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A Zener diode is based on the

principle of:



Thermionic emission

Tunneling of charge carriers across the junction

Diffusion of charge carriers across the junction

None of the above










Silicon diode is less suited for low voltage rectifier operation
because:


Its breakdown voltage is high

Its reverse saturation current is low

Its cut-in voltage is high

None of the above










Silicon is not suitable for fabrication of light-emitting diodes
because it is:


An indirect band gap semiconductor

A direct band gap semiconductor

A wide band gap semiconductor

None of the above










For an abrupt junction Varactor diode, the dependence of the
device capacitance (C), an applied reverse-bias (V) is given by:


C Vl/3

C VI/2

C V-1I3

None of the above












A Zener diode:


Has a high forward voltage rating

Has a sharp breakdown at low reverse voltage

Is useful as an amplifier

None of the above


Which of these is a best description of a
Zener diode?



It operates in the reverse region

It is a constant voltage device

It is a constant current device

None of the above










When two Zener diodes each of 10 V and 15 V are connected in
series, then the overall voltage between them when they are in
conduction is


10 V

25 V

15 V

Zero










In a standard regulator circuit that uses Zener diode 10 V, the
input voltage varies from 25 to 40 V, load current varies from 10 to
20 mA, and the minimum Zener current is 5 mA, the value of the
series resistance in ohms will be:



1500

1200

600

None of the above











The LED is usually made of materials like:


GaAs

C and Si

GeAs

None of the above









Varactor diodes are used in FM receivers to obtain:



Automatic frequency control

Automatic gain control

Automatic volume control

None of the above



No-load voltage of power supply is 100 V and full-load
voltage is 80 V, the percentage of regulation is:



0

25

15.75

None of the above










Zener diodes are used as:



Reference voltage elements

Reference current elements

Reference resistance

None of the above










Zener diodes are:



Specially doped pn junctions


Normally doped pn junctions

Lightly doped pn junctions

None of the above









Silicon diode is less suited for low voltage rectifier operation
because:


It can withstand high temperatures

Its reverse saturation current is low

Its breakdown voltage is high

None of the above










Silicon is not suitable for fabrication of light emitting diodes
because it is:


An indirect band gap semiconductor

A direct band gap semiconductor

A wide band gap semiconductor

None of the above



In an abrupt junction Varactor diode, the dependence
of the device capacitance (C) and applied reverse-bias
(V) is given by:



C VI/3

C V-1I3

C VII2

None of the above










A general propose diode is more likely to suffer an avalanche
breakdown rather than a Zener breakdown because:


It is lightly doped

It is heavily doped


It has weak covalent bonds

None of the above









A Zener diode:



Has a high forward voltage rating

Is useful as an amplifier

Has a sharp breakdown at low reverse voltage

None of the above










If the junction temperature of LED is increased the radiant output
power:


Decreases

Increases

Remains the same

None of the above










The Zener effect is valid approximately:



Below 5 V

Above 5 V

Equal to 5 V

None of these










Each diode of full-wave centre-tapped rectifier conducts for:



360

270


90

180









The transfer characteristics of a diode relates to:



The diode current and the input voltage

The diode current and the output voltage

The output voltage and the input voltage

None of the above



The clipping action of a diode requires that its forward
resistance:



Be zero

Have a finite value

Be infinite

None of the above










For a low voltage rectification:



Two diode full-wave rectifier is suitable

Both bridge and full-wave rectifier are suitable

Bridge rectifier is suitable

None of the above










If V
m
is the peak value of an applied voltage in a half-wave rectifier
with a large capacitor across the load, then PIV is:


V
m


V
m
/2

2V
m



None of the above









The induction filter is mostly used for rectifiers with:



Half-wave rectifiers

Light loads

High loads

None of the above










The most significant component of ripple voltage in a half-wave
rectifier is contained in:


Fundamental frequency

Second harmonic

DC component

None of the above










The disadvantages of capacitor input LC filter are:



High cost, more weight and external field produced by a series inductor

High cost, less weight

Low cost, more weight

None of the above










Larger the value of the capacitor filter:



Smaller the dc voltage across the load

Longer the time that current pulse flows through the diode

Larger the peak current in the rectifying diode


None of the above









Which rectifier requires four diodes?



