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HARVARD REFERENCING GUIDE HOW TO USE THIS GUID E Harvard Referencing Guide This guide is divided

HARVARD REFERENCING GUIDE

HOW TO USE THIS GUID E

Harvard Referencing Guide

This guide is divided into four sections that represent four different types of publications:

  • 1. Periodicals: Journal and newspaper articles: pp. 2 -3

  • 2. Electronic publications: pp. 3-6

  • 3. Books: pp. 6-7

  • 4. Miscellaneous publications and materials: pp. 7 -8

Within each section, we have organised the information into three columns:

Column 1 lists the different types of source materials that you will need to reference when you are doing an assignment.

Column 2 shows you how to do ‘in-text referencing’ or ‘in-text citation’ – this is where you refer to your sources of information WITHIN your assignment when you paraphrase, summarise or quote.

Column 3 shows you how to cite each type of reference in the ‘Reference List’ at the END of your assignment. This list of references provides your reader with all the information about each source you have referred to in your assignment, so they can find each source you have referred to if they wish.

Here are some useful terms with which you need to be familiar:

A paraphrase means saying something in another way without changing its meaning , for example, using your own words to express the ideas of an author. A paraphrase may/may not be shorter than the original.

A summary is similar to a paraphrase except it is shorter than the original. Summarising involves ‘compressing’ large amounts of information into a few sentences. So it involves picking out the main ideas, leaving out the details, and putting the main ideas into yo ur own words.

A quotation involves reproducing the EXACT words from a source. Quotations must be carefully selected and copied from the original source material, and should be sparingly used to support your arguments or the key points you wish to make. If you wish to use a short quotation, you must put single quotation marks (‘ ’) around the words of the original author and integrate the quotation into your sentence. For long quotations, that is, quotations which are over 30 words, you must indent them from the left margin (do not use single quotation marks). Use double quotation marks (“ ") only when citing a quotation within a quotation.

NB Make sure you include the author’s surname and year of publication every time you paraphrase, summarise or quote. W hen using a quotation, you must also include the page number(s) from which the quotation was taken.

On the following page you will find a sample paraphrase, a sample of a short and long quotation, and a sample summary. Each sample includes BOTH correct in-text referencing and Reference List entry. To help you successfully reference in each assignment, we have provided you with a simple checklist on the last page of this Harvard Referencing Guide. Please consult it before you submit each assignment.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This guide was compiled by Maree Stenglin, Maxim Soyref and Richard Swain, Learning and Teaching in Business.

  • A. Sample paraphrase and Reference List

Harvard Referencing Guide

The Allen Consulting Group (2006) presented a convincing argument that skills matter to employers.

Reference List

Allen Consulting Group. 2006, World class skills for world class industries: employers’ perspectives on skilling in Australia, Sydney.

  • B. Sample short quotation and Reference List

Many questions have been raised about issues con cerning ‘skills and skill development’ (Fenwick and Hall 2006, p.571).

Reference List

Fenwick, T. and Hall, R. 2006, 'Skills in the knowledge economy: changing meanings in changing conditions', Journal of Industrial Relations , vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 575 -592.

  • C. Sample long quotation and Reference List

There has been some debate within the academic community in recent decades about how to best define the term globalisation. Given how contested this term has become, the following definition of globalisation will be used in this assignment:

Globalisation involves the creation of linkages or interconnections between nations. It is usually understood as a process in which barriers (physical, political, economic, cultural) separating different regions of the world as reduced or removed, thereby stimulating exchanges in goods, services, money, and people (Hamilton & Webster 2009, p.5).

Reference List

Hamilton, L. and Webster, P. 2009, The international businesses e nvironment, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

D . Sample reading summary and Reference List

Lane (2008) does not agree with the critics of state -led capitalism in Russia. Instead he thinks that the Putin model, while not perfect, is a realistic way to develop Russia’s resources for the following three reasons. First, it is based on the strong and accepted influence of the state in the private sector. Second, he believes that this form of state -led capitalism is a great improvement on the ‘chaotic’ capitalism that characterised the early period of transiti on. Finally, he concludes that there will not be any great re - nationalisation of industry .

