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Energy Statstcs 2011
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Danish Energy Agency
Amaliegade 44
1256 Copenhagen K
Tel: +45 33 92 67 00
Fax: +45 33 11 47 43
ens@ens.dk
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CVR-nr: 59 77 87 14
ENERGY STATISTICS 2011
Data, tables, statstcs and maps
CONTENTS

2

At a glance
Energy balance 2011
Production of primary energy
Renewable energy
Electricity and district heating
Consumption 2011
Gross energy consumption and final energy consumption
Transport
Agriculture and industry
Commercial and public service
Households
Emissions of CO
2
and other greenhouse gases
Energy and the economy
Energy prices
International comparisons
Terminology and definitions
Key figures and the assumptions of the energy statistics

3
4
5
7
11
18
20
25
27
31
34
38
44
46
50
55
58









Energy Statistics 2011
Published December 2012 by the Danish Energy Agency, Amaliegade 44, 1256
Copenhagen K, Denmark.
Tel: +45 33 92 67 00, Fax +45 33 11 47 43, Email: ens@ens.dk, Website
http://www.ens.dk.
Design and production: The Danish Energy Agency (Danuta Kestenbaum)
ISBN 978-87-7844-944-3 www
ISSN 0906-4699
Queries concerning methods and calculations should be addressed to the Danish
Energy Agency, Statistics Section, Tel.: +45 33 92 67 00 or statistik@ens.dk.
The Danish Energy Agency is an agency under the Danish Ministry of Climate,
Energy and Building.
This publication may be quoted with source reference.
www.ens.dk
Please feel free to visit the
Danish Energy Agencys web-
site for statistics and data
Facts & figures. This web-
site includes energy statistics
that are far more detailed than
the statistics published here.
Go to Facts & figures to
see (and/or download) the
complete energy statistics,
including tables and time se-
ries for energy consumption,
emissions and assumptions for
the period 1972-2011. De-
scriptions of methods are also
available here.
The website also includes the
figures behind the graphs and
tables in the printed version
as well as a PowerPoint pre-
sentation (.ppt) of the graphs.
AT A GLANCE

3


Energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases fell in 2011

Observed energy consumption down by 6.4%
Observed energy consumption fell by 6.4%, from 846 PJ in
2010 to 792 PJ in 2011. This trend should be seen in the
context of significantly colder weather in 2010. In addition,
there was a shift from net exports of electricity in 2010 to
net imports of electricity in 2011, which led to a drop in fuel
consumption by Danish power plants. More electricity ge-
neration based on wind power has moreover contributed to
lower fuel consumption at power plants.
Increase in the consumption of renewable energy
Consumption of renewable energy increased from 170 PJ in
2010 to 174 PJ in 2011, which corresponds to an increase
of 2.5%. This development can be attributed to large in-
creases in the consumption of wind power and biofuels and
a smaller drop for solid biomass such as wood and straw.
Calculated according to the EUs method of calculation,
renewable energy accounted for 23.6% of energy consump-
tion in 2011 as opposed to 22.1% in 2010. Production of
electricity from renewable energy accounted for 40.7% of
Danish domestic electricity supply in 2011. Of this figure,
wind power accounted for 28.1%.
Adjusted gross energy consumption down by 0.9%
Besides observed energy consumption, the Danish Energy
Agency calculates adjusted gross energy consumption,
which is adjusted for fuel linked to foreign trade in electrici-
ty and fluctuations in climate with respect to a normal
weather year. The purpose of the adjusted calculations is to
illustrate the trends underlying the development. Adjusted
gross energy consumption was 807 PJ in 2011, which is
0.9% below the 2010 level.
Compared with an increase in economic activity, measured
as a rise of 0.8% in Gross Domestic Product (GDP), this
corresponds to a 1.7% improvement in energy efficiency in
2011. Compared with 1990, adjusted gross energy con-
sumption fell by 1.4%. During the same period, GDP in
2005 prices grew by 37.8%. In 2011, each unit of GDP
therefore accounted for 28.5% less energy than in 1990.
Drop in emissions of CO
2
and other greenhouse gases
Observed CO
2
emissions from energy consumption fell by
10.6% in 2011, ending at 44.3 million tonnes.
Adjusted for fuel consumption linked to foreign trade in














electricity and fluctuations in climate, CO
2
emissions fell by
2.8%. Since 1990 adjusted CO
2
emissions have gone down
by 25.2%.
A preliminary statement of total Danish observed emissions
of greenhouse gases shows a drop of 8.6% from 2010 to
2011. Relative to the base year (1990/95), there has been
a drop of 19.5%.
Energy consumption by area of consumption
Energy consumption for transport was 0.9% higher in 2011
than the year before. Energy consumption for road trans-
port was unchanged, whereas consumption for international
aviation increased by 2.7%.
The total climate adjusted energy consumption of the agri-
culture and industry sector was 0.3% higher in 2011 than
the year before. Energy consumption by manufacturing
industries grew by 0.5%.
In the commercial and public services and households,
climate-adjusted energy consumption was respectively
0.5% and 1.2% higher in 2011 than in the year before.
Energy production and degree of self-sufficiency fell
Danish production of crude oil, natural gas and renewable
energy etc. fell to 887 PJ in 2011; a drop of 9.8%. Produc-
tion of crude oil and natural gas fell by 10.0% and 13.9%
respectively.
Denmark is the only country in the EU that was self-
sufficient in energy in 2011. Denmarks degree of self-
sufficiency in energy was 110% in 2011, whereas it was
121% in the previous year. This means that energy produc-
tion was 10% higher than energy consumption in 2011.
Large currency revenues
In 2011 Denmark had a foreign trade surplus from its trade
in energy products of DKK 4.3 billion. In 2010 this figure
was DKK 12.1 billion.
Exports of energy technology and equipment were DKK
63.4 billion in 2011 as opposed to DKK 53.7 billion in 2010.
Exports of energy products and equipment, not least wind
turbines, therefore account for a large share of total Danish
goods exports. The share was 10.5% in 2011 as opposed to
9.5% in the previous year.
Observed energy consumption and adjusted gross energy consumption
600
700
800
900
1000
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Observed energy consumption Adjusted gross energy consumption
ENERGY BALANCE 2011
4


Energy balance 2011


Total
Crude oil
and
refinery
feedstocks
Oil pro-
ducts Natural gas
Coal and
coke
Waste,
non
rene-
wable
Rene-
wable
energy Electricity
District
heating
Gas
works
gas
Direct energy contents [TJ]
Total energy consumption 791 875 285 616 17 117 156 613 136 027 17 347 174 256 4 746 152 -
Primary energy production 887 199 470 447 - 264 632 - 17 347 134 774 - - -
Recycling 41 - 41 - - - - - - -
Imports 640 476 129 861 261 942 13 803 150 217 - 42 405 42 095 152 -
Exports -716 007 -318 545 -240 969 -117 051 - 1 - -2 092 -37 349 - -
Border trade -7 518 - -7 518 - - - - - - -
International marine bunkers -29 442 - -29 442 - - - - - - -
Stock changes 9 983 1 440 30 308 -5 744 -14 841 - -1 180 - - -
Statistical differences 7 142 2 413 2 754 973 652 - 350 - - 0 -
Energy sector -46 018 -285 616 268 702 -25 064 - - - -3 455 - 586 -
Extraction and gasification -25 064 - - -25 064 - - - - - -
Petroleum products 282 938 - 282 938 - - - - - - -
Used in refineries -301 617 -285 616 -14 236 - - - - -1 180 - 586 -
Used in distribution -2 275 - - - - - - -2 275 - -
Transformation -79 328 - -7 009 -65 215 -130 012 -16 322 -113 207 120 362 131 522 554
Large-scale units -58 295 - -3 053 -21 702 -129 314 - -30 174 67 608 58 340 -
Wind turbines and hydro power
plants
- - - - - - -35 248 35 248 - -
Small-scale units -6 422 - - 90 -29 653 - 478 -4 036 -13 345 16 168 25 013 -
District heating units -1 241 - -1 842 -8 183 - 82 - 227 -16 533 - 215 25 841 -
Autoproducers -6 652 - -2 024 -5 117 - 137 -12 059 -17 907 7 593 22 999 -
Gas Works - 6 - - - 560 - - - - - 554
Own use -6 711 - - - - - - -6 040 - 671 -
Distribution losses etc. -35 114 - - - 119 - - - -8 639 -26 335 - 22
Final energy consumption -631 415 - -278 810 -66 216 -6 016 -1 025 -61 049 -113 014 -104 753 - 532
Non-energy use -12 374 - -12 374 - - - - - - -
Transport -210 721 - -203 739 - - - -5 554 -1 429 - -
Agriculture and industry -135 734 - -42 841 -31 092 -5 986 - 759 -11 137 -37 191 -6 685 - 42
Commercial and public services -82 739 - -2 467 -9 229 - - 266 -1 742 -37 994 -31 003 - 39
Households -189 847 - -17 390 -25 895 - 29 - -42 617 -36 401 -67 065 - 451

Note: The energy balance provides an overview of supply, transformation and consumption of energy.
A more detailed statement of input (black figures) and output (red figures) of energy products is listed in the table, Energy supply and consump-
tion 2011.



Degree of self-sufficiency




















The degree of self-sufficiency is calculated as pri-
mary energy production in relation to climate-
adjusted gross energy consumption. Self-sufficiency
in oil is calculated as crude oil production in relation
to the share of gross energy consumption that is
represented by oil.
For the first time, in 1997, Denmark produced more
energy than it consumed. In 2011, the degree of
self-sufficiency in energy was 110% as opposed to
121% the year before. The degree of self-
sufficiency was 52% in 1990 and peaked in 2004 at
156%.
Denmark has been more than self-sufficient in oil
since 1993, resulting in annual net exports. In
2011, the degree of self-sufficiency in oil was 155%
as opposed to 168% the year before. The degree of
self-sufficiency in oil also peaked in 2004 and it has
been falling over the past seven years.

0%
50%
100%
150%
200%
250%
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Total Oil
PRODUCTION OF PRIMARY ENERGY
5


Production of primary energy

Change
Direct energy contents
[TJ]
1980 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009 2010 2011 '90-'11
Total primary production 40 252 424 605 655 578 1 164 873 1 314 815 1 009 759 983 705 887 199 109%
Crude oil 12 724 255 959 391 563 764 526 796 224 554 826 522 733 470 447 84%
Natural gas 17 115 967 196 852 310 307 392 868 314 910 307 490 264 632 128%
Waste, non-renewable 4 787 6 975 10 308 13 676 17 006 17 705 17 160 17 347 149%
Renewable energy 22 724 45 705 56 854 76 365 108 717 122 318 136 322 134 774 195%

Production and consumption of renewable energy
Change
Direct energy contents
[TJ]
1980 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009 2010 2011 '90-'11
Production of renewable
energy
22 724 45 705 56 854 76 365 108 717 122 318 136 322 134 774 195%
Solar 50 100 213 335 419 591 657 784 686%
Wind 38 2 197 4 238 15 268 23 810 24 194 28 114 35 187 1 502%
Hydro 123 101 109 109 81 68 74 61 -39.8%
Geothermal - 96 94 116 344 483 425 331 245%
Biomass 22 023 39 996 47 511 54 039 73 542 82 841 91 739 83 436 109%
- Straw 4 840 12 481 13 050 12 220 18 485 17 360 23 587 19 756 58.3%
- Wood chips - 1 724 2 340 2 744 6 082 9 823 11 319 11 291 555%
- Firewood 7 621 8 757 11 479 12 432 17 667 23 054 23 779 20 469 134%
- Wood pellets - 1 575 2 099 2 984 3 262 2 432 2 394 2 411 53.1%
- Wood waste 3 710 6 191 5 694 6 895 6 500 6 911 7 738 7 523 21.5%
- Waste, renewable 5 851 8 524 12 598 16 715 20 786 21 639 20 973 21 202 149%
- Bio oil - 744 251 49 761 1 622 1 949 784 5.3%
Biogas 184 752 1 758 2 912 3 830 4 171 4 278 4 106 446%
Bio diesel - - - - 2 632 3 268 2 875 2 965
Heat pumps 306 2 462 2 931 3 585 4 058 6 703 8 159 7 903 221%
Imports of renewable energy - - 233 2 466 16 286 24 290 36 453 42 405
Firewood - - - - 1 963 2 005 2 939 3 332
Wood chips - - - 305 1 521 4 210 4 851 5 817
Wood pellets - - 233 2 161 12 802 17 836 27 535 27 731
Bio gasoline - - - - - 204 1 118 2 109
Bio diesel - - - - - 35 11 3 416
Exports of renewable energy - - - - 2 632 3 122 2 846 2 092
Bio gasoline - - - - - - - 96
Bio diesel - - - - 2 632 3 122 2 846 1 996
Stock changes and statistical
differences
- - 3 3 1 - 0 - 39 - 831
Consumption of rene-
wable energy
22 724 45 702 57 091 78 831 122 370 143 485 169 968 174 256 281%
PRODUCTION OF PRIMARY ENERGY
6


Primary energy production

















Primary energy refers to crude oil, natural gas,
renewable energy (including renewable waste) and
non-renewable waste.
Primary energy production has grown rapidly in the
period 1990-2000. Production of crude oil increased
steadily up to 2004, after which it fell.
In 2011, primary energy production was 887 PJ, as
opposed to 984 PJ in 2010. This corresponds to a
drop of 9.8%. Primary energy production peaked at
1315 PJ in 2005.
Production of crude oil and natural gas fell by
10.0% and 13.9% respectively in 2011, while pro-
duction of renewable energy etc. fell by 0.9%.
Oil and gas reserves





















Up to the end of 2009, oil and gas reserves were
calculated as the volumes that were financially
feasible to recover from known oil fields and oil
discoveries, using known technologies. The reserves
are being re-evaluated regularly against new oil
discoveries and changes in the basis for calcula-
tions.
At the end of 2009, the Danish Energy Agency
changed the classification system for oil and gas
reserves, introducing the category contingent re-
sources. For the period 2009 to 2011, the state-
ment includes the sum of reserves and contingent
resources so that comparison with earlier state-
ments is possible.
At the end of 2011, the sum of reserves and con-
tingent resources was calculated at 181 million m
3

oil and 95 billion Nm
3
gas, corresponding to 14
years of oil production and 15 years of gas produc-
tion with activity at the 2011 level.
Source: Danish Oil and Gas Production 2011.
Natural gas consumption and flaring
on platforms in the North Sea


















Extraction of crude oil and natural gas requires
natural gas consumption for production as well as
for transport and off-loading ashore. In 2011 con-
sumption was 24.9 PJ, corresponding to 15.9% of
total Danish natural gas consumption. In 2010
consumption on platforms was 25.7 PJ.
Furthermore, flaring (burning) is carried out in the
production of natural gas in the North Sea fields.
Flaring is not included in energy consumption, but
is included in Denmark's international calculation of
greenhouse gases and is covered by CO
2
allow-
ances. In 2011, flaring of natural gas was calcu-
lated at 3.2 PJ compared with 4.6 PJ in 2010.

0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Crude oil Natural gas Renewable energy etc.
0
100
200
300
1990 '05 '08 '11
Oil, million m
3
Gas, billion Nm
3

0
10
20
30
40
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Energy consumption Flaring
RENEWABLE ENERGY
7


Production of renewable energy by energy
product



















Renewable energy includes solar energy, wind
energy, hydropower, geothermal energy, biomass
(including renewable waste), biodiesel, biogasoline,
biogas, and heat pumps.
Production of renewable energy was 134.8 PJ in
2011, which corresponds to a drop of 1.1% com-
pared with 2010. Production of renewable energy
increased by 195% during the period 1990 to 2011.
Wind power generation was 35.2 PJ in 2011, which
is 25.2% more than in 2010.
Production of biomass was 83.4 PJ in 2011. Of this,
straw accounted for 19.8 PJ, wood accounted for
41.7 PJ, renewable waste accounted for 21.2 PJ,
and bio oil accounted for 0.8 PJ. Compared with
2010, biomass production fell by 9.1%.

Consumption of waste

















Consumption of waste for the production of electri-
city and district heating has increased significantly
over time. Total consumption of waste was 38.5 PJ
in 2011 as opposed to 38.1 PJ the year before.
Compared with 1990, waste consumption for ener-
gy purposes has increased by 149%.
In statistics for energy and CO
2
emissions, waste is
split by two components: Renewable waste and
non-renewable waste. According to international
conventions, renewable waste is included in renew-
able energy.
The energy statistics now assumes that 55% of the
waste consumed is renewable waste. This means
that waste accounts for a considerable proportion of
the total consumption of renewable energy. Pre-
viously, this figure was estimated at 58.8%.

Consumption of renewable energy

















Production of renewable energy has increased sig-
nificantly since 1990. In addition, net imports have
increased. Net imports of renewable energy (includ-
ing changes in stocks etc.) were 39.5 PJ in 2011.
Imports include primarily biomass, whereas biodie-
sel is exported.
In 2011 consumption of renewable energy was
174.3 PJ, which is 2.5% more than the year before.
Observed consumption of renewable energy was
45.7 PJ in 1990.
The increased consumption of renewable energy
makes a significant contribution to reducing Danish
CO
2
emissions.


0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Wind Straw
Wood Biogas
Waste, renewable Heat pumps
0
10
20
30
40
50
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Waste, renewable Waste, non-renewable
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Share covered by net imports
Share covered by indigenous production
RENEWABLE ENERGY
8


Renewable energy consumption by source
















Consumption of renewable energy increased from
170.0 PJ in 2010 to 174.3 PJ in 2011. The develop-
ment in total consumption can be explained by a
decrease in the consumption of biomass and in-
creases in the consumption of wind power and liquid
biofuels.
In 2011, consumption of biomass fell to 120.3 PJ
compared with 127.1 PJ in 2010, while wind power
went up from 28.1 PJ to 35.2 PJ. Moreover, con-
sumption of liquid biofuels increased by more than
five times, going up from 1.2 PJ in 2010 to 6.4 PJ in
2011.


Use of renewable energy in 2011



















Total consumption of renewable energy in 2011
(production plus net imports) was 174.3 PJ, of
which 113.2 PJ was used in the production of elec-
tricity and district heating. Wind power, renewable
waste and wood pellets were predominant in the
production of electricity and district heating, ac-
counting for 35.2 PJ, 19.9 PJ and 19.3 PJ, respec-
tively. Consumption of wood otherwise, straw and
biogas accounted for 19.0 PJ, 14.9 PJ and 3.4 PJ,
respectively.
A total of 61.0 PJ renewable energy was included in
final energy consumption, i.e. for process consump-
tion and consumption for heating in the agriculture
and industry sector, in the commercial and public
service sector, as well as for space heating in
households. In final energy consumption, biomass,
particularly firewood, is most prominent.

Renewable energy share of total energy
consumption





























Observed energy consumption shows the registered
amount of energy consumed in a calendar year. In
2011 renewable energy covered 22.0% of total
observed energy consumption, as opposed to
20.1% the year before. In 1990 this figure was
6.1%.
Adjusted gross energy consumption is found by
adjusting observed energy consumption for the fuel
consumption linked to foreign trade in electricity,
and by adjusting for fluctuations in climate with
respect to a normal weather year. In 2011 renewa-
ble energy's share of adjusted gross energy con-
sumption was 21.8%, as opposed to 20.2% the
previous year. In 1990 this figure was 5.9%.
Except for in years with large net exports of elec-
tricity, the renewable energy share shows an iden-
tical trend when calculated according to the two
different methods.


0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Liquid biofuels Wind
Biogas
Biomass
Other
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Electricity and district
heating
Final energy
consumption
PJ
Wind
Wood
Straw
Waste
Biogas
Other renewables
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Share of observed energy consumption
Share of adjusted energy consumption
RENEWABLE ENERGY
9







Share of renewable energy according to
the EU method of calculation



















The EU Directive on renewable energy prescribes a
different method for calculating the share of renew-
able energy than those used above.
The EUs calculation is based on final energy con-
sumption as the expression of energy consumption
by end-users, excl. cross-border trade and con-
sumption for non-energy purposes. Distribution
losses and own use in the production of electricity
and district heating are added to this final energy
consumption. In the EU method, renewable energy
is defined as end-consumption of renewable energy
as well as consumption of renewable energy for the
production of electricity and district heating. The EU
has yet to lay down details for the calculation me-
thod.
According to the EU method of calculation, the re-
newable energy share was 23.6% in 2011, as op-
posed to 22.1% the year before, i.e. around 2 per-
centage points higher than in the national calcula-
tions.
Wind power capacity and wind powers
share of domestic electricity supply













In 2011, wind power generation accounted for
28.1% of domestic electricity supply, compared
with 21.9% in 2010 and only 1.9% in 1990.
Wind power capacity was 3952 MW in 2011, as
opposed to 3802 MW the year before. Onshore and
offshore wind power capacity was 3081 MW and
872 MW, respectively, in 2011. In 1990 total wind
power capacity was 326 MW.
Trends in wind power capacity and production do
not always correspond, as annual wind power
generation is highly dependent on wind conditions,
which can be quite variable in Denmark. Further-
more, when capacity goes up, this is not reflected
fully in the production until in the following year,
as production from new capacity is limited to the
part of the year in which the installations are in
operation. This was especially evident in 2009 and
2010, when a large part of the new capacity was
put into operation during the final months of the
year.

