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Geography

Class 6th
Full Moon or Poornima
New Moon or Amavasiya
Celestial bodies
Stars
Constellations
Ursa Major or big bear
Small Major or Saptarishi
Pole Star for North Direction
Planets Etymology : Planetia Greek Word for Wanderers , Moon is a Satellite
Solar System Etymology : Sol word greek Word associated from Greek God Sun,
Geography Etymology : Origins from 2 words , Ge means Earth and Graphia Meaning Writning.
Geo + Logy (logia) : Study of Earth
Geo + Metry(metron) : Measurement of Earth
Geo+oid(oeidies) :resembeling the shape and form of earth
Astronomers: Study of celestial bodies and their movements
Astrology : Study of effects of moving celestial bodies on a human being.
Earth as a blue planet as it appears blue from outside due to 2/3rd as oceans
Earth has a slightly flat surface at the poles, this structure are termed as earth shaped.
Neil Armstrong became the first Human being to step on moon on 29th july 1969
Asteroids, Ceres is the largest Asteroid known
they are assumed to be part of a planted being disintegrated long ago.
Meteoroides :
Akash Ganga of the past,
Galaxy
Universe
Geography Etymology : Origins from 2 words , Ge means Earth and Graphia Meaning Writning.
Global latitudes and Longitudes :
Axis of rotation,
Equator
Parallels or Latitudes
North and South latitudes:
Imp Latitudes :
tropic of cancer, tropic of capricon, artic cricle and antartic circle
Torrid Zone , temperate zones and frigid zone
Longitudes, Prime Meredian at Greenwich British Royal Observatory
Longitude and Time :
Earth rotates from West to east ,
Earth is divided in 180 E to 180 W from Greenwhich where places located east of the greenwhich are ahead and to the west lag behind
Earth rotates 360 in 24 hours which means 15 degress in 1 hour or 1degree in 4 minutes
Standard time and Local Time
Earth is divided in 180 E to 180 W from Greenwhich where places located east of the greenwhich are ahead and to the west lag behind
Earth rotates 360 in 24 hours which means 15 degress in 1 hour or 1degree in 4 minutes
3. Motions of th eEarth
Rotation and Revolution
Rotation causes day and Night and is important for survival as there will be surplus of heat and shortage in other
resulting in disaapearance of life.
But Earth's rotation is tilted to its orbital Plane .
Orbital Plane is the plane formed by the prbit of the celestial body
Earth Tilt is about 66.5 degree with its orbital plane.
Since earth has a sphere like structure only one half of the earth gets illuminated where as other remains under dark resulting In day and night
The circle on which sun's light fall on the earth is the largest circle which can be drawn on a sphere and is termed as circle of illumniation .
The period of rotation is termed as earthday
Revolution: Earth's rotation around the sun is termed as revolution, Ellipitical orbit , aphelion and periheion on july and january respectively
Aphelion Etymology : Helion for Sun and Apo means far
Perihilion Etymology : Peri means near
It is intresting to note earth is near to the sun when the northern hemishphere experiences winter where as farthest away from the sun when summer is at its peak.
It is not the revolution of earth around the sun alone which causes seasons rather it is tilt of earth about its axis which is an imp factor.
Summer Solistice and Winter Solistice.
Rotation causes day and Night and is important for survival as there will be surplus of heat and shortage in other
Since earth has a sphere like structure only one half of the earth gets illuminated where as other remains under dark resulting In day and night
The circle on which sun's light fall on the earth is the largest circle which can be drawn on a sphere and is termed as circle of illumniation .
Revolution: Earth's rotation around the sun is termed as revolution, Ellipitical orbit , aphelion and periheion on july and january respectively
It is intresting to note earth is near to the sun when the northern hemishphere experiences winter where as farthest away from the sun when summer is at its peak.
It is not the revolution of earth around the sun alone which causes seasons rather it is tilt of earth about its axis which is an imp factor.
4. Maps
Maps, Representation
Impossible to draw a sphere on a 2 dimensional plane, hence in accordance to the requirements maps are made
There are various types of maps namely :
Physical, Political and Thematic
Distances:
Scales: The representation of distances are not in the same ratio rather the distances are scaled further down to draw the map within the prescribed area.
there are 2 types of scales : Small Scale and Large Scale Maps
Small Scale Maps : Where 5 cm usually represent 500 km
Large Scale Maps : Where 5 cm usually represents 500 m
Large scale maps are more informative than the small scale maps
Direction :
The four major directions are called cardinal points and directions are important for exact location a point on map, correctly.
Symbols :
Sometimes it is impossible to represent the exact physical features in maps for which symbols are used which in turn denotes the corresponding features
Some Conventional symbols are used for :
Railway Lines : Meter guage , Broad Guage and railway station
Roads : Metalled and unmetalled.