Reference List Lane, D. 2008, ‘From chaotic to s tate-led capitalism’, New Political Economy , vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 177-184.

This sample reading summary has been adapted from a longer text written by James Mugambi in 2009.

Harvard Referencing Guide

SECTION 1: PERIODICALS: JOURNAL AND NEWSPAPER ARTICLES

Type of Source

In-text reference

Reference List entry

Journal article with a single

According to Carlin (2007) . .

.

Surname, Initial(s). Year, 'Title of article', Title of Journal, volume number, issue number, page numbers .

author

Example:

Carlin, T. 2007, 'Some reflections on research', Compliance & Regulatory Journal, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 9-13.

More than one journal article by

The analytical work done by Marshak and Grant (2008a;

Surname, Initial(s). Year[letter], 'Title of article', Title of Journal, volume number, issue number, page numbers.

the same author(s) in the

2008b) has shown that

Example:

same year

organisational discourse is .

.

Marshak, R. J. and Grant, D. 2008a, 'Organizational discourse and new organization development practices', British Journal of Management, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 7-19.

 

Marshak, R. J. and Grant, D. 2008b, 'Transforming talk: the interplay of discourse, power, and change', Organization Development Journal, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 33-40.

Journal article with two or three

Many questions have been raised about issues

Authors. Year, 'Title of article', Title of Journal, volume number, issue number, page numbers .

authors

concerning ‘skills and skill

Example:

development’ (Fenwick and Hall 2006, p.571).

Fenwick, T. and Hall, R. 2006, 'Skills in the knowledge economy: changing meanings in changing conditions', Journal of Industrial Relations , vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 575-592.

Journal article with more than

According to Pocock et al. (2008) Work Choices are

.

Authors. Year, 'Title of article', Title of Journal, volume number, issue number, page numbers.

three authors

 

Example:

Pocock, B., Elton, J., Preston, A., Charlesworth, S., MacDonald, F., Baird, M., Cooper, R. and Ellem, B. 2008, 'The impact of “Work Choices” on w omen in low paid employment in Australia: a qualitative analysis', Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 477-88.

Journal article with no author

The problems facing baby boomers have been carefully

2009)…

 

‘Title of article’, Year, Title of Journal, volume number, issue number, page numbers.

investigated (‘Cancer

Example:

generation: baby boomers facing a perfect storm’

‘Cancer generation: baby boomers facing a perfect storm’, 2009, Oncology Nursing, vol. 36, p. 596.

Newspaper

Different methods of

Author(s). Year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper, Day

article

retaining nurses have been

Month, page no(s).

challenged by Brown (1987)

Example:

Brown, D. 1987, ‘Hospitals try tea, raises, status to refill thinning ranks of nurses’, Los Angeles Times, 6 August, p.1.

Newspaper

The problem has been

‘Title of article’, Year, Title of Newspaper, Day Month, page

Harvard Referencing Guide

article, no author

highlighted in the Sydney

no(s).

Morning Herald (11 January,

Example:

2011)…

‘One dead in multiple beach rescue’, 2011, Sydney Morning Herald, 11 January, p.10.

SECTION 2: ELECTRONIC PUBLICATIONS

Type of Source

In-text reference

Reference List entry

Electronic Book

Jarsulic (2010) suggests that…

Author(s). Year, Title of book, (edition number if applicable), Publisher, Place, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>

Example:

Jarsulic, M. 2010, Anatomy of a financial crisis: a real estate bubble, runaway credit markets and regulatory failure , Palgrave Macmillan, New York, viewed 11 January 2011,

<http://www.palgraveconnect.com.ezproxy1.library.usyd.edu.

au/pc/doifinder/10.1057/9 780230106185>

Chapter in an edited electronic Book

Kepes and Delery (2007) have outlined ...

