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1

OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATION


UNIT I
OPTICAL FIBERS-STRUCTURE
1.INTRODUCTION:
The communication medium is either wire conductor cable or free
space.
Nowadays a new medium is fiber optic cable.
Fiber is essentially a light pipe that is used to carry a light beam from
one place to another.
The transmitter & receiver operates at low frequency 10
3
HZ , medium
frequency 10
6
HZ & high frequency 10
14
HZ, depending upon the
requirement of communication at narrow band, medium band or broad
band frequencies.
Optical fiber cables are working at 1300nm,1500nm. In future we will
go to higher wavelengths around 2500nm.
ADVANTAGES:
High speed.
Low loss
Flexibility
Wide channel
Low size & weight
Low interruption(interference & crosstalk)
Broad bandwidth.
Long distance communication.
DISADVANTAGES:
High cost
Maintenance is difficult
Brittleness.
WDM:
To use multiple sources operating at slightly different wavelengths to
transmit several independent information streams over the same fiber.


2

1.1EVOLUTION OF FIBER OPTICS SYSTEMS:
In 1880, Alexander Graham Bell experimented with an apparatus called
Photophone. It was a device constructed from mirror that transmitted sound
waves over a beam of light.
There are three generations in fiber optics:
1.1.1 FIRST GENERATION:
- In 1977 ,GTE in Los Angeles & AT & T in Chicago were introduced. In
transmitter side they used LASER, it has high output power, high
frequency of operation, wide bandwidth.
- The operating wavelength is 800 to 900nm i.e., around 850nm.
- Fiber material is GaAS and bit rate is 45 to 140 Mbps and repeater
spacing is 10kms.
1.1.2SECOND GENERATION:
- The operating wavelength is around 1300nm.
- Fiber material is Indium Gallium Arsenide, Phosphorus and bit rate is
155 to 622 Mbps and repeater spacing is 40kms.
- Both single mode and multimode fibers are used in LAN, & its bit rate
is 10 to 100Mbps.
- In 1984, Single mode fibers were used for larger bandwidth.
1.1.3 THIRD GENERATION:
- The operating wavelength is around 1550nm.
- Bit rate is 2.5 Gbps and repeater spacing is 90kms.
- In 1970s start to use WDM to boost the transmission capacity. In
1990s combination of EDFA & WDM was used to boost fiber capacity
to even higher levels & to increase the transmission distance.
- In 1996 onwards bit rate is increased around 10 Gbps by using high
quality lasers.
- Introduce the optical amplifier in 1989 gave a major boost to fiber
transmission capacity.
- GaAlAs was first introduced but successful & widely used devices are
Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier(EDFA) ->1500nm and Prascodymium
Doped Fiber Amplifier(PDFA)->1300nm.
- The use of WDM offers a further boost in fiber transmission capacity.
- The basis of WDM is to use multiple sources operating at slightly
different wavelengths to transmit several independent information
streams over the same fiber.Mid-1990s, a combination of EDFAs &
3

WDM was used to boost fiber capacity to even higher levels and to
increase the transmission distance.

1.2ELEMENTS OF AN OPTICAL FIBER TRANSMISSION
LINK:
- The basic components in the optical fiber communication are light
source, the light signal transmitter, the optical fiber & photodetecting
receiver.
- The other elements include fiber and cable splices and connectors,
regenerators, beam splitters and optical amplifiers.

Information source:
- The information signal to be transmitted may be voice, video or
computer data. The first step is to convert the information into a form
compatible with the communications medium.

-










Figure:1.2.1.Major elements of an Optical fiber transmission link


4

1.3BASIC LAWS & DEFINITIONS:
1.3.1Refractive Index (or) Index of Refraction:
The ratio of speed of light in free space to the speed of light in medium
n= c/v
n-> 1.00 for air, 1.50 for glass, 1.33 for water, 2.42 for diamond

Figure:1.3.1.Law of reflection
1.3.2.Angle of incidence(1):
- The angle at which light strikes a surface with respect to normal is
called angle of incidence.
- The angle of incident light ray determines whether the ray will be
reflected or refracted.
1.3.3.Angle of Reflection(2):
The angle at which light is reflected from a surface is called angle of
reflection.The law of reflection is 1= 2
1.3.4.Snells law:
It states that how the light ray reacts when it meets the interface of two
media having different refactive indexes. Mathematically it can be expressed by
n1 sin 1=n2 sin 2
n1 = sin 2
n2 sin 1
5


Figure:1.3.4. Reflection of a light ray at material boundary
1.3.5.Critical angle:
The value of angle of incidence at which the angle of refraction is 90
o
is
called critical angle.
1= c, 2 =90
o

n1 sin c=n2 sin 90
o
sin c = n2
n1
1.3.6.Total Internal Reflection:
When the light ray strikes the interface at an angle greater than the
critical angle,the light ray does not pass through the interface into the glass.
Whan this occurs, the angle of reflection 2 is equal to angle of incidence 1.
This action is known as total internal reflection.

Figure:1.3.6.Total internal Reflection

6

Condition:
i. n1>n2
ii. 1> 2
1.3.7.Numerical aperture:
It is used to describe the light gathering or light collecting ability of an
optical fiber. It is referred as figure of merit commonly used to measure the
magnitude of acceptance angle. The numerical aperture for light entering the
glass fiber from an air medium is described mathematically as
NA=sinin
Where in-> acceptance angle
Acceptance angle is the maximum angle to the fiber axis at which light
may enter the fiber axis in order to be propagated.
in(max)=sin
-1
(n1
2
-n2
2
)
no
where no is refractive index of air( no=1)
Therefore in (max)=sin
-1
(n1
2
-n2
2
)
NA = sinin
Therefore NA= (n1
2
-n2
2
)
Hence acceptance angle is in=sin
-1
(NA
NA=sin in =(n1
2
-n2
2
)
NA= (n1+n2)(n1-n2)
= 2n1(n1-n2) [n1=n2]
Substitute =n1-n2
n1
therefore NA=2n1(n1 )
NA=n12


7

1.4.RAY OPTICS:
There are 2 types of rays in fiber.
i. Meridional rays.
ii. Skew rays.
1.4.1Meridional rays:
- These rays are confined to the meridian planes of fiber, which are the
planes the contain the axis of symmetry of the fiber.
- It lies in a single plane , its path is easy to track as it travels along the
fiber . It can be classified into
i. Bound rays.
ii. Unbound rays.