Half-wave voltage doublers

Full-wave voltage doublers

Full-wave bridge circuit

None of the above



P N JUNCTION DIODE Multiple Choice Questions - 2
1. The arrow direction in the diode symbol indicates
a. Direction of electron flow.
b. Direction of hole flow (Direction of conventional current)
c. Opposite to the direction of hole flow
d. None of the above

2. The knee voltage (cut in voltage) of Si diode is
a. 0.2 V b. 0.7 V c. 0.8 V d. 1.0 V

3. When the diode is forward biased, it is equivalent to
a. An off switch b. An On switch
c. A high resistance d. None of the above

4. Under normal reverse bias voltage applied to diode, the reverse current in Si diode
a. 100 mA b. order of A
c. 1000 A d. None of these

5. Avalanche breakdown in a diode occurs when
a. Potential barrier is reduced to zero.
b. Forward current exceeds certain value.
c. Reverse bias exceeds a certain value.
d. None of these

6. Reverse saturation current in a Silicon PN junction diode nearly doubles for very
a. 20 rise in temp. b. 50 rise in temp.
c. 60 rise in temp. d. 100 rise in temp.

7. A forward potential of 10V is applied to a Si diode. A resistance of 1 K is also in series with the
diode. The current is
a. 10 mA b. 9.3 mA c. 0.7 mA d. 0

8. In the diode equation, the voltage equivalent of temperature is
a. 11600/T b. T/11600 c. T x 11600 d. 11600/T2


9. Barrier potential at the room tem. (250
C) is 0.7V, its value at 1250 C is
a. 0.5 V b. 0.3 V c. 0.9 V d. 0.7 V

10. When a reverse bias is applied to a diode, it will
a. Raise the potential barrier
b. Lower the potential barrier
c. Increases the majority-carrier a current greatly
d. None of these



Answers
1. (b) 2. (b) 3. (b) 4. (b)
5. (c) 6. (d) 7. (b) 8. (b)
9. (a) 10. (a)