Author(s). Year, ‘Title of chapter’ in Editor(s) (ed./eds)*, Year, Title of book, (edition number if applicable), Publisher, Place, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>

*ed. for one editor; eds. for multiple editors Example:

Kepes, S. and Delery, J. 2007, ‘HRM s ystems and the problem of the internal fit’ in P. Boxall, J. Purcell, and P. Wright (eds.), The Oxford handbook of human resource m anagement, Oxford University Press, Oxford, viewed 24 February 2008,

<http://search.informit.com.au.ezproxy2.library.usyd.edu.au/d

ocumentSummary;dn=989987802666928;res=IELHSS>

Journal article from an electronic Journal

A new method of pricing specific options has been recently developed (Buchen

Author(s). Year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, volume number, issue number, page numbers , viewed Day Month Year, <URL>

Example:

and Konstandatos 2009) and it …

Buchen, P. and Konstandatos, O. 2009, ‘A new approach to pricing double-barrier options with arbitrary payoffs and exponential boundaries’, Applied Mathematical Finance, vol.16, no. 6, pp. 497-515, viewed 17 January 2011,

<http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a9153

26893~db=all~jumptype=rss>

Journal article from an electronic database

The question of what will happen to banks is introduced by Bossone

Author(s). Year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, volume number, issue number, page numbers , viewed Day Month Year, Database Name.

(2001)…

Example:

Bossone, B. 2001, ‘Do banks have a future? A study on banking and finance as we move into the third millennium’,

Harvard Referencing Guide

   

Journal of Banking & Finance, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2239-2276, viewed 16 January 2005, ScienceDirect.

Newspaper article viewed on the WWW

Martin (2011) asserts that …

Author(s). Year, ‘Title of Article’, Title of Newspaper, Day Month, page no(s) (if applicable), viewed Day Month Year, <URL>

Example:

Martin, P. 2011, ‘Fraud is a cinch – just ask your bank’, Sydney Morning Herald, 11 January, viewed 11 January 2011, <http://www.smh.com.au/business/fraud -is-a-cinch--

just-ask-your-bank-20110110-19l77.html>

Newspaper article viewed from an electronic

The problems faced by Wall Street in the past have been denied by Kindleberger

Author(s). Year, ‘Title of Article’, Title of Newspaper, Day Month, page no(s) (if applicable), viewed Day Month Year, name of database provider, item number (if applicable).

database

(1999) who maintains that ...

Example:

Kindleberger, C. 1999, ‘Fools and their m oney – what’s left of it’, Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), 19 August, viewed 28 September 2004, ProQuest, ISSN 00999660.

Web document

Cagliarini and McKibbin (2009) discuss …

Author(s). Year, Title of document, Name of Organisation, Place of Organisation, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>

Example:

Cagliarini, A. and McKibbin, W. 2009, Global relative price shocks: the role of macroeconomic p olicies, Reserve Bank of Australia, Sydney, viewed 24 October 2010, <http://www.rba.gov.au/publications/rdp/2 009/2009-10.html>

Web document with no author

The level of fiscal stimulus is summarised in the

Title of document, Year, Name of Organisation, Place of Organisation, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>

Department of Treasury

Example:

Annual Report 2009-2010

Department of Treasury Annual Report 2009 -2010, 2010,

<http://www.treasury.gov.au/contentitem.asp?NavId=036&Co

(2010)…

Department of Treasury, Canberra, viewed 28 October 2010,

ntentID=1893>

Web document

The effect of price shocks is

Author(s). n.d., Title of document, Name of Organisation,

with no

questioned by Cagliarini and

Place of Organisation, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>

publication date

McKibbin (n.d.) …

Example:

Cagliarini, A. and McKibbin, W. n.d., Global relative price shocks: the role of macroeconomic policies, Reserve Bank of Australia, Sydney, viewed 24 October 2010, <http://www.rba.gov.au/publications/rdp/2009/2009 -10.html>

Web site

The Reserve Bank of Australia website (2007) contains information on …

Author(s), Year [of last update] (if available), Title of web site, Name of Organisation (if applicable), Place of Organisation, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>

