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# Semi-detached Calculations

## Roof Calculator - Semi-detached

Roof Dimension
Roof Number 1:
Dimension of roof
(on plan)

4700
l
= 8752
Distance between roof and structure= 1075
(on slope)
b = 4700
l
= 8817.7

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

Purlin
Length of purlin =
Number of space between purlin =
Number of purlin =
Spacing of purlin =

4700.0
4
5
2204

mm

mm

Rafter
Length of rafter =
Number of space between rafter =
Number of rafter =
Spacing of rafter =
=

Roof

8817.7
mm
3
4
(4700-1075)/3 mm
1208
mm

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof Number 2:
Dimension of roof
(on plan)

6627
l
= 3100
Distance between roof and structure= 1075
(on slope)
b = 6627
l
= 3123.3

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

Purlin
Length of purlin =
Number of space between purlin =
Number of purlin =
Spacing of purlin =

6627.0
6
7
521

mm

mm

Rafter
Length of rafter =
Number of space between rafter =
Number of rafter =
Spacing of rafter =
=

Roof

3123.3
mm
3
4
(6627-1075)/3
1851
mm

Semi-detached Calculations

Steel Section
Purlin: C-channel
Self-weight =
Width =
Depth of section, h =
Thickness of flange =
(b/t)flange =
(d/t)web =
ry =
u=
x=

17.9
75
150
10
7.5
19.3
2.4
0.946
13.1

kg/m
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
cm

I = 861
Plastic modulus, Sx = 132

cm4
3
cm

cm3

## Elastic modulus, Zy = 26.6

cm3

Rafer : I-beam
Self-weight =
Width =
Depth of section, h =
Thickness of flange =
(b/t)flange =
(d/t)web =
ry =
u=
x=

Roof

150x75x18

305x165x54
54
166.9
310.4
13.7
6.09
33.6
3.93
0.889
23.6

kg/m
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
cm

I = 11700
Plastic modulus, Sx = 846

cm4
cm3

## Elastic modulus, Zx = 754

cm3

Semi-detached Calculations

## Design Roof for Semi-detached Unit Roof 1

Reference

Calculation

Structural
Sections: to BS4:
Part 1 and
BS 4848:Part 4
BS 648

## Self-weight of purlin = 0.179

Self-weight of rafter = 0.540

kN/m
kN/m

kg/m2

kN/m2

= 0.078

kg/m2

kN/m

## BS6399: Part 3 Imposed Load

Clause 4.3.1.(c)
2

0.6 kN/m
2
0.596 kN/m

(on plan) =
(on slope) =

CP3: Chapter
V-2: 1972

=
H=
h=
w=

h
7
10.556
10.114
7.7

degree
m
m
H
m

h/w = 1.31
<2
Thus, value of Table 9 from CP3: Chapter V-2: 1972 can be used.

## Basic Wind Speed, V = 35

m/s

Clause 5.4

Topographic Factor, S1 = 1

Clause 5.5.2

## Ground roughness, building size and height above ground factor

# Ground roughness: (3) Country with many windbreakers: small towns
, outskirts of large cities

Roof

Semi-detached Calculations

# Building size:
Table 3

Class A
S2
0.78
0.791
0.88

H (m)
10
10.556
15
Thus, S2 is 0.791

Clause 5.6

Clause 5.1

= 27.69

m/s

Clause 6

k = 0.613

(in SI unit)
2

N/m

Thus, q = 469.98

kN/m2

= 0.47

Table 9

## Most critical wind load occurs at wind angle 90.

Roof angle,
5
7
10

Appendix E

Wind angle 90
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0

Cpi
0.2
-0.3

Conditition
a) wind normal to permeable face
b) wind normal to impermeable face

Cp=(Cpe - Cpi)

Cp =(Cpe - Cpi)

Cpe

Cpe

L side

H side
Cpi

Cpi

Roof

Semi-detached Calculations

## Worst case scenario at wind angle, 90 with;

Cp = -1.2
Therefore, the worst case pressure coefficient, Cp is

-1.2

## Pressure on roof, P = Cp*q

= (-1.2)(0.47)

Clause 7.2

kN/m2

= -0.564
a) Internal Node =
b) End Node =

-1.502
-0.751

kN
kN

1.828m

1.828m

2.132m

Purlin

2.132m

Rafter

BS 5950: 1

2.

kN/m2

## (on slope) = 0.111

Purlin self-weight = 0.179

kN/m2
kN/m

= 0.51
kN
Table 27

## Section modulus, Zp = WpL

1800
= 0.93 x 1828
1800

cm3

= 0.34

Roof

Semi-detached Calculations

D = L/45
= 1828/45
= 27

mm

B = L/60
= 1828/60
= 20
Try C-channel of section 150x75x18.

mm

## Treated as simply supported;

reaction = 1.892
maximum moment = 0.572

kN/m
kN
kN.m
3.132 kN/m
1.208

1.892 kN

1.892 kN

V(kN)
1.892

- 1.892
M(kN.m)

0.572 kN.m
Figure 2: Shear and Moment Diagram for Purlin
Checking:
Table 9

1. Thickness of flange, t = 10
Thus, design strenght y = 275

mm
N/mm2

= (y/275) =
Tabele 11

Roof

< 16mm

1
< 40 =

## 2. Web of a channel d/t = 2.4

Thus, overall class is class 1.