Boundary : International, State and district.
River, well , tank , canal and bridges.
Temple church, mosque ,Chhatri
Post Office, PTO and Police Station
Sttlement , Graveyard
Trees, Grass
Various colors are used to represent the terrain and nature of the physical features present like blue is used to represent water, brown for mountain , yellow for pleatue and green for plains.
Sketch : these are rough drawings which are drawn not ot scale. They are used to roughly identify the places not the exact location
They are drawn by hand with just memory and not ot scale
Plan: Large scale maps give a detailed info but some info which are required for many purposes like dimensions of room cant be provided in a map which can be given in a Plan.
Plan is a drawing of a small area on a large Scale.
Impossible to draw a sphere on a 2 dimensional plane, hence in accordance to the requirements maps are made
Scales: The representation of distances are not in the same ratio rather the distances are scaled further down to draw the map within the prescribed area.
The four major directions are called cardinal points and directions are important for exact location a point on map, correctly.
Sometimes it is impossible to represent the exact physical features in maps for which symbols are used which in turn denotes the corresponding features
Various colors are used to represent the terrain and nature of the physical features present like blue is used to represent water, brown for mountain , yellow for pleatue and green for plains.
Sketch : these are rough drawings which are drawn not ot scale. They are used to roughly identify the places not the exact location
Plan: Large scale maps give a detailed info but some info which are required for many purposes like dimensions of room cant be provided in a map which can be given in a Plan.
Various colors are used to represent the terrain and nature of the physical features present like blue is used to represent water, brown for mountain , yellow for pleatue and green for plains.
5. Major Domains of the Earth
Earth is one of the unique places where life still exists.
Earth has 3 major components of environment which interact with one another,
Litosphere Derived from Lithos : Stone
Atmosphere Atmos: Vapour
Hydrosphere Hudour: Water
Biosphere: A unique place which is supposed to be interaction of all the three reserves of the earth
Dervied from Bios : Life
Lithosphere consists of ocean floor and continents. Highest peka is mount everst and deepest trench is mariana trench 11km
There sre major 7 continents of the world :
Asia : Comprising of nearly 1/3rd of the continents space in the world,
Separated from Europe zones by Ural Mountains, Asia has Tropic of cancer passing through it.
Europe: Much Smaller than asia artic circle passes through it and is surrounded on three sides by oceans.
Africa : Tropic of cancer, capricon and equator passes through it . Second Largest continent
Sahara's desert one of the driest of the deserts and River Nile wi=orld's largest river also lies in the north Africa.
North America : 3rd largest continent , separated to south america by isthumus of panama,
South America: Mainly Situated in Southern Hemishpher, Has Andes Mountain Range, World's Longest mountains and world's largest river Amazon river.
Isthumus: A piece of land separating two land masses is termed as Isthumus. Like Isthumus of Panama.
Straight : It is a narrow passage of water body to connect 2 different water masses.
Australia : Completely situated in Southern Hemisphere, has water surrounding all the parts of the continent . Also termed as Island Continent is the smallest continent
Antartica: Situated at the polar base of the southern hemisphere is bigger than Europe and Aus combined. It is completley inhabited. Many countries have research centres there.India does have 2 such stations Maitri and Dakshin Gangotri
Hydrosphere:
The earth is called a blue planet. Earth consists of 71% of water and 29% of land. Water consists of all form of water be it free flowing water of oceans and rivers, Icy Glaciers or even Groundwater for human use.
But Oceans contribute much to the larger share 97% from the oceans which is salty and is unfit for drinking. So despite a water planet we do feel Water crisis today.
Oceans:
The Oceans owna signifanct share in the Hydrosphere of this planet. There are mainly 4 Oceans in the world : Pacific, tlantic, Indian and Arctic Ocean.
Ocean waters are always under movement for ex Waves, Tides or Ocean Currents.
Pacific ocean is the largest Oceans of all. It is nearly 1/3rd of the area is under pacific Ocean. Circular in Shape. Asia, Australia , North and South America
Atlantic Ocean : It is in a S shaped Ocean. Woth many indented coastlines it marks as a push for many states to have good buisnes with european authority.
Indian Ocean : Only ocean named after India. It is traingular in shape with Africa on the west, Australia on the east and Asia on the northern side.
Arctic Ocean : Lies in the polar Northern region. It is connected to Pacific via a Bering Strait.
Atmosphere:
Earth is surrounded by air of gases around the planet. It is termed as Atmosphere. Atmosphere consist of 5 layers: Troposphere, Startosphere, Mesoshpere, Ionosphere and Exosphere.
Atmosphere is upto 1600 km but atmosphere is denser at sea level hence exerts more pressure. Event the pressure of essential or any gas decreases as we go up .
This results in Depletion in supply of oxygen as well as less pressure.