1.
One eV is equal to ________ J.
A. 6.02 10
23

B. 1.6 10
19

C. 6.25 10
18

D. 1.66 10
24

Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option B
Explanation:
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2.
The diode ________.
A. is the simplest of semiconductor devices
B. has characteristics that closely match those of a simple switch
C. is a two-terminal device
D. All of the above
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option D
Explanation:
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3.
It is not uncommon for a germanium diode with an I
s
in the order of 12 A at 25C to have
leakage current of 0.1 mA at a temperature of 100C.
A. True B. False
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4.
What does a high resistance reading in both forward- and reverse-bias directions indicate?
A. A good diode
B. An open diode
C. A shorted diode
D. A defective ohmmeter
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option B
Explanation:
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5.
Which capacitance dominates in the reverse-bias region?
A. depletion
B. conversion
C. 40 Diffusion
D. 140 None of the above
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option A
Explanation:
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6.
What is the state of an ideal diode in the region of nonconduction?
A. An open circuit
B. A short circuit
C. Unpredictable
D. Undefined
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option A
Explanation:
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7.
How many orbiting electrons does the germanium atom have?
A. 4 B. 14
C. 32 D. 41
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option C
Explanation:
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8.
How many terminals does a diode have?
A. 1 B. 2
C. 3 D. 4
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option B
Explanation:
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9.
What unit is used to represent the level of a diode forward current I
F
?
A. pA
B. nA
C. A
D. mA
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option D
Explanation:
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10.
The diffused impurities with ________ valence electrons are called donor atoms.
A. 4 B. 3
C. 5 D. 0
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option C
Explanation:
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11.
In which of the following color(s) is (are) LEDs presently available?
A. Yellow
B. White
C. Orange
D. All of the above
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option D
Explanation:
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12.
Determining r
d
to a high degree of accuracy from a characteristic curve is very accurate.
A. True B. False
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option B
Explanation:
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13.
What is the range of the operating voltage level for LEDs?
A. 512 mV
B. 1.73.3 V
C. 512 V
D. 2025 V
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option B
Explanation:
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14.
At what kind of operating frequency diffusion or transition is a capacitor represented in parallel
with the ideal diode?
A. Low frequency
B. Moderate frequency
C. Mid frequency
D. Very high frequency
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option D
Explanation:
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15.
Which of the following devices can check the condition of a semiconductor diode?
A. Digital display meter (DDM)
B. Multimeter
C. Curve tracer
D. All of the above
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option D
Explanation:
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16.
Which of the following is an atom composed of?
A. Electrons
B. Protons
C. Neutrons
D. All of the above
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option D
Explanation:
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17.
The condition of a semiconductor diode can be determined quickly using a ________.
A. DDM
B. VOM
C. curve tracer
D. Any of the above
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option D
Explanation:
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18.
How many valence electrons does a silicon atom have?
A. 1 B. 2
C. 3 D. 4
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option D
Explanation:
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19.
What is the resistor value of an ideal diode in the region of conduction?
A. 0
B. 5 k
C. Undefined
D. Infinity
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option A
Explanation:
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20.
Calculate the power dissipation of a diode having I
D
= 40 mA.
A. 28 mW
B. 28 W
C. 280 mW
D. Undefined
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option A
Explanation:
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Calculate static resistance R
D
of a diode having I
D
= 30 mA and V
D
= 0.75 V.
A. 25
B. 40
C. 0.04
D. 0.025
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option A
Explanation:
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22.
In which of the following is the light intensity measured?
A. Candela B. Efficacy
C. Flux D. Illumination
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option A
Explanation:
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23.
Calculate I
D
if R
D
= 30 and V
D
= 0.84 V.
A. 28 mA
B. 0.028 mA
C. 2.8 A
D. 280 A
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option A
Explanation:
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24.
Which of the following elements is most frequently used for doping pure Ge or Si?
A. Boron
B. Gallium
C. Indium
D. All of the above
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option D
Explanation:
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25.
Calculate the temperature coefficient in %/ C of a 10-V nominal Zener diode at 25 C if the
nominal voltage is 10.2 V at 100 C.
A. 0.0238 B. 0.0251
C. 0.0267 D. 0.0321
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option C
Explanation:
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26.
In general, LEDs operate at voltage levels from ________ V to ________ V.
A. 1.0, 3.0
B. 1.7, 3.3
C. 0.5, 4.0
D. None of the above
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option B
Explanation:
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27.
Determine the nominal voltage for the Zener diode at a temperature of 120 C if the nominal
voltage is 5.1 volts at 25 C and the temperature coefficient is 0.05%/ C.
A. 4.6 V
B. 4.86 V
C. 5.1 V
D. 5.34 V
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option D
Explanation:
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28.
What is the maximum power rating for LEDs?
A. 150 mW
B. 500 mW
C. 1 W
D. 10 W
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option A
Explanation:
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29.
The ________ diode model is employed most frequently in the analysis of electronic systems.
A. ideal device
B. simplified
C. piecewise-linear
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option B
Explanation:
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30.
What is the value of the transition capacitance for a silicon diode when V
D
= 0? (Choose the best
answer.)
A. 1 pF
B. 3 pF
C. 5 pF
D. 10 pF
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option B
Explanation:
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31.
Which of the following ratings is true?
A. Si diodes have higher PIV and narrower temperature ranges than Ge diodes.
B. Si diodes have higher PIV and wider temperature ranges than Ge diodes.
C. Si diodes have lower PIV and narrower temperature ranges than Ge diodes.
D. Si diodes have lower PIV and wider temperature ranges than Ge diodes.
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option B
Explanation:
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32.
The ideal diode is a(n) ________ circuit in the region of nonconduction.
A. open B. short
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option A
Explanation:
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33.
Which capacitance dominates in the forward-bias region?
A. Diffusion
B. Transition
C. Depletion
D. None of the above
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option A
Explanation:
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34.
In what state is a silicon diode if the voltage drop across it is about 0.7 V?
A. No bias
B. Forward bias
C. Reverse bias
D. Zener region
Answer & Explanation
Answer: Option B
Explanation:
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A resistor with colour bands Red, Violet, Green and Black will have a value











Q.6
In SCR, the turn ON time

(A)is independent of Vg
(B)decreases with increase of Vg
(C)varies as Vg
(D)varies as Vg

Ans: AQ.7

Avalanche breakdown results basically due to
(A)impact ionisation
(B)strong electric field across the junction
(C)emission of electrons
(D)rise in temperature

Ans: AQ8

Dynamic plate resistance of pentode is of the order of
(A)1 K
(B)10 K
(C)100 K
(D)1M

Ans: DQ.9
At room temperature, the current in an intrinsic semiconductor is due to
(A)holes
(B)electronics
(C)ions
(D)holes and electronics

Ans: D

Q.10
The varactor diode is usually
(A)Forward biased
(B)reverse biased
(C)Unbiased
(D)holes and electronics

Ans: BQ.11

The diode in which impurities are heavily doped is
(A)Varactor diode
(B)PIN diode
(C)Tunnel diode
(D)Zener diode

Ans: CQ.12

A transistor in common emitter mode has
(A)a high input resistance and low output resistance
(B)a medium input resistance and high output resistance
(C)a very low input resistance and a low output resistance
(D)a high input resistance and a high output resistance

