army
Human Resources
Command
10 Personnel
Pentagon
OCPA-MW
OCPA -SE OCPA-LA
OCPA-NY
functional and project
project only
distributed communications
(e-mail, telephone, VTC)
Authority and Communications
Unit / Installation
Public Affairs Offices
- Worldwide
Community relations
Media relations
Command information
1009 Public
Relations personnel
assigned to Army
Units / Installations
One of the most popular sources in articles about the war in Iraq is someone called, US Army
Spokesman. Who is this source and to what organization does he or she belong. Consisting of 349
officers and 660 enlisted personnel, the US Army public affairs community spans the globe. How does
the Army coordinate the efforts of these officers and synchronize the messages they distribute to their
publics? The answer is revealed in the organization of the Office of the Chief of Public Affairs (OCPA).
OCPAs mission is:
Public Affairs fulfills the Armys obligation to keep the American people and the Army informed, and
helps to establish the conditions that lead to confidence in Americas Army and its readiness to conduct
operations in peacetime, conflict and war. (OCPA website)
Due to the organizations size, distributed offices, and reliance on technology, OCPA has special
challenges with regard to leadership and effectiveness.
OCPA - How it is organized
Greenberg, in Managing Behavior In Organizations, states that an organization, is not a haphazard
collection of people, but a meaningful combination of groups and individuals working together
purposefully to meet organizational goals. (Greenberg, 424) In keeping with Greenbergs definition,
OPCA is organized by function to complete its mission. Referencing OPCAs internal documents, the six
basic functions of OPCA are:
Provide advice to the commander /
staff
Conduct media facilitation
Develop information strategies
Execute community relations
Conduct public affairs planning
Conduct public affairs training
Figure 1- Overall OCPA Organizational Structure
A Case Study in Organizational Communications
The United States Army Officeof the Chief of Public Affairs
Author: Paul R. Hayes
January 15, 2007

2
What the different functions do
Prior to analyzing the structure of OPCA, it is critical to understand the functions of each of its
subordinate organizations. These organizations are designed around OPCAs six primary functions.
Plans and Guidance Division (PAG) - Provide advice to the commander / staff, develop information
strategies
The stated mission of the plans and guidance division is:
The Plans Division of Army Public Affairs conducts planning to support near- and
long-term executions and events, and is responsible for producing in-depth
communications plans, concept plans and public affairs guidance for a wide variety of
initiatives. The planners typically conduct planning by leading Communication
Planning Groups composed of the subject matter experts relative to any
issue. Communications Plans synchronize several different means of communicating,
to include Army News Service, Soldiers Radio and Television, www.Army.mil, Stand-To,
the Pentagon Channel and normal Army-level media response, as well as
recommended senior leader correspondence when necessary

To accomplish this lengthy
mission, the PAG division retains 31
personnel in its Pentagon offices.
While they did provide a mission,
unlike other divisions, they do not
define their core functions. From
analyzing their organization chart,
however, they appear to be
organized by projects and events
rater than functions. For example, if
a communications plan is required for a new weapon, that responsibility would fall upon the Weapons,
Projects Team Assessments and
Analysis Team
Operations, Intel & Logistics
Team
Weapons, Environment
& Technology Team
Personnel/Army
Resources Team
Plans Division
31 personnel
Pentagon
Core Functions
The Plans Division of Army Public Affairs conducts
planning to support near- and long-term executions and
events, and is responsible for producing in-depth
communications plans, concept plans and public affairs
guidance for a wide variety of initiatives. The
planners typically conduct planning by leading
Communication Planning Groups composed of the
subject matter experts relative to any
issue. Communications Plans synchronize several
different means of communicating, to include Army News
Service, Soldiers Radio and Television, www.Army.mil,
Stand-To, the Pentagon Channel and normal Army-level
media response, as well as recommended senior leader
correspondence when necessary
Mission
None available or published
Authority and Communications
functional and project
project only
distributed communications
(e-mail, telephone, VTC)
Figure 2- OCPA Plans Division
A Case Study in Organizational Communications
The United States Army Officeof the Chief of Public Affairs
Author: Paul R. Hayes
January 15, 2007