40

Semi-detached Calculations

3. Biaxial Bending

Table 13

Clause 4.3.6.7

## Effective length, LE = 1.2LLT+2D

= 1.750

Slenderness, = LE/ry
= 72.92
/x = 5.57

Table 19

Clause 4.3.6.9
Clause 4.3.6.7

Table 16

/x
7.50
5.57
8.00

v
0.720
0.797
0.700

Class 1 - plastic: Bw =

1
LT = uv Bw
= 55.00

Equivalent slenderness,

LT

y = 275 N/mm2
b
201.0
227.0
188.0

65.0
55.0
70.0

N/mm2

Clause 4.3.6.4

= 29.96

kN.m

Table 26

## Equivalent uniform moment factor for =

flexural buckling, m

0.95

Table 18

0.925

## lateral-torsional buckling, mLT

Roof

10

> Mmax
# Thus, ok

0.572 kN.m

Semi-detached Calculations

## Biaxial checking formula:

myMy
1 mxMx
yZx

yZy

Mx = 0.572
My = 0.07
mxMx
yZx

myMy

kN.m
kN.m

= 0.95 x (1.795x106)

yZy

275 x

= 0.026

2 mLTML
Mb

myMy
yZy

myMy
yZy

0.95 x (0.22106)
275 x (26.6x103)

<1

ok

MLT = 0.529
mLTMLT
+
Mb

(132x103)

kN.m

= 0.925x (1.661x106)
25.13x106

= 0.025

0.95 x (0.22x106)
275 x (26.6x103)

<1

ok

## Therefore, the C-channel of section 150x75x18 is adequate in terms of biaxial bending.

4. Deflection check
(on slope)
= 1.59

kN/m
kN

N/mm2

## Moment of Inertia, I = 861

cm4

Deflection, = 5WL3
384EI
3)x2.028)x(1.828)3
5x(1.27x10
=
384x(205x103)x(861x104)

= 0.021
Table 8

/span =

mm

## Therefore, the C-channel of section 150x75x18 is adequate in terms of deflection.

Roof

11

Semi-detached Calculations

0.60m

1.828m

1.828m

1.828m

Purlin

0.60m

2.132m

2.132m

Rafter

## Figure 3: Loads Transferred to Rafter

Try I-beam section 305x165x54 for rafter.
Transferred from purlin = 0.51

kN

## Rafter self-weight = 0.540

kN/m

Qk (on slope) = 0.596
= 0.720

kN/m2
kN/m

kN/m2

Wk = 0.47
= 0.568

Roof

kN/m

12

Semi-detached Calculations

Load combinations (on internal node as shown in red dot in Figure 2):
Case 1:
= 1.4[0.93+(0.54x(2.132)]+1.6(1.327x2.123)
= 4.922
kN
Case 2:
= 1.0[0.93+(0.54x(2.132)]+1.4(-1.047x2.123)
= -0.050
kN
Case 3:
Dead + Imposed + 1.2 (Gk+Qk+Wk)
= 1.2[(0.93+(0.54x(2.132))+(1.327x2.123)+(-1.047x2.123)]
= 2.445
kN
Case 1 is used in rafter design because it is the most critical among the three load
combinations.
Loads acting on (not including self-weight of rafter):
a) Internal node = 1.4[(0.111 x 2.132 x 1.828)+(0.179 x 1.828)]+
1.6[0.596x2.132x1.828]
= 3.255
kN
b) End node

## = 1.4[(0.111 x (2.132/2) x 1.828)+(0.179 x 1.828))]+

1.6[0.596x(2.132/2)x1.828]
= 1.779
kN

1.779

3.255

3.255

3.255

1.779

0.756 kN/m

2.204

2.204

2.204

RA= 7.95 kN

0.704
1.500
RB= 12.04 kN

## Figure 4: Loads Acted on Rafter

MA = [RB(2.132+2.132+2.132+0.632)]-[5.825
=
x(2.132+(2.132x2)+(2.132x3)]+(-3.192x8.528) (0.54x(8.5282/2))
RB = 12.04
kN

Roof

13

Semi-detached Calculations

MB = [-RA(2.132+2.132+2.132+0.632)]+[5.825
=
x((2.132+2.132+0.632)+(2.132+0.632)+0.632]+
(-3.192x1.5)+(3.192x7.028)
RA = 7.95
kN

V(kN)

6.17

4.50
2.91
1.25

1.78
-0.42
-3.68
-5.34
-8.60

-9.13

M(kN.m)

3.54
0
-11.76

-2.70
-12.82

-12.64

BS5950

Checking:

Table 9

## 1. Thickness of flange, t = 13.7

Thus, design strenght y = 275

mm
N/mm2

= (y/275) =
Table 11

Roof

2.

< 16mm

1
< 40 =
< 80 =

## Flange b/t = 6.09

Web d/t = 33.6
Thus, overall class is class 1.

14

40
80

Semi-detached Calculations

2. Section selection
Mmax = 12.82

kN.m

M = ySx
Rearranging; Sx = M/y
= 46624.15

mm3

= 46.62

cm

3

cm

Sx= 846
Mdesign = ySx
3
= 275x(846x10 )
= 232.65

kN.m

> Mmax

12.82

kN.m

> Fmax

9.13

kN

Thus, ok

Fmax = 9.13

kN

Pv = 0.6yAv
= 701.66

kN

## Thus, section is adequate in term of shear capacity.

Web d/t = 33.6
< 70 =
Thus, it is not required to check for shear buckling.

70

## 4. Moment Capacity Check

0.6 Pv = 421.00

kN

Fv = 9.13
Therefore, it is low shear.

kN

## Thus, Class 1: Mc = ySx

> Mmax
= 232.65
kN.m
Thus, this section is adequate in term of moment capacity.

Roof

15

12.82

kN.m

Semi-detached Calculations

5. Deflection Check
a) Internal node = 0.596x2.132x1.828
= 1.586
kN
b) End node

= 0.596x(2.132/2)x1.828
= 0.793
kN

N/mm2

cm4

a1= 0
a2 = 2204.4
a3 = 4408.9
a4 = 6613.3
a5 = 8817.7

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

Deflection, =
=

Table 8

/span =

0.563

mm

## Therefore, the I-beam of section 305x165x54 is adequate in terms of deflection.

Roof

16

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

17

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

18

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

19

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

20

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

21

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

22

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

23

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

24

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

25

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

26

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

27

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

28

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

29

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

30

Semi-detached Calculations

Steel Section
Purlin:

C-channel
Self-weight =
Width =
Depth of section, h =
Thickness of flange =
(b/t)flange =
(d/t)web =
ry =
u=
x=

Rafer :

Roof

150x75x18
17.9
75
150
10
7.5
19.3
2.4
0.946
13.1

kg/m
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
cm

I = 861
Plastic modulus, Sx = 132

cm4
3
cm

cm3

## Elastic modulus, Zy = 26.6

cm3

I-beam

305x165x54

Self-weight =
Width =
Depth of section, h =
Thickness of flange =
(b/t)flange =
(d/t)web =
ry =
u=
x=