1.4.1.1.Bound rays:
That are trapped in the core and propagate along the fiber axis accordind
to the laws of geometrical optics.
1.4.1.2.Unbound rays:
That are refracted out of the fiber core.
1.4.2.Skew rays:
- These rays are confined to single plane , but instead tend to follow a
helical type path along the fiber.
- These rays are more difficult to track as they travel along the fiber ,
since do not lie in a single plane.
- A greater power loss arises when skew rays are included in analysis, that
are actually leaky rays.These leaky rays are only partially confined to
the core of circular optical fiber and attenuate as light travels along the
optical waveguide.
1.4.3.Meridional rays for Step index fiber:
- The light ray enters the fiber core from a medium of refractive index n at
an angle o with respect to fiber axis and strikes the core cladding
interface at an normal angle .
- If it strikes this interface at such an angle that it is totally internally
reflected, then meridional ray allows a zigzag path along the fiber core.
8










Figure:1.4.3.Meridional ray optics representation of the propagation mechanism
in an optical waveguide
From Snells law, the minimum angle min that supports total internal reflection
for meridional ray is
sin min = n2
n1
- The rays striking the core-cladding interface at angles less then min
will refract out of core and be lost in cladding. By applying Snells law
to the air-fiber face boundary, then the relationship is

nsinomax = n1 sinc =((n1
2
-n2
2
)
omax maximum entrance angle
Where c= -- c
2

NA for step-index fiber for meridional rays
NA=nsin omax= (n1
2
-n2
2
) = n12

1.5.MODES:
The number of paths for the light rays in the fiber. The set of
electromagnetic waves propagate inside any wave guide. There are two types of
modes are.
i. Single mode fiber:
Only one signal can propagate inside along the optical fiber parallel to
core axis.
9

ii. Multimode fiber:
The light takes many paths through the core. The number of paths
possible for multimode fiber cable depends on frequency of light signal,
refractive index of core and cladding and core diameter.
Index profile:
It is a graphical representation of value of refractive index of core
diameter. According to index profile we can divide the configuration into 3
types of modes.
i. Single mode step index fiber.
ii. Multimode step index fiber.
iii. Multimode graded index fiber.
Step index:
Refractive index of core is uniform throughout & undergoes a abrupt
change at cladding is called step-index fiber.
Graded index:
The core of refractive index is made to vary as a function of radial
distance from the center of fiber.
Advantages of cladding:
- Used to reduce the scattering loss.
- It protects the core from absorbing surface.
- It adds mechanical strength to the fiber.
Fiber structure:

INDEX PROFILE FIBER CROSS SECTION& RAY OPTICS











10




STEP INDEX

GRADED INDEX
- Refractive index of core is
uniform
- Not uniform & is made to vary
as a function of radial distance
from the center of fiber

- Light rays are meridional

- Light rays are skew rays
- No distortion for single mode
fiber &signal distortion in
multimode fiber
- Distortion is less because of
self focusing effect & light rays
reach the fiber at the same time
due to helical path or light
propagation
- Attenuation :
Single mode fiberless effect
Multimode fibermore effect
- Less attenuation

- Numerical Aperture:
Single mode fiberless
efficiency
Multimode fiberhigh
efficiency
- Less efficiency
- Band width:
Single mode fiber > (GHZ)
Multimode fiber 50 MHZ
- Theoretically infinite
bandwidth

1.6.MODE THEORY OF CIRCULAR WAVE GUIDE:
- In optical fiber, the core cladding boundary conditions lead to coupling
between electric & magnetic field components.
- This gives rise to hybrid modes, which makes optical waveguide
analysis more complex than metallic waveguide analysis.
- The hybrid modes are HE or EH modes depending on whether the
transverse electric or magnetic field is larger for that mode. The lower
order modes are
11
HE and
01
TE .
- Fibers usually are constructed so that the difference in the core &
cladding refractive index is very small, then only four field components
exists(n1-n2<<1).
- These 4 field components are called linearly polarized modes & labeled
as
jm
LP , where j & m are integers designating mode solutions.
11

- Each
m
LP
0
mode is derived from
m
HE
1
mode and each
m
LP
1
mode
comes from
m
TE
0
,
m
TM
0
and
m
HE
0
modes. Thus the fundamental
01
LP mode corresponds to
11
HE mode.
1.6.1.OVERVIEW OF MODES:
1. Guided modes waves should be propagated inside the core.

2. Radiated modes unbounded rays.

3. Leaky Modes more amount of power in cladding region.











Figure:1.6.1.1.Electric field Distributions for several of the lower-order
guided modes in a symmetrical slab waveguide
- The order of a mode is equal to number of field zeros across the guide.
- The order of mode is also related to the angle that the ray congruence
corresponding to this mode makes with the plane of waveguide or axis
of fiber.
- The plot shows that electric field of guided modes are not completely
confined to the central dielectric slab i.e., they do not go to zero at core
cladding interface & extends into the cladding.
- The field vary harmonically in core region of refractive index n1 and
decay exponentially outside of this region of refractive index n2.
12

- In lower- order modes, the fields are tightly concentrated near the center
of slab or axis of an optical fiber, with little penetration into cladding
region.
- In higher-order modes, the fields are distributed more towards the edge
of guide and penetrate further into the cladding region.
- Due to this penetration, radiated modes are propagated in cladding
region.
- In the leaky modes the fields are confined partially in the fiber core &
attenuated as they propagate along the fiber length due to radiation and
tunnel effect.
1.6.1.2.Tunnel effect:
- The leaky modes are continuously radiating their power out of the core
as they propagate along the fiber. This power radiation out of the wave
guide results from quantum mechanical phenomenon known as tunnel
effect.
- Therefore, in order to mode remains guided, the propagation factor
satisfy the condition
n2K < < n1K
Where, n1refractive index of core
n2 refractive index of cladding
K propagation constant =

t 2

The boundary between truly guided modes and leaky modes is defined by cutoff
condition.
1. =n2K cutoff condition
2. < Kn2 leaky modes
3. > Kn2 guided modes

- When becomes smaller than n2K ( < Kn2 ) power leaks out of core
into cladding region.
- Leaky modes can carry significant amounts of optical power in short
fibers.
1.7.KEYMODEL CONCEPTS:
- An important parameter connected with cutoff condition is V number is
V = 2a (n1
2
-n2
2
)
1/2

13


= 2a

- It determines how many modes a fiber can support for the lowest order
11
HE mode, each mode can exist only for values of V that exceed
certain limiting value.
- The modes are cutoff when =n2K . This occurs when V<=2.405.
- The
11
HE mode has not cutoff & exist only when the core diameter is
zero.
- The V number can also be used to express the number of modes M in a
multimode fiber when V is large.
- For this case, an estimate of total number of modes supported in a fiber
is

M = 1 (2a / )
2
(n1-n2)
2

2
= V
2

2
- As the V number approaches cutoff for any particular mode, more of the
power of that mode is in cladding. At the cutoff point, the mode
becomes radiative with all optical power of mode residing in the
cladding.
- For large value of V, the fraction of average optical power residing in
the cladding can be estimated by

clad
P = 4
P 3 M
Where, P total optical power in the field.
- Here M is directly proportional to V
2
, so the power flow in the cladding
region decreases as V increases. This increases the number of modes in
fiber , is not desirable for high-bandwidth capability.
1.8.MODAL EQUATION:
14

A cylindrical co-ordinate system (r,, Z)is defined with Z-axis. The
waveguide equation are ). 2 ..( ..........
). 1 ..( ..........
2
2
(

c
c
+
c
c
=
(

c
c

c
c
=
r
E H
r q
j
H
r
H E
r q
j
E
Z Z
Z Z
e
|
|
e
|
|
|
|

The solutions can be obtained in 2 cases.
Case(i):
In metallic wave guide
For TE modes
Z
E =0
For TM modes
Z
H =0
Case(ii):
For optical waveguide
Hybrid modes are exist. Both
Z
E and
Z
H are non-zero.
Waveguide equation for step-index fiber:
Using separation of variable method , we can find the guided modes in
step-index mode. The general equation for wave equation is
|
| e
|
|
jv
Z t j
Z
e F
e t F Z F
A t F Z F F r AF E
=
=
=

()
) ( ) (
) ..( )......... ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
) (
4 3
4 3 2 1


because of circular symmetry of waveguide each field component must
not change when the co-ordinate is increased by 2.
The fields are harmonically varied in the core region & deceying in
cladding region.
The solutions are Bessels function of first time of order , for this