Wind power onshore by municipality


Total wind power generation was 35.2 PJ in 2011.
Of this, onshore installations accounted for 65.4%
and offshore installations accounted for 34.6%.
Wind power generation from onshore installations
varies across Denmark. Municipalities with west-
facing coastlines have many onshore wind turbines,
and the favourable wind conditions in these areas
contribute to high production from these installa-
tions.
In 2011 the turbines in the five municipalities with
the highest wind power production thus together
accounted for a production of 6.6 PJ, or 28.3% of
total wind power generation from onshore installa-
tions.


0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Share of renewable energy according to the EU
method of calculations
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
MW
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
Wind power offshore capacity, MW
Wind power onshore capacity, MW
Wind power's share of domestic electricity
RENEWABLE ENERGY
10


Number and total capacity of wind turbines by size [MW]



1980 1990 2000 2010 2011

On-
shore
On-
shore
Onshore

Off-
shore
Total On-
shore

Off-
shore
Total

On-
shore
Off-
shore

Total
Total number of wind
turbines
68 2 666 6 219 41 6 260 4 631 404 5 035 4 563 405 4 968
- 499 kW 68 2 656 3 677 11 3 688 1 495 11 1 506 1 374 11 1 385
500 - 999 kW - 8 2 283 10 2 293 2 585 10 2 595 2 572 10 2 582
1 000 - 1 999 kW - 2 251 - 251 366 - 366 365 - 365
2 000 - kW - - 8 20 28 185 383 568 252 384 636
Total capacity of wind
turbines [MW]
3 326 2 340 50 2 390 2 935 868 3 802 3 081 872 3 952
- 499 kW 3 317 533 5 538 268 5 273 243 5 248
500 - 999 kW - 6 1 512 5 1 517 1 758 5 1 763 1 749 5 1 754
1 000 - 1 999 kW - 3 279 - 279 451 - 451 449 - 449
2 000 - kW - - 16 40 56 458 858 1 316 640 862 1 501
Wind power capacity by turbine size



















The total number of wind turbines fell slightly from
2010 to 2011, while the total wind power capacity
grew by 150 MW.
For some years now, the trend has been toward
fewer but larger turbines. There were 1292 fewer
turbines in 2011 than in 2000. This is due to a fall of
2014 in the number of turbines with capacities of
999 kW and below, as well as an increase of 722 in
the number of larger turbines.
Similarly, turbines with a capacity below 500 kW
accounted for only 6.3% of the total capacity in
2011, whereas this figure was 22.5% in 2000.
Wind power production by turbine size

























The development toward larger turbines is even
more evident in terms of wind power generation.
Where turbines larger than 2 MW accounted for 38%
of wind power capacity, in 2011 these turbines pro-
duced more than 48% of the total energy from wind
turbines.
Similarly, in 2011 wind turbines with a capacity
below 500 kW accounted for only 5.6% of the total
production.
The most important reason for this is that by far the
majority of the turbines established offshore have
capacities above 2 MW.
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
1990 2000 2011
MW
- 499 kW 500 - 999 kW
1000 - 1999 kW 2000 - kW
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
1990 2000 2011
TJ
- 499 kW 500 - 999 kW
1000 - 1999 kW 2000 - kW
ELECTRICITY AND DISTRICT HEATING
11


Electricity production by type of producer
Change
Direct energy contents [TJ] 1980 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009 2010 2011 '90 -'11
Total gross electricity pro-
duction
97 508 93 518 131 987 129 776 130 469 130 984 139 651 126 617 35.4%
Large-scale power units 44 155 7 494 15 119 8 871 49 197 336 246 -96.7%
Large-scale CHP units 52 056 80 639 96 216 73 809 74 932 82 457 83 832 67 362 -16.5%
- Electricity production 36 026 50 157 61 383 41 584 38 402 47 985 43 114 33 346 -33.5%
Small-scale CHP units 18 988 11 869 21 547 21 254 16 500 19 192 16 168 1 536%
Autoproducers
1)
1 118 2 099 4 436 10 172 10 344 7 568 8 103 7 593 262%
- Electricity production
1)
- - 17 14 15 18 27 58
- CHP
1)
1 118 2 099 4 419 10 158 10 328 7 549 8 076 7 536 259%
Wind turbines
1)
38 2 197 4 238 15 268 23 810 24 194 28 114 35 187 1 502%
Hydro power units
1)
123 101 109 109 81 68 74 61 -39.8%
Own use in production -5 731 -6 118 -7 372 -5 776 -6 599 -6 917 -7 117 -6 040 -1.3%
Large-scale power units - 2 787 - 590 - 774 - 312 - 2 - 44 - 17 - 14 - 98%
Large-scale CHP units - 2 944 - 5 509 - 6 576 - 4 993 - 6 033 - 6 424 - 6 602 - 5 570 1.1%
Small-scale CHP units - - 19 - 23 - 472 - 564 - 449 - 499 - 456 2 300%
Total net electricity produc-
tion
91 777 87 400 124 615 123 999 123 870 124 067 132 534 120 576 38%
Net electricity imports -4 453 25 373 -2 858 2 394 4 932 1 200 - 4 086 4 746 -81.3%
Domestic supply 87 323 112 773 121 757 126 393 128 802 125 267 128 448 125 323 11.1%
Transformation consumption - - - 11 - 1 - - 20 - 110 - 215
Distribution losses etc.
2)
- 7 497 - 8 886 - 8 476 - 7 650 - 5 573 - 8 571 - 9 237 - 8 639 -2.8%
Domestic electricity con-
sumption
79 827 103 887 113 270 118 742 123 228 116 676 119 101 116 469 12.1%
Consumption in the energy
sector
- 1 256 - 1 784 - 2 095 - 1 911 - 2 760 - 3 471 - 3 455 - 3 455 93.7%
Final electricity consumption 78 571 102 103 111 174 116 831 120 469 113 205 115 646 113 014 10.8%

1)
Gross and net production are by definition identical.
2)
Determined as the difference between supply and consumption.


Electricity production by type of producer



















In 2011 electricity production was 126.6 PJ, which
is a drop of 9.3% compared to 2010. The reason is
partly a decrease in domestic electricity supply, and
partly that in 2011 Denmark had net imports of
electricity as opposed to net exports in 2010.
Electricity is generated at large-scale power units,
at small-scale CHP units, by wind turbines and by
autoproducers (i.e. small producers, whose main
product is not energy).
Large-scale power units generate electricity, partly
as separate electricity production, and partly as
combined electricity and heat production. Of the
total electricity production of 126.6 PJ, 67.6 PJ
(53%) were generated from large-scale power
units, 33.6 PJ as separate production. Separate
electricity production varies greatly from year to
year due to fluctuations in foreign trade in electrici-
ty. Electricity production from small-scale CHP units
and autoproducers was 16.2 PJ and 7.6 PJ, respec-
tively. Wind turbines generated 35.2 PJ of electrici-
ty, an increase of 25% relative to 2010.

0
50
100
150
200
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Large-scale units, power only
Large-scale CHP units
Small-scale CHP units
Autoproducers
Wind & hydro
ELECTRICITY AND DISTRICT HEATING
12


Electricity production by fuel
Change
Direct energy contents [TJ] 1994 2000 2003 2005 2008 2009 2010 2011 '94 - '11
Total gross electricity pro-
duction
144 708 129 776 166 246 130 469 131 818 130 984 139 651 126 616 -12.5%
Oil 9 547 15 964 8 445 4 933 4 036 4 214 2 765 1 626 - 83.0%
- Orimulsion - 13 467 776 - - - - -
Natural gas 8 206 31 589 35 149 31 606 25 492 24 015 28 382 20 917 155%
Coal 119 844 60 022 91 102 55 666 62 865 63 676 61 114 50 278 -58.0%
Surplus heat - 139 68 - - - - -
Waste, non-renewable 836 2 002 2 406 2 938 3 077 2 851 2 689 2 802 235%
Renewable energy 6 275 20 060 29 077 35 326 36 348 36 228 44 701 50 993 713%
Solar 0 4 5 8 9 14 22 54 18 575%
Wind 4 093 15 268 20 019 23 810 24 940 24 194 28 114 35 187 760%
Hydro 117 109 76 81 93 68 74 61 -48,3%
Biomass 1 743 3 928 7 982 10 409 10 252 10 639 15 214 14 455 729%
- Straw 293 654 2 706 3 088 2 145 2 419 3 967 2 818 863%
- Wood 429 828 2 336 3 730 4 346 4 734 7 961 8 213 1 812%
- Waste, renewable 1 021 2 447 2 940 3 591 3 761 3 485 3 286 3 424 235%
Biogas 321 751 994 1 017 1 053 1 314 1 277 1 236 285%


Electricity from renewable energy: Share of domestic electricity supply
Change
[%] 1994 2000 2003 2005 2008 2009 2010 2011 '94 - '11
Renewable energy 5.3 15.9 22.9 27.4 27.8 28.9 34.8 40.7 671%
Solar 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Wind 3.4 12.1 15.8 18.5 19.1 19.3 21.9 28.1 716%
Hydro 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 50.9%
Biomass 1.5 3.1 6.3 8.1 7.8 8.5 11.8 11.5 687%
- Straw 0.2 0.5 2.1 2.4 1.6 1.9 3.1 2.2 814%
- Wood 0.4 0.7 1.8 2.9 3.3 3.8 6.2 6.6 1 715%
- Waste, renewable 0.9 1.9 2.3 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.6 2.7 218%
Biogas 0.3 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.0 266%





Electricity production by fuel


















In 2011, 50.3 PJ (39.7%) of total electricity produc-
tion was generated by coal. This corresponds to a
fall of 17.7% compared to 2010. Natural gas ac-
counted for 20.9 PJ (16.5%) of electricity produc-
tion, which is a decrease of 26.3%. Oil and non-
renewable waste accounted for 1.6 PJ (1.3%) and
2.8 PJ (2.2%) of the electricity production.
In 2011 electricity produced from renewable energy
was 51.0 PJ, which corresponds to an increase of
14.1% relative to 2010.
With 35.2 PJ, wind turbines accounted for the
greatest contribution to electricity production based
on renewable energy. Electricity production based
on biomass contributed 14.5 PJ, which is 5.0% less
than the previous year.



0
50
100
150
200
1994 '00 '05 '11
Coal Oil Natural gas
Wind power Other
PJ
ELECTRICITY AND DISTRICT HEATING
13


Fuel consumption for electricity production
Change
Direct energy contents [TJ] 1980 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009 2010 2011 '90 - '11
Total fuel consumption 261 835 227 001 304 741 276 974 265 330 272 030 285 399 247 669 9.1%
Oil 47 533 9 215 33 049 40 356 11 867 10 866 8 044 4 470 -51.5%
- Orimulsion - - 19 672 33 503 - - - -
Natural gas - 6 181 30 413 68 868 65 912 48 890 57 152 42 606 589%
Coal 214 012 207 173 226 853 134 205 127 119 146 150 139 411 114 484 -44.7%
Waste, non-renewable - 262 2 944 5 294 7 650 9 492 9 085 9 236 3 427%
Renewable energy 290 4 170 11 482 28 251 52 783 56 631 71 707 76 874 1 744%
Solar - - 0 4 8 14 22 54
Wind 38 2 197 4 238 15 268 23 810 24 194 28 114 35 187 1 502%
Hydro 123 101 109 109 81 68 74 61 -39.8%
Biomass 90 1 428 6 012 11 009 26 469 29 605 40 686 38 891 2 623%
- Straw - 363 1 505 2 021 7 715 6 432 10 207 7 467 1 957%
- Wood 90 745 909 2 518 9 405 11 571 19 374 20 135 2 603%
- Waste, renewable - 320 3 598 6 470 9 350 11 602 11 104 11 288 3 427%
Biogas 39 444 1 122 1 861 2 415 2 751 2 811 2 681 504%

Other fuels than coal for electricity produc-
tion

















Until the early 1990s, coal was the dominant fuel
used in the production of electricity. In 1990, other
types of fuel than coal only accounted for 8.7% of
total fuel consumption.
This share increased during the following years and
since the late 1990s it has accounted for around
40%-50%.
In 2011, oil, natural gas and renewable energy etc.
together accounted for 53.8% of fuel consumption
for electricity production. This represents an in-
crease of 2.6 percentage points relative to 2010
and includes an increase in the share of renewable
energy etc. (from 28.3% to 34.8%) and decreases
in the shares of natural gas and oil.

Net exports of electricity by country















Foreign trade in electricity varies more in Denmark
than in any other European country. Foreign trade
is strongly affected by price trends on the Nordic
electricity exchange, Nord Pool, which, in turn, is
significantly influenced by varying precipitation
patterns in Norway and Sweden, where electricity
production is dominated by hydropower.
In some years Danish foreign trade results in con-
siderable net exchange; in other years, including in
recent years, there is relatively modest exchange
overall, although exchange with the individual
neighbouring countries is large. In 2011, Denmark
had overall net imports of electricity of 4.7 PJ. This
was the result of net imports from Norway and
Sweden of 4.3 PJ and 8.8 PJ, respectively, and net
exports to Germany of 8.3 PJ.

0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Renewable energy and waste
Natural gas
Oil
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Total Germany Norway Sweden
ELECTRICITY AND DISTRICT HEATING
14


Electricity capacity, end of year
Change
[MW] 1994 2000 2005 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 '94 - '11
Total electricity capacity 10 774 12 598 13 091 13 129 13 004 13 395 13 438 13 586 26.1%
Large-scale units 9 126 8 160 7 710 7 634 7 406 7 446 7 173 7 173 -21.4%
- Electricity 2 186 1 429 444 850 838 838 838 838 -61.7%
- CHP 6 940 6 731 7 267 6 784 6 569 6 608 6 335 6 335 -8.7%
Small-scale units 773 1 462 1 575 1 688 1 767 1 808 1 816 1 811 134%
Autoproducers 339 574 664 671 655 646 632 626 84.4%
Solar 0 2 3 3 3 5 7 17 16 500%
Wind 527 2 390 3 127 3 124 3 163 3 482 3 802 3 951 650%
Hydro power units 9 10 11 9 9 9 9 9



Electricity capacity



















Up until the early 1990s electricity production ca-
pacity was dominated by the large-scale power
units. Up through the 1990s, electricity capacity in
small-scale units and secondary installations in-
creased. By the turn of the millennium, this capa-
city corresponded to a quarter of the capacity of the
large-scale units.
Electricity capacity in large-scale units has de-
creased slightly over the past ten years, while ca-
pacity in small-scale units increased slightly. Small-
scale capacity now corresponds to one-third of
large-scale capacity.
Wind power capacity has also been increasing and
in 2011 accounted for 3951 MW, which is an in-
crease of 149 MW or 4% compared to 2010.


CHP share of thermal power and district
heating production

















By generating electricity and district heating to-
gether, it is possible to exploit the large amounts of
heat generated through thermal production of elec-
tricity.
In 2011, 63.2% of thermal electricity production
(i.e. total production less wind power and hydro-
power) was produced simultaneously with heating.
This is an increase of 2.2 percentage points relative
to 2010. In 2000, the share was 55.9%, whereas it
was 36.8% in 1990.
In 2011, 76.3% of district heating was produced
together with electricity. The corresponding figures
in 2000 and 1990 were 81.6% and 55.8%, respec-
tively.

0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
MW
Large-scale units Small-scale units
Autoproducers Wind turbines
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
District heating Electricity
ELECTRICITY AND DISTRICT HEATING
15


Heat production by type of production plant

Number of
units
Electricity capa-
city Heat capacity
Share of total
heat supply

[MW] [MJ/s] [%]
Large-scale CHP units 35 6 335 6 439 44.3
Small-scale CHP units 537 1 819 2 218 18.7
District heating by type of producer 1 213 0 11 882 19.4
Autoproducers


- CHP units 308 596 1 641 13.4
- Heating units 108 0 1 143 4.3
2 201 8 750 23 323 100.0


Heat production by fuel



Electricity and heat producers by plant Heat producers by plant
Primary fuel
Number of
units
Electricity
capacity
Heat capa-
city
Share of
total heat
supply
Number
of units
Heat capacity
Share of total
heat supply
[MW] [MJ/s] [%] [MJ/s] [%]
Coal 14 4 086 3 496 23.7 3 72 0.1
Natural gas 506 2 159 3 371 17.8 408 4 759 6.4
Oil 39 563 443 0.3 269 4 119 0.9
Waste 25 298 881 17.0 15 166 2.3
Biogas 140 72 98 0.6 23 55 0.2
Biomass 21 996 1 488 17.1 285 1 995 11.2
Surplus heat 0 0 0 0.0 15 257 2.3
Solar 0 0 0 0.0 22 109 0.1
Heat pumps and electric
boilers
0 0 0 0.0 23 169 0.2
No production in 2011 135 576 511 0.0 258 1 335 0.0
880 8 750 10 288 76.4 1 321 13 035 23.6



Heat supply by type of fuel

















Danish district heating production takes place partly
at CHP units and partly at units exclusively produc-
ing district heating. CHP units produced 76.4%, of
which large-scale CHP units contributed 44.3%,
small-scale CHP units contributed 18.7%, and CHP
units at autoproducers contributed 13.4%.
Some CHP and district heating units use several
types of fuel. A break down by types of primary fuel
used by units in 2011 reveals that CHP units using
coal as the primary fuel accounted for almost 24%
of Danish heat supply, while units using natural
gas, waste or biomass as primary fuel each ac-
counted for 17-18% of total Danish district heating
supply.
For units that produce district heating alone, units
primarily firing with biomass contributed 11% and
natural gas units contributed 6% of total Danish
district heating supply.

0
20
40
60
80
CHP units District heating
TJ
Coal Natural gas Waste
Biomass Others
ELECTRICITY AND DISTRICT HEATING
16


District heating production by type of production plant
Change
Direct energy contents [TJ] 1980 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009 2010 2011 '90 - '11
Total gross production 79 016 92 411 119 090 119 725 128 468 130 173 150 096 132 193 43.0%
Large-scale CHP units 30 757 51 511 64 388 56 271 58 248 58 186 69 668 58 340 13.3%
Small-scale CHP units 30 2 145 19 665 33 027 32 727 25 242 28 631 25 013 1 066%
District heating by type of
producer
43 655 27 755 20 393 12 539 16 707 24 293 29 422 25 841 -6.9%
Autoproducers
- CHP units
1)
130 694 3 857 8 375 14 884 17 154 17 137 17 563 2 431%
- Heating units
1)
4 444 10 306 10 787 9 513 5 901 5 298 5 238 5 436 -47.3%
Consumption in production - - -1 438 -1 533 -1 303 -1 199 -1 132 - 671
Large-scale CHP units - - -1 156 - 866 - 384 - 313 - 331 - 0
Small-scale CHP units - - - 152 - 637 - 656 - 743 - 562 - 465
District heating - - - 130 - 30 - 262 - 143 - 239 - 206
Total net production 79 016 92 411 117 652 118 192 127 165 128 974 148 964 131 522 42.3%
Net imports - 122 141 144 153 153 174 152 24.2%
Domestic supply 79 016 92 533 117 793 118 336 127 318 129 127 149 138 131 674 42.3%
Consumption in refineries - - 428 - 380 - 275 - 355 - 586 - 586 - 586 36.9%
Distribution losses -19 754 -18 507 -23 559 -23 667 -25 464 -25 825 -29 828 -26 339 42.3%
Final energy consumption 59 262 73 599 93 854 94 393 101 499 102 716 118 725 104 753 42.3%

1)
Gross and net production are by definition identical.



District heating production by type of pro-
duction plant


















District heating production is generated at large-
scale CHP units, small-scale CHP units, district
heating units and by autoproducers such as in
manufacturing, horticulture and waste treatment
enterprises.
The greatest contribution to district heating produc-
tion comes from large-scale CHP units. Throughout
the 1990s, the share produced at small-scale units
increased as purely heat-generating district heating
units were converted to small-scale CHP generation.
The same period also saw an increase in production
by CHP units, at waste treatment facilities, in indus-
try and in horticulture etc.
Total district heating production was 132.2 PJ in
2011. This constitutes a drop of 11.9% compared
with 2010, which was characterised by considerably
colder weather. District heating production has
gone up by 10.4% since 2000 and by 43.0% since
1990.