3
Environment, and Technology Team. Since all of the divisions subordinate units are co-located at the
Pentagon, all communications within the office are face-to-face. The different divisions can conduct
routine meetings and execute direct coordination with its superiors by walking down the hall.
Additionally, the PAG Division Chief retains project and functional authority over all the units within the
division.
Media Relations Division - Conduct media facilitation
The mission of the Media Relations Division (Figure 3) is not published on any of their documents or
websites. Similarly, they do not provide definition of their core functions. From analyzing their
documents, however, I would define their mission as:
Conduct media facilitation by responding to queries with accurate and timely information.
Additionally, provide senior army executives with media facilitation assistance.

To perform these duties,
the Media Relations
Division is organized
with 17 personnel and
stationed at the
Pentagon. In a similar
manner to the PAG
Division, Media
Relations is organized
by project rather than
function. From a
review of their contact list, this is a tall order. Currently, the division is under-staffed. They are
missing six of their 17 authorized personnel. The result is that several personnel must perform
Personnel and Human
Resources Team
Casualties
Chaplains
Equal Opportunity
General Officer-related issues
Harassment
Homosexual Issues / DADT
Inspector General
JAG/Legal Issues
Women in the Army
Investigations (IG/CID)(How they
are done, not each)
Whistleblower
Medical / Health Issues
Military Justice
Personnel Related Issues
POW / MIA
Recruiting / USAREC
ROTC / Cadet Command
USMA
Safety / Safety Center
Weapons, Environment &
Technology Team
AAFES
Army Museum
Aviation
Base Closure
Budget
Civil Works
Computer Systems
Electronic Warfare
Environment
Foreign Military Sales
Ground Systems (Weapons
systems and support)
Installations and Housing
Missile Defense Systems
Morale, Recreation and Welfare
Space
Nuclear, Biological and Chemical
Issues
Research, Development and
Acquisition
Operations, Intelligence &
Logistics Team
Contingency Operations
Counter Narcotics Operations
Exercises
FEMA/DOMS
Force Structure
Individual Soldier Training
History
INF/START/CPE Treaties
Intelligence
Joint Service Programs
Logistics
Reserve Components
Roles and Missions
Training
Media Relations Division
17 personnel
Pentagon
None available or published
Mission
Army Leadership Support Team
Secretary of the Army Public Affairs Officer
Chief of Staff of the Army Public Affairs Officer
Vice Chief of Staff of the Army Public Affairs
Officer
Army Leadership Photography
Authority and Communications
functional and project
project only
distributed communications
(e-mail, telephone, VTC)
Core Functions
None available or published
Figure 3- OCPA Media Relations Division
A Case Study in Organizational Communications
The United States Army Officeof the Chief of Public Affairs
Author: Paul R. Hayes
January 15, 2007

4
nearly double the work. For example, the three personnel in the Personnel and Human Resources
Team must respond to media queries in 19 different areas. Their work is additionally
complicated in that personnel in the Community Relations Divisions outreach offices (Figure 1)
forward all their media queries to them. So, if a reporter calls the New York Outreach office with
a question about a personnel-related issue, they are forwarded to the Personnel and Human
Resources Team in the Media Relations Division.
Another characteristic of the Media Relations Division structure is that members of the Army
Leadership Support Team fall under the Division Chief for coordination and support only. These
team members are responsible for handling all media relations for the Secretary of the Army,
Chief of Staff of the Army, and the Vice Chief of Staff of the Army. These officers work for the
specific leader and are rated by them. For example, if the Vice Chief has to appear on Meet the
Press, his media support officer handles all aspects of the appearance. Additionally, when high-
profile events such as this happen, the Leadership Support Team can ask the Media Relations
Division Chief for augmentation or help. In this way, the Media Relations Chief retains some
aspect for project authority.
Community Relations Division - Execute community relations
The mission and core functions of the Community Relations Division (CRD) are not officially stated on
any of their websites or communications. From reviewing their contact list and lessons gained in
interviewing one of their subordinate divisions, a proposed mission that covers their activities is:
Community Relations Division plans and conducts marketing for the Army,
community relations and outreach activities with key audiences, and specialized
executive communications programs.
To accomplish these activities, CRD is organized into seven teams consisting of 22 personnel stationed
all across the United States. As opposed to the project oriented organizations of Media Relations and
Plans, CRD is functionally organized. The Marketing Team handles appearances by high-profile Army
A Case Study in Organizational Communications
The United States Army Officeof the Chief of Public Affairs
Author: Paul R. Hayes
January 15, 2007