54
166.9
310.4
13.7
6.09
33.6
3.93
0.889
23.6

kg/m
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
cm

I = 11700
Plastic modulus, Sx =
846

cm4
cm3

Elastic modulus, Zx =

cm3

754

43

Semi-detached Calculations

Reference

Calculation

Structural
Sections: to
BS4: Part 1 and
BS 4848:Part 4
BS 648

## Self-weight of purlin = 0.179

Self-weight of rafter = 0.540

kN/m
kN/m

kg/m2

kN/m2

= 0.078

kg/m2

kN/m2

## sheet 0.048 in.) 0.034

BS6399
: Part 3

Clause 4.3.1.(c)

0.6 kN/m
2
0.596 kN/m

(on plan) =
(on slope) =

CP3: Chapter
V-2: 1972

h
=
H=
h=
w=

7
9.133
8.3
7.7

degree
m
m
m

h/w = 1.08
<2
Thus, value of Table 9 from CP3: Chapter V-2: 1972 can be used.

## Basic Wind Speed, V = 35

m/s

Clause 5.4

Topographic Factor, S1 = 1

Clause 5.5.2

## Ground roughness, building size and height above ground factor

# Ground roughness: (3) Country with many windbreakers: small towns
, outskirts of large cities

Roof

44

Semi-detached Calculations

# Building size:
Table 3

Class A
S2
0.78
0.763
0.88

H (m)
10
9.133
15
Thus, S2 is 0.791

Clause 5.6

Clause 5.1

= 26.69

Clause 6

Factor S3 =1

m/s

k = 0.613

(in SI unit)
N/m2

Thus, q = 436.78

kN/m

= 0.44

Table 9

## Most critical wind load occurs at wind angle 90.

Roof angle,
5
7
10

Appendix E

Wind angle 90
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0

Cpi
0.2
-0.3

Conditition
a) wind normal to permeable face
b) wind normal to impermeable face

Cp=(Cpe - Cpi)

Cp =(Cpe - Cpi)

Cpe

Cpe

L side

H side
Cpi

Cpi

Roof

45

Semi-detached Calculations

## Worst case scenario at wind angle, 90 with;

Cp = -1.2
Therefore, the worst case pressure coefficient, Cp is

-1.2

## Pressure on roof, P = Cp*q

= (-1.2)(0.47)

Clause 7.2

kN/m2

= -0.524
a) Internal Node =
b) End Node =

-0.505
-0.252

kN
kN

2.167m

2.167m

1.033m

Purlin

1.033m

Rafter

BS 5950: 1

2.

kN/m2

## (on slope) = 0.111

Purlin self-weight = 0.179

kN/m2
kN/m

## Total load on node, Wp = (0.111 x 1.033x 2.167)+(0.179 x 2.167)

= 0.44
kN
Table 27
Section modulus, Zp = WpL
1800
= 1.13 x 2167
1800

cm3

= 0.45

Roof

46

Semi-detached Calculations

D = L/45
= 2167/45
= 27

mm

B = L/60
= 2167/60
= 31
Try C-channel of section 150x75x18.

mm

## Treated as simply supported;

reaction = 1.156
maximum moment = 0.535

kN/m
kN
kN.m
1.250 kN/m
1.851 m

1.156 kN

1.156 kN

V(kN)
1.156

- 1.156
M(kN.m)

0.535 kN.m
Figure 2: Shear and Moment Diagram for Purlin
Checking:
Table 9

1. Thickness of flange, t = 10
Thus, design strenght y = 275

mm
N/mm2

= (y/275) =
Table 11

Roof

< 16mm

1
< 40 =

## 2. Web of a channel d/t = 2.4

Thus, overall class is class 1.

47

40

Semi-detached Calculations

3. Biaxial Bending

Table 13

Clause 4.3.6.7

## Effective length, LE = 1.2LLT+2D

= 2.521

Slenderness, = LE/ry
= 105.03
/x = 8.02

Table 19

Clause 4.3.6.9
Clause 4.3.6.7

Table 16

/x
9.00
8.02
9.50

v
0.67
0.709
0.65

Class 1 - plastic: Bw =

1
LT = uv Bw
= 70.48

Equivalent slenderness,

LT

y = 275 N/mm2
b
176.0
186.0
165.0

75.0
70.5
80.0

Clause 4.3.6.4

N/mm

= 24.55

kN.m

Table 26

## Equivalent uniform moment factor for =

flexural buckling, m

0.95

Table 18

## Equivalent uniform moment factor for =

lateral-torsional buckling, mLT

0.925

Roof

48

> Mmax
# Thus, ok

0.535 kN.m

Semi-detached Calculations

## Biaxial checking formula:

myMy
1 mxMx
yZx

yZy

Mx = 0.535
My = 0.07
mxMx
yZx

myMy

kN.m
kN.m

= 0.95 x (1.492x106)

yZy

275 x

= 0.025

2 mLTML
Mb

myMy
yZy

<1

myMy
yZy

ok

MLT = 0.495
mLTMLT
+
Mb

0.95 x (0.18x106)
275 x (26.6x103)

(132x103)

kN.m

= 0.925x (1.381x106)
23.07x106

= 0.027

0.95 x (0.18x106)
275 x (26.6x103)

<1

ok

## Therefore, the C-channel of section 150x75x18 is adequate in terms of biaxial bending.

4. Deflection check
(on slope)
= 0.57

kN/m
kN
2

N/mm

## Moment of Inertia, I = 861

cm4

Deflection, = 5WL3
384EI

= 5x(1.33x103x1.033)x(2.167)3
384x(205x103)x(861x104)