0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Large-scale CHP units Small-scale CHP units
District heating units Autoproducers, CHP
Autoproducers, heat only
ELECTRICITY AND DISTRICT HEATING
17


District heating production by fuel
Change
Direct energy contents [TJ] 1994 2000 2003 2005 2008 2009 2010 2011 '94 - '11
Total gross production 113 092 119 725 130 448 128 468 127 416 130 173 150 096 132 193 16.9%
Oil 6 335 4 433 8 107 6 103 4 461 5 892 4 580 2 437 -61.5%
- Orimulsion - 1 291 42 - - - - -
Natural gas 25 370 41 620 41 855 39 377 37 267 35 800 44 641 34 791 37%
Coal 55 748 38 873 36 935 34 189 32 989 34 138 36 051 30 959 -44.5%
Surplus heat 2 676 3 622 3 329 3 110 2 687 2 540 2 458 2 673 -0.1%
Waste, non-renewable 6 084 8 651 10 272 10 713 11 803 11 129 10 629 10 860 78.5%
Renewable energy 16 878 22 526 29 950 34 975 38 209 40 674 51 737 50 472 199%
Solar 6 24 51 53 67 100 139 212 3 584%
Geothermal 42 58 82 172 250 241 212 166 291%
Biomass 16 304 21 462 28 787 33 509 36 809 39 037 50 076 48 620 198%
- Straw 4 318 5 696 6 808 7 681 6 727 7 710 11 786 9 738 126%
- Wood 4 327 5 153 9 059 12 086 14 216 16 297 23 613 24 940 476%
- Bio oil 223 39 365 650 1 439 1 428 1 685 669 200%
- Waste, renewable 7 436 10 574 12 555 13 093 14 426 13 602 12 991 13 274 78%
Biogas 348 903 966 1 169 1 020 1 219 1 162 1 215 249%
Heat pumps 178 78 64 72 64 77 147 260 46%


Fuel consumption for district heating production
Change
Direct energy contents [TJ] 1980 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009 2010 2011 '90 - '11
Total fuel consumption 75 443 69 878 77 823 73 286 78 930 82 789 96 052 83 794 11.1%
Oil 51 304 4 766 5 076 3 726 4 322 4 225 4 516 2 540 -46.7%
- Orimulsion - - 241 646 - - - -
Natural gas - 12 131 18 883 22 203 22 044 23 320 28 379 22 049 81.8%
Coal 13 527 30 898 28 701 19 459 17 121 17 126 18 102 15 528 -49.7%
Surplus heat - - - - - - - -
Waste, non-renewable 4 492 6 289 6 778 7 675 8 138 7 269 7 122 7 086 12.7%
Renewable energy 6 120 15 794 18 386 20 223 27 305 30 850 37 934 36 592 132%
Solar - 6 6 24 53 105 143 212 3 434%
Geothermal - 96 94 116 344 483 425 331 245%
Biomass 6 105 15 611 17 894 19 425 26 125 29 451 36 506 35 057 125%
- Straw 290 3 640 4 753 5 013 5 934 6 086 8 577 7 452 105%
- Wood 324 3 541 4 606 4 983 9 484 12 859 17 276 18 161 413%
- Bio oil - 744 251 49 761 1 622 1 949 784 5.3%
- Waste, renewable 5 491 7 686 8 284 9 380 9 946 8 884 8 705 8 661 12.7%
Biogas 15 81 334 582 707 734 710 733 804%
Heat pumps - - 57 75 76 77 149 258





Fuel consumption for district heating pro-
duction, percentage distribution


















There was a significant change in the fuel used in
the production of district heating in the period 1990
to 2010. In 2011 the composition was 52.1% re-
newable energy etc. (of which non-renewable waste
8.5%, biomass 41.8% and other renewables 1.8%),
natural gas 26.3%, coal 18.5% and oil 3.0%.
Consumption of natural gas and renewable energy
etc. has increased year by year. In 1990, the share
of natural gas and renewable energy etc. was
17.4% and 31.6%, respectively (including biomass
22.3%).
Consumption of coal decreased significantly from
1990 to 2011. In 1990, this constituted 44.2% of
the total consumption of fuel for district heating.

0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Renewable energy and waste
Coal
Natural gas
Oil
ENERGY SUPPLY AND CONSUMPTION 2011 2010
18


Energy supply and consumption 2011
Direct energy content [TJ] Total Crude oil
Refinery
feed-
stocks
Refinery
gas
LPG
Naph-
tha
(LVN)
Avia-
tion
gaso-
line
Motor
gasoline
Other
kerose
ne
JP1
Gas-
/diesel
oil
Fuel oil
Waste
oil
Petro-
leum
coke
Orimul-
sion
Total energy supply
- Primary production 887 199 470 447 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- Recycling 41 - - - - - - - - - - - 41 - -
- Registered imports 640 476 129 861 - - 357 - 53 28 163 - 36 272 93 540 82 919 - 8 014 -
- Registered exports -716 007 -311 846 -6 700 - -4 280 - - -46 431 - -19 150 -53 150 -117 313 - - 319 -
- Border trade -7 518 - - - - - - 821 - - -8 967 - - 628 -
- International marine bunkers -29 442 - - - - - - - - - -10 432 -18 909 - - -
- Supply from blending 1 376 844 - 493 - - 35 - 290 - 2 1 987 50 604 -2 412 888 - - -
- Stock changes 9 983 1 471 - 30 - 13 290 14 -1 688 - 8 886 10 248 13 574 - -1 198 -
Statistical difference 5 766 2 109 - 48 - 193 - - 1 -1 075 - 1 - 387 2 503 732 - - 8 -
Extraction and gasification -25 064 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Refineries
- Input and net production -2 678 -292 886 7 270 14 958 6 063 - - 81 340 - 11 952 122 018 46 606 - - -
- Own use in production -16 001 - - -13 725 - - - - - - - - 510 - - -
Used in distribution -2 275 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Large-scale power units -
- Fuels used and production - 635 - - - - - - - - - - 876 - 4 - - -
- Own use in production - 14 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Large-scale CHP units -
- Fuels used and production -57 660 - - - - 0 - - - - - - 257 -1 915 - - -
- Own use in production -5 570 - - - - - - - - -
Wind turbines - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Hydro power plants - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Small-scale CHP units -
- Fuels used and production -6 422 - - - - - - - - - - 88 - 2 - - -
- Own use in production - 921 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
District heating units -
- Fuels used and production -1 241 - - - - 0 - - - - - -1 579 - 260 - 3 - -
- Own use in production - 206 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Autoproducers -
- Electricity units - 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- CHP units -8 209 - - -1 232 - - - - - - - 34 - 741 - 5 - -
- Heat units 1 527 - - - - - - - - - - 11 - - 1 - -
Gas Works - 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Distribution losses etc. -35 071 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Final energy consumption -
- Non-energy use -12 374 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- Road -160 248 - - - - - - -62 003 - 0 - -92 691 - - - -
- Rail -4 799 - - - - - - - 0 - - -3 370 - - - -
- Domestic sea transport -6 385 - - - - - - - - - -5 654 - 732 - - -
- International aviation -35 167 - - - - - - 4 - - -35 163 - - - - -
- Domestic aviation -1 470 - - - - - - 57 - 1 - -1 411 - - - - -
- Military transport -2 652 - - - - - - 4 - - -1 603 -1 045 - - - -
- Agriculture and forestry -23 582 - - - - 129 - - - 25 - 2 - -14 226 - 31 - - -
- Horticulture -5 149 - - - - 13 - - - 2 - - - 383 - 395 - - -
- Fishing -5 751 - - - - 11 - - - 1 - - -5 739 - - - -
- Manufacturing -94 049 - - - - 986 - - - 118 - 3 - -4 904 -3 844 - 33 -6 488 -
- Construction -7 203 - - - - 98 - - - 21 - 18 - -5 370 - - - -
- Wholesale -11 938 - - - - 41 - - - - 1 - - 279 - 0 - - 0 -
- Retail trade -10 239 - - - - 2 - - - - 0 - - 34 - 0 - - 0 -
- Private service -37 016 - - - - 211 - - - - 2 - - 757 - 13 - 0 - 0 -
- Public service -23 545 - - - - 55 - - - - 2 - -1 051 - 20 - - 0 -
- Single-family houses -140 379 - - - - 530 - - - 944 - 18 - -13 698 - - - 628 -
- Multi-family houses -49 468 - - - - 235 - - - - 4 - -1 305 - 28 - - 0 -

ENERGY SUPPLY AND CONSUMPTION 2011
19



White
spirit,
lubricants
and
bitumen
Natural
gas
Coal
Coke
etc
Solar Wind Hydro
Geoth
ermal
Straw
Wood
chips
Fire-
wood
Wood
pellets
Wood
waste
Biogas Wastes
biooil,
bio-
diesel
Heat
pumps
Electri-
city
District
heating
Gas
works
gas

- 264 632 - - 784 35 187 61 331 19 756 11 291 20 469 2 411 7 523 4 106 38 550 3 748 7 903 - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
12 624 13 803 149 600 617 - - - - - 5 817 3 332 27 731 - - - 5 525 - 42 095 152 -
- 327 -117 051 - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - -2 092 - -37 349 - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- 101 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 225 - - - -
168 -5 744 -14 924 83 - - - - - - - - - - - -1 180 - - - -
- 1 973 649 4 - 0 - - - 5 - - - - 0 - - 0 120 - - - 0 - 0
- -25 064 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -1 180 - 586 -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -2 275 - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 246 - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 14 - -

- -21 702 -129 314 - - - - - -7 462 -5 170 -
-16
740
- 765 - 36 - - - 67 362 58 340 -
-5 570 - 0 -
- - - - - -35 187 - - - - - - - - - - - 35 187 - -
- - - - - - - 61 - - - - - - - - - - 61 - -

- -29 653 - 478 - - - - - -2 718 -2 718 - - - 838 -2 137 -8 969 - - 16 168 25 013 -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 456 - 465 -

- -8 183 - 82 - - 212 - - - 331 -4 734 -7 086 - -2 524 - 490 - 94 - 505 - 784 - - 215 25 841 -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 206 -

- - - - - 54 - - - - - - - - - 17 - - - 58 - -
- -4 845 - 137 - - - - - - - 945 - - - 587 -1 022 -23 758 - - 7 536 17 563 -
- - 272 - - - - - - - 5 - 42 - - - 389 - 107 -3 039 - - - 43 5 436 -
- - 560 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 554
- - 119 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -8 595 -26 335 - 22

-12 374 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -5 554 - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -1 429 - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - 792 - 107 - - - - - -1 937 - 27 - - - - 181 - - - 381 -5 744 - -
- - 649 -1 084 - - - - - - - - - - 135 - - - - - 903 -1 585 -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- -29 241 -4 113 - 682 - - - - - - 891 - - 951 -4 317 - 153 -1 687 - -1 237 -29 258 -5 100 - 42
- - 410 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -1 286 - -
- -1 400 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -5 665 -4 553 -
- - 899 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -6 456 -2 847 -
- -4 228 - - - - - - - - 2 - - - 1 - 358 - 591 - - -16 941 -13 899 - 15
- -2 701 - - - 78 - - - - - 146 - - 832 - - - - - -8 932 -9 704 - 24
- -21 997 - - 10 - 363 - - - -2 905 - 81 -23 801 -9 095 - - - - 9 -6 286 -27 039 -32 732 - 245
- -3 898 - 9 - 10 - 78 - - - - - - - - - - - - -9 362 -34 334 - 206

GROSS ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION
20


Gross energy consumption
Change
1980 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009 2010 2011 '90-'11
Adjusted total gross energy
Consumption [fuel equivalent in
PJ]
814 819 840 839 851 815 815 807 -1.4%
Fuels 814 819 840 839 851 815 815 807 -1.4%
Oil 546 355 374 376 352 315 311 304 -14.3%
Natural gas 0 82 134 192 192 166 176 160 95.9%
Coal and coke 241 327 265 175 166 172 147 149 -54.4%
Waste, non-renewable 5 8 10 14 17 18 16 18 129%
Renewable energy 22 48 57 81 124 144 165 176 268%
Energy products 814 819 840 839 851 815 815 807 -1.4%
Oil 446 338 335 329 333 300 299 297 -12.2%
Natural gas 0 59 83 98 100 93 94 93 56.8%
Coal and coke 22 17 16 12 11 5 6 6 -64.7%
Waste, non-renewable 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 120%
Renewable energy 16 28 28 33 44 57 55 63 125%
Electricity 249 297 298 286 279 275 273 260 -12.5%
District heating 73 78 79 79 81 84 86 87 12.3%
Gas works gas 7 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 -69.3%
Uses 814 819 840 839 851 815 815 807 -1.4%
Energy sector 17 28 38 44 52 44 46 45 59.9%
Non-energy use 16 13 13 13 12 10 11 12 -4.8%
Transport 144 172 186 203 218 211 211 213 23.9%
Agriculture and industry 228 227 233 227 214 187 186 183 -19.6%
Commercial and public service 130 132 127 125 127 132 130 126 -4.1%
Households 277 248 243 227 229 231 230 228 -7.9%

Observed total energy consump-
tion [PJ]
830 753 841 817 835 811 846 792 5.2%
Oil 555 343 372 370 348 315 315 303 -11.9%
Natural gas 0 76 133 186 188 165 185 157 106%
Coal and coke 252 255 272 166 155 168 163 136 -46.6%
Waste, non-renewable 5 7 10 14 17 18 17 17 149%
Renewable energy 23 46 57 79 122 143 170 174 281%
Foreign trade in electricity - 4 25 - 3 2 5 1 - 4 5 -81.3%
Foreign trade in district heating - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 24.6%

Observed energy consumption and adjusted
gross energy consumption
















Observed energy consumption shows the registered
amount of energy consumed in a calendar year.
Gross energy consumption is derived by adjusting
observed energy consumption for the fuel consump-
tion linked to foreign trade in electricity. The ad-
justed gross energy consumption is moreover ad-
justed for climate variations with respect to a nor-
mal weather year. The purpose of this consumption
figure is to provide a clearer picture of trends in
domestic energy consumption.
Adjusted gross energy consumption was 807 PJ in
2011, which is 0.9% below the 2010 level. Com-
pared with 1990, consumption fell by 1.4%.
Observed energy consumption was 792 PJ in 2011,
which is 6.4% lower than the year before, which
generally saw very cold weather. Compared with
1990, observed energy consumption was 5.2%
higher. This should be seen in the context of un-
usually high net imports of electricity in 1990,
which in 1990 led to low fuel consumption for elec-
tricity production.


*)
Net electricity exports and climate adjusted consumption
600
700
800
900
1000
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Observed energy consumption
Adjusted gross energy consumption
*)
GROSS ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION
21


Gross energy consumption by fuel
















Adjusted gross energy consumption was 1.4%
lower in 2011 than in 1990, however consumption
of individual fuels has followed rather varied trends.
Consumption of oil fell drastically up until 1993,
after which it rose again and stabilised, first at
around 380 PJ and then at around 350 PJ. After
this, there was another drop. From 1990 to 2011,
oil consumption fell by 14.2%. Consumption of coal,
which primarily takes place at CHP units, has de-
creased by 54.4% since 1990. Consumption of
natural gas and renewable energy etc. (i.e. renew-
able energy and non-renewable waste) went up by
95.9% and 249%, respectively, in the period.
In 2011, consumption of oil and natural gas de-
creased by 2.1% and 9.0%, respectively, compared
with the year before. Consumption of coal and re-
newable energy etc. grew by 1.4% and 7.1%, re-
spectively.


Gross energy consumption by energy
product after transformation












Gross energy consumption by energy product
shows gross energy consumption after a number of
fuels have been transformed to electricity, district
heating, and gas works gas. In other words, the
consumption of oil, natural gas, coal and renewable
energy etc. is a statement of the volumes of these
fuels used outside the transformation sector.
Fuel consumption for electricity production was 260
PJ in 2011, which is 4.8% less than in 2010. Com-
pared with 1990, fuel consumption fell by 12.5%
due to more efficient electricity production and a
growing share of wind power.
Fuel consumption for district heating was 87 PJ in
2011, which is 0.8% more than in 2010. Compared
with 1990, fuel consumption increased by 12.3%.
Also in this regard, production has become more
efficient, as district heating production has in-
creased by 43.0% since 1990.


Gross energy consumption by use






















For gross energy consumption broken down by use,
note that electricity, district heating and gas works
gas are included with their associated fuel con-
sumptions.
Gross energy consumption for transport was 0.9%
higher in 2011 than the year before, whereas in the
agriculture and industry sector consumption fell by
2.0%. In the commercial and public service sector
and households, gross energy consumption fell by
3.1% and 0.8%, respectively. In the energy sector
(platforms in the North Sea and oil refineries) gross
energy consumption fell by 1.5%.
Compared with 1990, gross energy consumption for
transport increased by 23.9%. In the commercial
and public service sector, gross energy consump-
tion fell by 19.6%, while it fell by 4.1% and 7.9%,
respectively, for the agriculture and industry sector
and for households. From 1990 to 2011, develop-
ments were very much affected by the fact that
electricity and district heating can be generated
with ever smaller fuel consumption.

Adjusted
0
300
600
900
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Oil Natural gas
Coal and coke Renewable energy etc.
Adjusted
0
300
600
900
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Oil Natural gas
Coal and coke Renewable energy etc.
Electricity District heating
Gas works gas
Adjusted
0
300
600
900
1990 '95 '00 '05
PJ
Households
Commercial and public services
Agriculture and industry
Transport
Non-energy use
Energy sector
GROSS ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION
22


Final energy consumption
Change
Direct energy contents [TJ] 1980 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009 2010 2011 '90-'11
Total final energy consumption,
climate adjusted
609 585 604 200 635 165 651 093 666 266 632 807 633 799 640 277 6.0%
By energy product
Oil 430 738 321 946 312 655 312 354 312 290 285 619 282 641 279 770 -13.1%
Natural gas - 50 060 70 192 72 674 72 415 66 375 67 776 67 822 35.5%
Coal and coke 21 623 17 243 16 186 12 389 10 826 5 228 5 559 6 080 -64.7%
Waste, non-renewable 288 470 595 763 1 239 947 933 1 036 120%
Renewable energy 15 954 27 972 27 623 32 499 43 541 56 739 55 099 62 920 125%
Electricity 78 336 103 176 111 346 117 572 120 732 113 307 114 723 113 305 9.8%
District heating 57 715 81 679 95 297 102 152 104 675 104 105 106 585 108 797 33.2%
Gas works gas 4 930 1 654 1 271 691 547 486 485 546 -67.0%
By use
Non-energy use 16 253 13 004 13 403 12 619 12 064 10 498 11 026 12 374 -4.8%
Transport 143 337 170 216 184 358 201 209 215 789 209 160 208 770 210 721 23.8%
Road transport 100 945 129 943 139 607 153 666 161 923 160 604 160 245 160 248 23.3%
Rail transport 5 016 4 765 4 957 4 339 4 488 4 533 4 728 4 799 0.7%
Sea transport, domestic 5 588 6 344 7 625 6 857 8 026 7 535 6 533 6 385 0.6%
Aviation 23 642 27 515 28 720 34 822 37 627 34 297 35 795 36 637 33.2%
Military transport 8 145 1 649 3 449 1 525 3 726 2 191 1 470 2 652 60.8%
Agriculture and industry 167 712 159 453 167 794 167 606 158 656 135 733 136 223 136 608 -14.3%
Agriculture and forestry 18 484 22 584 22 083 24 110 22 197 23 913 23 615 23 782 5.3%
Horticulture 11 338 10 540 9 821 8 588 7 412 6 195 5 439 5 387 -48.9%
Fishing 7 312 10 785 8 324 9 451 7 488 6 105 6 049 5 751 -46.7%
Manufacturing 124 586 109 250 120 235 117 806 113 406 92 240 93 981 94 457 -13.5%
Construction 5 992 6 295 7 331 7 651 8 152 7 280 7 140 7 231 14.9%
Commercial and public services 78 314 77 047 77 698 80 607 85 067 84 184 84 099 84 489 9.7%
Wholesale 19 045 13 795 13 307 13 895 12 910 12 214 12 246 12 151 -11.9%
Retail trade 9 702 8 883 8 728 9 324 9 993 10 190 10 386 10 394 17.0%
Private service 25 955 28 812 31 239 32 904 36 247 37 399 37 384 37 809 31.2%
Public service 23 612 25 557 24 423 24 484 25 917 24 380 24 083 24 134 -5.6%
Households 203 969 184 479 191 913 189 052 194 690 193 233 193 681 196 085 6.3%
Single-family houses 155 657 136 823 141 798 139 337 144 194 143 850 143 250 145 011 6.0%
Multi-family houses 48 312 47 656 50 115 49 715 50 496 49 383 50 431 51 073 7.2%
Observed 616 980 580 617 631 471 632 823 658 852 629 657 660 538 631 415 8.7%

GROSS ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION
23


Final energy consumption by use
















Final energy consumption includes consumption for
transport and non-energy purposes (such as lubri-
cants and asphalt), and energy consumption for
production and heating by the agriculture and in-
dustry sector, the commercial and public service
sector, and energy consumption by households.
Final energy consumption was 640 PJ in 2011,
which is 1.0% more than in 2010. Final consump-
tion was 6.0% higher compared with 1990.
Energy consumption for the transport sector in-
creased steadily throughout most of the period.
However, there was a drop in 2008 and 2009. From
1990 to 2011 consumption went up by 23.8%.
Energy consumption in the agriculture and industry
sector fell by 14.3% from 1990 to 2011, while con-
sumption in the commercial and public service sec-
tor and households increased by 9.7% and 6.3%,
respectively.

Final energy consumption by energy
product

















Final energy consumption increased by 1.0% from
2010 to 2011. Consumption of oil fell by 1.0%,
while consumption of natural gas and coal (for
other uses than electricity and district heating pro-
duction) increased by 0.1% and 9.4%, respectively.
Consumption of electricity was 1.2% lower and
consumption of district heating was 2.1% higher
than the year before.
Since 1990, final consumption of natural gas has
increased by 35.5%, while consumption of electric-
ity and district heating has increased by 9.8% and
33.2%, respectively. In the same period, consump-
tion of oil and coal fell by 13.1% and 64.7%, re-
spectively.
In 2011, final consumption of renewable energy
etc. was 14.1% higher than the previous year.
Consumption of renewable energy etc. has in-
creased by 125% since 1990. Renewable energy
grew by 95.9%.