Example:

Reserve Bank of Australia, 2007, Reserve Bank of Australia, Sydney, viewed 23 March 2007, <www.rba.gov .au>

Images accessed from a Web

Past productivity cycles are clearly shown in Productivity

Author(s), Year [of last update], Title of Image, Name of Organisation, Place of Organisation, viewed Day Month Year,

Harvard Referencing Guide

site/document

Growth Cycles (2009) …

<URL>

Example:

Department of Treasury, 2009, Productivity Growth Cycles, Department of Treasury, Canberra, viewed 2 August 2010, <http://www.treasury.gov.au/contentitem.asp?NavId=&Conte

ntID=1466>

Electronic Thesis

The role of distance in retail gasoline market competition

Author. Year, ‘Title of thesis’, Type of Thesis, Department, University, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>

is analysed by Brewer (2007)

Example:

who concludes that …

Brewer, J. 2007, ‘Competition in the retail gasoline industry’, PhD Thesis, Departm ent of Economics, University of Arizona, viewed 29 October 2008,

<http://proquest.umi.com.ezproxy2.library.usyd.edu.au/pqdw

eb?index=1&did=1428847681&SrchMode=2&sid=2&Fmt=2&

VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1

294703039&clientId=16331>

Online Lecture

As explained by Piggott

Author(s) Year, Title of lecture (Unit Code), at Teaching

Example:

Notes

(2011) business refers to …

Organisation, Place of Publication, Date, viewed Day Month

Year, <URL>

Piggott, L. 2011, Introduction to Business (ECOF1003), at The University of Sydney, Sydney, 10 March, viewed 14 March 2011, <http://blackboard.com>

Online Course

Fisher (2004) demonstrates

Author(s). Year, ‘Title of reading’ in Editor(s) (ed.), Title of

Example:

Readings

the important role that self

Course (Unit Code), Teaching Organisation, Place of

reflection plays in the development of critical thinking.

Publication, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>

Fisher, K. 2004, ‘Critical self-reflection: what is it and how do you do it?’ in L. Piggott (ed.), ECOF1004 Reader, University of Sydney, Sydney, viewed 14 January 2011, <http://blackboard.com>

Web blogs

In his blog, Quiggin (2011) criticises…

Author. Year of Posting, Title of site, web blog, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>

Example:

Quiggin, J. 2011, John Quiggin: commentary on Australian & world events from a social-democratic perspective, web blog, viewed 14 January 2011, < http://johnquiggin.com/>

Web blog posts

Following the crisis, Quiggin (2011) speculated that …

Author. Year of Posting, ‘Title of post’, Title of site, web blog post, Day Month, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>

Example:

Quiggin, J. 2011, ‘Total core meltdown’, John Quiggin:

commentary on Australian & world events from a social- democratic perspective, web blog, 20 December, viewed 31 December 2011 <http://johnquiggin.com/>

Podcasts

Parched: The Politics of

Title of podcast, Year, podcast, Name of Organisation, Place

Harvard Referencing Guide

 

Water (2008) identifies …

of Organisation, Day Month of Publication, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>

Example:

Parched: the politics of water, 2008, podcast, ABC Radio National, 21 November, viewed 28 September 2009,

<http://www.abc.net.au/rn/nationalinterest/stories/2008/24264

05.htm>

SECTION 3: BOOKS

Type of Source

In-text reference

 

Reference List entry

Book with a single Author

Shields (2007) proposes that …

Surname, Initial(s). Year, Title of book, Publisher, Place of Publication.

Example:

Shields, J. 2007, Managing employee performance and reward, Cambridge University Press, Melbourne.

Book with two or three Authors

It has been indicated by Frino and Segara (2008) that

List of Authors. Year, Title of book, Publisher, Place of Publication.

Example:

Frino, A. and Segara, R. 2008, Trade execution, arbitrage and dealing in Australia, Pearson Prentice Hall, Sydney.