= 0.027
Table 8

/span =

mm

## Therefore, the C-channel of section 150x75x18 is adequate in terms of deflection.

Roof

49

Semi-detached Calculations

0.60m

2.167m

2.167m

2.167m

Purlin

0.60m

1.033m

1.033m

Rafter

1.033m

1.033m

## Figure 3: Loads Transferred to Rafter

Try I-beam section 305x165x54 for rafter.
Transferred from purlin = 0.44

kN

## Rafter self-weight = 0.540

kN/m

Qk (on slope) = 0.596
= 1.102

kN/m2
kN/m

2

kN/m

Wk = 0.44
= 0.808

Roof

kN/m

50

Semi-detached Calculations

Load combinations (on internal node as shown in red dot in Figure 2):
Case 1:
= 1.4[0.75+(0.54x(1.033)]+1.6(1.529x1.033)
= 1.925
kN
Case 2:
= 1.0[0.75+(0.54x(1.033)]+1.4(-1.121x1.033)
= 0.130
kN
Case 3:
= 1.2[(0.75+(0.54x(1.033))+(1.529x1.033)+(-1.121x1.033)]
= 1.047
kN

Case 1 is used in rafter design because it is the most critical among the three load
combinations.
Loads acting on (not including self-weight of rafter):
a) Internal node = 1.4[(0.111 x 1.033 x 2.167)+(0.179 x 2.167)]+
1.6[0.596x1.033x2.167]
= 1.532
kN
b) End node

## = 1.4[(0.111 x (1.033/2) x 2.228)+(0.179 x 2.167))]+

1.6[0.596x(1.033/2)x2.167]
= 0.998
kN

0.998

1.532

1.532

1.532

0.998

0.756 kN/m

0.521

0.521

0.521

RA= 2.23 kN

-0.129
0.650
5.93
kN
R B=

## Figure 4: Loads Acted on Rafter

MA = [RB(1.033+1.033+1.033+0.383)]-[5.825
=
x(1.033+(1.033x2)+ (1.033x3)]+(-2.112x4.131) (0.54x(4.1312/2))
RB = 5.93
kN

Roof

51

Semi-detached Calculations

MB = [-RA(1.033+1.033+1.033+0.383)]+[5.825x
=
((1.033+1.033+0.383)+(1.033+0.383)+0.383]+
(-2.112x0.65)+(2.112x3.482)
RA = 2.23
kN

V(kN)

1.23

0.84
1.49
-0.69

1.00
-1.09
-2.62

-3.01
-4.54

-4.45

M(kN.m)

1.40
1
-0.54

0.51

1.98

0.05

## Figure 5: Shear and Moment Diagram for Rafter

BS5950

Checking:

Table 9

1.
Thickness of flange,
13.7t =
Thus, design strenght y = 275

mm
N/mm2

= (y/275) =
Table 11 2.

1
< 40 =
< 80 =

## Flange b/t = 6.09

Web d/t = 33.6
Thus, overall class is class 1.

2. Section selection

Roof

< 16mm

52

40
80

Semi-detached Calculations

Mmax = -0.05

kN.m

M = ySx
Rearranging; Sx = M/y
= -192.77

mm3

= -0.19

cm3

cm3

Sx= 846
Mdesign = ySx
3

= 275x(846x10 )
= 232.65

kN.m

> Mmax

-0.05

kN.m

> Fmax

4.45

kN

Thus, ok

Fmax = 4.45

kN

Pv = 0.6yAv
= 701.66

kN

## Thus, section is adequate in term of shear capacity.

Web d/t = 33.6
< 70 =
70
Thus, it is not required to check for shear buckling.

## 4. Moment Capacity Check

0.6 Pv = 421.00

kN

Fv = 4.45
Therefore, it is low shear.

kN

## < 0.6 Pv (421 kN)

Class 1: Mc = ySx
> Mmax
= 232.65
kN.m
Thus, this section is adequate in term of moment capacity.

5. Deflection Check

Roof

53

-0.05

kN.m

Semi-detached Calculations

a) Internal node = 0.596x1.033x2.167
= 0.574
kN
b) End node

= 0.596x(1.033/2)x2.167
= 0.287
kN

N/mm2

cm4

a1=
0
a2 =
520.55
a3 =
1041.09
a4 =
1561.64
a5 =
2082.19

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

Deflection, =
=

Table 8

/span =

1 mm

## Therefore, the I-beam of section 305x165x54 is adequate in terms of deflection.

Roof

54

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

55

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

56

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

57

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

58

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

59

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

60

Semi-detached Calculations

al bending.

Roof

61

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

62

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

63

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

64

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

65

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

66

Semi-detached Calculations

## (iii) Roof Beam Design

The roof beam selected for design the beam sustain most critical load from the roof.
Most critical roof beam for semi-detached unit is roof 1 with dimension on plan of
6685 x 8465mm.

0.60m

2.208m

2.208m

2.208m

Roof Beam

0.60m

6.965
Rafter
Purlin

1.50m
3.850m

1.635m

## Figure 1: Roof Beam Position for Roof 1

Details:
Concrete unit weight = 24
Beam breath = 0.18
Beam depth = 0.2

kN/m3
m
m

Self-weight of beam = 0.864
kN/m
The most critical load is chosen for design:
At point C from Roof 1 with load of 12.04 kN
Load from roof = 15.79 x cos5
= 11.95
kN

Roof

79

Semi-detached Calculations

11.95 kN
1.208 m

11.95 kN

11.95 kN
1.208 m
-0.427m
1.635 m
0.864 kN/m

11.95 kN

B
1.635 m

A
3.850 m
Stiffness,
KAB= 4EI/L
= 4EI/3.850
= 1.04EI

KBC= 4EI/L
= 4EI/1.635
= 2.45EI

Distribution Factor,
DFAB= KAB/KAB
= 1.04EI/1.04EI
=1

DFBA= KBA/(KAB+KBC)
= 1.04EI/(1.04EI + 2.45EI)
= 0.3

DFBC= KBC/(KAB+KBC)
= 2.45EI/(1.04EI + 2.45EI)
= 0.7

DFCB= KBC/KBC
= 2.45EI/2.45EI
=1

## Fixed End Moment,

FEMAB = (Pb2a)/(l2)+(Pb2a)/(l2)+(wl2/12)+(Pb2a)/(l2)
2
2
2
= {-[(15.67x2.021 x1.828)/(3.85 )]+[(0.864x3.85 )/12]+
[(15.67x0.1932x3.656)/(3.852)]}
= -2.02
kN.m

FEMBA = (Pa2b)/(l2)+(Pa2b)/(l2)+(wl2/12)
= [(15.67x1.8282x2.021)/(3.852)]+[(0.864x3.852)/12]+
2

[(15.67x3.656 x0.193)/(3.85 )]
= -0.02
kN.m
FEMBC = (wl2/12)+(Pa2b)/(l2)
= {-[(0.864x3.3052)/12]+0}
= -0.19
kN.m
FEMCB = (wl2/12)
= [(0.864x3.3052)/12]+0
= 0.19
kN.m

Roof

80

Semi-detached Calculations

Joint
Member
DF
FEM
Dist.