Gross energy consumption and final energy
consumption per DKK million GDP



















Economic activity in Denmark, measured in terms
of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2005 prices
(chained values), has increased much faster than
energy consumption.
In 2011 gross energy consumption was 0.522 TJ
per DKK million GDP (calculated in 2005 prices,
chained values), as opposed to 0.729 TJ in 1990;
i.e. fuel intensity was reduced by 28.5% during this
period. Intensity fell by 1.7% in 2011 compared
with the year before.
If developments in GDP are instead compared with
developments in final energy consumption, energy
intensity fell by 23.1% from 1990 to 2011. This
reduction is less than the figure above, because the
increased efficiency of the transformation sector is
not included. Intensity grew by 0.3% in 2011 com-
pared with the year before.


Adjusted
TJ per DKK million GDP (2005 prices)
Climate adjusted
0
50
100
150
200
250
Non-energy
use
Transport Agriculture
and industry
Commercial
and public
services
Households
PJ
1980 1990 2000 2011
Adjusted
Renewable energy and waste
Electricity District heating
Gas works gas
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Oil Natural gas
Coal and coke
0.0
0.4
0.8
1.2
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Gross energy consumption
Final energy consumption
GROSS ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION
24


Final electricity consumption

Change
Direct energy content [TJ] 1980 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009 2010 2011 '90-'11
Total final electricity con-
sumption. Climate adj.
78 336 103 176 111 346 117 572 120 732 113 307 114 723 113 305 9.8%
Rail transport 479 736 854 1 253 1 351 1 422 1 455 1 429 94.2%
Agriculture and industry 27 682 36 597 40 444 43 265 44 093 37 198 37 899 37 226 1.7%
Agriculture 5 086 5 457 5 522 5 968 5 904 5 828 5 920 5 761 5.6%
Horticulture 467 686 960 1 079 971 930 921 903 31.7%
Manufacturing 21 362 29 400 32 854 35 004 35 944 29 097 29 686 29 275 -0.4%
Construction 767 1 054 1 107 1 214 1 274 1 342 1 372 1 286 22.0%
Commercial and public
services
21 788 30 147 32 847 35 715 37 479 38 268 38 631 38 043 26.2%
Wholesale 3 599 5 451 5 305 5 936 5 973 5 771 5 740 5 669 4.0%
Retail trade 3 784 5 202 5 134 5 742 6 260 6 338 6 543 6 461 24.2%
Private service 8 347 11 715 13 391 14 903 15 866 16 973 17 087 16 967 44.8%
Public service 6 058 7 778 9 016 9 134 9 380 9 186 9 262 8 946 15.0%
Households 28 388 35 696 37 202 37 339 37 810 36 419 36 738 36 608 2.6%
Single-family houses 21 431 27 011 28 221 28 210 28 279 27 191 27 335 27 226 0.8%
Multi-family houses 6 957 8 686 8 980 9 129 9 530 9 227 9 403 9 382 8.0%
Observed 78 571 102 103 111 174 116 831 120 469 113 205 115 646 113 014 10.7%


Final electricity consumption by use

















Electricity consumption by manufacturing industries
was 1.4% lower in 2011 than in 2010. Electricity
consumption is almost unchanged (a drop of only
0.4%) compared with the 1990 level.
In the commercial and public service sector, elec-
tricity consumption increased until 2008, after
which it fell. In 2011, electricity consumption was
1.5% lower than the year before. From 1990 to
2011 electricity consumption went up by 26.2%.
The electricity consumption of households increased
slightly from 1990 to 2006, however consumption
has remained almost stable in recent years. Elec-
tricity consumption fell by 0.4% in 2011. Consump-
tion increased by 2.6% relative to 1990.


Electricity consumptions share of total en-
ergy consumption

















From 1980 to 1990, electricity consumptions share
of total energy consumption grew quite significantly
in all areas of use, except for the transport sector.
Since then, the share grew moderately until the late
1990s and then stagnated. In 1990, the share was
17.1%, in 2000 it was 18.1% and in 2011 it was
17.7%.
In the commercial and public service sector, elec-
tricity consumptions share of total energy con-
sumption increased until 2001 and has remained
almost unchanged since then. In 2011, electricity
consumption accounted for 45.0% of the sector's
total energy consumption. In manufacturing indus-
tries and households, electricity's share was 31.0%
and 18.7%, respectively, in 2011. For households,
the share was lower in 2011 than in 1990.
PJ Climate adjusted
Climate adjusted
25
30
35
40
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Manufacturing
Commercial and public services
Households
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Total
Manufacturing
Commercial and public services
Households
Others
TRANSPORT
25


Energy consumption for transport by type



















Energy consumption for transport followed an up-
ward trend until 2007, after which it fell in 2008
and 2009. In 2011, energy consumption was calcu-
lated at 210.7 PJ, which is 0.9% higher than the
year before. Compared with 1990, energy con-
sumption for transport has increased by 23.8%.
Energy consumption for transport was 160.2 PJ in
2011, which is unchanged compared to the year
before. Energy consumption for road transport is
calculated as sales in Denmark, adjusted for cross-
border trade. Cross-border trade in diesel fuel,
deducted from Danish sales, was 9.0 PJ in 2010,
while cross-border trade in petrol, added to Danish
sales of petrol, was 0.8 PJ.
Energy consumption for international aviation grew
steadily throughout almost the whole period 1990-
2011, only interrupted by drops in 2002 and 2009.
Consumption increased by 2.7% in 2011.


Energy consumption for transport by fuel
type














Consumption of petrol (including bioethanol) fell by
5.6% from 2010 to 2011, while consumption of
diesel fuel (including biodiesel) increased by 4.3%.
Consumption of bioethanol and biodiesel together
went up from 1.1 PJ in 2010 to 5.6 PJ in 2011.
Considering developments from 1990 to 2011,
consumption of petrol (including biogasoline) fell by
13.8%, while consumption of diesel fuel (including
biodiesel) grew by 72.2%. Consumption of aviation
fuels increased by 31.9%.
Consumption of other types of fuel fell by 58.6% in
the same period. Other types of fuel include auto-
gas (LPG) for road transport, fuel oil for sea trans-
port, as well as electricity consumption by railways.




Energy consumption for road transport





















Energy consumption for road transport is by far the
largest contributor to total energy consumption for
transport. This contribution was almost unchanged
from 1990 to 2011. In 2011, road transport's share
of total energy consumption was 76.0%.
Consumption of diesel fuel has increased signifi-
cantly since 1990 and has been the most common
fuel for road transport since 2006. In 2011, diesel
fuel (including biodiesel) accounted for 60.0% of
total energy consumption for transport, as opposed
to 42.1% in 1990.

0
50
100
150
200
250
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Gasoline Diesel
Aviation fuels Other fuels
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Road transport, share of energy consumption
in transport
Diesel oil, share of energy consumption in
road transport
0
50
100
150
200
250
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Road Rail
Domestic sea transport Domestic aviation
International aviation Military transport
TRANSPORT
26


Final energy consumption by passenger and
freight transport





















In the composition of energy consumption for
transport of passengers and freight, vans less than
two tonnes are included under passenger transport,
whereas vans of 2-6 tonnes are included under
freight transport. This year, the statement has been
revised due to new data from the Danish Road
Directorate and Statistics Denmark.
Out of the total energy consumption for transport in
2011, which amounted to 210.7 PJ, passenger
transport accounted for 147.1 PJ, corresponding to
69.8%. Energy consumption for freight transport
was 61.0 PJ, corresponding to 28.9%, while energy
consumption for transport by Danish Defence was
2.7 PJ.
Energy consumption for passenger transport grew
by 0.7% from 2010 to 2011, while energy con-
sumption for freight transport fell by 0.4%. Consid-
ering the trend from 1990 to 2011, energy con-
sumption for passenger transport increased by
24.7%, while energy consumption for freight trans-
port increased by 20.4%.

Energy consumption for passenger trans-
port by means of transport




















Energy consumption for passenger transport is
mainly used for transport by car and for interna-
tional aviation. In 2011, energy consumption for
these categories made up 67.4% and 21.0%, re-
spectively, of total energy consumption for passen-
ger transport.
Energy consumption for cars and vans (under 2
tonnes) increased by 0.5% from 2010 to 2011,
while energy consumption for international aviation
rose by 2.8%. From 1990 to 2011, energy con-
sumption for cars and vans increased by 25.9%,
while energy consumption for international aviation
grew by 53.5%.

Energy consumption for freight transport
by means of transport














Energy consumption for freight transport is mostly
by lorries and vans (2-6 tonnes). In 2011, energy
consumption by these types of vehicle made up
38.3% and 48.9%, respectively, of total energy
consumption for freight transport.
Energy consumption for lorries increased by 3.6%
from 2010 to 2011, while energy consumption for
vans fell by 3.8%. From 1990 to 2011, energy
consumption for lorries increased by 0.7%, while
energy consumption for vans increased by 56.3%.
0
50
100
150
200
250
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Transport of passengers Transport of goods
Military transport
PJ
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Trucks Vans, 2-6 tonnes
Domestic sea transport Train
Aviation
PJ
International
aviation
0
50
100
150
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Busses
Domestic aviation
Domestic sea transport
Passenger cars and vans under 2 tonnes
Two-wheeled (mc and moped) Train,S-train
and metro
TRANSPORT/AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY
27


Final energy consumption for transport
Change
Direct energy contents [TJ] 1980 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009 2010 2011 '90-'11
Total transport, observed 143 337 170 216 184 358 201 209 215 789 209 160 208 770 210 721 23.8%
LPG 880 464 41 425 323 119 3 - -100%
Aviation gasoline 201 155 153 119 107 82 76 65 -58.0%
Gasoline 67 830 74 327 80 998 88 976 82 126 71 698 66 755 62 004 -16.6%
JP4 7 500 - - - - - - -
Petroleum 129 462 52 39 14 0 0 0 -99.9%
JP1 23 473 28 828 30 189 35 810 39 959 35 297 36 586 38 178 32.4%
Gas/diesel oil 41 053 61 685 70 497 73 077 90 529 99 153 101 893 102 760 66.6%
Fuel oil 1 791 3 560 1 573 1 509 1 379 1 045 868 732 -79.4%
Bioethanol - - - - - 204 1 118 2 062
Biodiesel 139 16 3 492
Electricity 479 736 854 1 253 1 351 1 422 1 455 1 429 94.2%

Road 100 945 129 943 139 607 153 666 161 923 160 604 160 245 160 248 23.3%
Rail 5 016 4 765 4 957 4 339 4 488 4 533 4 728 4 799 0.7%
Domestic sea transport 5 588 6 344 7 625 6 857 8 026 7 535 6 533 6 385 0.6%
Domestic aviation 2 103 3 133 2 488 1 722 1 207 1 469 1 556 1 470 -53.1%
International aviation 21 540 24 381 26 232 33 100 36 420 32 828 34 239 35 167 44.2%
Military transport 8 145 1 649 3 449 1 525 3 726 2 191 1 470 2 652 60.8%

Transport of passengers 97 840 117 921 126 632 139 962 144 752 144 924 146 085 147 080 24.7%
Transport of goods 37 352 50 647 54 278 59 723 67 311 62 044 61 215 60 990 20.4%
Military transport 8 145 1 649 3 449 1 525 3 726 2 191 1 470 2 652 61.0%


Final energy consumption in agriculture and industry
Change
Direct energy contents [TJ] 1980 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009 2010 2011 '90-'11
Total agriculture and industry
Climate adjusted.
167 712 159 453 167 794 167 606 158 656 135 733 136 223 136 608 -14.3%
Energy products
Oil 112 269 65 613 61 224 58 460 53 743 44 515 44 072 43 077 -34.3%
Natural gas - 25 281 35 375 35 606 32 433 29 517 30 798 31 338 24.0%
Coal and coke 19 126 16 315 15 623 12 339 10 817 5 207 5 531 6 050 -62.9%
Waste, non-renewable 25 13 13 72 591 759 759 759
Renewable energy 5 249 10 076 8 553 8 609 8 171 11 340 10 533 11 266 11.8%
Electricity 27 682 36 597 40 444 43 265 44 093 37 198 37 899 37 226 1.7%
District heating 2 949 5 409 6 399 9 210 8 788 7 155 6 589 6 850 26.6%
Gas works gas 413 149 164 45 19 42 41 42 -71.7%
Branches
Agriculture and forestry 18 484 22 584 22 083 24 110 22 197 23 913 23 615 23 782 5.3%
Horticulture 11 338 10 540 9 821 8 588 7 412 6 195 5 439 5 387 -48.9%
Fishing 7 312 10 785 8 324 9 451 7 488 6 105 6 049 5 751 -46.7%
Manufacturing industries 124 586 109 250 120 235 117 806 113 406 92 240 93 981 94 457 -13.5%
Building and construction 5 992 6 295 7 331 7 651 8 152 7 280 7 140 7 231 14.9%

AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY
28
Energy and electricity consumption in
agriculture and industry













Agriculture and industry covers agriculture (in-
cluding machine stations and forestry), horticul-
ture, fishing, manufacturing industries (excl.
refineries), as well as building and construction.
Manufacturing industries account for around 70%
of total energy consumption in the agriculture
and industry sector.
In 2011 climate adjusted energy consumption in
agriculture and industry was 136.6 PJ, which is
0.3% higher than the year before. Compared
with 1990, energy consumption decreased by
14.3%.
Electricity consumption in 2011 was 37.2 PJ after
adjusting for climate variation. This is 1.8% less
than the year before. Compared with 1990, elec-
tricity consumption increased by 1.7%.


Energy consumption in agriculture and
industry by energy products


















In 2011, consumption of natural gas, coal and
renewable energy etc. by the agriculture and
industry sector increased by 1.8%, 9.4% and
6.5%, respectively, compared with 2010, while
oil consumption fell by 2.3%. Consumption of
electricity fell by 1.8%, while consumption of
district heating was 4.0% higher in 2011 than
the year before.
Consumption of natural gas in the period 1990-
2011 increased by 24.0%, while consumption of
oil and coal fell by 34.3% and 62.9%, respec-
tively. Consumption of renewable energy etc.
increased by 19.2%. Consumption of electricity
and district heating has increased by 1.7% and
26.6%, respectively, since 1990.

Energy consumption by individual industry in
the agriculture and industry sector














Energy consumption in agriculture increased by
0.7% in 2011. In horticulture and fishing, energy
consumption fell by 1.0% and 4.9%, respec-
tively. Energy consumption in manufacturing
industries and in building and construction went
up by 0.5% and 1.3%, respectively.
From 1990 to 2011, energy consumption in agri-
culture increased by 5.3%, while in building and
construction consumption increased by 14.9%.
In horticulture, fishing and manufacturing indus-
tries, energy consumption fell by 48.9%, 46.7%
and 13.5%, respectively.
Compared to 1990, agricultures share of total
energy consumption by the agriculture and in-
dustry sector increased from 14.2% to 17.4%,
while the share of manufacturing industries rose
from 68.5% to 69.1%. The other industries each
accounted for about 4% to 5% of energy con-
sumption in 2011.

Climate adjusted
Climate adjusted PJ
0
50
100
150
200
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Total energy consumption
Electricity consumption
Climate adjusted
Electricity District heating
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Oil Natural gas
Coal and coke Renewable energy etc.
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Agriculture and forestry Horticulture
Fishing Manufacturing
Construction
AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY
29


Electricity consumptions share of total
energy consumption


















Electricity consumption's share of total energy con-
sumption in the agriculture and industry sector
increased from 23.0% in 1990 to 27.2% in 2011.
In manufacturing industries the share of electricity
increased from 26.9% in 1990 to 31.0% in 2011.
In agriculture the share of electricity was 24.2% in
both 1990 and 2011. For horticulture, the share of
electricity has increased strongly over the years.
The share was 16.8% in 2011 compared to 6.5% in
1990.


Energy and electricity consumption in
manufacturing industries

















Climate adjusted energy consumption in manufac-
turing industries increased from 94.0 PJ in 2010 to
94.5 PJ in 2011, corresponding to an increase of
0.5%. Compared with 1990, energy consumption
decreased by 13.5%.
In 2011, electricity consumption was 29.3 PJ, which
is 1.4% lower than the year before. Electricity con-
sumption has fallen by 0.4% since 1990.
Developments in the consumption of individual
energy products correspond to developments in
energy consumption in agriculture and industry as a
whole.


Composition of energy consumption in
manufacturing industries

















The composition of energy consumption in manu-
facturing industries has changed significantly since
1990, when oil consumption was dominant. In
1990, oil consumption accounted for almost one-
third of total energy consumption. In 2011 this
figure was 17.4%.
Natural gas continues to make up an increasing
share of energy consumption in manufacturing
industries. This share was 31.1% in 2011, as op-
posed to 20.7% in 1990.
Coal's share of energy consumption has gone down
from 12.3% in 1990 to 5.1% in 2011. The contribu-
tion from renewable energy etc. and district heating
has increased from 1990 to 2011. In 2011, their
shares were 9.8% and 5.5%, respectively.
The share of electricity consumption grew from
26.9% in 1990 to 31.0% in 2011.

Climate adjusted
Climate adjusted
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Agriculture and industry,
total
Agriculture and
forestry
Horticulture Manufacturing
Climate adjusted
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Total energy consumption
Electricity consumption
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
1980 1990 2000 2011
Oil Natural gas
Coal and coke Renewable energy etc.
Electricity District heating
AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY
30


Energy intensities in agriculture and indus-
try





















Energy intensity has been calculated as climate-
adjusted energy consumption in relation to the
gross value added (GVA), measured at 2005 prices,
chained values.
Energy intensity in agriculture and industry dropped
by 19.6% from 1990 to 2011. Energy intensity
followed an upward trend up to 1993, after which a
drop occurred. In 2011 energy intensity was 0.557,
i.e. 0.557 TJ of energy were used for every DKK 1
million GVA in agriculture and industry. This is
1.5% less than the year before.
In manufacturing industries, energy intensity in-
creased by 9.2% from 1990 to 1993, whereas it
dropped by 28.2% during the period 1993 to 2011.
In 2011, energy intensity fell by 1.0%.
In agriculture and horticulture, energy intensity fell
by 0.9% in 2011. The energy intensity has fallen by
27.9% since 1990. Since 2005, the trend has been
influenced by significant fluctuations in agricultural
GVA.

Electricity intensities in agriculture and in-
dustry



















Electricity intensity has been calculated as climate-
adjusted electricity consumption in relation to gross
value added, measured at 2005 prices, chained
values.
As with energy intensity, electricity intensity has
developed differently before and after 1993. Up to
1993, electricity intensity went up by 12.2%,
whereas from 1993 to 2011, it fell by 14.9%. In
2011, electricity intensity was 0.152, i.e. 0.152 TJ
of electricity (corresponding to 42,195 kWh) were
used for every DKK 1 million GVA in the agriculture
and industry sector. In 2011, electricity intensity
fell by 3.5%.
Electricity intensity in manufacturing industries fell
by 2.9% in 2011. In agriculture and horticulture,
electricity intensity fell by 3.8%.
Energy consumption per employee in
manufacturing industry
Climate adjusted













Energy and electricity consumption per employee in
manufacturing industries have developed differently
than the intensities shown above. This is due to a
considerable increase in productivity, measured as
GVA per employee.
Energy consumption per employee was 302.4 GJ in
2011, as opposed to 298.2 GJ the year before. This
corresponds to an increase of 1.4%. Compared with
1990, energy consumption per employee grew by
30.4%.
Electricity consumption per employee was 93.7 GJ
in 2011, which is 0.5% lower than the year before.
Compared with 1990, electricity consumption per
employee increased by 50.2%.
Climate adjusted
Climate adjusted
[TJ per million DKK GVA (2005 prices)
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
Agriculture and industry, total
Manufacturing
Building and construction
Agriculture and horticulture (right axis)
TJ per million DKK GVA (2005 prices)
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Agriculture and industry, total
Agriculture and horticulture
Manufacturing
Building and construction
GJ per employee
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Total Electricity
COMMERCIAL AND PUBLIC SERVICES
31


Energy and electricity consumption in
the commercial and public services
















The commercial and public services includes whole-
sale, retail, private and public service. Public service
is limited to administration and services available to
society on non-market terms.
Climate-adjusted energy consumption was 84.5 PJ
in 2011, which is 0.5% higher than the year before.
Compared with 1990, consumption increased by
9.7%.
In 2011, climate-adjusted electricity consumption
was 38.0 PJ, which is 1.5% lower than the year
before. Compared with 1990, electricity consump-
tion increased by 26.2%.


Energy consumption by energy product


















Consumption of oil fell by 8.5% in 2011, while con-
sumption of natural gas increased by 2.3%. Elec-
tricity and district heating are predominant energy
sources in the commercial and public services. In
2011, consumption of electricity fell by 1.5%, while
consumption of district heating was 1.8% higher in
2011 than the year before.
Compared with 1990, oil consumption fell by
82.9%, while natural gas consumption increased by
38.5%. In 2011, consumption of electricity and
district heating was 26.2% and 37.4% higher, re-
spectively, compared with 1990.