For core region
15

) .( .......... )......... ( ) (
2
&
1
1
1
2 2
1
2
I ur JV r F
n
K K u
=
= =

t
|


For cladding region
) .( .......... )......... ( ) (
2
&
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
II r KV r F
n
K K
e

t
| e
=
= =

Sub:all equations in ( A)
For core region
) 3 ....( .......... ) ( ) (
) ( Z t j jv
Z
e j ur AJV a r E
| e |
= <
Similarly for magnetic component
) ( ) ( ur BJV a r H
Z
= < ) 4 ....( ..........
) ( Z t j jv
e j
| e |

For cladding region
) 5 ....( .......... ) ( ) (
) ( Z t j jv
Z
e j r CKV a r E
| e |
e

= >
) 6 ....( .......... ) ( ) (
) ( Z t j jv
Z
e j r DKV a r H
| e |
e

= >

The solution for must be find from boundary conditions
|
E and
z
E are
the tangential components for inside and outside dielectric.

|
H and
z
H are the tangential components for inside and outside
dielectric.
At the inner core cladding boundary

1 Z Z
E E =
When r=a,
) (
1
) (
Z t j jv
Z
e j ua AJV E
| e |
=
At the outside of boundary

2 Z Z
E E =

When r=a,
16

) (
2
) (
Z t j jv
Z
e j a CKV E
| e |
e

=
At boundary conditions
0
2 1
=
Z Z
E E
| |
| | ) 7 ......( .......... 0 ) ( ) (
0 ) ( ) (
) (
=
=

a CKV ua AJV
a CKV ua AJV e e
Z t j jv
e
e
| e |

Inside the core q
2
=u
2
using equation (3) and (4) sub: in (1) find
1
|
E

)
`

=
)
`

=
=
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c

] . . ) ( . ( [ . . ) ( . (
] . . ) ( . ( [ . . ) ( . (
. . ) ( '
. . ) (
. . ) (
. . ) (
) ( ' ) (
2
2
) ( ' ) (
2
1
) (
) (
) ( '
) (
Z t j jv Z t j jv
Z t j jv Z t j jv
Z t j jv Z
Z t j jv Z
Z t j jv Z
Z t j jv Z
e e a JV D e jv e a KV C
a
j
E
e u e ua JV B e jv e ua JV A
a u
j
E
e e a DKV
r
H
e jv e a CKV
E
e u e ua BJV
r
H
e jv e ua AJV
E
| e | | e |
| e | | e |
| e |
| e |
| e |
| e |
e e e e
|
e
|
e
|
|
e e
e
|
|

At boundary condition
0
2 1
= | | E E
) 8 .......( .......... 0 ). ( . ) ( . ). ( . ) ( .
'
2
'
2
=
)
`

+
)
`

e e e e
|
e
e
|
a KV D a KV
a
jv
C
j
u ua JV B ua JV
a
jv
A
u
j

At boundary condition
) 9 ......( .......... 0 ) ( . ) ( .
. ). ( .
. ). ( .
0
) (
2
) (
1
2 1
=
=
=
=

a KV D ua JV B
e e a KV D H
e e ua JV B H
H H
Z t j jv
Z
Z t j jv
Z
Z Z
e
e
| e |
| e |

At boundary condition
17

)
`

=
)
`

=
=


] . . ) ( . ( [ . . ) ( . (
] . . ) ( . ( [ . . ) ( . (
0
) ( ' ) (
2
2
) ( ' ) (
2
1
2 1
Z t j jv Z t j jv
Z t j jv Z t j jv
e e a JV C e jv e a KV D
a
j
H
e u e ua JV A e jv e ua JV B
a u
j
H
H H
| e | | e |
| e | | e |
e e e e
|
e
|
e
|
|
| |

At boundary condition
0
2 1
= | | H H
) 10 .......( .......... 0 ). ( . ) ( . ). ( . ) ( .
'
2
'
2
=
)
`

+ +
)
`

e e e e
|
e
e
|
a KV C a KV
a
jv
D
j
u ua JV A ua JV
a
jv
B
u
j

Using equation 7,8,9,10. Find the unknown values A,B,C,D using determinant
method

(
(
(
(
(
(





) ( . ) ( . ) ( . ) ( .
) ( 0 ) ( 0
) ( . ) ( . ) ( . ) ( .
0 ) ( 0 ) (
2
'
2
'
'
2
'
2
a KV
a
V
a KV
j
ua JV
au
V
ua JV
u
j
a KV ua JV
a KV
j
a KV
a
V
ua JV
u
j
ua JV
au
V
a KV ua JV
e
e
|
e
e
e | e
e
e
e
e
e
e
| e |
e
=0

Evaluation of this determinant gives the Eigen equation .
) 12 .( .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........
) (
) ( '
&
) ( .
) ( '
) 11 ......(` .......... ..........
1 1
)( (
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
1
a KV
a KV
KV
ua JV u
ua JV
JV
where
u a
V
KV K JV K KV JV
e e
e
e
|
= =
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
= + +

1.9.MODES IN STEP INDEX FIBER:
- To describe the modes we should examine the behavior of J type Bessel
function. Bessel function is the harmonic function & its having
oscillatory behavior of JV.
- M roots for a given V value. The corresponding modes are TE
vm
&
TM
vm
, EH
vm
&HE
vm.
These are designated by the roots of
vm
. For a
18

dielectric waveguide all modes are hybrid modes except those for which
v=0.
- At v=0, substitute in equation 11.
( ( ) 0 )
0
2
2 0
2
1 0 0
= + + K K J K K J
From this
( 0 )
0 0
= + K J (or) ( ) 0
0
2
2 0
2
1
= + K K J K

Using regression formula in equation 12 substitute v=0 & JV is
changed in terms of J
Therefore,
0
) (
) (
) (
) (
0
1
0
1
= +
a K
a K
ua uJ
ua J
e e
e

Cutoff condition:
v Mode Cutoff condition
0

1

>=2
TE
0m,
TM
0m
,

HE
1m
, HM
1m
,

EH
vm
,
0
J (ua)=0

0 ) (
1
= ua J

JV(ua)=0



- At cutoff condition, the mode is not longer bound to core of fiber. The
normalized propagation constant is
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
n n
n
K
b

|
.
|

\
|
=
|

- The normalized value ) (
2
NA
a
v

t
= . It determines how many modes a
fiber can support. HE
11
mode has not cutoff and stop only core diameter
=0. By choosing appropriately a, n
1
, n
2
value v<2.405 for single mode
fiber & for multimode fiber M=V
2
/2.
1.10.LINEARLY POLARISED MODES:
19

- In a step-index the difference between the refractive index of core
&cladding is very small that is <<1. This is the basis of weakly
guiding fiber approximation.
- In this approximation electromagnetic field patterns & propagation
constant of the mode pairs HE
v+1,m
& EH
v-1,m
are very similar. This
holds for 3 modes TE
0m,
TM
0m,
HE
2m.