5
Executive Communications Team
- Media training for GOs and SES
- Holiday and special event speech
writing
- Worldwide Public Affairs Symposium
- GO speakers bureau
Community Relations Team
- Joint Civilian Orientation
Conference
- Joint Service Open House
- Public Service Recognition Week
- Interservice ComRel Liaison
- Aerial Requests
- Non-aerial Requests
Marketing Team
- Outreach Council
- Golden Knights Liaison
- The U.S. Army Field Band
- Commemorations
- The U.S. Army All-American Bowl
OCPA Liaison
- USO Liaison
- CFSC and Army Entertainment
Liaison
- Sports Outreach
- Outreach Web site/ Calendar
- Soldier of the Year/NCO of the
Year
- Accessions Command Liaison
Community Relations Division
22 personnel
Pentagon
OCPA-NY
- Outreach in NYC metro area
- Outreach in Northeast
- Book and publications lead
OCPA-LA
- Outreach in Los Angeles
- Movie industry lead
OCPA-SE
- Outreach in FL, GA and PR
- Based in Tampa
OCPA-MW
- Outreach in ND,
SD, NE, KS, MN, IA,
MO, IL, WI, MI, IN,
OH
- Based in Chicago
None available or published
Mission
Authority and Communications
functional and project
project only
distributed communications
(e-mail, telephone, VTC)
Core Functions
None available or published
units (Golden Knights, Old Guard Drill Team) at sporting events and coordinates annual all-Army
outreach events such as Army
Birthday and Soldier of the Year
CRD has challenges with its
organization. The first challenge is
that it is scattered across the country.
(Figure 4) CRD has offices in the
Pentagon (marketing, community
relations, and executive comms),
New York (OCPA NY), Chicago
(OCPA MW), Los Angeles
(OCPA LA), and Tampa (OCPA
SE). These satellite offices are manned with two to three personnel and rely on electronic mail, phone,
and annual meetings for communications with the chief of the CRD. Specific missions of these satellite
offices vary, but generally their mission is to identify high-profile targets of opportunity and engage
organizers and planners in events that showcase todays Army and its Soldiers. (Buczkowski, Misurelli)
Army Public Affairs Center - Conduct public affairs training
The mission and core functions of the Army Public Affair Center (APAC) are clearly stated on both
their website and official communications. Consisting of 17 personnel at Ft Meade, Maryland, the
mission of APAC is:
As the proponency executive agent for the Chief of Public Affairs, develop,
provide guidance for, and prepare Army PA doctrine, organizations, training,
materiel, leader development, personnel, facilities, and policy

Figure 4 OPCA Community Relations Division
A Case Study in Organizational Communications
The United States Army Officeof the Chief of Public Affairs
Author: Paul R. Hayes
January 15, 2007