A
AB
1
-2.017
2.017
0.032
-0.032
-0.137
0.137
0.008
-0.008
0.000

11.954 kN

B
BA
0.3
-0.022
0.064
1.009
-0.274
-0.016
0.016
0.068
-0.068
0.777

BC
0.7
-0.192
0.150
-0.096
-0.639
-0.038
0.038
0.160
-0.160
-0.777

11.95 kN
0.864 kN/m

C
CB
1
0.192
-0.192
0.075
-0.075
-0.319
0.319
0.019
-0.019
0.000

11.95 kN
0.777 kN.m

A
1.208 m

B
-0.427 m

1.208 m

RB
RA = [-10.937+(0.8640x(3.85 /2))+(15.67x2.021)+(15.67x0.193)+
(15.67x3.85)]/3.85
= 14.56
kN

RA

2
RB = [10.937+(0.8640x(3.85 /2))+(15.67x1.828)+(15.67x3.656)]/3.850
= 23.03
kN

11.95 kN
0.864 kN/m
0.777
kN.m

B
1.635 m
RB
2
RB = [10.937-(0.8640x(1.635 /2))]/1.635
= 1.18
kN
2

RC

RC = [-10.937+(0.8640x(1.635 /2))+(15.67x1.635)]/1.635
= 12.19
kN

Roof

RA = 14.56
RB = 24.21

kN

RC = 12.19

kN

kN

81

Semi-detached Calculations

V(kN)

(+)
2.60

1.18
1.56

-0.23

-10.40
-11.44

-12.19

(-)
-23.40
-23.03
M(kN.m)

(-)

2.51
4.7E-15
-10.68

(+)
-0.78

Figure 3: Shear and Moment Diagram for Roof Beam Supporting the Rafter and Purlin

## Design Roof Beam for Supporting Roof

Reference
BS8110:
Part 1
Design Parameter:

Calculation

fcu= 25
fy= 460
fyv= 250
Beam dimension
Width, b = 180
Table 3.3
Depth, h = 200
Nominal cover, c = 25
Main bar diameter, = 12

Roof

Output

N/mm2
N/mm2

N/mm

l
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

82

Semi-detached Calculations

Bending Moment
Mid Span
Assume 12mm diameter main bar and 8mm diameter link.
d= h - c - /2 - '
= 200 - 25 - 12/2 - 8
= 161
Moment = 2.51
K=

mm
kN.m

M
fcubd

6
= (12.89x10 ) /(25x180x161)
=
0.022
(<0.156)

K<K'

z=

d [0.5 +

161 [0.5+

157.05

0.95d= 0.95x161
= 152.95
Use
157.05
x= (d-z)/0.45
= (161-137.93)/0.45
= 8.78

As=

<0.95d

mm
mm

z<0.95d

mm

M
0.95fyz

6
= (12.89x10 ) /(0.95x460x137.93)

= 36.62

>As min

mm

## Provide 3T12bars. (Area prov:

226

mm )

Provide
3T12

As min= (0.13/100) x b x h
= (0.13/100)x180x200
= 46.8

Roof

mm

83

As>As min
ok

Semi-detached Calculations

## First Interior Support

Assume 12mm diameter main bar and 8mm diameter link.
d= h - c - /2 - '
= 200 - 25 - 12/2 - 8
= 161
Max. moment = 0.78
K=

mm
kN.m

M
fcubd

6
= (10.94x10 ) /(25x180x161)
=
0.007
(<0.156)

K<K'

z=

d [0.5 +

161 [0.5+

159.80

0.95d= 0.95x161
= 152.95
Use
159.80
x= (d-z)/0.45
= (161-141.98)/0.45
= 2.67

As=

<0.95d

mm
mm

z<0.95d

mm

M
0.95fyz

6
= (11.01x10 ) /(0.95x460x141.98)

= 11.13

>As min

mm

## Provide 2T12bars. (Area prov:

226

mm )

Provide
2T12

As min= (0.13/100) x b x h
= (0.13/100)x180x200
= 46.8

Roof

mm

84

As>As min
ok

Semi-detached Calculations

Shear Reinforcement
Mid Span
Vmax = 23.40

kN

v= V
bd
3
= 26.66x10 /(180x161)
= 0.807
N/mm
0.8fcu= 0.8*(25^0.5)
=4
100As=
100(192.80)
bd
180x161
= 0.126
Table 3.8

(400/d)1/4 = (400/161)1/4
= 1.255

N/mm

v <0.8fcu

<3

ok

>1

ok

1/3
1/4
1/3
v c = 0.79{100As/(bd)} (400/d) (fcu/25) / m
1/3
1/4
1/3
= 0.79(0.738) (1.255) (1) / 1.25
= 0.336
N/mm

0.5 v c = 0.168
v c+0.4= 0.736

N/mm
N/mm

## 0.5v c<v <v c+0.4

Asv/sv= 0.4b/0.95fyv
= 0.4(180)/0.95(250)
= 0.303

Roof

85

R8@300mm c/c

Semi-detached Calculations

## First Interior Support

Vmax = 23.03

kN

v= V
bd
3
= 26.83x10 /(180x161)
= 3.906
N/mm
0.8fcu= 0.8*(25^0.5)
=4
100As=
100(176.28)
bd
180x161
= 0.189
Table 3.8