Composition of energy consumption in
the commercial and public services

















In 1990, electricity and district heating together
accounted for 70% of total energy consumption in
the commercial and public services (electricity 39%
and district heating 30%). The share of oil and
natural gas was 19% and 9%, respectively, while
consumption of renewable energy etc. contributed
2%.
In 2011, electricity and district heating consumption
together accounted for 83% of total energy con-
sumption (electricity 45% and district heating
38%). The share of oil had fallen to 3%, while the
share of natural gas was 11% and consumption of
renewable energy etc. was unchanged at 2%.


Climate adjusted
Climate adjusted
Climate adjusted
0
20
40
60
80
100
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Total energy consumption
Electricity consumption
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
1980 1990 2000 2011
Oil Natural gas
Coal, coke, gas works gas Renewable energy etc.
Electricity District heating
PJ
0
20
40
60
80
100
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Oil Natural gas
Coal, coke, gas works gas Renewable energy etc.
Electricity District heating
COMMERCIAL AND PUBLIC SERVICES
32


Energy consumption by sector



















In 2011, 73% of energy consumption in the com-
mercial and public services was in private and pub-
lic service, while wholesale and retail trade ac-
counted for the remaining 27%.
From 2010 to 2011, energy consumption in whole-
sale fell by 0.8%, whereas in retail it increased by
0.1%. In private and public services, energy con-
sumption went up by 1.1% and 0.2%, respectively.
Compared with 1990, energy consumption in
wholesale fell by 11.9%, while consumption in retail
grew by 17.0%.
Energy consumption in the private services is sig-
nificantly higher today than in 1990. Since 1990,
growth has been 31.2%. In the public services,
energy consumption is 5.6% lower compared with
1990.

Energy consumption for heating in the
commercial and public services

















Energy consumption for heating (space heating and
hot water) can be calculated in different ways.
While final energy consumption is the volume of
energy paid for, net energy consumption is the
volume of energy utilised. The difference is local
losses by the individual consumers, e.g. from oil
and natural gas boilers.
Final energy consumption for space heating in the
commercial and public services was 45.9 PJ in
2011, which is 2.2% higher than the year before.
Compared with 1990, consumption grew by 2.0%.
Net energy consumption was 42.3 PJ in 2011, which
is also 2.2% higher than the year before. Compared
with 1990, net energy consumption increased by
9.8%. This large increase is due to a shift from oil
to natural gas and district heating, where local
losses are significantly lower.


Electricity consumption by sector



















Electricity consumption increased in the commercial
and public services up to 2008, after which it de-
creased. In 2011, electricity consumption in both
wholesale and retail was 1.2% lower than in 2010.
In private and public services, electricity consump-
tion fell by 0.7% and 3.4%, respectively.
From 1990 to 2011, electricity consumption in
wholesale and retail increased by 4.0% and 24.2%,
respectively. Electricity consumption in the public
services increased by 15.0%. In the private ser-
vices the increase was 44.8%, which is significantly
higher.


Climate adjusted
Climate adjusted
Climate adjusted
0
10
20
30
40
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Wholesale Retail trade
Private service Public service
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Net energy consumption Local losses
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Wholesale Retail trade
Private service Public service
COMMERCIAL AND PUBLIC SERVICES
33


Energy intensity in the commercial and
public services


















Energy intensities have been calculated as climate
adjusted energy consumption in relation to gross
value added (GVA), measured at 2005 prices,
chained values.
Energy intensity was 0.082 in 2011, i.e. for every
DKK 1 million GVA in the commercial and public
services, 0.082 TJ of energy were used. This is
0.8% less than the year before.
Energy intensity in the commercial and public ser-
vices fell by 21.9% from 1990 to 2011. For whole-
sale and retail, energy intensities fell by 48.9% and
16.0%, respectively. For the private services and
the public services, intensities fell by 9.6% and
23.9%, respectively.



Electricity intensity in the commercial and
public services



















Electricity intensities have been calculated as cli-
mate adjusted electricity consumption in relation to
gross value added (GVA), measured at 2005 prices,
chained values.
In 2011 electricity intensity was 0.037, i.e. for
every DKK 1 million GVA in the commercial and
public service sector, 0.037 TJ of electricity (corre-
sponding to 12,260 kWh) were used. Electricity
intensity fell by 2.8% relative to the year before.
Electricity intensity in the commercial and public
service sector fell by 10.1% from 1990 to 2011. For
wholesale and retail, electricity intensities fell by
39.6% and 10.9%, respectively. In private and
public service, electricity intensities fell by 0.2%
and 7.3%, respectively.
Energy consumption per employee in the
commercial and public services

















Energy and electricity consumption per employee in
the commercial and public services has developed
differently than the intensities shown above. This is
due to a considerable increase in productivity,
measured as GVA per employee.
Energy consumption per employee was 38.4 GJ in
2011, as opposed to 38.1 GJ the year before. This
corresponds to an increase of 0.7%. Compared with
1990, energy consumption per employee fell by
8.5%.
In 2011, electricity consumption per employee was
17.3 GJ as opposed to 17.5 GJ the year before,
which is a fall of 1.3%. Compared with 1990, elec-
tricity consumption per employee increased by
5.3%.
TJ per DKK million GVA in 2005 prices
Climate adjusted
Climate adjusted
Climate adjusted
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Total sector Wholesale
Retail trade Private service
Public service
GJ per employee
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Total energy Electricity
TJ per DKK million GVA in 2005 prices
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Total sector Wholesale
Retail trade Private service
Public service
COMMERCIAL AND PUBLIC SERVICES/HOUSEHOLDS
34


Final energy consumption in the commercial and public services
Change
Climate adj. consumption [TJ] 1980 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009 2010 2011 '90-'11
Commercial and public services,
total. Climate adjusted.
78 314 77 047 77 698 80 607 85 067 84 184 84 099 84 489 9.7%
Energy products
Oil 38 337 14 850 7 660 5 874 4 428 3 169 2 781 2 545 -8.9%
Natural gas - 6 902 8 468 7 739 9 989 10 202 9 348 9 561 38.5%
Coal and coke - 98 68 - - - - - -100%
Waste, non-renewable 263 457 583 691 648 187 173 276 -39.5%
Renewable energy etc. 448 1 022 1 190 2 078 2 178 1 676 1 485 1 808 76.9%
Electricity 21 788 30 147 32 847 35 715 37 479 38 268 38 631 38 043 26.2%
District heating 17 117 23 449 26 794 28 458 30 303 30 645 31 646 32 216 37.4%
Gas works gas 361 121 89 52 42 36 35 40 -66.6%
Branches
Wholesale 19 045 13 795 13 307 13 895 12 910 12 214 12 246 12 151 -11.9%
Retail trade 9 702 8 883 8 728 9 324 9 993 10 190 10 386 10 394 17.0%
Private services 25 955 28 812 31 239 32 904 36 247 37 399 37 384 37 809 31.2%
Public services 23 612 25 557 24 423 24 484 25 917 24 380 24 083 24 134 -5.6%




Final energy consumption in households
Change
Climate adj. consumption [TJ] 1980 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009 2010 2011 '90-'11
Households, total 203 969 184 479 191 913 189 052 194 690 193 233 193 681 196 085 6.3%
Oil 121 022 58 998 46 863 35 444 27 617 20 042 18 580 18 036 -69.4%
Natural gas - 17 877 26 349 29 329 29 993 26 656 27 630 26 924 50.6%
Coal and coke 2 498 830 496 49 8 21 28 30 -96.4%
Renewable energy 10 256 16 874 17 880 21 812 33 192 43 381 41 947 44 293 163%
Electricity 28 388 35 696 37 202 37 339 37 810 36 419 36 738 36 608 2.6%
District heating 37 649 52 820 62 104 64 484 65 584 66 305 68 350 69 731 32.0%
Gas works gas 4 157 1 384 1 019 594 486 409 408 464 -66.5%
Single-family houses 155 657 136 823 141 798 139 337 144 194 143 850 143 250 145 011 6.0%
Oil 102 281 52 233 43 232 32 741 25 032 18 139 16 895 16 404 -68.6%
Natural gas - 15 143 22 508 24 907 25 472 22 620 23 554 22 871 51.0%
Coal and coke 1 249 136 179 17 0 6 13 10 -92.3%
Renewable energy 10 249 16 860 17 849 21 766 33 138 43 310 41 873 44 215 162%
Electricity 21 431 27 011 28 221 28 210 28 279 27 191 27 335 27 226 0.8%
District heating 18 190 24 685 29 254 31 372 32 009 32 361 33 359 34 033 37.9%
Gas works gas 2 258 754 554 323 264 222 221 252 -66.6%
Multi-family houses 48 312 47 656 50 115 49 715 50 496 49 383 50 431 51 073 7.2%
Oil 18 740 6 766 3 631 2 703 2 585 1 903 1 685 1 632 -75.9%
Natural gas - 2 733 3 841 4 422 4 522 4 036 4 076 4 053 48.3%
Coal and coke 1 249 693 317 32 8 15 15 20 -97.2%
Renewable energy 8 14 31 46 54 71 74 78 452.5%
Electricity 6 957 8 686 8 980 9 129 9 530 9 227 9 403 9 382 8.0%
District heating 19 459 28 135 32 851 33 112 33 575 33 944 34 991 35 698 26.9%
Gas works gas 1 899 630 465 271 222 187 187 211 -66.4%

HOUSEHOLDS
35


Energy consumption in households



















Household energy consumption is greatly influenced
by the weather. The figure shows that 1990 and
2000 were very hot years with low energy con-
sumption, whereas 1996 and 2010 were exception-
ally cold.
In 2011 climate adjusted energy consumption by
households was 196.1 PJ, accounting for 31% of
total final energy consumption in Denmark. 163.6
PJ of the 196.1 PJ were used for heating and 32.4
PJ were used for electrical appliances etc.
The climate-adjusted energy consumption of
households was 1.2% higher in 2011 than the year
before. Compared with 1990, energy consumption
increased by 6.3%. This should be seen in the con-
text of a 14.6% increase in the number of house-
holds.


Household consumption by energy types



















There have been significant changes in the compo-
sition of household energy consumption since 1990.
Oil consumption decreased steadily throughout the
period shown due to a shift to district heating and
natural gas. Firewood and wood pellets consump-
tion has increased dramatically since 2000.
In 2011, district heating amounted to 35.6% of
household energy consumption, and renewable
energy and electricity amounted to 22.6% and
18.7%, respectively. Consumption of natural gas,
oil and gas works gas amounted to 13.7%, 9.2%
and 0.2%, respectively.
Household electricity consumption increased dra-
matically from 1980 to the early 1990s, and subse-
quently remained more or less constant until 2000.
After showing an increasing trend from 2001 to
2006, electricity consumption is now falling again.
Electricity consumption fell by 0.4% in 2011.

Energy consumption per household


















In 2011, average energy consumption per house-
hold was 76.2 GJ, which is 0.7% higher than the
year before. Of this, 63.6 GJ were used for space
heating and hot water, corresponding to the energy
content in 1773 litres of heating gasoil. Energy
consumption by households went down by 8.4%
compared with 1990.
In 2011, average electricity consumption per
household for electrical appliances and lighting was
12.1 GJ, corresponding to 3347 kWh. This is 2.5%
less than the year before, but 3.1% more than in
1990.
Households also consume a small amount of petrol
for garden tools etc., LPG (bottled gas) and gas
works gas for other purposes. Consumption of pe-
trol and diesel oil for household vehicles has been
included under road transport.

Climate adjusted
Climate adjusted
0
50
100
150
200
250
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Observed Climate adjusted
0
50
100
150
200
250
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Oil Natural gas
Coal and coke Renewable energy
Electricity District heating
Gas works gas
0
20
40
60
80
100
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
GJ
Space heating Electrical appliances etc.
HOUSEHOLDS
36


Heating installations in homes



















The significant changes in the composition of en-
ergy consumption by energy type reflect changes in
the composition of heating installations in homes
over time. Until the mid-1980s, oil boilers clearly
dominated the market, after which district heating
became the most common source of heating. In the
late 1980s and during the 1990s, the number of
district heating installations and natural gas boilers
continued to increase at the cost of oil boilers.
As at 1 January 2011, the total of 2.75 million heat-
ing installations could be analysed as follows: Dis-
trict heating installations 61.7%, natural gas boilers
15.2%, oil boilers 13.3%, and other installations,
including wood-fired boilers and electric heating,
9.8%.
Source: Statistics Denmark


Energy consumption for heating homes


















Energy consumption for heating (space heating and
hot water) has gone up from 155.9 PJ in 1990 to
163.6 PJ in 2011, corresponding to an increase of
5.0%. The background for this is a 20.3% increase
in total heated area during the same period. From
2010 to 2011, energy consumption for heating went
up by 1.4%.
In the period 1990 to 2010, energy consumption for
heating per m
2
fell by 12.8%. This fall can be ex-
plained by improvements in the insulation of older
dwellings as well as a shift away from old oil boilers
to more efficient natural gas boilers and district
heating installations. In addition, according to the
building regulations, new homes must have lower
energy consumption per m
2
than existing dwellings.


Net energy consumption and heat loss
when heating homes



















Net energy consumption means the energy utilised.
The difference between final energy consumption
and net energy consumption is local heat loss in
individual homes, e.g. from oil and natural gas
boilers.
While final consumption for heating as mentioned
fell by 5.0% from 1990 to 2011, net energy con-
sumption for space heating and hot water in house-
holds increased by 12.8% in the same period.
The different trend is due to the extensive shift
from oil heating to district heating and later also to
natural gas heating, where the local losses are
considerably smaller. However, recent years large
increases in consumption of firewood and wood
pellets have taken the trend in the opposite direc-
tion.

Climate adjusted
Climate adjusted
1000 units
Index 1990=100
0
50
100
150
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Heated floor space
Final energy consumption
Final energy consumption per m
2
0
50
100
150
200
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
PJ
Net energy consumption Local losses
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
1981 1990 2000 2011
Oil boilers Natural gas boilers
District heating Other
HOUSEHOLDS
37


Private consumption and electricity con-
sumption in households




















In the period 1990-2011 total household electricity
consumption increased by 2.6%, whereas electricity
consumption for appliances and lighting etc. in-
creased by 16.0%. This big difference is due to a
significant fall in electricity consumption for heating.
In the same period private consumption increased
by 38.6%; i.e. considerably more than electricity
consumption for appliances and lighting etc. This
may seem surprising, considering the large increase
in the number of electrical appliances during this
period. This is due to significant falls in the specific
electricity consumption of electrical appliances, see
below.



Household stock of electrical appliances



















The past 30 years and more have seen a sharp
increase in the stock of almost all electricity-
consuming household appliances.
For instance, since 1990 the number of microwaves
has increased by more than 350%, while the num-
ber of dishwashers and tumble dryers has increased
by 208% and 205%, respectively. Television sets,
washing machines and refrigerators have also in-
creased considerably in numbers. With an increase
of 23.7%, separate freezers have seen a more
moderate growth.
Source: ElmodelBOLIG


Specific electricity consumption of house-
hold appliances

















Ceteris paribus, the trend in the stock of appliances
should lead to a considerable increase in electricity
consumption. The reason that this has not hap-
pened is particularly due to a significant improve-
ment in the average specific electricity consumption
(kWh/year) of appliances in the same period.
The average annual electricity consumption of a
refrigerator fell from 336 kWh in 1990 to 201 kWh
in 2011, i.e. by 40.2%. Electricity consumption for
a separate freezer fell by 49.2%, while the fall for a
washing machine was 40.2% in the same period.
Other electrical appliances, apart from television
sets, have also experienced considerable reductions
in average specific annual consumption.
Source: ElmodelBOLIG
Index 1990=100
80
100
120
140
160
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Electricity consumption, climate adjusted
Electricity consumption, appliances etc.
Private consumption, fixed prices
0
1.000
2.000
3.000
4.000
5.000
6.000
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
1000 Units
TV Sets Refrigerators
Freezers Dishwashers
Microwave ovens Washing machines
Dryers
0
200
400
600
800
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
kWh/year
TV Sets Refrigerators
Freezers Dishwashers
Washing machines Dryers
EMISSIONS OF CO
2
AND OTHER GREENHOUSE GASES
38


CO
2
accounts and statements f or other greenhouse gases
CO
2
accounts are used together with statements for
the other greenhouse gas emissions in order to e.g.
monitor developments with regard to international
greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. Denmark's
international climate commitment means that, in ac-
cordance with EU burden sharing of the total EU reduc-
tion commitment under the Kyoto Protocol, Denmark
must reduce average emissions of greenhouse gases
in the period 2008-2012 by 21% in relation to the
base year. In 2007 the base year was determined in
relation to emissions in 1990 for CO
2
, CH
4
and N
2
O and
1995 for the fluorinated greenhouse gases (the F-
gases).
In 2010, total emissions of greenhouse gases
(without adjustments) were 61.1 million tonnes CO
2

equivalents, which is 11.9% lower than base year
emissions of 69.3 million tonnes CO
2
equivalents.
Including the adjustments for fluctuations in tempera-
ture and net exports of electricity in these Energy
Statistics, the level in 2010 was 58.7 million tonnes of
CO
2
equivalents, corresponding to a drop of 24.2%
relative to an adjusted base year.
The greenhouse gas statement for 2011 will not be
ready until 2013. The overall greenhouse gas accounts
include both CO
2
emissions from energy use (excluding
emissions from international aviation and the effect of
cross-border trade in petrol and diesel oil - unlike the
separate CO
2
accounts in the Energy Statistics) and
CO
2
emissions from other sources (flaring of gas in the
North Sea and certain industrial processes). Emissions
of five other greenhouse gases are also included in the
commitment: methane (CH
4
), nitrous oxide (N
2
O),
hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs)
and sulphur hexafluoride (SF
6
), which are converted to
CO
2
equivalents. To meet the 2008-2012 commitment,
reductions achieved in connection with certain CO
2

uptake by forests and soil, as well as from projects in
other countries (the JI and CDM projects) will also be
included in calculations.
Source: The Danish Energy Agency and DCE Danish Centre
for Environment and Energy (former NERI)

CO
2
emissions from energy consumption




The Danish Energy Agency calculates both observed
CO
2
emissions and adjusted CO
2
emissions, which
take annual temperature variations and foreign
trade in electricity into account, cf. the statement of
energy consumption on page 18. The purpose of the
adjusted calculations is to illustrate the trends un-
derlying the development.
In 2011, observed CO
2
emissions from energy con-
sumption were 44.3 million tonnes, which is 10.6%
less than in 2010. Compared with 1990, observed
CO
2
emissions have fallen by 16.8%. This was de-
spite Denmark's unusually large net imports of
electricity in 1990 as opposed to very low net im-
ports of electricity in 2011.
Adjusted CO
2
emissions from energy consumption
fell to 45.9 million tonnes in 2011; a drop of 2.8%.
Compared with 1990, the drop is 25.2%.


CO
2
emissions by fuel















Since 1990, there has been a significant shift in
energy consumption analysed by fuel. Consumption
of natural gas and renewable energy has increased
at the expense of oil and coal.
This shift in fuels has led to a reduction in CO
2
emis-
sions, as consumption of oil and coal entails greater
CO
2
emissions than consumption of natural gas and
renewable energy. While gross energy consumption
has fallen by 1.4% since 1990, CO
2
emissions have
fallen by 25.2%.