6
Essentially, APAC serves as the trainers for all Army PAOs. Additionally, they perform the
role of subject matter experts for doctrine and material advice within the force. As a
proponent for
Public Affairs within
the Army, no other
branch or agency can
make a
recommendation
mentioning the use of
Public Affairs without
first clearing it
through APAC. For
example, if General
Cucolo needs advice
on how many PAOs
would be ideal for a new organization, he would call the director of APAC for advice. If the
head of Infantry Branch wants to include Public Affairs training in a new course for
lieutenants, he would call APAC for a recommendation.
APACs own organization is designed around their core functions. (Figure 5) These
functions include:
Provide clear, mutually supporting doctrine & policy
Develop, update & assess public affairs training
Reinforce Army leaders ability to aggressively tell the Army story
Design appropriately structured & equipped organizations
Exploit emerging technologies to enhance field force capabilities
Sustain the viability of the warfighting Public Affairs function
Organization and Personnel
Force development
Public affairs organizational
design
Policy and Doctrine
Manuals
Public affairs policies
Training Division
Training development and
standardization for:
Advance Schools
DVIDS
IO
Media Training
Mission Training Plans
MTSS Program
MTT
NCO Academy
Public Affairs Tool Box
Reserve Component
STPs
DINFOS
Army Communication Guide
Blogging
Army Public Affairs Center
Material
Development
Equipment research
and design
Of the Shelf
purchases
17 Personnel
FT Meade, MD
Provide clear, mutually supporting doctrine & policy
Develop, update & assess public affairs training
Reinforce Army leaders ability to aggressively tell the
Army story
Design appropriately structured & equipped
organizations
Exploit emerging technologies to enhance field force
capabilities
Sustain the viability of the warfighting Public Affairs
function
Core Functions
As the proponency executive
agent for the Chief of Public
Affairs, develop, provide
guidance for, and prepare
Army PA doctrine,
organizations, training,
materiel, leader development,
personnel, facilities, and
policy.
Mission Authority and Communications
functional and project
project only
distributed communications
(e-mail, telephone, VTC)
Figure 6 - APAC
A Case Study in Organizational Communications
The United States Army Officeof the Chief of Public Affairs
Author: Paul R. Hayes
January 15, 2007

7

The functional organization of APAC is probably the proper design. Training division handles all
training for the PAO force to include course design for all PAO courses, managing slots for attendance,
and selecting personnel for advance schooling. Material division handles the integration of new
equipment into the PAO force as well as investigating and authorizing the new purchase of off the shelf
equipment. Policy and doctrine division writes all PAO manuals as well as handling inquires from other
branches and services. Finally, Organization and personnel division reviews PAO force structure and
tracks PAO authorizations for units in the field.
While APAC is positioned at Ft Meade, it is still close enough to OCPA for in-person meetings when
needed. The problems experienced by the Community Relations branch offices do not apply here even
though they operate at a distance from APAC headquarters. The one main problem with APAC is that
they only have 17 personnel on staff. Last year, the director was retiring and the deputy director was in
the hospital. As a result, communications were at a standstill and decisions on projects and schooling
were delayed. For example, it took close to two months of phone calls and e-mails before I could get a
response back from the deputy about graduate schooling. He admitted his hospitalization and COL
Rhyndances retirement had severely hampered communications.
Outliers Public Affairs Offices and Personnel Management
The final two organizations that make up OPCA are public affairs units in the force, and the PAO
Personnel Management Office. General Cucolo has no functional authority over these two groups. He
only retains a manner of project authority. In both cases, the organizations work for their commanders.
Unit PAOs report to their unit commanders for functional and project control. The PAO Branch Manager
works for the head of Army Human Resources Command. Communications between OPCA and these
organizations is mainly electronic. Unit PAOs rely on the Army Knowledge Network for specific PAG
A Case Study in Organizational Communications
The United States Army Officeof the Chief of Public Affairs
Author: Paul R. Hayes
January 15, 2007