(400/d)1/4 = (400/161)1/4
= 1.255

N/mm

v <0.8fcu

<3

ok

>1

ok

1/3
1/4
1/3
v c = 0.79{100As/(bd)} (400/d) (fcu/25) / m
1/3

1/4

1/3

= 0.384
N/mm
0.5 v c = 0.192
v c+0.4= 0.784

N/mm
N/mm

## 0.5v c<v <v c+0.4

Asv/sv= 0.4b/0.95fyv
= 0.4(180)/0.95(250)
= 0.303

Roof

86

R8@300mm c/c

Semi-detached Calculations

Deflection Check
Mid Span (Most Critical)
M = 2.51

kN.m

M/bd2= (12.89x106)/(150x1612)
= 0.54
fs= 2fyAs req
3As prov
=
2x460x192.8
3x339
= 49.68

Table 3.10

N/mm2

Modification factor=
= 0.55+ {(477-290.1)/[120X(0.9+2.76)]}
= 3.025
Table 3.9

span/d

allowable

= 0.975x26
= 78.66

## span/d actual = 3.395/(161/1000)

= 23.913
The span is the most critical span in this beam.
Therefore, the beam is satisfactory with respect to deflection.
Crack Control
Check for longest span as more steel reinforcement are provided on
that span.
Clear Spacing= b-2(cover)-2(link diameter)-no.of bars x bar diameter
no. of bars -1
=
39
mm
Minimum size of coarse agg =

25

## Minimum distanc between bar = hagg + 5mm

= 30
Minimum distance between bars(30mm) < Clear Spacing.

Roof

87

mm

mm
ok

Semi-detached Calculations

## RC Flat Roof Design

(iv) RC Flat Roof Design

ly=

2705mm

ly=

4260mm

lx= 1915 mm
Figure 4: RC Flat Roof Dimension
Details:
Concrete unit weight=

24

Thickness of slab=

BS6399
Part 3

0.15

kN/m
m

Slab finishes=

kN/m

0.6

kN/m

## Design ultimate load, n= 1.4GK+1.6QK

= 1.4[(24x0.15)+2]+1.6(0.6)
=
7.4
kN/m
Slab: 4260 x 1915mm
Slab: 2705 x 1915mm
Assume :

Roof

ly/lx= 2.22
ly/lx= 1.41
diameter bar =
concrete cover =
fcu=
fy=
h=

>2
<2
10
25
25
460
150

88

mm
mm
N/mm
N/mm
mm

One-way slab
Two-way slab

Semi-detached Calculations

BS8110:
Part 1
Table 3.14

Bending Moment

0.045
0.098

0.074
0.034

## Figure 5: Bending Moment Coefficient

Design for the most critical slab: 4260mm x 1915mm
Continuous Edges
Short Span
Effective depth of outer layer:
d= 150-25-5
= 120

mm

Msx = Bsxnlx

2
= 0.098 x 7.4 x 1.915
= 2.66
kN.m

Clause
3.4.4.4

K=

M
fcubd
6
= 2.66x10 / 25x1000x120
=
0.007
(<0.156)

z=
=
=

d [0.5 +
120[0.5+
119.01

0.95d= 0.95x120
= 114
Use
114

Roof

K<K'
]
]

mm

mm<z
mm

89

Semi-detached Calculations

As=

M
0.95fyz

6
= 2.66x10 /0.95x460x114

53.38

<As min

mm

As min= 0.13%bh
= (0.13/100)x1000x150
=
195
mm Per m

Table
3.25

Provide
T10@300

## Provide 10mm diamerter bars at 250mm centres.

(Asprovided =
262
mm Per m)

Long Span
Effective depth of inner layer:
d= 150-25-10-5
= 110

mm

Msy = Bsynlx

2
= 0.045 x 7.4 x 1.915
= 1.22
kN.m

Clause
3.4.4.4

K=

M
fcubd
6
= 1.22x10 / 25x1000x110
=
0.004
(<0.156)

z=
=
=

d [0.5 +
120[0.5+
109.50

0.95d= 0.95x119
= 114
Use
114
As=

K<K'
]
]

mm < 0.95d

mm
mm

M
0.95fyz

6
= 1.22x10 /0.95x460x114

=
Table
3.25

Roof

24.51

mm

As min= 0.13%bh
= (0.13/100)x1000x150
=
195
mm Per m

90

<As min

Semi-detached Calculations

## Provide 10mm diamerter bars at 250mm centres.

(Asprovided =
262
mm Per m)

Provide
T10@300

Mid Span
Short Span
Effective depth of outer layer:
d= 150-25-5
= 120

mm

Mx = Bxnlx

## = 0.074 x 7.4 x 1.915

= 2.01
kN.m
Clause
3.4.4.4

K=

M
fcubd
6
= 17x10 / 25x1000x119
=
0.006
(<0.156)

z=
=
=

d [0.5 +
120[0.5+
119.25

0.95d= 0.95x119
= 114
Use
114
As=

K<K'
]
]

mm

mm<z
mm

M
0.95fyz
6

= 17x10 /0.95x460x114
=
Table
3.25

40.31

mm

As min= 0.13%bh
= (0.13/100)x1000x150
=
195
mm Per m
Provide 10mm diamerter bars at 250mm centres.
(Asprovided =
262
mm Per m)

Roof

91

<As min

Provide
T10@300

Semi-detached Calculations

Long Span
Effective depth of inner layer:
d= 150-25-10-5
= 110

mm

2
Msy = Bsynlx
2
= 0.034 x 7.4 x 1.915
= 0.92
kN.m

Clause
3.4.4.4

K=

M
fcubd
6
= 0.92x10 / 25x1000x110
=
0.003
(<0.156)

z=
=
=

d [0.5 +
110[0.5+
119.66

0.95d= 0.95x119
= 114
Use
114
As=

K<K'
]
]

mm

mm < z
mm

M
0.95fyz

6
= 17x10 /0.95x460x113

=
Table
3.25

18.52

mm

As min= 0.13%bh
= (0.13/100)x1000x150
=
195
mm Per m
Provide 10mm diamerter bars at 250mm centres.
(Asprovided =
262
mm Per m)

Roof

92

<As min

Provide
T10@200

Semi-detached Calculations

Shear
Table 3.15 Slab condition: Two adjacent edges discontinuous

0.04
0.626

0.418
0.26

Y
Figure 6: Shear Force Coefficient
Cotinuous Edge
Short Span
Vsx = Bvxnlx
= 0.626 x 7.4 x 1.915
= 8.87
kN
d=
Clause
3.5.5.2