Carbon dioxide presence becomes imp as it helps photosynthesis and recirculation of Oxygena nd Carbon dioxides.
Biosphere:
A unique palpce where land water and atmosphere interact. This is unique to our planet. Many organisms from single celled bacteria to large celled organisms to complex structures Human beings all throng such places.
Organisms in th ebiosphere may be broadly divided in 2 parts: Plant Kingdom or Animal Kingdom.
Biosphere: A unique place which is supposed to be interaction of all the three reserves of the earth
Lithosphere consists of ocean floor and continents. Highest peka is mount everst and deepest trench is mariana trench 11km
Asia : Comprising of nearly 1/3rd of the continents space in the world,
Separated from Europe zones by Ural Mountains, Asia has Tropic of cancer passing through it.
Europe: Much Smaller than asia artic circle passes through it and is surrounded on three sides by oceans.
Africa : Tropic of cancer, capricon and equator passes through it . Second Largest continent
Sahara's desert one of the driest of the deserts and River Nile wi=orld's largest river also lies in the north Africa.
North America : 3rd largest continent , separated to south america by isthumus of panama,
South America: Mainly Situated in Southern Hemishpher, Has Andes Mountain Range, World's Longest mountains and world's largest river Amazon river.
Isthumus: A piece of land separating two land masses is termed as Isthumus. Like Isthumus of Panama.
Straight : It is a narrow passage of water body to connect 2 different water masses.
Australia : Completely situated in Southern Hemisphere, has water surrounding all the parts of the continent . Also termed as Island Continent is the smallest continent
Antartica: Situated at the polar base of the southern hemisphere is bigger than Europe and Aus combined. It is completley inhabited. Many countries have research centres there.India does have 2 such stations Maitri and Dakshin Gangotri
The earth is called a blue planet. Earth consists of 71% of water and 29% of land. Water consists of all form of water be it free flowing water of oceans and rivers, Icy Glaciers or even Groundwater for human use.
But Oceans contribute much to the larger share 97% from the oceans which is salty and is unfit for drinking. So despite a water planet we do feel Water crisis today.
The Oceans owna signifanct share in the Hydrosphere of this planet. There are mainly 4 Oceans in the world : Pacific, tlantic, Indian and Arctic Ocean.
Ocean waters are always under movement for ex Waves, Tides or Ocean Currents.
Pacific ocean is the largest Oceans of all. It is nearly 1/3rd of the area is under pacific Ocean. Circular in Shape. Asia, Australia , North and South America
Atlantic Ocean : It is in a S shaped Ocean. Woth many indented coastlines it marks as a push for many states to have good buisnes with european authority.
Indian Ocean : Only ocean named after India. It is traingular in shape with Africa on the west, Australia on the east and Asia on the northern side.
Arctic Ocean : Lies in the polar Northern region. It is connected to Pacific via a Bering Strait.
Earth is surrounded by air of gases around the planet. It is termed as Atmosphere. Atmosphere consist of 5 layers: Troposphere, Startosphere, Mesoshpere, Ionosphere and Exosphere.
Atmosphere is upto 1600 km but atmosphere is denser at sea level hence exerts more pressure. Event the pressure of essential or any gas decreases as we go up .
Carbon dioxide presence becomes imp as it helps photosynthesis and recirculation of Oxygena nd Carbon dioxides.
A unique palpce where land water and atmosphere interact. This is unique to our planet. Many organisms from single celled bacteria to large celled organisms to complex structures Human beings all throng such places.
Organisms in th ebiosphere may be broadly divided in 2 parts: Plant Kingdom or Animal Kingdom.
Antartica: Situated at the polar base of the southern hemisphere is bigger than Europe and Aus combined. It is completley inhabited. Many countries have research centres there.India does have 2 such stations Maitri and Dakshin Gangotri
The earth is called a blue planet. Earth consists of 71% of water and 29% of land. Water consists of all form of water be it free flowing water of oceans and rivers, Icy Glaciers or even Groundwater for human use.
Earth is surrounded by air of gases around the planet. It is termed as Atmosphere. Atmosphere consist of 5 layers: Troposphere, Startosphere, Mesoshpere, Ionosphere and Exosphere.
A unique palpce where land water and atmosphere interact. This is unique to our planet. Many organisms from single celled bacteria to large celled organisms to complex structures Human beings all throng such places.
6. Major Landforms of the Earth
We must have seen various landforms on the earth . These are result of various internal and external factors for such features of land.
For examples: A hill is an elevated piece of land than surrounding masses. An elevation of above 600 m are termed as mountains.
There are various landforms of the earth: (Illustrative)
Mountain : Are natural elevation on earth's surface. They have generally a abroad base and a small summit.