- The result is four field component exists from six field components is
called linearly polarized modes.
- The propagation constant of guided modes lie in the range
n
2
K=K
2
<=<= K
1
= n
1
K
- When <<1, then
2 2
2
2
1
| = = K K

Using this approximation in the eigen value equation for .
( )( )
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
1
1 1
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
= + +
e
|
u a
V
KV K JV K K J
V V

It becomes
)
`

+ = +
2 2
1 1
e u a
V
K J
V V

Where u & e which are Eigen values in the core & cladding
respectively.
For positive & negative signs two sets of equations are possible.
0
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 1
= +
+ +
qa K
a K
ua uJV
ua J
V
V V
e e
e

The solution of this equation gives a set of modes called EH modes.
0
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 1
=

a K
a K
ua uJ
ua J
V
V
V
V
e e
e

The solution of this equation yield a set of modes called HE modes.
These two equations can be represented by common equation using the new
parameter called j.
j=

+
es f orHE V
es EH f or V
es TM f orTE
mod 1
mod 1
mod & 1

By using new parameter the regression formula is changed into
20

) (
) (
) (
) ( .
1 1
a K
a K
ua J
ua J u
j
j
j
j
e
e e


=

It shows that within the weakly guiding approximation all modes
characterized by common set of j & m satisfy the same characteristic
equation. This means that these modes are degenerate.
Parameters:
1. All linearly polarized modes are degenerate modes.
2. If an HE
v+1,m
is degenerate with an EH
v-1,m
mode and then combination
of these modes will constitute a guided mode of the fiber.
3. Degenerate modes are also called as linearly polarized modes.
4. i. Each LP
oM
mode is derived from HE
1M
mode.
ii.Each LP
1M
mode comes from TE
oM
, TM
oM
, HE
2M
,modes.
iii. LP
VM
, mode(V>=2 )is derived from HE
v+1,m
& EH
v-1,m
.
Merits:
1. It provides an ability to visualize a mode quickly and easily.
2. It is used to analysize the transmission characteristics of optical fibers.
Demerits:
1. If is not very much less than 1, LP mode has no sense.
2. It cant form linearly polarized mode.
1.11.SINGLE MODE FIBER:
- For single mode fiber, core diameter of an operating wavelength is 8-
12m & its having small index differences between the core & cladding
with V=2.4.
- The core cladding difference varies between 0.2 to 1 percent.
1.11.1.Mode field diameter:
- The fundamental parameter of single mode fiber is mode field
diameter(MFD) & it can be determined from the mode field distribution
of LP0
1
mode.
- The field is Gaussian distribution.



21




Figure:1.11.1.Distribution of light in SMF above its cutoff
wavelength
- Its distance between
e
1
to
2
1
e
. therefore MFD=2W
0
.
- The Gaussian distribution is ) / exp( ) (
2
0
2
0
w r E r E =
rradius,
0
E field at zero radius.
0
w width of electric
field distribution.
- The MFD width 2
0
w of LP0
1
mode can be defined
2
1
0
2
0
2 3
0
) (
) ( . 2
2 2
(
(
(
(
(

=
}
}

dr r rE
dr r E r
W
1.11.2. PROPAGATION MODES IN SMF:
- There are 2 independent degenerate modes are
i. Horizontal polarization modes.
ii. Vertical polarization modes.
These modes are very similar but their polarization planes are orthogonal.
- In general , the electric field of light propagating along the fiber is a
linear superposition of these two polarization modes & depends on
polarization of light at launching point into the fiber.
- In ideal fibers with perfect rotational symmetry, the modes are
degenerate with equal propagation constants
y x
K K = .
- Due to fiber imperfections
y x
K K = . The modes propagate with
different phase velocities & difference between their effective indices
is called fiber birefringence.
x y f
n n B =
The fiber birefringence is defined as
22

t
|
2
) (
0
0
=
=
K
where
n n K
x y

Two modes will beat at 2 radius & length over which this beating
occurs in the fiber is called beat length.
|
t 2
=
p
L
1.12.GRADED INDEX FIBER:
- In Graded index fiber, the core refractive index decreases continuosly
with increasing radial distance r from the fiber axis, but refractive index
for cladding is constant.
- The refractive index variation in core is the power law relationship that
is
{ a r f or
a
r
n r n s s
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
A = 0 ..... 2 1 ) (
2
1
1
o

{ a forr n n n > = A = A
2 1
2
1
1
) 1 ( ) 2 1 (
rradial distance,
1
n refractive index of core, Arefractive index
difference

2
n refractive index of cladding , core radius
- defines the shape of index profile. The index difference for the
graded index fiber is
=
1
2 1
n
n n

For = infinite, n(r)=
1
n
- Determining NA for GIF is more complex than for SIF. Light incident
on fiber core at position r, will propagate as guide mode only. NA at
that point is defined as
NA(r)=
| |
( )
a r f or
a r f or
a
r
NA
n r n
>
s ~


..... .......... ......... .......... .......... .......... 0
...... 1 ) 0 (
) (
2
1
2
2
2 o

Where the axial NA is defined as
NA(0)=| |
2
1
2
2
2
) 0 ( n n
23

( ) A = 2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
n n n
NA decreases from NA(0) to zero as r moves from fiber axis to core
cladding boundary.
The number of bounded or guided modes in GIF is

( )
) 2 ( .......... .......... ) 2 ( .
:
) 1 ........( .
2
2
1
. 1
2
1
A =
A |
.
|

\
|
+
=
Ka n V
sub
Ka n M
o
o

Sub :equation 2 in 1

2
.
2
2
V
M
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
o
o

For a parabolic refractive index profile core fiber. Sub =2

4
2
V
M =





UNIT II
SIGNAL DEGRADATION OPTICAL FIBERS
2.INTRODUCTION
Signal attenuation also known as fiber loss or signal loss is one of the most
important proprieties of an optical fiber because it largely determines the
maximum unamplified or repeaterless separation between txr and rxr.
2.1.ATTENUATION:
Attenuation of a light signal as it proaogates along a fiber is an
important consideration in design of optical of an optical communication
system, since it playes a major role in determining maximam txn distance
between txr and rxr .
24

The basic three mechanisms are:
1. Absorption loss
2. Scattering loss
3. Radiation loss




















Figure: 2.1.1.optical fiber attenuation as a function of wavelangth
Attenuation Units:
At origin Z=0 the parallel power is P(0) after the same distance Z, the
power is P(z).

(

=
=

) (
) 0 ( 10
) / (
.
) (
) 0 ( 1
) 0 ( ) (
z p
p
Log
z
km db
f icient uationcoef f iberatten
nepers
z p
p
Log
z
e P Z P
p
p
p
z
p
o
o
o
o
25


) 343 . 4 (
1
= km
p
o

Pout(db)=10 Log .
1
) (
(

mw
w pout

For First Window:

.
4
850
km
db
Loss
nm
=
=

For Second Window:

m
db
loss
nm
5 . 0
1300
=
=

Third Window:

km
db
loss
nm
3 . 0
1550
=
=

2.2.Absorption Loss:
It is caused bu 3 different mechanisms.
1. Atomic defects in fiber material.
2. Extrinsic absorption.
3. Intrinsic absorption.