Table 3.8

120

mm

V
bd
3
= 8.87x10 /(1000x120)
= 0.074

v=

100As=
bd
=

100(53.38)
1000x120
0.015

<3

ok

400/d =

3.333

>1

ok

1/3

v c = 0.79{100As/(bd)} (400/d)
1/3

= 0.79(0.328) (1.826)
= 0.213

1/4

1/4

/ m

/ 1.25

## v<v c. No shear reinforcement required.

Roof

93

Semi-detached Calculations

Long Span
Vsx = Bvxnlx
= 0.418 x 7.4 x 1.915
= 5.92
kN
d=
Clause
3.5.5.2

110

mm

V
bd
3
= 0.57x10 /(1000x110)
= 0.054

v=

100As=
bd
=

100(18.52)
1000x110
0.022

<3

ok

400/d =

3.636

>1

ok

1/3

v c = 0.79{100As/(bd)} (400/d)

Table 3.8

1/3

= 0.79(0.022) (3.636)
= 0.246

1/4

1/4

/ m

/ 1.25

## v<v c. No shear reinforcement required.

Mid Span
Short Span
Vsx = Bvxnlx
= 0.626 x 7.4 x 1.915
= 8.87
kN
d=
Clause
3.5.5.2

Roof

120

mm

V
bd
3
= 8.87x10 /(1000x120)
= 0.074

v=

100As=
bd
=

100(40.31)
1000x120
0.034

<3

ok

400/d =

3.333

>1

ok

94

Semi-detached Calculations

1/3
1/4
v c = 0.79{100As/(bd)} (400/d) / m

Table 3.8

1/3

= 0.79(0.034) (3.333)
= 0.276

1/4

/ 1.25

## v<v c. No shear reinforcement required.

Long Span
Vsx = Bvxnlx
= 0.26 x 7.4 x 1.915
= 3.68
d=
Clause
3.5.5.2

Table 3.8

kN

110

mm

V
bd
3
= 3.68x10 /(1000x110)
= 0.033

v=

100As=
bd
=

100(18.52)
1000x110
0.017

<3

ok

400/d =

3.636

>1

ok

1/3

v c = 0.79{100As/(bd)} (400/d)
1/3

= 0.79(0.017) (3.636)
= 0.224

1/4

1/4

/ m

/ 1.25

## v<v c. No shear reinforcement required.

Roof

95

Semi-detached Calculations

Deflection
Check using steel at short span of midspan.
M/bd2= (2.01x106)/(1000x1202)
= 0.139
fs= 2fyAs req
3As prov
= 2x460x40.31
3x262
= 5.48

N/mm

Modification factor=
= 0.55+ {(477-5.48)/[120 x (0.9+0.139)]}
= 4.330
Table 3.9

## basic (span/d) ratio = 26

(span/d)allowable = 4.33x26
= 112.586
(span/d) actual = 6965/120
= 35.500
(span/d)allowable > (span/d) actual
ok
The slab is satisfactory with respect to deflection.

Deflection
ok.

Torsion Steel
Extend 1/5 x Shorter Span = 1/5 x 1915
=
383
Corner X:

As =

3/4 x 383

=
Corner Y:

As =

mm

287

Provide
2

mm per m

1/2 x 383

144

Provide
2

mm per m

Cracking
The bar spacing is less than 3d (637.5mm) and for grade of 460 N/mm2 steel
Clause
3.12.11.2.7 reinforcement, with slab depth is less than 200mm, no further cracking
check is required.

Roof

96

T10@250

T10@250

Cracking
ok.

Semi-detached Calculations

Detailing

T10-300
6965 mm

T10-300

1915 mm
Figure 7: Detailing for RC Flat Roof

Roof

97

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

98

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

99

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

100

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

101

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

102

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

103

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

104

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

105

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

106

Semi-detached Calculations

kN

Roof

107

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

108

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

109

Semi-detached Calculations

## Bar diameter =12

mm

No. of bars =3

Roof

110

Semi-detached Calculations

## Bar diameter =12

mm

No. of bars =2

Roof

111

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

112

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

113

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

114

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

115

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

Bsx=
lx=
n=

0.098
1915 mm
7.4 kN/m

Bsy=
lx=
n=

0.045
1915 mm
7.4 kN/m

116

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

117

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

Bsx=
lx=
n=

0.074
1915 mm
7.4 kN/m

Bsy=
lx=
n=

0.034
1915 mm
7.4 kN/m

118

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

119

Semi-detached Calculations

Bvx =

Roof

0.626

120

Semi-detached Calculations

Roof

Bvy=

0.418

Bvx =

0.626

121

Semi-detached Calculations

Bvy=

Roof

0.26

122

## Design of Roof Beam to Support RC Flat Roof

(v) Roof Beam Supporting RC Flat Roof
The beam chosen for design is supporting the most critical load.

2705 m

4260 m

1915 m 1915 m
Figure 1: Location of Critical Beam
Details:
Concrete unit
24 weight kN/m3
=
Beam breath = 0.15
m
Beam depth = 0.2
m
Self-weight0.72
of beam =kN/m
kN/m2
= 14.89
kN/m
14.89 kN/m

A
4.26

Stiffness,
KAB= 4EI/L
= 4EI/4.26

m2.705

C
m

KBC= 4EI/L
= 4EI/2.705

= 0.94EI

= 1.48EI

Distribution Factor,
DFAB= KAB/KAB
= 0.94EI/0.94EI
=1

DFBA= KBA/(KAB+KBC)
= 0.94EI/(0.94EI + 1.48EI)
= 0.39

DFBC= KBC/(KAB+KBC)
DFCB= KBC/KBC
= 1.48EI/(0.94EI + 1.48EI)
= 1.48EI/1.48EI
= 0.61
=1
Fixed End Moment,
FEMAB = (wl2/12)
= [(0.72x3.85^2)/12]
kN.m
= -22.52

FEMBA = (wl2/12)
= [(0.72x3.3952)/12]
kN.m
= 22.52

FEMBC = (wl2/12)
= (0.72x3.3052)/12
kN.m
= -9.08
FEMCB = (wl2/12)
= (0.72x3.3052)/12
kN.m
= 9.08
Joint
A
Member
AB
DF 1.000
FEM -22.520
Dist. 22.520
-2.621
2.621
-1.310
1.310
-0.655
0.655