Mountain Ranges,
Plains,
Hills : Hills are elevated piece of land which are generally above the surrounding areas for not more than 600 m above which they are called Mountains
Basin
Plateau
Tributary
River
Lake
Delta
Mouth of the River
Distributory
Peninsula
Isthumus : A piece of land which separates two land masses is termed as isthumus.
Coast
Strait
Island
There are various of the internal process within the earth which is the main cause for upliftment or sinking of earth at various place.
The Second, or external processes are processes by which the external surface of the earth changes its shape. They may be due to running water, wind or ice. Hey can cause either erosion or deposition.
Broadly we can classify Areas based on elevations on three types: Mountains, Plateaus and Plains
Mountains:
Mountains are natural elevation of earth's surface. They have generally a broad base and a small summit.
Some Mountains have Gaciers, and as we move up atmosphere cools.
Plus with unavailability of vast land, and areas for agricultural production Mountains are one of the least inhabited places on the earth.
Many Mountain Ranges exist as series of mountains together. Many famous moutains exist in a similar way.
Ex: Himalyan Ranges, Andes, Alps Mountain
There are mainly 3 tyoes of mountains : Blocks, Folds and Volcanic mountains
Block mountains are created when large blocks of rocks are uplifted upwards where as downwards are called garben. Ex. The Rhine valley and vosges mountain.
Fold mountains are when two land masses are overlap ech other causing one or both to rise are termed are Fold Mountains.
Young fold examples are : Himalyans, Alps and aravalli mountains(old fold mountain systems in the world)
Volcanic mountains are created by : Volcanic Activities (Mt. Fujiyanama in Japan )
Mountains are like reservoirs for rivers. They are sources for many river waters.
Plateaus :
An elevated piece of land which has a flat topped table land surface above the surrounding ares.
This is a prominent place for mining purposes. Many imp places of plateau are Deccan plateau, East african Plateau of Tanzania,Kenya,etc. , Western Aus Plateau.
Tibet Plateau is the highest plateau in the world : height of 4000 to 6000 m above the main sea level.
Afrocan Plateau is famous for its gold mines, Many iron,coal and Manganese fields are located across Chota Nagpur Plateau in India
They also have some spectacular Waterfalls : Hundru falls on River Subarnarekha and Jog falls in Karnataka.
Plains
These are flat pieces of land generally not more than 200m above the sea level.
Generally plains are very fertile hence population density is very high.
Ganga Brahmaputra basin in India and Yangtze in China
We must have seen various landforms on the earth . These are result of various internal and external factors for such features of land.
For examples: A hill is an elevated piece of land than surrounding masses. An elevation of above 600 m are termed as mountains.
Mountain : Are natural elevation on earth's surface. They have generally a abroad base and a small summit.
Hills : Hills are elevated piece of land which are generally above the surrounding areas for not more than 600 m above which they are called Mountains
Isthumus : A piece of land which separates two land masses is termed as isthumus.
There are various of the internal process within the earth which is the main cause for upliftment or sinking of earth at various place.
The Second, or external processes are processes by which the external surface of the earth changes its shape. They may be due to running water, wind or ice. Hey can cause either erosion or deposition.
Broadly we can classify Areas based on elevations on three types: Mountains, Plateaus and Plains
Mountains are natural elevation of earth's surface. They have generally a broad base and a small summit.
Some Mountains have Gaciers, and as we move up atmosphere cools.
Plus with unavailability of vast land, and areas for agricultural production Mountains are one of the least inhabited places on the earth.
Many Mountain Ranges exist as series of mountains together. Many famous moutains exist in a similar way.
Block mountains are created when large blocks of rocks are uplifted upwards where as downwards are called garben. Ex. The Rhine valley and vosges mountain.
Fold mountains are when two land masses are overlap ech other causing one or both to rise are termed are Fold Mountains.
Young fold examples are : Himalyans, Alps and aravalli mountains(old fold mountain systems in the world)
Volcanic mountains are created by : Volcanic Activities (Mt. Fujiyanama in Japan )
An elevated piece of land which has a flat topped table land surface above the surrounding ares.
This is a prominent place for mining purposes. Many imp places of plateau are Deccan plateau, East african Plateau of Tanzania,Kenya,etc. , Western Aus Plateau.
Tibet Plateau is the highest plateau in the world : height of 4000 to 6000 m above the main sea level.
Afrocan Plateau is famous for its gold mines, Many iron,coal and Manganese fields are located across Chota Nagpur Plateau in India
They also have some spectacular Waterfalls : Hundru falls on River Subarnarekha and Jog falls in Karnataka.
These are flat pieces of land generally not more than 200m above the sea level.
Generally plains are very fertile hence population density is very high.
The Second, or external processes are processes by which the external surface of the earth changes its shape. They may be due to running water, wind or ice. Hey can cause either erosion or deposition.