Million tonnes CO
2

Million tonnes CO
2

Adjusted

40
50
60
70
80
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Observed Adjusted

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
1990 1995 2000 2011
Oil Natural gas Coal Wastes, non-renewable
EMISSIONS OF CO
2
AND OTHER GREENHOUSE GASES
39


CO
2
emissions per fuel unit and kWh
electricity




















The figure for gross energy consumption in 2011 is
almost unchanged compared with 1990, whereas the
breakdown by fuel has changed significantly. As a
result of the shift from oil and coal to natural gas
and renewable energy, an ever decreasing amount
of CO
2
is linked to each unit of fuel consumed. In
2011, each GJ of adjusted gross energy consumption
was linked to 56.8 kg CO
2
, against 74.9 kg in 1990.
This corresponds to a reduction of 24.1%.
CO
2
emissions per kWh of electricity sold fell in
2011, after having been fairly stable for some years.
One kWh of electricity sold in Denmark in 2011 led
to 478 grams of CO
2
emissions. In 1990, CO
2
emis-
sions were 938 grams per kWh of electricity sold,
which corresponds to a reduction of almost 50%.
The reasons for this large reduction are fuel conver-
sions in electricity production as well as the ever
increasing significance of wind power.
CO
2
emissions by sector




















The energy system is divided into three sectors: The
energy sector (extraction and refining), the trans-
formation sector (production of electricity, district
heating, and gas works gas), and final consumption
(transport and consumption by households and in-
dustries).
In 1990, total observed CO
2
emissions were 53.3
million tonnes. Of these, 25.4 million tonnes came
from the transformation sector and 26.5 million
tonnes came from final consumption, while the
energy sector emitted 1.4 million tonnes.
In 2011, total observed CO
2
emissions were 44.3
million tonnes, of which 17.9 million tonnes were
from the transformation sector, 24.1 million tonnes
were from final energy consumption, and 2.3 million
tonnes were from the energy sector. The transfor-
mation sector saw a fall of 7.5 million tonnes of CO
2

from 1990 to 2011, although electricity and district
heating production grew significantly in this period.
CO
2
emissions in end-use of energy



















Breaking down CO
2
emissions from production of
electricity, district heating, and gas works gas by
end consumer provides a picture of how total emis-
sions of CO
2
can be allocated to the energy sector,
transport, industry and households.
In 2011, the transport sector and the agriculture and
industry sector were responsible for the largest
percentages of total CO
2
emissions, with 33.0% and
24.0%, respectively. Households and the commercial
and public services accounted for 22.3% and 15.3%,
respectively, while the energy sector accounted for
5.4% of CO
2
emissions.
Compared with 1990, CO
2
emissions from transport
have increased by 20.0%. Industries and households
have seen significant decreases. For the agriculture
and industry, and the commercial and public servic-
es, CO
2
emissions fell by 38.6% and 35.9% respec-
tively, while for households they fell by 43.8%.
Adjusted
Million tonnes CO
2

Adjusted

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
1990 1995 2000 2011
Final energy consumption
Transformation sector
Energy sector
Million tonnes CO
2

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Energy sector Transport
Agriculture and industry Commercial and public
services
Households
Gram per kWh
Kilo per GJ

40
50
60
70
80
90
100
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11

400
600
800
1000
CO
2
-emissions per fuel unit
CO
2
-emissions per kWh electricity (right axis)
EMISSIONS OF CO
2
AND OTHER GREENHOUSE GASES
40


Observed CO
2
emissions from energy consumption
1000 tonnes Change
Observed emissions 1980 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009 2010 2011 '90-'11
Total CO
2
emissions 64 417 53 297 60 415 53 727 50 997 49 189 49 600 44 350 -16.8%
CO
2
emissions by fuel 64 417 53 297 60 415 53 727 50 997 49 189 49 600 44 350 -16.8%
Oil 40 048 24 178 26 197 26 205 24 187 22 288 22 100 21 005 -13.2%
Natural gas 1 4 323 7 546 10 624 10 676 9 429 10 571 8 987 108%
Coal 23 975 24 222 25 824 15 774 14 737 16 015 15 518 12 931 -46.6%
Waste, non-renewable 394 573 848 1 124 1 398 1 456 1 411 1 426 149%
CO
2
emissions by sector 64 417 53 297 60 415 53 727 50 997 49 189 49 600 44 350 -16.8%
Energy sector 880 1 391 1 884 2 312 2 429 2 428 2 432 2 291 64.7%
Transformation sector 30 262 25 370 30 942 24 363 21 268 22 145 22 113 17 918 -29.4%
Electricity production 24 038 20 763 26 110 20 291 17 353 18 245 17 825 14 383 -30.7%
District heat production 5 655 4 506 4 755 4 030 3 882 3 867 4 253 3 503 -22.3%
Gas works gas production 570 101 78 42 33 33 35 32 -68.4%
Final energy consumption 33 275 26 536 27 588 27 052 27 300 24 616 25 055 24 141 -9.0%
Transport 10 440 12 419 13 444 14 638 15 709 15 208 15 121 14 941 20.3%
Agriculture and industry 10 425 7 788 8 128 7 579 7 027 5 632 5 826 5 704 -26.8%
Commercial and public service 2 967 1 406 1 078 868 922 816 825 728 -48.2%
Households 9 442 4 924 4 939 3 967 3 642 2 960 3 283 2 768 -43.8%


Observed CO
2
emissions have been calculated on
the basis of observed energy consumption as shown in
the energy balance on page 4. By using emission fac-
tors specific to fuel, energy consumption is converted
to CO
2
emissions. The emission factors applied are
shown on page 59. Renewable energy, including non-
renewable waste, are not linked to CO
2
emissions in
the calculations.

CO
2
emissions from energy consumption, adjusted
*)

1000 tonnes Change
Adjusted emissions 1980 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009 2010 2011 '90-'11
Total CO
2
emissions 62 696 61 345 59 975 55 487 52 555 49 629 47 212 45 897 -25.2%
CO
2
emissions by fuel 62 696 61 345 59 975 55 487 52 555 49 629 47 212 45 897 -25.2%
Oil 39 384 25 034 26 375 26 724 24 461 22 332 21 800 21 121 -15.6%
Natural gas 1 4 646 7 603 10 955 10 955 9 496 10 054 9 186 97.7%
Coal 22 920 31 081 25 148 16 672 15 736 16 345 13 960 14 159 -54.4%
Waste, non-renewable 392 583 849 1 136 1 403 1 457 1 399 1 431 145%
CO
2
emissions by sector 62 696 61 345 59 975 55 487 52 555 49 629 47 212 45 897 -25.2%
Energy sector 880 1 391 1 884 2 312 2 429 2 428 2 432 2 291 64.7%
Transformation sector 28 928 32 562 30 386 25 614 22 643 22 521 20 255 19 295 -40.7%
Electricity production 22 868 27 337 25 460 21 099 18 544 18 537 16 715 15 513 -43.3%
District heating production 5 501 5 117 4 847 4 470 4 065 3 951 3 508 3 750 -26.7%
Gas works gas production 559 108 78 45 33 34 32 33 -69.8%
Final energy consumption 32 889 27 391 27 706 27 561 27 483 24 680 24 525 24 311 -11.2%
Transport 10 440 12 419 13 444 14 638 15 709 15 208 15 121 14 941 20.3%
Agriculture and industry 10 360 7 967 8 154 7 691 7 068 5 646 5 708 5 742 -27.9%
Commercial and public service 2 896 1 543 1 093 934 949 826 748 753 -51.2%
Households 9 191 5 463 5 015 4 298 3 757 3 000 2 948 2 875 -47.4%

*)
Adjusted for fuel consumption for net exports of electricity, as well as for temperature fluctuations.
Adjusted CO
2
emissions have been calculated on the
basis of adjusted gross energy consumption as shown
in the table on page 18. In this statement, energy
consumption has been adjusted for temperature fluc-
tuations relative to a normal weather year and fuel
consumption linked to foreign trade in electricity. In
cold years or years with net electricity exports, the
adjustment is therefore negative, while in warmer
years or years with net imports of electricity, the ad-
justment is positive.
EMISSIONS OF CO
2
AND OTHER GREENHOUSE GASES
41


Total emissions of greenhouse gases
Change
1000 tonnes CO
2
equivalents
Base
Year
1)

1990 1995 2000 2005 2009 2010
Base
year-'10
Observed emissions in total
1)
69 323 68 604 76 050 68 090 63 740 60 683 61 065 -11.9%
Observed net emissions in total
2)
69 323 73 028 79 463 73 984 68 377 59 806 58 895 -15.0%

Observed net emissions, total 69 323 73 028 79 463 73 984 68 377 59 806 58 895 -15.0%

Emissions from energy consump-
tion
51 817 51 729 59 660 52 054 49 644 47 853 48 325 -6.7%
Energy and transformation sector 26 315 26 246 32 515 25 962 23 204 24 123 23 915 -9.1%
Final energy consumption 25 502 25 483 27 145 26 092 26 440 23 731 24 410 -4.3%
-Transport 10 650 10 905 12 392 12 477 13 614 13 454 13 356 25.4%
-Agriculture and industry 5 493 5 446 5 909 6 033 5 519 4 028 4 453 -18.9%
-Commercial and public service and
households
9 359 9 132 8 844 7 582 7 306 6 249 6 600 -29.5%

Industrial process, flaring etc. 2 911 2 702 3 358 4 298 3 183 2 232 2 226 -23.5%
Transient emissions and flaring 304 369 522 808 653 384 465 52.9%
Industrial process 2 470 2 240 2 727 3 388 2 442 1 765 1 685 -31.8%
Solvent and product use 137 93 109 102 88 82 76 -44.2%

Emissions from agriculture 13 048 12 462 11 515 10 394 9 783 9 540 9 520 -27.0%
Animals digestion 3 259 3 247 3 134 2 861 2 737 2 823 2 856 -12.4%
Animal manure 1 437 1 593 1 669 1 722 1 816 1 693 1 709 18.9%
Agricultural land 8 352 7 622 6 712 5 811 5 230 5 024 4 954 -40.7%

Other emissions 1 547 1 711 1 517 1 344 1 130 1 058 995 -35.7%
Waste deposit 1 334 1 477 1 261 1 050 846 765 693 -48.1%
Sewage treatment 213 176 184 173 168 156 159 -25.2%
Other waste 58 72 122 116 137 143 -

Forestry and land use - 4 423 3 413 5 894 4 636 - 876 -2 171
Forestry - - 819 - 901 1 928 1 081 -3 590 -5 677
Land use - 5 243 4 315 3 965 3 555 2 714 3 506

Note: This table only includes Denmark's emissions and removal of greenhouse gases. In the total climate accounts in relation to Denmark's climate com-
mitment for 2008-2012, credits that are part of the CO
2
removals under "Forest and land use", and credits from reductions achieved through projects in
other countries and allowance purchases must also be included.
1
) Total emissions without the contribution from "Forest and land use", as only a part of this is to be included in the climate accounts for 2008-2012.
2)
Total emissions with the contribution from "Forest and land use".
Source: DCE - Danish Centre for Environment and Energy (former NERI)

Observed and adjusted greenhouse gas emissions


Change
1000 tonnes CO
2
equiva-
lents
Base year 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009 2010 2011*
Base
year -'11
Observed emissions, total
1)
69 323 68 604 76 050 68 090 63 740 60 683 61 065 55 815 -19.5%
Adjusted emissions, total
1)
77 386 76 652 75 610 69 850 65 298 61 124 58 678 57 362 -25.9%
Note 1: See above note.
Note 2: The Danish reduction obligation of 21% under the Kyoto Protocol has to be based upon the observed figures in a base year without
adjustments for climate and netimports of electricity. The adjusted greenhouse gas figures may only be used to illustrate the effect of initiatives
and other national actions which have an influence on the CO
2
emissions from Denmarks national energy consumption.
1)
See above.
* The preliminary emissions account for 2011 is solely based on CO
2
emissions from energy consumption and flaring as calculated in the
Energy Statistics 2011. Total greenhouse gas emissions are calculated by assuming that all emissions other than CO
2
from energy consumption and
flaring are constant with values for 2010, calculated by DCE - Danish Centre for Environment and Energy.

EMISSIONS OF CO
2
AND OTHER GREENHOUSE GASES
42


Emissions of greenhouse gases
















The figure shows emissions of greenhouse gases,
excluding the effects of CO
2
uptake by forests and
land use.
Observed emissions of greenhouse gases were 61.1
million tonnes of CO
2
equivalents in 2010, which is
0.6% more than in 2009. Compared with the base
year, observed emissions decreased by 11.9%.
Adjusted for climate fluctuations and fuel consump-
tion linked to foreign trade in electricity, emissions of
greenhouse gases were 58.7 million tonnes of CO
2

equivalents in 2010, which is 4.0% less than in
2009. Compared with the base year, observed emis-
sions decreased by 24.2%.
Source: DCE Danish Centre for Environment and Energy
(former NERI)
www.dmu.dk
Observed net-emissions of greenhouse
gases by origin

















Emissions from energy consumption make the lar-
gest contribution to total net emissions of green-
house gases. Such emissions derive from the energy
and transformation sector as well as from final ener-
gy consumption. The second-largest contribution
comes from agriculture.
In 2010, observed emissions were: Emissions from
energy consumption 82.1%, emissions from agricul-
ture 16.2%, industrial processes, flaring etc. 3.8%,
forests and land use -3.7%, and other emissions,
1.7%.
Source: DCE Danish Centre for Environment and Energy
(former NERI)
www.dmu.dk






Observed emissions by type of greenhouse
gases in 2010











The greenhouse gases included in the statement of
total emissions have very different contributions.
With 79.1%, CO
2
accounted for the largest part of
total greenhouse gas emissions in 2010. With
10.0%, methane (CH
4
) was the second-largest con-
tributor to total emissions, followed by nitrous oxide
(N
2
O) with 9.4% and fluorinated greenhouse gases
(F-gases) with 1.4%.
By far the most important source of CO
2
emissions is
fuel consumption for energy purposes. The most
important source of both methane and nitrous oxide
emissions is agriculture, but waste treatment also
significantly contributes to methane emissions.
Source: DCE Danish Centre for Environment and Energy
(former NERI)
www.dmu.dk

Million tonnes CO
2
equivalents
Million tonnes CO
2
equivalents
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
1990 '95 '00 '05 '10
Observed emissions
Adjusted emissions
-10
10
30
50
70
90
1990 '95 '00 '05 '10

Forestry and land use
Other emissions
Emissions from agriculture
Industrial process, flaring etc.
Emissions from energy consumption
1.4%
10.0%
9.4%
79.1%
F-gases CH
4
N
2
O CO
2
EMISSIONS OF CO
2
AND OTHER GREENHOUSE GASES
43



Observed CO
2
emissions from energy consumption in 2009 - 2011
Observed CO
2
emissions from energy consumption
1000 tonnes
Total

ETS

Non-ETS
2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011
Total 49 189 49 600 44 350 24 336 24 154 20 268 24 853 25 445 24 082

Energy sector 2 428 2 432 2 291 2 428 2 432 2 291 - - -
Transformation sector 22 145 22 113 17 918 19 838 19 592 15 919 2 307 2 521 1 999
Final energy consumption 24 616 25 055 24 141 2 069 2 130 2 058 22 547 22 925 22 083
Transport 15 208 15 121 14 941 - - - 15 208 15 121 14 941
Agriculture and industry 5 632 5 826 5 704 2 069 2 130 2 058 3 563 3 696 3 646
- Horticulture 237 244 200 11 9 10 226 235 190
- Manufacturing 3 378 3 561 3 528 2 058 2 120 2 047 1 320 1 441 1 481
- Other industry 2 017 2 020 1 976 - - 1 2 017 2 020 1 975
Commercial and public ser-
vice
816 825 728 - - - 816 825 728
Households 2 960 3 283 2 768 - - - 2 960 3 283 2 768

Note: The three first columns of figures include CO
2
emissions from oil, natural gas, coal and non-renewable waste. CO
2
emissions from non-renewable waste
are not included in the ETS emissions.

Observed CO
2
emissions from energy con-
sumption in 2011, ETS and non-ETS sectors







The EU emissions trading scheme covers almost
half the CO
2
emissions from energy consumption.
However, the share varies considerably from sector
to sector.
In the energy sector, which includes refineries and
oil and gas production plants in the North Sea, all
emissions are covered by the EU emissions trading
scheme. In the transformation sector, including
power plants and district heating plants, if non-
renewable waste is excluded, the picture is almost
the same.
In relation to emissions linked to final energy con-
sumption, i.e. emissions from burning oil, natural
gas and coal by enterprises, households and means
of transport, less than 10% is covered by the EU
emissions trading scheme. In this context, almost
all emissions can be attributed to manufacturing
industries.

Total observed emissions of greenhouse gases in 2011

Unit: 1000 tonnes

Total
ETS, from energy
consumption
ETS, from indus-
tries and flaring
Not covered by EU ETS
*)


2010 61 065 24 154 1 113 35 799
2011 55 815* 20 268 1 199 34 348*

Note: The preliminary emissions statement for 2011 is solely based on CO
2
emissions from energy consumption and flaring as calculated in the Energy Statis-
tics 2011. Total greenhouse gas emissions are calculated by assuming that all emissions other than CO
2
from energy consumption and flaring are constant at
the values for 2010, calculated by the DCE - Danish Centre for Environment and Energy (former NERI).
*)
Preliminary figures

1000 tonnes
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
Energy sektor Transformation
sector
Final energy
consumption
Total ETS Non-ETS
ENERGY AND THE ECONOMY
44

Energy expenses by industry and
households
















Energy expenses have been calculated based on
purchase prices for the year, including taxes and
VAT. For industries, as a general rule, a full refund
of energy taxes (but not CO
2
taxes) and VAT ap-
plies.
Total energy expenses amounted to DKK 180.1
billion in 2010, which is 16.6% higher than the year
before. Households paid DKK 77.6 billion, the agri-
culture and industry sector paid DKK 44.7 billion,
while the commercial and public service sector,
including public service, paid DKK 46.9 billion.
Energy expenses increased from 1990 to 2008. The
fall between 2008 and 2009 was due to reductions
in the energy consumption in, primarily, the agricul-
ture and industry sector. The increase in 2010
meant that energy expenses were again at the
2008 level.
Source: Statistics Denmark

Revenue from energy, CO
2
and sulphur
taxes

















In 2011, revenues from energy taxes calculated in
current prices were DKK 41.8 billion, which is 5.1%
more than in 2010. In addition to energy taxes,
revenues include CO
2
and sulphur taxes. The larg-
est contribution to revenues in 2011 is from elec-
tricity (DKK 11.9 billion), gas/diesel fuel (DKK 9.6
billion), motor gasoline (DKK 7.7 billion) and CO
2

taxes (DKK 5.9 billion).
Revenues increased by 200% compared with 1990,
when there were no CO
2
and sulphur taxes.
Gas/diesel fuel, electricity and motor gasoline have
seen growths of 205%, 178% and 37.1%, respec-
tively, since 1990.
In 2011, energy, CO
2
and sulphur taxes amounted
to 4.9% of total tax and VAT revenues in Denmark
compared to 4.8% in 2010.
Source: Statistics Denmark

Expenses for public service obligations
(PSO) in the electricity area





















Total expenses for Public Service Obligations (PSO)
were DKK 3.3 billion in 2011, compared with DKK
2.6 billion the year before. This increase of DKK 0.7
billion is primarily attributable to the fact that pro-
duction of electricity from wind turbines and bio-
mass was higher in 2011 than the year before.
Moreover, market prices for electricity were lower in
2011.
For 2011, total funding support for environmentally
friendly electricity production was DKK 2.6 billion,
divided between DKK 1.5 billion for wind power,
DKK 0.6 billion for biomass etc., and DKK 0.5 billion
for small-scale CHP.
In 2010, compensation for CO
2
taxes was intro-
duced. Compensation paid in 2011 amounted to
DKK 0.4 billion.
0
50
100
150
200
1990 '95 '00 '05 '10
Households Agriculture and industry
Energy and water supply Commercial and public
services
Billion DKK, current prices
Billion DKK, current prices
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Gasoline Gas-/diesel oil Natural gas
Coal Electricity CO
2
Sulphur
Billion DKK, current prices
0
1
2
3
4
5
'01 '02 '03 '04 '05 '06 '07 '08 '09 '10 '11

Other (R&D, environmental research etc.)
Compensation for CO
2
taxes
Supply security
Payment of subsidies for environmentally-friendly electricity
Small-scale CHP units
Biomass etc.
Wind power
ENERGY AND THE ECONOMY
45


Net currency revenues from energy
products


















The surplus from foreign trade in energy products
was DKK 4.3 billion in 2011 against DKK 12.1 billion
the year before. There was a surplus on trade in oil
and natural gas of DKK 7.4 billion and DKK 4.0
billion, respectively. Foreign trade in coal, electricity
and biomass in 2011 resulted in deficits of DKK 4.4
billion, DKK 0.2 billion and DKK 2.6 billion, respec-
tively.
Foreign trade in energy products is also expected to
make a positive contribution to the national balance
of trade in the coming years, as Denmark produces
more energy than it consumes. However, a conti-
nued fall in the surplus is expected.
Source: Statistics Denmark




Value of crude oil and natural gas produc-
tion

















The value of the crude oil and natural gas produced
from the North Sea in 2011 was DKK 58.2 billion,
compared with DKK 50.5 billion the year before.
The value of crude oil rose from DKK 39.9 billion to
DKK 48.3 billion, and the value of natural gas fell
from DKK 10.6 billion to DKK 9.9 billion.
The value of the North Sea production depends on
the scale of production as well as on world market
prices. The increase in production value in 2011
was exclusively due to higher energy prices, as the
production of crude oil and natural gas decreased.
Compared with 1990, the value of the North Sea
production has increased more than six-fold.

Source: Danish Oil and Gas Production 2011.