Ans: B

Diode Rectifiers and Filters

1. In a half wave rectifier, the load current flows for what part of the cycle.
a. 0
0

b. 900

c. 1800

d. 3600


2. In a full wave rectifier, the current in each diode flows for
a. whole cycle of the input signal
b. half cycle of the input signal
c. more than half cycle of the input signal
d. none of these

3. in a full wave rectifier, if the input frequency is 50 Hz, then output frequency will be
a. 50 Hz
b. 75 Hz
c. 100 Hz
d. 200 Hz

4. In a center tap full wave rectifier, if Vm is the peak voltage between center tap and one end
of the secondary, the maximum voltage coming across the reverse bias diode is
a. Vm
b. 2 Vm
c. Vm/2
d. Vm/2


5. The maximum efficiency of full wave rectification is
a. 40.6%
b. 100%
c. 81.2%
d. 85.6%

6. In a bridge type full wave rectifier, if Vm is the peak voltage across the secondary of the
transformer, the maximum voltage coming across each reverse biased diode is
a. Vm
b. 2 Vm
c. Vm/2
d. Vm/2
7. To get a peak load voltage of 40V out of a bridge rectifier. What is the approximate rms
value of secondary voltage?
a. 0 V
b. 14.4 V
c. 28.3 V
d. 56.6 V




8. If the line frequency is 50 Hz, the output frequency of bridge rectifier is
a. 25 Hz
b. 50 Hz
c. 100 Hz
d. 200 Hz

9. The ripple factor of a bridge rectifier is
a. 0.482
b. 0.812
c. 1.11
d. 1.21

10. The bridge rectifier is preferred to an ordinary two diode full wave rectifier because
a. it needs much smaller transformer for the same output
b. no center tap required
c. less PIV rating per diode
d. all the above
11. The basic purpose of filter is to
a. minimize variations in ac input signal
b. suppress harmonics in rectified output
c. remove ripples from the rectified output
d. stabilize dc output voltage

12. The use of a capacitor filter in a rectifier circuit gives satisfactory performance only when the
load
a. current is high
b. current is low
c. voltage is high
d. voltage is low

13. A half wave rectifier is equivalent to
a. clamper circuit
b. a clipper circuit
c. a clamper circuit with negative bias
d. a clamper circuit with positive bias

14. The basic reason why a full wave rectifier has a twice the efficiency of a half wave rectifier is
that
a. it makes use of transformer
b. its ripple factor is much less
c. it utilizes both half-cycle of the input
d. its output frequency is double the line frequency


15. In a rectifier, larger the value of shunt capacitor filter
a. larger the peak-to-peak value of ripple voltage
b. larger the peak current in the rectifying diode
c. longer the time that current pulse flows through the diode
d. smaller the dc voltage across the load

16. In a LC filter, the ripple factor,
a. Increases with the load current
b. increases with the load resistance
c. remains constant with the load current
d. has the lowest value

17. The main reason why a bleeder resistor is used in a dc power supply is that it
a. keeps the supply ON
b. improves voltage regulation
c. improves filtering action
d. both (b) and (c)

18. Which rectifier requires four diodes?
a. half-wave voltage doubler
b. full-wave voltage doubler
c. full-wave bridge circuit
d. voltage quadrupler

19. The dc output polarity from a half-wave rectifier can be reversed by reversing
a. the diode
b. transformer primary
c. transformer secondary
d. both (b) and (c)




Answers
1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (b)
5. (c) 6. (a) 7. (c) 8. (c)
9. (a) 10. (d) 11. (c) 12. (b)
13. (b) 14. (c) 15. (b) 16. (c)
17. (d) 18. (c) 19. (a)

Zener Diode Voltage Regulators

1. Which of the following is not an essential element of a dc power supply
a. Rectifier
b. Filter
c. Voltage regulator
d. Voltage amplifier

2. What is true about the breakdown voltage in a Zener diode?
a. It decreases when current increases.
b. It destroys the diode.
c. It equals the current times the resistance.
d. It is approximately constant.

3. Which of these is the best description of a Zener diode?
a. It is a rectifier diode.
b. It is a constant voltage device.
c. It is a constant current device.
d. It works in the forward region.