Book with more than three

Some critics have argued that corporate finance …

 

List of Authors. Year, Title of book, Publisher, Place of Publication.

Authors

(Brealey et al. 2000).

Example:

 

Brealey, R., Myers, S., Partington, G. and Robinson, D. 2000, Principles of corporate finance, McGraw Hill, Sydney.

Book with no author

It was affirmed in Bomber Command: The Air Ministry

Title of book. Year, Publisher, Place of Publication. Example:

Account of Bomber

Bomber Command: the Air Ministry account of Bomber

Command’s Offensive

Command’s offensive against the Axis Sept 1939 -July 1941.

against the Axis Sept 1939-

1941, HMSO, London.

July 1941 (1941) that

.

Book with no date

The famous ancient scholar Aurelius (n.d.) has claimed

Surname, Initial(s). n.d., Title of book, Publisher, Place of Publication.

that

.

Example:

 

Aurelius, M. n.d., Meditations of Marcus Aurelius, Library of Classics, London.

Book with

Some characterise the

Author(s). Year, Title of book, number of edition, Publisher,

multiple editions

discipline of finance (Frino,

Place of Publication.

Hill and Chen 2009) as ...

Example:

Frino, A., Hill, A. and Chen, Z. 2009, Introduction to corporate finance, 4 th ed., Pearson Education Australia, Sydney.

Harvard Referencing Guide

Edited Book

The foundations of industrial justice are examined by

Editor. (ed.) Year, Title of book, Publisher, Place of Publication.

Patmore (2003) through ...

Example:

Patmore, G. (ed.) 2003, Laying the foundations of industrial justice: the presidents of the Industrial R elations Commission of NSW 1902-1998, The Federation Press, Sydney.

Edited book with two or more

Some critics deny the fact that … (Jones and Hensher

Editors (eds.) Year, Title of book, Publisher, Place of Publication.

editors

2008).

Example:

Jones, S. and Hensher, D. (eds.) 2008, Advances in credit risk modelling and bankruptcy p rediction, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Chapter in an Edited Book

One perspective on women and work is offered by Baird

Author(s). Year, ‘Title of chapter’ in Editor(s), Title of book, Publisher, Place of Publication, page numbers.

(2010) in her discussion of …

Example:

Baird, M. 2010, ‘Women and work in Australia: a theoretical and historical overview’ in P. A. Murray, R. Kramar and P. McGraw (eds.), Women at work: research, policy and practice, Tilde University Press, Melbourne, pp. 1-23.

Translated Book

The question of memories is considered in …

Author(s). Year, Title of book, trans [translator], Publisher, Place of Publication.

(Krzhizhanovsky 2006).

Example:

Krzhizhanovsky, S. 2006, Memories of the future, trans. [Turnbull, J.], New York Review of Books, New York.

Harvard Referencing Guide

SECTION 4: MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS AND MATERIALS

Type of

In-text reference

Reference List entry

Source

Report

The Allen Consulting Group (2006) presented a convincing

Author(s). Year, Title of report, Place of Publication. Example:

argument that skills matter to employers.

Allen Consulting Group. 2006, World class skills for world class industries: employers’ perspectives on skilling in Australia,

Sydney.

Figure, graph, table or image

Figure 1 (adapted from Australian Bureau of Statistics

Author. Year, Title of document, Location, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>

(online)

Example:

2010) identifies an important trend in …

Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2010, 6202.0 - Labour force, Australia, Jan 2011, Canberra, viewed 14 February 2011, <http://abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/6202.0 >

Government

Unemployment increased

Government Department. Year, Title of document,

Example:

Statistics

substantially following the

Government Department, Location, Catalogue No. (if

financial crisis (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2010).

applicable).

Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2010, Labour statistics Australia, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, Catalogue No. 6101.0.

Standard

The requirem ents are clearly set out in the industry standard

Author, Year, Title of standard, Standard No. (if applicable), Publisher, Place of Publication.