8
for projects, and general doctrinal and plans advice. The Public Affairs branch manager receives
guidance from OCPA on manning priorities and individual fill requests.
Vertical or Flat Division of Labor and Span of Control in OCPA
In general, OPCAs division of labor is organized around functions rather than haphazardly or around
projects. When looking at the overall organization chart for OCPA it resembles a flat organization.
The Chief of OPA, Brigadier General Cucolo, has span of control over five functional areas. These few
layers between the chief and the functions, in theory, should reduce waste and enable people to make
better decisions. (Greenberg, 426) In some cases, however, OCPA is a tall organization. Working
directly for BG Cucolo are three senior public affairs executives. (Figure 7) These executives must
review Cucolo can make a decision.
Additionally, each functional area
division is organized in a similar
manner. As a result, OPCA is really
an example of a tall organization.
The impact of this structure is seen
in several examples. The first
example is the process of creating
and issuing Public Affairs Guidance
(PAG). Designing and formulating
PAG is the function of the Plans and
Guidance Division. The function of PAG is to create standard messages, talking points, and clarify
official positions of the Army on a given issue. Once staffer in the division has created the PAG for the
issue, it must be approved by his division chief, passed through the OPCA deputy chiefs and usually
returned for changes. Once changes are complete, it is forwarded again to the OCPA where it is
Chief Public Affairs
Resource
Management
Division- Pentagon
Contracting
Funding
Army Public Affairs Center
FT Meade, MD
Training
Policy and Doctrine
Organization / Personnel
Materiel Development
Community Relations
Division - Pentagon
Marketing Team
Community Relations Team
Executive Communications
Team
Plans & Guidance Division -
Pentagon
Operations, Intelligence &
Logistics Team
Weapons, Environment &
Technology Team
Personnel and Human
Resources Team
Projects Team
Analysis and Assessment
Team
Media Relations Division -
Pentagon
Operations, Intelligence &
Logistics Team
Weapons, Environment &
Technology Team
Personnel and Human
Resources Team
Army Leadership Support
Team
Personnel
Management-
Alexandria, Va
Officer management
NCO Management
Civilian Management
Assignments
Assigned to US Army
Human Resources
Command
10 Personnel
Pentagon
OCPA-MW
OCPA -SE OCPA-LA
OCPA-NY
Unit / Installation
Public Affairs Offices
- Worldwide
Community relations
Media relations
Command information
1009 Public
Relations personnel
assigned to Army
Units / Installations
Sergeant Major Public
Affairs
Principal Deputy Chief
Public Affairs
Deputy Chief Public
Affairs
Figure 7 Additional Layers
A Case Study in Organizational Communications
The United States Army Officeof the Chief of Public Affairs
Author: Paul R. Hayes
January 15, 2007

9
Communications Within OCPA
Push vs Pull
Push
Push
Pull
Pull
Daily Stand-to
Annual World Wide Public Affairs
Seminar
Messages to the force via e-mail
Weekly balcony brief
Daily Stand-to
Annual World Wide Public Affairs
Seminar
Messages to the force via e-mail
Weekly balcony brief
Earlybird
AKO resources:
Data depot
Notes from the Blogosphere
PA homepage
PAG
Division AKO pages
Editorial Roundup
File sharing directories
Individual unit PAO pages
Requests for information to each
division
Earlybird
AKO resources:
Data depot
Notes from the Blogosphere
PA homepage
PAG
Division AKO pages
Editorial Roundup
File sharing directories
Individual unit PAO pages
Requests for information to each
division
eventually approved and signed by BG Cucolo. Only then can it be distributed to the force via electronic
means. This process is timely and can result in delays in providing official Army positions on critical
issues. An example of this delay was seen in the announcement of the extension of the 172d Airborne
Brigade from Alaska. The Army announced August 4, 2006 the unit would be extended for an additional
4 months in Iraq. Soldiers who had already returned home were returned to Iraq. While the incident was
significant and generated many stories in the press, it took until September 5
th
for OCPA to issue official
PAG.
Communications within the organization variety of methods
Communications within OCPA is accomplished by multiple methods. The easiest way to describe these
methods is by using the terms push and pull.
Pushing information to the force occurs when
guidance is sent unprompted to members of the
Public Affairs Community. One example of OCPA
communication that is pushed to the force would be
the daily Stand-to. Stand-to subscribers receive a
one page update on communication themes and
messages focus for the day. Additionally, the update
includes key articles and links to communications relating to the Army. Another method of pushing
information to the force is the use of e-mails from General Cucolo. This only occurs when the issue is of
such great importance that it warrants mass distribution. This method was used prior to the launch of the
Army Strong campaign. The Annual Public Affairs Conference is also used to push information to the
force, but is usually sparsely attended by those outside the Washington D.C. area. The final method of
pushing information to the force is the weekly balcony brief. The balcony brief is chaired by General
Cucolo and attended by all the division chiefs within OCPA. This meeting is used to synchronize
Figure 7 Push vs Pull
A Case Study in Organizational Communications
The United States Army Officeof the Chief of Public Affairs
Author: Paul R. Hayes
January 15, 2007

10
messaging, coordinate projects across divisions, and publish weekly guidance. Members of the Public
Affairs Community such as OCPA NY receive the minutes from these meetings electronically.
A more popular method of distributing information to the force is through pull methods. These
methods work much like a grocery store. The divisions of OCPA Public Affairs officers operate under