2.2.1.Atomic defects:
Radiation damages in internal structure fiber. The damage effects depends
on energy of ioniziny particles at rays.
It occurs due to imperfection of atomic structure.
For eg. Missing molecules, high- density clusters of atom groups or exygen
defeats in the glass structure.
The total dose a material receives is expressed in rad(si ), which is measure
and relation absorbed in bulk silicon. //this unit is defined by 1 rad
(si)=0.01J/Kg
2.2.2. Extrinsic Absorption loss:
26

- Due to impurity atoms present in fiber material then this loss will occur
- Due to transition of metal ions.
- Impurity absorption occurs either bze of electronic transition between
energy levels or charge transition between ions.
- Its also due to Hydroxyl ion.
- OH impurities result from ox hydrogen frame used for hydrolysis
reaction in fiber fabrication.
- It can be reduced by reducing the water content in the fiber 1 to 10
PPb(Parts/bullion).
2.2.3Intrinsic Absorption:
- Associated with fiber material.
- It occurs from electronic absorption band in uv region and atomic
vibration band in infrared region.
UV Absorption:
- It takes place when a pboton interval with electron in valence band
excited to higher energy level.
- \it decreases exponentially by increasing warelength , the UV edge of
absorption is calculated by
0
.
E
E
uv
e C = o C,
0
E -
Emperial constant
E-photon energy.
IR Absorption
- Above 1.2 m , wave guide loss in determine presence of hydroxyl ions
.
- An interaction between vibrating band and electro magnetic field optical
signal results in a transfer of energy from field to the band, there by
giving rise to absorption.

( )
2 2
48 . 48
11
10 81 . 7 Sio forGeo e X
x
IR
=

o material.
2.3.Scattering loss:
- It occurs due to vibration in material density from compositional
fluctuations and from structural in homogeneities or defects during
fiber manufacturing.
Types:
1. Linear Scattering
27

2. Non Linear Scattering
2.3.1.Linear Scattering
- Optical power is transferred from 1 mode to other mode linearly.
- It is more Predominant in multimode fibers because of compositional
fluctuation and it has higher dopant concentration
It can be classified into
1. Rayleigh Scattering.
2 . MIE Scattering
Rayleigh Scattering:

- Rayleigh Scattering is the Phenomenon that Scatters light from the sun
in the atmosphere. there by giving rise to blue sky.
- It arise due to variation in refractive index that is composition
fluctuation.
- It is dominant in UV region and less in IR region and it is inversely
proportional to
4

90% of Scattering loss occur due to Rayleigh Scattering in OFC.
For single component glass. the scattering loss is

1 2 8
4
3
3
8

= m KT P n
f c soat
|

t
o
n R.I
P Photoetastic coefficient
c
| Isothermal compressibility

f
T fictive temperature
For Multicomponent
( ) ( )
nent glasscompo ionof i ionf lutuat concentrat c
p
c
n
n
r n
th
i
m
i
i c
n
i

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
=
=

=
c
c
o
o
o o

o
o o
t
t
o
n flactuatio density
) ( ) (
) (
3
8
2
1
2
2
2
2 2
2 2
4
3
2

Fictive temperature:
Temperature at which the glass reach to state of thermo equality.
MIE:
- It arises due to structural inhomogenetis of fiber.
- It occurs in forward direction only.
- It is minimized by
28

1. Proper coaling
2. Check the quality of fiber (detect free method )
3. Increasing the wave length
4. Decreasing R.I value.
2.3.2.Non- linear Scattering:
- It occurs at higher energy levels. Frequency shift is associated with this
loss. R.I of core depends upon optical signal intensity.
- It is divided into
1. SBS(Stimulated Brilliant Seattering )
2. SRS(StimulatedRomans Seattering).
SBS:
- It is defined as modulation of light signal through thermal molecular
vibration within the fiber.
- The scattered light contains USB and LSB with incident light frequency.
- The incident Photon having nonlinear interaction between vibrational
energy or phonon as well as scattered light or photons.
- The scattered light is found to be frequency modulator by thermal
energy.
- Frequency shift and strength of scattering signal vary as a function of
scattering angle (angle between scattered ray and cladding region).
- Frequency shift is maximum in backward direction and forward
direction is zero.
( )
width sourceband
changein
walts d X P
db B

A
A =

t
t
t o . 10 4 . 4
2 2 3


SRS:
- Scattered light consisting of high frequence phonon and a scatrtered
photon.
- Scatters occurs in forward and backward direction.
- Light signal is Predominant in forward direction . Threshold optical
power is 3 times greater than
SBS.
wattes d X P
db R
o
2 2
10 9 . 5

=
- It is minimized by threshold optical power is launched in a fiber before
SBS Occur.

29

2.4.BENDING LOSS;
- Bending loss and core and cladding loss under tadiating loss two
types of bends are;
- Macroscopic bends; Fiber bends at corner having radius of currature
is large com[pared to fiber diameter.
- Microscopic bends: that can arise when the fibers are incorporated
into cables.







Figure:2.4.1.A compressible jacket extruded over a fiber reduces microbending
resulting from external forces


Macro:
- Large curvature radiation loss is called macro bending loss. For slight
bend the loss is small. As the radius of curvature decreases the loss increase
exponentially until at a certain critical becomes observable.
- When a fiber is bend at critical distance
c
x from the center of fiber the
field tail an the far side of centre of curvature must move faster to keep up
with the field in the core for lower order fiber mode. Since this is not
possible the optical energy in the field tail beyond
c
x Radiates away.
- The amount of optimal radiation from a bend fiber depends on the
field strength at
c
x on the radius of curvature R
- Thus the total number of modes that can be supported by curved fiber
is less than straight fiber
30

- The effective number of modes
eff
N that are guided by curved
multimode fiber is expressed by

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
A
+
=

3
2
2
2
3 2
2
2
1
KR n R
a
N N
eff
o
o

N Total number of modes in straight fiber


( ) A
+
=

2
1
2
Ka A N
n
o
o

Micro:
- An increase in attenuation results from micro bending because the fiber
curvature causes repetitive coupling of energy between guided modes
and leaky modes in the fiber.
- Micro bending loss is minimized by extending a compressible cover is
the fiber.
- When the external forces are applied to this configuration, the cover will
be deformed but the fiber will tend to stay relatively straight.
- For MMGIF having a core radius a outer radius b & index diff A the
micro bending loss
M
o of a covered fiber is reduced from that of
uncovered fiber by the factor is
2 4 2
1 ) (

(

|
.
|

\
|
A + =
Ej
E
a
b
F
f
M
t o
f
E , Ej are youngs moduli of cover & fiber

2.5.Core & Cladding Loss
- Core and cladding bare different indices of refraction and having
different attenuation coefficients
2 1
&o o
- For SIF , the loss for the mode of order (V,M )

P
P
P
P
clad core
vm 2 1
o o o + =
P
P
clad
= 1 -
P
P
core

P
P
P
P
clad clad
vm 2 1
1 o o o +
(

=
31

=
P
P
clad
| |
1 1 2
o o o +


- For GIF both the Attenuation co efficient & model power tend to be
functions of radial coordinate. At a distance r from the core axis the loss
if ( ) ( )
2
2 2
2 2
1 2 1
) (
) ( ) (
n o b
r n o b
r

+ = o o o o
- The complexity of multi mode ware guide has presented by correlation
with the model
( ) ( )
( )
}
}

=
0
0
rdr r p
dr r p r
gi
o
o
2.6.SIGNAL DISTORTION IN OPTICAL WAVE GUIDES
- Dispersion of txed optical signal causes dispersion for both digital &
analog txn along optical fibers.
- An optical signal is distorted as it travels along a fiber. This distortion is
due to intra modal d dispersion and intermodal delay effects.
- Dispersion means spreading of light pulse as it propagates through fiber.
- It introduces intersymbol interference (ISI) . It limits the information
carrying capacity of fiber
Dispersion:
Types are
i. Intermodal dispersion
ii. Intramodal dispersion