(Standards Association of

Example:

Australia 2004)…

Standards Association of Australia, 2004, Environmental m anagement systems – requirements with guidance for use

(AS/NZS ISO 14001:2004), Standards Australia, Sydney.

Published

Ballsun-Stanton and Bunker

Author(s). Year, ‘Title of conference paper’ Title of conference

Example:

Conference

(2009) express the view that…

proceedings, Conference Organiser (if relevant e.g. the Royal

Paper

Australian College of Physicians), Location, page numbers or

<URL>.

Ballsun-Stanton, B. and Bunker, D. 2009, ‘Philosophy of data (PoD) and its importance to the Discipline of Information Systems’, Proceedings of the fifteenth Americas conference on information systems, San Francisco, California

,<http://aisel.aisnet.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1443&conte

xt=amcis2009>.

Unpublished

Mitchell and McKenzie (2004)

Author(s). Year, ‘Title of conference paper’ presented at the

Conference

express the view that…

conference name/Conference Organiser, Location, Day Month

Paper

Year.

Example:

Mitchell, H. and McKenzie, M. 2004, ‘The use of forecasting accuracy as an ARCH model selection tool’, paper presented at the conference on modelling and analysis of safety and risk

Harvard Referencing Guide

   

in complex systems, St. Petersburg, Russia (Russian Federation), 25 June 2004.

Material from

Critical self-reflection is defined

Author(s). Year, ‘Title of document’ in Editor(s) (ed.), Title of

Course

as

.’ (Fisher 2004).

course readings, Year, Teaching Organisation, Place of

Readings

 

Publication.

Example:

Fisher, K. 2004, ‘Critical self-reflection: what is it and how do you do it?’ in L. Piggott (ed.), ECOF1004 Reader, University of Sydney, Sydney.

Lecture Notes

Piggott (2011) defines ...

Author(s). Year, Lecture Title (Unit Code), at Teaching Organisation, Place of Publication, Date.

Example:

Piggott, L. 2011, Introduction to Business (ECOF1003), at The University of Sydney, Sydney, 10 March.

Email/Personal

It was confirmed by Hodgson

No entry is required in the reference list

Communication

(2004, email 27 October) that …

Some improvements were suggested by Reynolds (2006, Pers. Comm. 15 April) following…

Patent

A patent was taken out (Pettigrew 2007) following…

Author(s). Year, Title of patent, Country Patent No. Example:

Pettigrew, J. 2007, New system of teaching accounting, Australia Patent 2007101217.

Pamphlet or

Further information is

Title of brochure. Year, Publisher, Location of Publication.

brochure

described in Austudy (2010)…

Example:

Austudy. 2010, Centrelink, Canberra, ACT.

Harvard Referencing Guide

REFERENCING CHECKLIST

 

BEFORE YOU SUBMIT, CHECK THE FOLLOWING:

YES

NO

1.

IN-TEXT REFERENCES

     
 

Quotes

   

Did you include the following information near each quotation:

     
 

author’s last name?

the year of publication?

the page number(s) on which you found the quotation?

Did you put single inverted commas ‘ ’ around the author’s original words in each short quotation?

     

Did you integrate each short quotation into a sentence?

     

If you used a long quotation (more than 30 words) , did you indent the quotation from the left margin (without using single inverted commas)?

   

Paraphrases and summaries

     

Did you put the original author’s words into your own?

     

Did you include the author’s last name and year of publication for every paraphrase or summary?

     

2.

REFERENCE LIST (AT THE END OF YOUR ASSIGNMENT)

     

Have you included the heading ‘Reference List’ on the last page of your assignment?

     

Have you arranged all your sources alphabetically in your reference list according to the author’s last name?

   

If one author has more than two publications, did you arrange them chronologically (For example: Lee 2010, Lee 2009) ?

     

If one author has more than one publication in the same year, have

     

you used a, b, c to distinguish them? (For example: Smith 2010a

.

 

Smith 2010b

Smith 2010c).

Did you check each comma, full stop, bracket and use of italics?