Exports of energy technology and equip-
ment



















Exports of energy technology and equipment such
as wind turbines, district heating pipes, thermostat
valves, pumps etc. increased rapidly up to the year
2008, peaking at DKK 65.8 billion.
Following falls in 2009 and 2010, exports increased
once more in 2011, when they were 18.1% higher
than the year before. In 2011, Denmark exported
energy technologies and equipment at a value of
DKK 63.4 billion, corresponding to about 10.5% of
total Danish goods exports. In 2010 this figure was
9.5%.
The Danish Energy Agency, the Danish Energy
Industries Federation and the Danish Business
Authority have worked together to prepare statistics
for Danish energy technology, focusing on devel-
opments in exports and industry. More information
is available at the Danish Energy Agencys website:
Exports of energy technology and equipment

Billion DKK, current prices
Billion DKK, current prices
-10
0
10
20
30
40
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11

Total Oil Natural gas
Coal Electricity Biomass
Billion DKK, current prices
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Crude oil Natural gas
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
1996 '00 '05 '11

0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
Exports of energy technology and equipment
Share of Denmarks total exports of commodities, %
ENERGY PRICES
46


Spot market prices for crude oil




Following an unusual and large drop in 2009, the
price of crude oil quickly went up again. Since
2009, the price has fluctuated between USD 89 and
USD 129 per barrel.
The oil price is at an historic high, even when
measured in fixed prices and despite recent years'
economic decline. The global need for oil is increas-
ing; so are the costs of oil production, and, world-
wide, the shift from oil to other types of energy is
taking place very slowly. Furthermore, there is
political unrest, in particular in the Middle East.
These are all factors that contribute to keeping oil
prices relatively high and with dramatic fluctua-
tions.
In 2011, the average price of crude oil was USD
111 per barrel. Measured in 2011 prices, this is
higher than in the late 1970s and early 1980s, in
which the average price per barrel was USD 100. At
that time, the reason for high oil prices was con-
flicts in the Middle East.
Source: BP and Financial Times (2011 prices)

Spot market prices for electricity











The system price of electricity on Nord Pool is set
hour by hour on the basis of supply and demand.
The price is affected by a number of factors, includ-
ing precipitation and temperature. For example, the
winter 2010/2011 was affected by fears of water
shortages and increasing electricity consumption in
Norway because of low temperatures, and this
resulted in high prices.
The average system price of electricity per kWh was
DKK 0.35 in 2011 as opposed to DKK 0.40 in 2010.
This drop is particularly due to increasing water
levels in Nordic aquifers.
In the first half of 2012, the average system price
fell additionally to DKK 0.25 per kWh. This drop in
the price can be attributed in part to plentiful hy-
dropower resources in Norway and Sweden, and in
part to a low CO
2
allowance price.
Source: Nord Pool
Electricity prices for households 1997-2012
(as at 1 January)



















At the beginning of 2012, the average price of elec-
tricity for household customers with an annual
consumption of 4,000 kWh was DKK 2.25 per kWh,
which is 4.8% higher than the year before. The
price of electricity has gone up by 46.2% since
2001.
Total tax revenues for the state per kWh in 2012
were DKK 1.26 compared with 0.96 in 2001. These
taxes include: Electricity tax, electricity distribution
tax, electricity savings contribution, electricity sav-
ings tax (previously CO
2
tax) and VAT.
The payment for the actual energy per kWh (incl.
PSO (Public Service Obligations) and electricity
transmission) was DKK 0.81 in 2012, against DKK
0.46 in 2001, while subscription costs per kWh were
DKK 0.19 in 2012 against DKK 0.12 in 2001.
Source: Danish Energy Association

Prices for 2012 cover only the first six months.
DKK 0.01 per kWh
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
1970 '75 '80 '85 '90 '95 '00 '05 '10'12
Brent, USD per barrel
Brent, USD per barrel (2011 prices)
2001 2009
1999
2000
2010
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2011
2012
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
1999'00 '01 '02 '03 '04 '05 '06 '07 '08 '09 '10 '11 '12
Nord Pool system price, DKK/kWh
Nord Pool system price, DKK/kWh (yearly level)
DKK 0.01 per kWh
0
50
100
150
200
250
1997'98 '99 '00 '01 '02 '03 '04 '05 '06 '07'08 '09 '10 '11 '12
Subscription Energy
Electricity tax Electricity distribution tax
Electricity save contribution CO
2
tax
SO
2
tax Total VAT
ENERGY PRICES
47



Energy prices for households




















The energy prices shown are annual averages of
current consumer prices, i.e. including energy and
CO
2
taxes and VAT.
The price of heating oil was DKK 10.96 per litre in
2011, as opposed to DKK 9.38 per litre the year
before, corresponding to a rise of 16.8%. In the
period 1990-2011 the price increased by 158%.
The price of natural gas for households was DKK
9.23 per m
3
in 2011, as opposed to DKK 8.72 per
m
3
the year before, corresponding to a rise of
5.9%.
The tax on motor gasoline has varied considerably
over time and this has affected the price. The price
of a litre of motor gasoline was DKK 12.33 in 2011,
as opposed to DKK 11.02 in 2010, corresponding to
a rise of 11.9%.
The price of kWh electricity was DKK 2.19 in 2011,
as opposed to DKK 2.00 in 2010, corresponding to
a rise of 9.4%.
Energy prices for households

















Household energy prices have been calculated at
2011 prices by adjusting current prices for changes
in the general price level as stated in the consumer
price index.
Measured in 2011 prices, the price per litre of mo-
tor gasoline has increased over the past two years.
In 2011, the increase was 8.8%.
Over a long period the price of heating oil fluctuated
around DKK 6 per litre, but since 2000 the price has
been above this figure and in 2011 it was DKK
10.96 per litre, which is 13.6% higher than the year
before. The price of natural gas was DKK 9.23 per
Nm
3
in 2011, which is 2.9% higher than the year
before.
The price of electricity in 2011 prices was 6.4%
higher in 2011 than the year before.

Composition of energy prices for house-
holds














The consumer price can be divided into the follow-
ing components: Energy price (excluding taxes and
VAT), and taxes and VAT. Over the years taxes
have been raised on several occasions, and this has
meant that they have become increasingly signifi-
cant.
The price of motor gasoline in 2011 of DKK 12.33
per litre was made up as follows: Price excl. taxes
and VAT 46%, taxes 34% and VAT 20%. In 1990
and 2000 taxes made up respectively 63% and
45% of the consumer price.
The price of heating oil in 2011 of DKK 10.96 per
litre was made up as follows: Price excl. taxes and
VAT 56%, taxes 24% and VAT 20%. In 1990 and
2000 taxes made up respectively 42% and 34%.
The price of electricity in 2011 of DKK 2.19 per kWh
was made up as follows: Price excl. taxes and VAT
44%, taxes 36% and VAT 20%. In 1990 and 2000
taxes made up respectively 31% and 43%.

DKK, 2011 prices
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Motor gasoline per litre Heating oil per litre
Natural gas per Nm
3
Electricity per kWh
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
G
a
s
o
l
in
H
e
a
t
in
g

o
i
l
E
le
c
t
r
i
c
i
t
y
G
a
s
o
li
n
H
e
a
t
i
n
g

o
il
E
le
c
t
r
ic
i
t
y
G
a
s
o
lin
H
e
a
t
in
g
o
il
E
l
e
c
t
r
ic
it
y
G
a
s
o
l
in
H
e
a
t
i
n
g

O
i
l
E
le
c
t
r
i
c
i
t
y
Net price (price exclusive tax) Energy tax VAT
1980 1990 2000 2011
DKK, current prices
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
Motor gasoline per litre Heating oil per litre
Natural gas per Nm
3
Electricity per kWh
ENERGY PRICES
48


Electricity prices, industrial customers


















Electricity prices are shown in current prices (DKK
per kWh) excl. VAT and taxes for industry custom-
ers with an annual consumption of 2 GWh.
In 2011, the price of electricity varied per kWh in
EU countries (EU27) from DKK 0.43 in Bulgaria to
DKK 0.84 in Slovakia.
In 2011, the Danish price of electricity of DKK 0.62
was 1.6% higher than the average EU27 price,
which was DKK 0.61. The Danish price of electricity
fell by 1.8% in 2011. In EU27, the average price of
electricity remained almost unchanged.
Source: Eurostat


Natural gas prices, industrial customers


















Natural gas prices are shown in current prices (DKK
per m
3
) excl. VAT and taxes for industry customers
with an annual consumption of 10,000 GJ to
100,000 GJ.
In 2011, the price of natural gas per m
3
varied in
the EU27 countries from DKK 1.3 in Romania to
DKK 3.6 in Sweden. The Danish price in 2011 was
DKK 2.7, while the average EU27 price was DKK
2.6.
In 2011, the Danish price of natural gas was 22.6%
higher than the year before, while the average
EU27 price was 8.0% higher.
Source: Eurostat


Motor gasoline prices
















The price of motor gasoline in week 1 in 2011 and
2012, respectively, are shown in current prices
(DKK per litre). Prices are for motor gasoline 95
unleaded, including taxes. The average for the
EU27 is a weighted average.
In 2012, the lowest price, DKK 9.2, was in Poland,
while the highest price, DKK 12.6, was in Italy. In
Denmark, the price per litre was DKK 12.4, while
the average price in the EU27 was DKK 11.1.
The price of motor gasoline went up from 2011 to
2012 in all EU27 countries except for Hungary,
where the price remained the same. The largest
increase was in Italy, where the price went up
16.6% in a year. In Denmark, the price of motor
gasoline increased by 7.2%.
Source: Oil Bulletin, European Commission


DKK per kWh
DKK per litre
DKK per m
3

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
P
L
R
O
E
S
H
U
L
T
S
V
L
V
A
T
E
U
I
E
F
R
B
E
F
I
P
T
D
E
U
K
S
E
D
K
G
R
N
L
I
T
2011 2012
0,0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1,0
B
G
R
E
S
T
F
R
F
I
R
O
N
O
S
E
N
L
S
V
N
G
R
P
l
D
E
2
7
P
T
D
K
H
N
E
S
U
K
B
E
I
E
L
V
A
C
Z
L
T
U
S
V
K
2010 2011
0,0
0,5
1,0
1,5
2,0
2,5
3,0
3,5
4,0
R
O
U
K
N
L
E
S
T
E
S
B
G
R
L
V
AI
T
B
E
C
Z
E
U
H
NP
l
D
K
F
R
F
I
P
T
I
E
S
V
K
L
T
U
D
E
S
V
S
E
2010 2011
ENERGY PRICES
49


Energy prices
Change
DKK, current prices (annual average) 1980 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009 2010 2011 '00 - '11
Spot market prices
- Crude oil (Brent), DKK per barrel 201 147 95 232 328 327 447 596 157%
- Electricity (Nord Pool), DKK per MWh - - - 94 218 260 395 351 275%
- Electricity (Nord Pool, East Denmark), DKK per MWh - - - 132 252 272 348 357 171%
- Electricity (Nord Pool, West Denmark), DKK per MWh - - - 123 278 293 424 368 199%
Foreign trade prices
- Crude oil, DKK per tonnes 1 363 1 005 738 1 807 2 436 2 613 3 494 4 724 161%
- Coal, DKK per tonnes 276 285 216 258 382 510 531 667 159%
Energy prices for industry
1)

- Fuel oil, DKK per kilogram - 0.92 0.75 1.29 1.75 3.36 3.30 4.32 236%
- Electricity, DKK (0.01) per kWh (annual consump-
tion: 0.16 GWh)
- 44.52 34.89 39.49 51.00 61.00 68.67 68.22 73%
Energy prices for households
2)

- Motor gasoline, DKK per litre 4.63 5.82 5.94 8.36 8.89 9.78 11.02 12.33 47%
- Heating oil, DKK per litre 2.41 4.24 3.99 5.90 7.56 7.56 9.38 10.96 86%
- Natural gas, DKK per Nm
3
(single-family houses) - 4.71 4.38 6.35 7.99 7.82 8.72 9.23 45%
- Electricity, (single-family houses, annual consump-
tion: 4000 kWh), DKK per kWh
0.49 1.06 1.11 1.46 1.73 1.96 2.00 2.19 50%

1)
Excl. energy and CO
2
taxes and VAT
2)
Incl. energy and CO
2
taxes and VAT





CO
2
prices (Euro/tonne)



























The price of allowances in the EU emissions trading scheme (EU ETS) has varied greatly since the beginning of 2005.
In May 2006, the price dropped significantly as the statement for emissions in 2005 showed that the amount of ob-
served emissions would be significantly lower than the allocated allowances for the period 2005-07. The price of allow-
ances in the period 2008-12, which also reflects expectations up to 2020, also dropped significantly from summer
2008 as the financial crisis lead to expectations for lower energy consumption and emissions in the coming years. The
price of allowances was relatively stable from April 2009 to June 2011. Since then the price has fallen further.

Source: Point Carbon


0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
2005-07 2008-12
INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS
50



Gross energy consumption in the EU 27 and others 2010 by share of renewable
energy


Share in percentage

Gross energy
consumption.
PJ
Oil
Natural
gas
Coal
A-
power
Renew-
able
energy
and
waste
From
this
biomass
and
waste
Other
Latvia 190 28 32 2 0 35 28 2
Sweden 2 150 28 3 5 29 34 22 1
Austria 1 449 38 24 10 0 26 16 2
Finland 1 548 28 10 19 16 25 21 3
Portugal 1 020 51 18 7 0 22 12 2
Denmark 813 35 23 20 0 20 17 2
Romania 1 495 26 30 20 8 16 11 0
Lithuania 287 38 36 3 0 16 14 8
Slovenia 304 35 12 20 20 15 9 -2
Estonia 255 17 9 64 0 14 13 -5
Spain 5 452 47 24 6 12 12 5 0
Italy 7 348 40 39 8 0 10 4 3
EU27 73 634 35 25 16 13 10 7 1
Germany 14 072 34 22 23 11 10 8 1
Bulgaria 747 23 13 39 22 8 5 - 4
Slovakia 740 21 28 21 22 8 5 1
France 11 245 31 16 4 41 8 5 -1
Hungary 1 088 26 38 11 16 8 7 2
Greece 1 208 52 11 27 0 7 4 2
Poland 4 258 26 13 54 0 7 7 1
Czech Republic 1 874 21 18 41 16 6 5 -2
Ireland 632 50 31 14 0 4 2 0
Belgium 2 573 42 28 5 20 4 4 1
Cyprus 114 95 0 1 0 4 1 0
Netherlands 3 639 40 45 9 1 3 3 1
UK 8 902 35 40 14 8 3 3 0
Luxembourg 195 62 26 1 0 3 2 8
Malta 38 100 0 0 0 0 0 0
Norway 1 403 41 19 3 0 35 5 2
USA 93 575 36 25 23 10 6 3 0
Japan 20 720 41 17 23 15 4 1 0

Source: Eurostat and IEA (numbers for USA and Japan).
INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS
51


Consumption of renewable energy in the EU 27 and others in 2010

Share in percentage

Consump-
tion of
renew,
energy
and
waste, PJ
Hydro Wind Solar
Geo-
thermal
Biomass,
incl. waste
Biofuel
Latvia 66 19.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 78.7 1.8
Sweden 729 32.8 1.7 0.1 0.0 61.8 3.6
Austria 380 36.4 2.0 1.9 0.4 53.6 5.7
Finland 379 12.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 86.8 0.6
Portugal 229 25.3 14.4 1.4 3.5 49.4 5.9
Denmark 164 0.0 17.2 0.4 0.3 81.4 0.7
Romania 244 28.8 0.5 0.0 0.4 68.3 2.0
Lithuania 45 4.4 1.8 0.0 0.4 89.2 4.2
Slovenia 45 36.3 0.0 0.6 2.6 56.3 4.2
Estonia 35 0.3 2.8 0.0 0.0 96.9 0.0
Spain 631 24.1 25.2 6.8 0.1 34.3 9.5
Italy 755 24.4 4.4 1.7 26.4 31.8 11.4
EU27 7 207 18.3 7.4 2.1 3.4 59.7 9.0
Germany 1363 5.4 10.0 4.5 1.6 65.0 13.5
Bulgaria 60 30.4 4.1 0.8 2.3 61.4 0.9
Slovakia 58 32.6 0.0 0.0 0.6 54.9 11.9
France 877 25.5 4.1 0.5 0.4 57.8 11.6
Hungary 83 0.8 2.3 0.3 5.0 81.2 10.5
Greece 90 29.7 10.8 9.1 1.3 42.4 6.6
Poland 305 3.4 2.0 0.0 0.2 82.2 12.2
Czech Republic 116 8.6 1.0 2.2 0.0 79.8 8.3
Ireland 28 7.8 36.8 0.8 0.0 40.8 13.7
Belgium 107 1.1 4.4 2.4 0.2 75.6 16.4
Cyprus 4 0.0 2.7 61.0 0.8 20.6 15.0
Netherlands 124 0.3 11.6 1.0 0.3 83.9 2.9
UK 284 4.6 12.9 1.3 0.0 64.6 16.6
Luxembourg 6 7.0 3.6 2.0 0.0 56.8 30.6
Malta 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Norway 495 85.5 0.7 0.0 0.0 11.9 1.9
USA 5 187 18.0 6.6 1.5 6.8 46.6 20.6
Japan 666 40.1 2.1 4.6 15.5 37.6 0.0

INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS
52


Key figures 2010 ranked by degree of self-sufficiency


Self-sufficiency, %
Energy consumption
per capita, GJ
Energy intensity,
gross energy con-
sumption in toe per 1
million EUR
(2000 prices)
Total Oil
Natural
gas
Gross
energy
consumption
Final energy
consumption
2000 2010
Denmark 120 181 166 147 118 114 104
Estonia 81 0 0 191 91 806 679
Netherlands 80 3 161 220 136 183 182
Romania 78 47 80 70 44 906 589
Czech Republic 70 2 2 178 102 671 532
UK 69 81 61 144 96 145 115
Poland 66 3 29 112 73 484 374
Sweden 64 0 0 230 154 178 157
Bulgaria 58 0 0 99 49 1333 854
Slovenia 51 0 1 149 102 300 259
France 50 1 2 174 103 179 167
EU27 47 14 35 147 96 187 168
Latvia 47 1 0 85 80 440 373
Finland 46 0 0 289 207 249 234
Hungary 42 11 23 109 70 492 420
Germany 39 2 13 172 111 167 150
Slovakia 34 0 2 136 89 815 509
Austria 34 7 18 173 140 141 143
Greece 33 1 0 107 70 205 165
Belgium 25 2 0 237 141 235 213
Spain 26 0 0 119 82 197 168
Portugal 23 2 0 96 71 198 180
Lithuania 19 5 0 86 60 578 362
Italy 17 7 10 122 87 148 144
Ireland 13 2 7 142 110 136 112
Cyprus 3 1 0 142 100 237 204
Luxembourg 3 2 0 388 359 165 157
Malta 2 2 0 92 46 189 180
Norway 624 678 1 502 289 170 144 158
USA 78 40 89 302 202 211 -
Japan 19 0 4 163 107 103 -

Source: Eurostat and IEA (numbers for USA and Japan).



INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS
53


Reserves, production, stocks and consumption of oil by regions


Change

1980 1990 1995 2000 2008 2009 2010 2011 '90 - '11
Oil reserves*), 1000 million
tonnes

The World 683 1028 1066 1258 1475 1518 1622 1653 60.8%
North America 123 125 127 232 217 219 218 217 73.4%
South and Central America 27 72 84 98 199 238 325 325 355%
Europe and Eurasia 84 76 81 98 136 137 139 141 85.9%
Middle East 362 660 663 697 754 753 766 795 20.5%
Africa 53 59 72 93 128 130 133 132 126%
Asia and the Pacific 34 36 39 40 42 42 42 41 13.7%


Oil production, million tonnes

The World 3 092 3 175 3 286 3 618 3 965 3 869 3 945 3 996 25.8%
North America 671 655 646 651 618 632 651 670 2.4%
South and Central America 195 234 300 352 366 372 375 380 62.4%
Europe and Eurasia 747 788 669 725 851 857 854 839 6.4%
Middle East 935 852 979 1 141 1 258 1 167 1 191 1 301 52.8%
Africa 301 321 339 371 488 463 479 417 30.1%
Asia and the Pacific 245 326 352 380 384 379 396 388 19.1%


Oil stocks*), million tonnes

The OECD 271 211 203 208 217 219 217 213 0.8%
North America 116 87 75 73 81 83 85 82 -5.9%
Europe 131 103 104 26 24 23 23 23 -77.5%
The Pacific 23 21 24 109 112 113 110 108 405%


Oil consumption, million tonnes

The World 2 975 3 145 3 253 3 572 3 987 3 909 4 032 4 059 29.1%
North America 933 929 961 1 060 1 070 1 019 1 041 1 026 10.4%
South and Central America 160 167 194 227 269 266 281 289 73.2%
Europe and Eurasia 1 197 1 129 937 929 956 908 903 898 -20.4%
Middle East 102 169 204 243 342 350 364 371 120%
Africa 66 94 104 118 150 154 161 158 68.8%
Asia and the Pacific 516 657 854 994 1 202 1 211 1 282 1 316 100%


Energy Consumption, total,
million tonnes
The World 6 631 8 105 8 564 9 356 11 493 11 391 11 978 12 275 51.6%
North America 2 107 2 326 2 517 2 757 2 819 2 687 2 764 2 773 19.9%
South and Central America 252 326 397 466 587 583 619 643 96.6%
Europe and Eurasia 2 825 3 195 2 783 2 810 3 007 2 831 2 939 2 923 -8.3%
Middle East 138 266 347 421 652 671 716 748 193%
Africa 144 220 244 274 368 366 382 385 72.4%
Asia and the Pacific 1 166 1 771 2 276 2 627 4 060 4 254 4 558 4 803 169%


Oil consumption - share of energy consumption,
total [%]
The World 45 39 38 38 35 34 34 33

North America 44 40 38 38 38 38 38 37

South and Central America 64 51 49 49 46 46 45 45

Europe and Eurasia 42 35 34 33 32 32 31 31

Middle East 74 63 59 58 52 52 51 50

Africa 46 43 42 43 41 42 42 41

Asia and the Pacific 44 37 38 38 30 28 28 27


*)
At the end of the year.

Sources: BP Statistical review of World Energy
IEA, International Energy Agency, Paris.

INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS
54


Proved oil reserves at end 2011


















At the end of 2011, the worlds total proved oil
reserves totalled 1,653 billion barrels.
As much as 48% of crude oil reserves are in the
Persian Gulf region, where the fields are relatively
large and geologically easily accessible, which
means production costs are low.
Comparing proved regional oil reserves with actual
regional oil production (reserves-to-production
ratio, R/P), shows that Europe and Eurasia have
reserves for 22.3 years unchanged production,
while North America has reserves for 41.7 years.
The R/P ratio for total world oil reserves are 54.2
years unchanged production. However, new oil
reserves are being discovered all the time, and total
oil reserves increased by 1.9% in 2011 due to new
discoveries.
Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy

Oil consumption by region














In 2011, total world oil consumption was 4.059
billion tonnes, which is 0.7% more than the year
before. A total of 25.3% of this oil was consumed in
North America, which accounted for 16.8% of the
worlds crude oil production. Europe and Eurasias
share of oil consumption was 22.1%, while this
region accounted for 21.0% of crude oil production.
Neither North America nor Europe and Eurasia are
self-sufficient in oil, as their consumption is greater
than their production.
Asia and the Pacifics share was 32.4%, the Middle
Easts share was 9.1%, South and Central Americas
share was 7.1%, while Africas share was 3.9%.
Total world oil consumption in 2011 was 33.1% of
total world energy consumption compared with
33.7% in 2010. For Europe and Eurasia, this figure
was 30.7%, which is unchanged from the previous
year.
Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy



Energy consumption by region



















Total world energy consumption was 12.275 billion
tonnes of oil equivalents in 2011, which is 2.5%
more than in 2010. Consumption has increased
steadily over the year, with one exception in 2009.
The fall in energy consumption from 2008 to 2009
was due to economic recession, especially in North
America and in Europe and Eurasia.
In 2011, energy consumption in North America and
in Africa increased by 0.3% and 0.6%, respectively,
while energy consumption in Europe and Eurasia fell
by 0.5%.
In 2011, energy consumption increased by 4.3% in
the Middle East, which represent 6.1% of total
world energy consumption.
The largest percentage increase in energy con-
sumption from 2010 to 2011 was in the Asia and
the Pacific region, where energy consumption went
up 5.4%.
Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy


Million tonnes oil equivalents
Africa
132
North
America
217
Europe &
Eurasia
141
Asia &
the Pacific
41
South and
Central America
325
The
Middle
East
795
Billion barrels
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
North America South and Central America
Europe and Euroasia Middle East
Africa Asia and the Pacific
Million barrels per day
Africa Asia and Pacific
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
1990 '95 '00 '05 '11
North America South and Central America
Europe and Eurasia Middle East
TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS
55


Agriculture and industry Includes agriculture, forestry, horticulture, fishing, manufacturing and construction.
Autoproducers Producers of electricity and/or district heating, whose primary activity is not transformation.
Bitumen A tar-like oil product, the heaviest part of the distillation residue in refining. Bitumen is used as a
binding material for the stone material in road asphalt and as a sealing material in construction.
Border trade with oil products Motor gasoline, gas/diesel oil and petroleum coke purchased by private persons and haulage con-
tractors on one side of the border and consumed on the other side due to differences in consumer
prices. Border trade is not included in international statistics.
CO
2
emissions Emissions of carbon dioxide, mainly from use of energy. There are also a number of other
sources, including flaring of gas in the North Sea, incineration of plastic waste and certain in-
dustrial processes. Energy statistics only include emissions from the consumption of oil, natu-
ral gas and coal.
Calorific value The amount of energy released when combustible matter is burned. Distinction is made between
"net" and "gross" calorific values. The difference between the two for each fuel is the latent heat of
vaporisation of the water produced during combustion of the fuel. Gross calorific value is the
amount of heat released if the combusted products are cooled enough for their water vapour con-
tent to condense completely. The water vapour comes from the actual content of the fuel itself and
the combustion of the hydrogen compounds in the fuel. The energy statistics of the International
Energy Agency (IEA) and Eurostat generally use gross calorific value. The "net" calorific value is
the amount of energy attained when the water remains as vapour. Net calorific value is used in the
national Danish energy statistics.
Climate adjustment Energy consumption for heating in Denmark is somewhat dependent on outdoor temperature,
which varies from year to year. A measurement of climatic variations is "degree days", registered
by the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI). The number of "degree days" is calculated as the
sum of the days when the mean outdoor temperature is below 17 degrees Celsius multiplied by the
difference between 17 degrees Celsius and the mean temperature of the 24-hour period. The cli-
mate-adjusted energy consumption for heating purposes is therefore the consumption that would
have taken place, had the year been a normal year. From the 2005 statistics, the "degree days"
of a normal year have been fixed as the moving average of degree days in the last twenty
years.
However, some of the fuel consumption for heating purposes is independent of outdoor climate,
for example heating of water, heat loss from installations and grids etc. This varies according to
types of industry and fuel. As a general rule, it is assumed that 65 % of fuel consumption in
households as well as the service sector and 50 % in manufacturing are dependent on "degree
days". For each sector, the individual fuels have specific values for heating purposes.
Combined heat and
power production (CHP) Simultaneous production of electricity and heat.
Condensing production
of electricity Condensing production of electricity at large-scale power plants is defined as a method of
production, where the surplus heat from electricity generation is eliminated. In Denmark, this
typically takes place when the heat is released into the sea.

Consumption in distribution Consumption of electricity in connection with electricity, district heating and gas works gas supply.

Consumption in production/own use Difference between gross and net production of an energy product. Consumption in production
comprises finished products, i.e. the extraction of natural gas (on platforms), the refining of oil
products and the conversion of electricity.
Degree of self-sufficiency In Danish energy statistics, degree of self-sufficiency is calculated as production of primary energy
in relation to climate-adjusted energy consumption. In international statistics, production is in
relation to observed energy consumption.
Direct energy content Amount of energy contained in a product. This is calculated on the basis of calorific value per unit
of weight or volume for the different energy products and as the energy delivered in the form of
electricity, district heating and gas works gas.
Distribution loss Difference between supply and final consumption of an energy product. For electricity production,
it is calculated as the difference between the supply and sale of electricity. In the case of district
heating, distribution loss is estimated to comprise 20% of the district heating supplied to the grid.
For gas works gas, the loss is estimated to be 4%. In the case of natural gas, the loss is calculated
from year to year.
Electricity capacity The maximum instantaneous electricity production from a power plant, combined heat and power
plant, wind turbine etc. Electricity capacity is measured in MW (megawatt) or kW (kilowatt). Elec-
tricity capacity does not indicate a plant's actual production; rather, the maximum a plant can pro-
duce at a given moment.

TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS
56

Electricity plant coal Hard coal used in Danish power plants.
Energy consumption, observed Registered energy consumption for a given calendar year.
Energy intensity Energy consumption in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) or gross value added (GVA) at
fixed prices (2005 prices, chained values).
Extraction and refining Production of natural gas and crude oil and the processing of crude oil and refinery feedstocks.
Final energy consumption Sum of the consumption by the final users, i.e. private and public enterprises and households. The
energy is used in the production of goods and services, heating, lighting, other usage of appliances
and transport. There is also consumption for non-energy purposes, i.e. lubrication, cleaning, and
bitumen (asphalt) for roads. Energy consumption in connection with extraction of energy,
refining and transformation is not included in final energy consumption. Identification and
division of final energy consumption is in accordance with the guidelines from the IEA and
Eurostat. Energy consumption for road, rail, sea, air and pipeline transport, irrespective of
consumer, is classified in a special main category. Hence, energy used in industry and
households is calculated excluding consumption for transportation purposes.
Fuel equivalent Energy content of a quantity of fuel used for producing a given amount of electricity, district
heating or gas works gas. In the case of oil, coal, natural gas and renewable energy etc., there is
no difference between the amount of energy measured in direct energy content and in fuel
equivalent.
Gas/diesel oil Gas and diesel oils have the same boiling point interval in the refining process. They can be used
for the same purposes to a great extent. No distinction is therefore made between the two
products in the Danish energy statistics. There are usually more stringent environmental and
safety specifications for automotive diesel oil than for heating gas oil. The requirements for marine
diesel are less stringent.
Gas works gas Gas produced in urban gas stations. Gas works gas was formerly produced from coal and oil, but
production since 1990 has almost exclusively been by transforming natural gas.
Geothermal energy Heat energy from the core of the earth. The energy is used to heat water which then is used to
either produce district heating or power. In Denmark, geothermal energy is used only for
production of district heating. The efficiency is assumed to be 50 %.
Gross domestic product (GDP) The total market value of all final goods and services produced within the borders of a nation
during a specified period.
Gross energy consumption Observed energy consumption adjusted for fuel consumption related to foreign trade in electricity.
Gross energy consumption, adjusted Observed gross energy consumption adjusted for climatic variations in relation to a normal year.
Gross value added (GVA) Equal to GDP at base prices and calculated for the individual enterprise as production at base
prices minus production-related consumption at purchasing prices.
Heat pumps An energy-producing appliance regarded as a form of renewable energy. The volume of energy
produced by heat pumps is calculated as the difference between the amount of energy supplied
and the electricity consumed by heat pumps.
Imports and exports Imports and exports refer to goods that have crossed national borders. Greenland and the Faroe
Islands are regarded as abroad.
International marine bunkers Includes deliveries of energy products (oil) in Denmark to sea-going ships of all flags, including
warships and foreign fishing vessels. Deliveries to domestic shipping and Danish fishing vessels
are not included. International marine bunkers are not included in national energy consumption.
Joule Unit of measurement of energy. In Danish energy statistics, the following units are used: 1 PJ
(Peta Joule) = 10
3
TJ (Tera) = 10
6
GJ (Giga).
JP1 (Kerosene type jet fuel) Jet Petroleum 1. Designates a petroleum quality different from other types of petroleum in terms
of stringent requirements for low water content and unsaturated compounds. Used in aviation.
Large-scale power plants Plants that generate electricity and/or heat for sale to third parties as their primary activity. There
are 19 such plants. West of the Great Belt are Vendsyssel, Aalborg, Studstrup, Aarhus, Randers,
Skrbk, Vestkraft, Herning, Ensted and Funen power stations. East of the Great Belt are
Amager, H.C. rsted, Svanemllen, Asns, Avedre, Kyndby, Stigsns, Masned and stkraft.
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas (liquid gas, bottled gas). The term for propane, butane and combinations
of the two. Used in industry and heating, food preparation and as a propellant. Previously, LPG was
also used as a raw material for producing gas works gas.
LVN Light Virgin Naphtha (light petrol). Used as a component for petrol production and as a raw
material for the petrochemical industry. Previously, LVN was also used to produce gas works gas.
Manufacturing The Danish Energy Agency defines manufacturing differently than Statistics Denmark. Refineries
are not included as manufacturing industries in Danish Energy Agency statistics; rather, they are
sorted in a particular category of consumption. Conversely, the extraction of gravel, stone, clay,
salt etc. is included.
TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS
57

Non-energy use Energy products included in Total energy consumption, which are not used for energy purposes.
This category includes products such as white spirit, lubricants and bitumen.
Orimulsion Type of heavy oil emulsified in water. It comes from the area around the Orinoco River in
Venezuela.
Petroleum coke A solid oil by-product appearing when refining fuel oil in a so-called coker. Approximately 10 % of
the material is deposited in the coker as petroleum coke. Primarily used in industry.
Primary production Production of crude oil, coal, natural gas, renewable energy etc.
PSO PSO include costs for public service obligations in connection with electricity supply. Such costs are
paid by all electricity consumers. PSO includes support to the production of environment-friendly
electricity, grid connection of small-scale combined heat and power plants and wind turbines,
security of supply, environmental studies about wind turbines, and research and development
related to environment-friendly electricity generation.
Recycling Understood as energy products included in the energy balance for a second time. Currently
includes lubricants that have previously been included in final energy consumption for non-energy
purposes and which are subsequently included as waste oil.
Refinery feedstocks Processed oil destined for further processing, products in a stage between raw materials and
finished products.
Refinery gas The lightest fractions obtained in the distillation of crude oil. Refinery gas is non-condensable at
normal atmospheric pressure. Primarily used as refinery fuel.
Renewable energy Renewable energy is defined as solar energy, wind power, hydropower, geothermal power,
biomass (straw, wood chips, firewood, wood pellets, waste wood, fish oil, and renewable wastes),
biogas, bioethanol, biodiesel, and heat pumps.
Renewable energy etc. Renewable energy etc. is defined as "renewable energy" including non-renewable wastes.
Revision of energy statistics The energy statistics are based on information from multiple sources and a range of assumptions.
Insofar as new data about energy supply or consumption become available for a given year, the
energy statistics will be revised accordingly. Every year, energy consumption in manufacturing is
revised as the statement is partly based on an estimate, which can be replaced by factual data
from Statistics Denmark the following year. Also new information concerning production and
consumption of renewable energy, including biomass may be provided. Finally, revision of the
statistics may be based on a change in delimitations and calculation assumptions.
Small-scale combined heat and
power (CHP) plants Plants not included in the list of large-scale power plants, where the production of power and heat
is the main activity.
Statistical difference The difference between calculations of energy consumption based on different sources, which
theoretically ought to produce identical results.
Structure effect Changes in energy consumption owing to shifts in the structure of industry.
Surplus heat Residual heat from industrial production. Autoproducers sell a great deal of surplus heat from
processing to the district heating network. District heating resulting from surplus heat is not
added to fuels in the energy statistics. Transformation gains are therefore to be made in the
case of district heating from autoproducers.
Thermal electricity generation Thermal electricity generation is defined as electricity generated by the combustion of fuels. Thus,
it is electricity not generated using wind power, hydropower, wave power or solar cells.
Total energy supply Denmark's total energy supply is domestic production of energy adjusted for imports and exports
(including cross-border trade) in oil products, international marine bunkers, and stock changes.
The difference between total energy supply and actual energy consumption, observed is the
statistical difference.
Transformation Production of electricity, district heating and gas works gas.
Transformation loss Difference between total input and output in the transformation process.
Transport All transport activity with the exception of transport within the company's premises.
Volume weight The relationship between the weight of a specific volume of liquid and the weight of an equal
volume of water at 4 degrees Celsius, measured in tonne/m
3
.
Waste oil Oil used as fuel in industry and transformation, previously included in the energy statistics as
lubricants.

KEY FIGURES AND THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE ENERGY STATISTICS
58


Danish energy key figures
Change
Denmark 1980 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009 2010 2011 '90-'11
Energy intensity, gross energy consumption [TJ per DKK
million GDP, 2005 prices]
0.889 0.729 0.666 0.578 0.551 0.538 0.530 0.522 -28.5%
Energy intensity, final energy consumption [TJ per DKK
million GDP, 2005 prices]
0.666 0.538 0.504 0.448 0.431 0.417 0.413 0.414 -23.1%
Gross energy consumption per capita [GJ] 159 160 161 157 157 148 147 145 -9.0%
Final energy consumption per capita [GJ] 119 118 122 122 123 115 115 115 -2.1%

Degree of self-sufficiency [%] 5 52 78 139 155 124 121 110 112%
Dependency of oil [%] 67 43 45 45 41 39 38 38 -13.0%
Renewable energy - share of gross energy consumption
[%]
2.7 5.9 6.8 9.6 14.5 17.7 20.2 21.8 273%

Refinery capacity [Million tonnes per year] 9.0 9.0 11.7 9.2 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0
Electricity capacity [MW] 6 618 9 142 10 777 12 598 13 091 13 395 13 438 13 586 48.6%
Wind turbine capacity - share of total electricity capacity
[%]
- 3.8 5.7 19.0 23.9 26.0 28.3 29.1 675%
Net electricity imports - share of domestic supply [%] -5.1 22.5 -2.3 1.9 3.8 1.0 -3.2 3.8

CHP production - share of total thermal electricity pro-
duction [%]
18 37 40 56 64 55 61 63 71.7%
CHP production - share of total district heating produc-
tion [%]
39 59 74 82 82 77 77 76 29.8%
Renewable energy - share of total domestic electricity
supply [%]
0.1 2.6 5.5 15.9 27.4 28.9 34.8 40.7 1 934%

CO
2
emissions per capita [tonnes] 12.2 11.9 11.5 10.4 9.7 9.0 8.5 8.3 -30.9%
CO
2
emissions per GNP (tonnes per million GDP] 69 55 48 38 34 33 31 30 -45.7%
CO
2
emissions per fuel unit [kilogram CO
2
per GJ] 77 75 71 66 62 61 58 57 -24.1%
CO
2
emissions per kWh electricity sold [gram CO
2
per
kWh]
1 034 938 808 636 541 571 509 478 -49.0%
CO
2
emissions per consumed unit of district heating
[Kilogram CO
2
per GJ]
95 62 51 44 39 38 33 34 -45.0%

Note 1: Data on energy consumption and emissions have been adjusted for the fuel consumption linked to foreign trade in electricity
and climate variations relative to a normal weather year.
Note 2: GDP is in 2005 prices.








Energy agency climate variation adjustment method
Climate adjustment takes place by adjusting - for each of the areas of consumption included in the statistics - the
share of the energy consumption that consists of space heating and depends on the climate. The adjustment takes
place by comparing annual degree-day figures to the degree-day figure in a normal weather year. A warm year com-
pared to the normal weather year gives a small degree-day figure, which means the energy consumption is adjusted
upwards. The opposite applies to a relatively cold year. The degree-day figures are provided by the Danish Meteoro-
logical Institute.
Ideally, the degree days for the various years should distribute fairly evenly around the normal year. Since 1988, the
degree-day figure has however been lower than "normal", except for in 1993, 1996 and 2010. In order to arrive at an
adjustment that takes into account an ever warmer climate, the Danish Energy Agency has decided to use a normal
year derived by taking a sliding average of the degree-day figures for the last 20 years.


KEY FIGURES AND THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE ENERGY STATISTICS
59


The calorific value and CO
2
-content in 2011 Tax rates in 2011

Calorific
values
CO
2
emissions
factors

Energy taxes CO
2
-taxes
GJ/tonne Kg/GJ DKK/GJ DKK/GJ
Crude oil, North Sea 43.00 - Transport
Refinery feedstocks 42.70 - Motor gasoline 119.27 11.54
Refinery gas 52.00 56.90 Light diesel oil 78.29 11.71
LPG 46.00 65.00 Low sulphur diesel oil 78.29 10.73
LVN 44.50 65.00 Other uses
Motor gasoline 43.80 73.00 LPG 58.35 10.28
Aviation gasoline 43.80 73.00 Other kerosene 59.80 12.07
JP4 43.80 72.00 Heating diesel oil 58.65 12.42
Other kerosene 43.50 72.00 Fuel oil 58.35 12.35
JP1 43.50 72.00 Petroleum coke

65.73 16.40
Gas-/diesel oil 42.70 74.00 Natural gas 58.49 9.04
Fuel oil 40.65 78.00 Electricity plant coal 66.86 16.22
Orimulsion 27.65 80.00 Coke 65.73 16.40
Petroleum coke 31.40 92.00 Brown coal 60.60 15.61
Waste oil 41.90 78.00 Electricity 202.78 17.50
White spirit 43.50 - Electricity for space heating
1)
170.56 17.50
Bitumen 39.80 - 1)
For consumption of more than 4000 kWh/yr in households
Lubricants 41.90 -
Natural gas GJ/1000 Nm3 39.51 56.97


Gas works gas 21.37 - Volume weights in 2011
Coal in electricity plants 24.38 95.00 tonne/m
3

Other hard coal 24.38 95.00 Motor gasoline 0.75
Coke 29.30 108.00 Aviation gasoline 0.71
Brown coal briquettes 18.30 94.60 JP4 0.76
Straw 14.50 - Other kerosene 0.80
Wood chips GJ/m
3
(loose
volume)
9.30 - JP1 0.80
Firewood, hard wood
GJ/m
3

10.40 - Gas-/diesel oil 0.84
Firewood, soft wood GJ/m
3
7.60 - Bio ethanol 0.79
Wood pellets 17.50 - Bio diesel 0.88
Wood waste 14.70 -
Wood waste GJ/ m
3
(loose
volume)
3.20 - Conversion factors
Bio gas GJ/1000 m
3
23.00 -
In order to make comparison easier, all the figures for energy
consumption are stated in Tera Joules (TJ) or Peta Joules (PJ).
Wastes 10.50 37.00
Bio diesel 37.50 - 1 kilo Joule = 1000 J
Bio ethanol 26.70 - 1 Mega Joule = 1000 kJ
Bio oil 34.30 - 1 Giga Joule = 1000 MJ
1 Tera Joule = 1000 GJ
Climate adjustment 1 Peta Joule = 1000 TJ
Degree days 1 kWh = 3.6 MJ
Years Years Normal year 1 MWh = 3.6 GJ
2004 3113 3261 1 GWh = 3.6 TJ
2005 3068 3224 1 Btu (British thermal unit) = 1055.66 J
2006 2908 3188 1 Barrel (bbl) = 158 litre
2007 2807 3136 1 mtoe (mill. tonnes oil equivalent) = 41.868 PJ
2008 2853 3120
2009 3061 3127
2010 3742 3171
2011 2970 3156


Note: the climate-dependent share of space heating in the
different areas of consumption is adjusted for climate variations
on the basis of degree days from the Danish Meteorological Institute.

The purpose of adjusting for climate variations is to show figures for
energy consumption which are independent of climate fluctuations in
individual years. A high number of degree days relative to a normal
year indicates a relatively cold year and the annual observed energy
consumption is therefore adjusted downward to indicate what the
energy consumption would have been had it been a normal weather
year. In contrast a low number of degree days leads to an upward
adjustment of the observed energy consumption.

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ENERGY STATISTICS 2011
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