Intramodal dispersion are
i. Material (or) chromatic dispersion
ii. Wave guide dispersion
iii. Group velocity dispersion








32









Figure:2.6.1.Broadening and attenuation of two adjacent pulses as they
travel along a fiber

- A light pulse will broaden as it travels along the fiber . This pulse
broadening will cause overlap with neighboring pulse.
- At certain distance the pulse are not individually distinguished at the
receiver & error will occur.
- Information capacity of an optical wave guide is usually specified by
Bandwidth Distance Product (BLP) IN MHZ-KM.
- As the length of optical cable increases, the bandwidth decrease in
proportion.
- For S.I between distance produced is 20 MHZ.Km & for G.I is 2.5
MHZ.Km.
- The ICC can be determined by short light pulses propagating along the
fiber.
2.6.1.PHASE VELOCITY
- As a monochromatic light wares propagates along a fiber in Z-
direction. This points of constant phase travel at a velocity.

|
e
=
p
V ,
e - angular velocity,
| - propagation factor

) (
2
x y o
p
n n k
f
V

=
t

If the propagation factor in an infinite medium of R.In

c
n n
e

t
|
1 1
2
= =
33


1
1
n
c
c
n
V
p
= = =
e
e
|
e

2.6.2.GROUP VELOCITY

- Group of waves with slightly different frequency are propagating along
the fiber. This elocity is denoted as group velocity

( )

. ,
1
1
1 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
g
g
g g
g
g
N
C
V
I groupR N N
c
n
n
c
n
c
n
c
c
n
V
V
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+ =
c
c
+ =
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
=
e
e
e
e
e
e e
|
|
e

34


| |

e
e

e
e
e
e
e

e
e e

e
e e
t
e
e
t
e
t


t
e
e

t
|
e
d
dn
n Ng
d
dn
n Ng
d
d
d
dn
n Ng
d
dn
n Ng
d
d
d
c
d c d
c
c
c
n n
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1 1
1
1 2
1
2
2
2
2
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+ =
+ =
=
=
=

=
=
=
= =

2.6.3.GROUP DELAY
- Group of waves propagate along the fiber with different velocity so it
produces the time delay or group at the rxr side.

t
|
t

t e

t
e

|
e
|
t
c
c
=
(

= c
=
c
c
=
c
c
= =
. 2
1
2
2
1 1
2
2
c L
d c
c
c V L
g
g
g

- Each modes tares a different amount of time to travel a certain distance
due to this pulse spreading will occur at rxr side.
35

- If the spectrum width of optical source is the delay difference per unit
length is represented by

t
d
d
g

- For spectrum components which are X o apart and which lie in the
2
o

above and below the central wave length
0

- The total delay difference ot over a distance L

o

t
o

|
t

ot
t
(

=
(


= =
d
d
d
d
c
L
d
d
c
L
d
d
d
d
g
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

Total delay difference in terms of e

2
2
2
2
2
|
e
|
oe
e
|
oe
e
|
e
oe

ot
t
=
(

=
(

= =
d
d
where
d
d
L
d
d
L
d
d
d
d
g

Group velocity dispersion parameter
oe | ot . .
2
L =
- The spectrum width o of an optical source is characterized by its
RMS value than the puise spreading is approximated by RMS pulse
width is presented by
g
o .

t
o
o

t
d
d
d
d
c
L
d
d
g
g
2
2
2
2
2
+ =
=

The dispersion factor D is
36


2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1 1
1

t
|

t

e

t
e

e
|

e
e
|

e
e
|
e

e
e
e

t
c
D
c
d
d
c
d
d
D
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
V d
d
D
d by divide and multiple
V d
d
K
V d
d
L
d
d
L
D
g
g
g
g
=
=
=
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=

- It defines the pulse spread spectrum as a function of ware length and it is
measured in picoseconds / nm .km. The total dispersion = material
dispersion + ware length dispersion

g
D
e
+
mat
D = D .
- It is calculated by one type of dispersion is in the absence of other.
2.7.MATERIAL DISPERSION
- It occurs due to variation in R.I as a function of wave length.
- The group velocity
g
V of a mode is a function of R.I the various spectral
components of a given mode will travel at different speeds, depending
on the wave length.
- To calculate the material dispersion, we consider a plane wave
propagating in an infinitely extended dielectric medium that bas R.I n
) ( equal to that of fiber core.
37

Propagation constant ) (
2

t
| n =
- The group deals for material dispersion is

(

=
(

=
(

=
(


=
(

= =

t
t

t
|

|
t
t
d
dn
n
c
L
d
dn
n
c
L
d
dn
n
c
L
n
d
d
c
L
n
d
d
c
L
value sub
d
d
c
L
V L
mat
mat
g
mat
) (
) (
) (
) (
) ( 1
) (
1
) (
1
) (
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2


- For a source of spectrum width
X
o and w, L, the VMS pulse
breading due to material dispersion
m
o is given by

.
) ( 1
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
. ) (
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
(

=
=
(

=
(

=
(

=
(

=
(

|
.
|

\
|
=
=

o
o o

o o

o
o

t
o

d
d
c
D
D L
d
d
c
L
D L
also and
d
d
c
L
d
d
c
L
d
d
d
d
d
d
c
L
d
d
X n
c
L
d
d
d
d
n
mat
mat
n
mat mat
n
mat
n
n n n
n
mat
mat

38

- Material dispersion can be reduced either by choosing sources with
narrower spectral output widths orm by operating at longer wave
lengths.
2.8.WAVE GUIDE DISPERSION
- Its also intramodal dispersion. Due to variation in group velocity
with wavelength for a particular mode , it will occur.
- The effect of wave guide dispersion on pulse spreading can be
approximated by assuming that R.I of material is independent of
wave length L.
- Group delay can be expressed in terms of normalize propagation
constant b is

2
2
2
1
2
2 2
2
n n
n
k
b

=
|

- For small values of index difference
1
2 1
n
n n
D

=

| |
| |
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 2 1
2 2 1
2 2 1
2 2 1
2 1
2
, 1
) (
) (
) (
) (
n k b n k
n n
n b n k
n n n b k
kn n n b k
kn n n b k
n
k
n n b
n n
n
k
b
+ A =
~ ss A
+ A =
+ =
+ =
=
=

=
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

39

- Group delay for wave guide dispersion is
| |
. 2
.
2
) (
.
.
.
2
2 2
2 1
A =
= =
(

A + =
+ A =
=
n Ka V
NA Ka NA
a
V
is f requency normalised The
dk
bk d
n n
C
L
n k b n k
dk
d
C
L
dk
d
C
L
G

t
|
t
e

For field fiber,

(

A + =
~
dk
bk d
n n
C
L
k V
g
) (
.
2 2 e
t

First term constant term
Second term
group delay due to wave guide dispersion.
The factor
dv
bv d ) (
can be expressed by
(


=
) ( ) (
) ( 2 1 ) (
2
ua J ua J
ua J
b
dv
bv d
va vH
v

where
radius fiber a
k factor core u

= =
2 2
1
2
|


2.9.SIGNAL DISTENTION IN SMF
The pulse spread g e
o
occurs over a distance n
b
of wave length
o
is
obtained from the derivative of group delay with respect to wave length
40