B
BA
0.390
22.520
-5.242
11.260
-2.621
1.310
-1.310
0.655
-0.655

BC
0.610
-9.080
-8.198
-4.540
-4.099
2.050
-2.050
1.025
-1.025

C
CB
1.000
9.080
-9.080
-4.099
4.099
-2.050
2.050
-1.025
1.025

-0.328
0.328
-0.164
0.164
0.000

0.328
-0.328
0.164
-0.164
25.917

0.512
-0.512
0.256
-0.256
-25.917

-0.512
0.512
-0.256
0.256
0.000

14.89 kN/m
25.917 kN.m
B

A
4.26 m

RB
RA
RA = [-50.581+(0.720x(3.852/2))+(15.79x2.021)+(15.79x0.193)+
(15.79x3.85)]/3.85
= 25.63
kN
2
RB = [69.513+(39.94x(4.26 /2))]/4.26
= 37.80
kN

14.89 kN/m
25.917
kN.m

B
2.705 m

R
RC
2
RB = [69.513+(39.94x(2.705 /2))]/2.705
= 29.72

kN

2
RC = [-69.513+(39.94x(2.705 /2))]/2.705
= 10.56
kN

V(kN)

(+)
25.63

29.72
2.539 m
1.721 m

-10.56

(-)
-37.80

M(kN.m)

(-)

22.06
0.0

(+)
-25.93

Reference
Calculation
BS8110:
Part 1
Design Parameter:
N/mm2
fcu= 25
N/mm2
fy= 460
fyv= 250
First Mid Span
Beam dimension
Width, b = 180
Table 3.3 Depth, h = 200
Nominal cover, c = 25
Top bar diameter, = 20
Compression bar diameter = 12

N/mm

Output
b
l

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

d= h - c - /2 - '
= 200 - 25 - 12/2 - 10
= 159
mm
Moment = 22.06
K=

kN.m

M
fcubd

6
= (22.06x10 ) /(25x180x159)
= 0.194 (>0.156)

K' =

0.156

## d' = c + /2+ '

= 25+6+10
= 45.0
mm

K>K'

M-Mu
As'=
0.95fy(d-d')
2
= 86.531 mm
Provide 2T12bars. (Area prov:

226

z= d [0.5 +
= 159 [0.5+

Provide
2

mm )

2T12

]
]

= 123.53 <0.95d
0.95d= 0.95x159
= 151.05
mm

z<0.95d

(Mu/(0.95f
As
=
yz))+As'
2
= [(0.156x25x180x159 )/(0.95x460x123.53)]+158.708
mm2
= 415.3
Provide
2
mm )
Provide 2T20 bars. (Area prov:
628
2T20

x= (d-z)/0.45
= (159-123.53)/0.45
= 78.83
mm
As min= (0.13/100) x b x h
= (0.13/100)x180x220
= 46.8
mm

Interior Support
d= h - c - /2 - '
= 200 - 25 - 12/2 - 8
= 159
mm

As>As min
ok

Bar diameter =
No. of bars =

Moment = 25.93
K=

kN.m

M
fcubd

6
= (25.93x10 ) /(25x180x159)
= 0.228 (>0.156)

K' =

K>K'

0.156

## d' = c + /2+ '

= 45.0
mm
M-Mu
As'=
0.95fy(d-d')
2
= 164.276 mm
Provide 2T12bars. (Area prov:

226

z= d [0.5 +
= 159 [0.5+

Provide
2

mm )

2T12

]
]

= 123.53 <0.95d
0.95d= 0.95x159
= 151.05
mm

z<0.95d

(Mu/(0.95f
As
=
yz))+As'
2
= [(0.156x25x180x159 )/(0.95x460x123.53)]+158.708
mm2
= 493.0
Provide
2
mm )
Provide 2T20 bars. (Area prov:
628
2T20

x= (d-z)/0.45
= (159-1123.53)/0.45
= 78.83
mm
As min= (0.13/100) x b x h
= (0.13/100)x180x220
= 46.8
mm

As>As min
ok

Bar diameter =
No. of bars =

## Second Mid Span

Beam dimension
Width, b = 180
Depth, h = 200
Nominal cover, c = 25
Main bar diameter, = 12

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

d= h - c - /2 - '
= 200 - 25 - 12/2 - 10
= 159
mm
Moment = 4.50
K=

kN.m

M
fcubd

6
= (4.5x10 ) /(25x180x159)
= 0.040 (<0.156)

z= d [0.5 +

K<K'

= 159 [0.5+

Bar diameter =
No. of bars =

= 151.67 <0.95d
0.95d= 0.95x159
= 151.05
mm
Use 151.05 mm
As=

z0.95d

M
0.95fyz

= 4.5x106 /0.95x460x151.67
= 67.89 mm
Provide

## Provide 2T12 bars. (Area prov:

262

mm )

2T12

As min= (0.13/100) x b x h
= (0.13/100)x180x220
= 46.8
mm

As>As min
ok

Shear Reinforcement
First Mid Span
V = 25.63

kN

v= V
bd

Clause
3.4.5.2

3
= 25.63x10 /(180x159)
= 0.896 N/mm

0.8fcu= 0.8*(25^0.5)
=4
N/mm
100As=100(164.73)
bd
180x161
= ####### <3
1/4

Table 3.8(400/d)

= (400/161)1/4
= ####### >1

v <0.8fcu

ok

ok

1/3
1/4
1/3
v c = 0.79{100As/(bd)} (400/d) (fcu/25) / m
1/3
1/4
1/3
= 0.79(0.67) (1.255) (1) / 1.25
= ####### N/mm

## 0.5 v c = ####### N/mm

v c+0.4= ####### N/mm
Thus, 0.5v c<v <v c+0.4

## 0.5v c<v <v c+0.4

Asv/sv= 0.4b/0.95fyv
= 0.4(180)/0.95(250)
= #DIV/0!
R8@300mm
center to c/c
center)

No. of bars = 2

mm

No. of bars = 2

mm

No. of bars = 2