4. A Zener diode
a. Is a battery
b. Has a constant voltage in the breakdown region
c. Has a barrier potential of 1 V
d. Is forward biased

5. The voltage across the Zener resistance is usually
a. Small
b. Large
c. Measured in volts
d. Subtracted from the breakdown voltage

6. If the series resistance increases in an unloaded Zener regulator, the Zener current
a. Decreases
b. Stays the same
c. Increases
d. Equals the voltage divided by the resistance


7. In the second approximation, the total voltage across the Zener diode is the ssum of the
breakdown voltage and the voltage across the
a. Source
b. Series resistor
c. Zener resistance
d. Zener diode

8. The load voltage is approximately constant when a Zener diode is
a. Forward biased
b. Reverse biased
c. Operating in the breakdown region
d. Unbiased

9. In a loaded Zener regulator, which is the largest current?
a. Series current
b. Zener current
c. Load current
d. None of these

10. If the load resistance increases in a Zener regulator, the Zener current
a. Decreases
b. Stays the same
c. Increases
d. Equals the source voltage divided by series resistance

11. When the source voltage increases in a Zener regulator, which of these currents remain
approximately constant ?
a. Series current
b. Zener current
c. Load current
d. None of these

2. If the Zener diode in a Zener regulator is connected with the wrong polarity, the load voltage
will be closest to
a. 0.7 V
b. 10 V
c. 14 V
d. 18 V

13. A voltage regulator is a circuit which
a. Converts the ac voltage to dc voltage
b. Smoothens the ac variation in dc output voltage
c. Maintains a constant dc output voltage inspite of the fluctuations in ac input voltage or
load current
d. None of the above

14. The percentage voltage regulation of voltage supply providing 100V unloaded and 95V at full
load is
a. 5.3%
b. 5.0%
c. 0.53%
d. None of the above

15. Which of the following voltage regulator is preferred for providing large values of load
current
a. Zener diode shunt regulator
b. Transistor series regulator
c. Transistor shunt regulator
d. None of the above

16. The main job of a voltage regulator is to provide a nearly .. output voltage.
a. sinusoidal
b. constant
c. smooth
d. fluctuating

17. A 10-V dc regulator power supply has a regulation of 0.005 per cent. Its output voltage will
vary within an envelope of millivolt.
a. 2.5
b. 0.5
c. 5
d. 0.05

18. An ideal voltage regulator has a voltage regulation of
a. 1
b. 100
c. 50
d. 0

19. In a Zener diode shunt voltage regulator, the diode regulates so long as it is kept in
condition.
a. forward
b. reverse
c. loaded
d. unloaded

20. A transistor series voltage regulator is called emitter-follower regulator because the emitter
of the pass transistor follows the voltage.
a. output
b. input
c. base
d. collector

Answers
1. (d) 2. (d) 3. (b) 4. (b)
5. (a) 6. (a) 7. (c) 8. (c)
9. (c) 10. (c) 11. (c) 12. (a)
13. (c) 14. (a) 15. (b) 16. (b)
17. (a) 18. (d) 19. (b) 20. (c)

Diode Clippers, Clampers & Voltage Multipliers

1. A circuit that removes positive or negative parts of waveform is called
a. clamper
b. clipper
c. diode clamp
d. limiter

2. A circuit that adds positive or negative dc voltage to an input sine wave is called
a. clamper
b. clipper
c. diode clamp
d. limiter

3. Voltage multipliers are circuits best used to produce
a. low voltage and low current
b. low voltage and high current
c. high voltage and low current
d. high voltage and high current

4. Half wave voltage multiplier can provide any degree of voltage multiplication by cascading
diodes and capacitors.
a. only doubler
b. only tripler
c. any multiplication
d. none of the above

5. Consider the following statements:
A clamper circuit
1. adds or subtracts a dc voltage to a waveform
2. does not change the waveform
3. amplifies the waveform
Which are correct?
a. 1, 2
b. 1, 3
c. 1, 2, 3
d. 2, 3

6. The circuit given in the figure is:
a. positive clipper
b. negative clipper
c. dual clipper
d. either (a) or (b)
R
D1 D2
V1
V2
Vi
RL V0

7. In the above figure D1 turns on when
a. Vi
is more positive than V1
b. Vi
is less than V1
c. Vi
is between V1 and V2
d. none of the above

8. In the given Figure D2 turns on when
a. Vi
is more positive than V1
b. Vi
is less positive than v1
c. Vi
is more negative than V2
d. Vi
is less negative than V2


9. A voltage tripler circuit uses
a. 2 diodes and 2 capacitors
b. 3 diodes and 3 capacitors
c. 2 diodes and 3 capacitors
d. 3 diodes and 2 capacitors

10. A voltage doubler circuit is fed by a voltage Vm Sin t. The output voltage will be nearly 2 Vm
only if
a. load resistance is small
b. load resistance is large
c. load resistance neither small nor large
d. either (a) or (c)

Answers
1. (b) 2. (a) 3. (c) 4. (c)
5. (a) 6. (c) 7. (a) 8. (c)
9. (b) 10. (b)