(

=
=
=
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
=
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
) ( .
) (
) (
.
) (
.
) (
.
) (
. 0
) (
.
.
2
.
2
.
&
dv
vb d v
c
D
D
equation both Equating
D L
v
dv
bv d
D n
c
L
dv
bv d
D n
c
L
dv
bv d
D n
c
L
dv
bv d
D n n
c
L
d
d
dv
dI
v
d
dv
NA
a
d
dv
NA
a
d
d
d
dv
d
dv
dv
d
dv by divide multiply
d
d
n
g
g g
g
g
g
g
g
g

o o
o

t

o

t
o
o

t
o
e
e e
e
e
e
e
e
e

Consider the factor (ua) for the lowest order mode in the normalized property
constant

( )
( )
( )
2
4
1
4
1
4 1
2 1
|
.
|

\
|
=
+ +
+
=
v
ua
b
v
ua

Sub (ua) in b

( )
( )
2
4
1
4
4 1
2 1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+
=
v
b


41

2.10.POLARIZATION MODE DISPERSION:











Figure:2.10.1.Variation in the polarization states of an optical pulse as it
passes through a fiber with varying birefringence along its length

- Polarization means electric field orientation of light signal which varies
significantly along the length of fiber.
- It is dominant in long distance communication. PMD leads to pulse
broadening due to slightly different propagation velocities of two
modes.
- Due to imperfections of structure of fiber & external factors (bending,
twisting), then the fiber birefringes is changes.
- It causes polarization mode travels at different velocity. It will gives the
change in orientation of fiber signal or optical signal.
- The result is difference in propagation time between two orthogonal
modes will give pulse spreading. This is called PMD.
- If the group velocities of two orthogonal polarization modes are Vgx &
Vgy. Then time delay between these two modes during the propagation
of the pulse over a distance L.

= A
pol
t
gy gx
V
L
V
L

- PMD varies due to temperature variations at the output. PMD for a long
fiber length in terms of the mean value of differential group delay.
L D
PMD pol
= > A < t
D
PMD
ranges from 0.1 to 1 pico sec/km.


42

2.11.INTERMODAL DISPERSION:
- In multimode fiber, different modes arrive at the receiver at different
things because of vibration in path & group velocity. It makes pulse
broadening in receiver side. This pulse broadening is called Intermodal
Dispersion.




Figure:2.11.1.Meridional ray optics representation of the propagation
mechanism in an ideal step-index optical waveguide
The time delay at receiver side is
c n
Ln
n
c
n
n
L
T
n
n
where
n
c
L
V
D
T
n
c
L
V
D
T
where
T T T
c
D
2
2
1
1
1
2
max
1
2
1
max
1
min
min max
sin cos ,
cos
= =
= =
= =
= =
=
| u
u
Therefore
min max
T T T
D
=

A =
(


=
(

=
=
.
1
1
2
2 1 1
2
1 1
1
2
2
1
c
Ln
T
n
n n
c
Ln
n
n
c
Ln
c
Ln
c n
Ln
D

43

2.12.MODE COUPLING:
- Two modes are coupled with each other is called mode coupling. At
bending or joining, mode coupling will occur.
- Due to bending, mode coupling gives rise to conversion of energy from
lower order modes to higher order modes and form the radiated modes.
- Due to coupling, power from this lower mode transfer to faster mode &
tends to propagate at moderate speed.
- It reduces the group delay & intermodal dispersion in transmission link.
Group delay for mode coupling is
c n
NA L
2
2
2
) ( .
= t
- After coupling length L
c
, the pulse distortion will change from L to
2
1
) ( L L
c
dependence value.
- Coupling length L
c
is the critical length of fiber at which equilibrium
mode power distribution is reached. For practical L
c
=1km.
- Due to mode coupling there is an additional loss called coupling loss
denoted byh unit is db/km.
- The improvement by pulse spreading is caused by mode coupling over
the distance
Z< L
c
, .It is denoted to excess loss L.
c hZ
c
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
0
o
o

0
o pulse width increase in absence of mode coupling.

c
o pulse broadening in presence of strong mode coupling.
hZexcess attenuation.
cdepends upon the fiber profile shape & mode coupling strength
for practical purpose.
- For strong mode coupling bandwidth of signal is reduced.
2.13.DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF SM FIBER:
- The attributes of SMF are long time, very low attenuation, high quality
signal transfer due to absence of modal noise.
- Largest bandwidth-distance produce.
- The basis design optimization includes cutoff wavelength, dispersion,
mode field diameter & bending loss.
44

- SMF are used for long distance telecommunication network at 1320nm
dispersion is low & attenuation is high & at 1550nm dispersion is high
& attenuation is low.
- For long distance communication we should prefer D & A both should
be low.
- To achieve this, adjust the basic parameters of fiber to zero dispersion
for longer wavelength.
- For suitable design of refractive index profile we can get zero
dispersion. To achieve zero dispersion to make waveguide
dispersion=material dispersion.
















Figure:2.13.1.Typical waveguide dispersions and the common material
dispersion of three different fiber designs & resultant total dispersions


45

2.13.1.R.I.PROFILE DESIGN:
- There are 4 ways of shaping the SMFs.
i. 1300nm optimized fiber.
ii. Dispersion shifted fiber.
iii. Dispersion flattened fiber.
iv. Large effective core area fibers.
1.1300nm optimized fiber.
- In matched cladding, R.I. of cladding & core region are uniform and
mode field diameter MFD=9.5m.
- In depressed cladding, R.I. of cladding portion next to core region is less
than the outer region. MFD=9m..
- This is to optimize the waveguide dispersion to get zero dispersion at
1300nm.
2. Dispersion Shifted fiber.
- At 1550nm, we have to increase the waveguide dispersion=material
dispersion, then we can get zero dispersion at that point.
- Waveguide dispersion is function of core radius & value & shape of
refractive index profile. Adjust the above factor we can get the zero
dispersion at 1550nm.
- R.I. profile is shaped with steeper increasing R.I. of core with small core
radius & with large difference R.I. of core & cladding.
- For triangular, R.I. profile is designed to get the zero dispersion at
1550nm.
3. Dispersion flattened fiber.
- The dispersion flattened fiber have minimum dispersion over a range of
from 1.3m to 1.55m such that zero dispersion points lies at 1.3m
to 1.55m. This fiber only used for WDM network.
- R.I. profile is slightly modify from dispersion shifted fiber to get zero
dispersion for wide range.
4. Large effective core area fiber.
- For distance communication a SMF with large effective core area should
be design.
- It is used to reduce the system capacity of the fiber & also reduce the
non-linearity in the fiber. Standard SMF have effective core about
55m
2
. A profile having values greater than 100m
2
.
46


2.13.4.Dispersion Compensating fiber:
- For dispersion shifted fiber the cost is high. So we have to use
compensating fiber for same application.
- It have negative waveguide dispersion at 1.55m. In optical network
every 100km replace the 1km length of fiber by 1km conventional
fiber. So we can achieve minimum loss & zero dispersion.
2.13.5.Cutoff wavelength:
The normalized frequency,

| | 405 . 2 .
2
.
2
= =
=
V NA
a
At
NA
a
V
c

t

- Cutoff wavelength of SMF is minimum wavelength from the
transmission takes place. Above cutoff wavelength all the wavelength
can be transmitted. If 405 . 2 s V only LP
01
, HE
11
mode is propagated
along the fiber. So generally for SIMMF,

S S
M S
V
,
,
405 . 2


=
- Cutoff wavelength of MMF is defined as wavelength at which it
behaves as a SMF.
2.14.PULSE BROADENING IN GIF:
- In GIF, core R.I. is different according to the radial distance from the
centre of axis. In MMF, due to path difference intermodal dispersion
occurs. But this dispersion is reduced by GIF.
Group delay for GIF:

c
Ln
g
8
2
1
A
= ot
Relationship between GIF, SIF.

s g
x ot ot
8
2
A
=
47

Improvement factor for GIF for theoretical way is 1000, but due to
different R.I. profile shape we cannot achieve this. The RMS pulse
broadening of GIF for parabolic profile is

s g
D
o o .
A
=

s
o pulse broadening in SIF

g
o pulse broadening in GIF
D constant value & lies between 4 to 10.\
If D=0 & =1, then

s g
o o 1 . 0 =
For GIF, core R.I. is optimum then loss is

5
12
2
A
=
opt
o

g
o is expressed in terms of
1
n , L then

c
Ln
s
3 2
1
A
= o

Therefore,
c
Ln
c
Ln
c
Ln
D
g
g
3 20
3 2
.
10
3 2
.
2
1
1
1
A
=
A A
=
A A
=
o
o

Profile Dispersion:
If wavelength propagating along optical fiber cable changed, alpha
value is also changed which leads to pulse broadening.










48

UNIT- III
OPTICAL SOURCES
3.CHARACTERISTICS OF LIGHT:
High intensity,wavelength, narrow spectrum, less expensive, durable,
flexible, modulation speed should be high.
LEDs:
- LEDs are used in optical systems that require bit rates less than
approximately 100-200 mb/s. It is mostly coupled with multimode fiber.
- LEDs require less complex drive circuitry than laser diode since no
thermal or optical stabilization circuits are needed.
Principles of Operation:
LEDs must have.
1.High radiance output or brightness
It is a measure of optical power radiated into a unit solid angle per
unit area of emitting surface. Its unit is watts. High radiances are required to
couple sufficiently high optical power levels into a fiber.
2. Fast emission response time:
It is a time delay between the application of a current pulse and onset
of optical emission. This time delay is the factor limiting BW with which the
source can be modulated directly by varying the injected current.
Quantum efficiency:
It is related to fraction of injected electron hole pairs that recombine
radiately.
3.1.LEDS STRUCTURE:
- LEDs should provide high radiance and high quantum efficiency, it
must achieve carrier and optical confinement.
- Carrier confinement is used to achieve a high level of radiative
recombination in the active region of the device, which yields a high
quantum efficiency.
- Optical confinement is used for preventing absorption of emitted
radiation by material surrounding the pn junction.
- Heterojunction structures are used to achieve optical and carrier
confinement.
- Heterojunction consists of two adjoining semiconductor materials with
different band- gap energies. It is also known as double hetero structure
49

device because of two different alloy layers on each side of active
region.
- The bandgap energy difference of adjacent layers confine the charge
carriers and R.I difference of adjoining layers confine the optical field to
central active layer.
- So, high efficiency and high radiance is obtained due to this dual
confinement. The electron hole recombination occurs only in active
InGaAsp layer.

LED CONFIGURATIONS.
The LED configurations are
i. Surface emitting LED
ii. Edge emitting LED.
3.1.1.SURFACE EMITTING LED.














Figure:3.1.1.High Radiance Surface Emitting LED
- In SELED, the plane of active light emitting region is perpendicular to
fiber axis.
50

- A well is etched in a substrate to avoid the heavy absorption of emitted
radiation and the fiber is connected to accept the emitted light.
- The circular active area in surface emitters is 50m in diameter and up
to 2.5m thick. The emission pattern is isotropic with 120 half power
beam width.
- Isotropic pattern from a surface emitter is called lambertian pattern.
- The source is equally bright when viewed from any direction but power
diminishes as cos . Where is the angle b/w viewing direction &
normal to the surface.
- Power is exactly 50 % down of its peak when =60
0
.
- so that the total half power beam width is 120
0


3.1.2.EDGE EMITTING LED.













Figure:3.1.2.Edge-emitting double heterojunction LED
- EELEDs emit a more directional light pattern than the surface emitting
LEDs.
- In order to reduce the losses caused by absorption in active layer and to
make the beam more directional the light is collected from the edge of
LED. So it is called EELED.
- The EELED has transparent guiding layers with very thin active layer of
50 to 100 m in order that the light produced in active layer spreads into
51

the transparent guiding layers reducing self absorption in the active
layer.
- The guiding layers have R.I lower than action region but higher than
outer surrounding material.
- This structure forms a waveguide channel that directs the optical
radiation towards the fiber core.
3.2.LASER diodes.
- Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.
- For optical fiber systems the laser sources used are almost exclusively
are semiconductor laser diodes. The o/p radiation is highly
monochromatic and light beam is very directional.
- Semiconductor laser diodes are performed over LED for the OFC
systems requiring BW > 200 MHZ.
- Laser diodes have response time is < 1ns. Optical B.W is 2nm or less.
High coupling efficiency.
Principles of Operation:
1. Photon absorption
2. Spontaneous emission
3. Stimulated emission.
Photon absorption:
When photon with energy E2-E1 is incident on the atom. The atom is
initially in E1. The atom excited into higher energy state e2 through the
absorption of photon. This process is referred to as stimulated
absorption.
These dimensions are commonly referred to as longitudinal, lateral and
dimensions of the cavity respectively.
DFB Laser:
In DFB Laser, lasing action is obtained by periodic variations of R.I,
which are incorporated into the multiplayer structure along the length of
diode, here optical fiber is not required.
The optical radiation within the resonance cavity of laser diode sets up
a pattern of electric and magnetic field lines called modes of cavity.
The modes are seperated into two independent sets of TE and TM
modes. Each set of modes can be described in terms of longitudinal,
lateral And traverse modes.
Longitudinal modes.
It is related to length L of cavity and determines the principle structure
of frequency of emitted radiation.
Since L is much layer then the lasing W.L of appro 1 um, many
longitudinal modes can exit.
Spontaneous emission:
An atom returns to lower energy state in random manner.

52

Stimulated emission:
When a photon having equal energy to the difference b/w the two states
interacts with the atom causing it to the lower state with the creation of
second photon.
Population inversion:
Most photons incident on the system will be absorbed so the stimulated
emission is essentially negligible. Stimulated emission will exceed
absorption onlf if the population of excited states is greater than that of
ground state. This condition is known as population inversion. The
population inversion can be achieved by various pumping techniques.
Fabry- Perot resonator cavity
- Lasers are oscillators operations at optical frequency. The oscillator is
formed by resonant cavity providing a selective f/b. The cavity is
normally used is fabry-perot resonator.
- This cavity is much smaller,250-500 m long, 5.15 m wide, and 0.1-
0.2m thick.
Lateral modes.
- It lies in the plane of pn junction. These modes depend on the side wall
preparation and width of cavity and determine the shape of lateral
profile of laser beam.
Transverse modes:
- It is associated with electromagnetic field and bean profile in the
direction perpendicular to the plane of pn junction.
- These modes determine the laser characteristic such as the radiation
pattern and threshold current density i.e, the point at which lasing starts.

3.2.1.Lasing conditions and resonant frequency.
The electromagnetic wave propagating in the longitudinal direction is expressed
as
E(z,t)=
) (
) (
Z t j
e Z I
| e

I(z) optical field intensity
- optical radian frequency &
B Propagation constant
- Lasing is the condition at which light amplification becomes possible
in layer diode. The condition for lasing is that population inversion be
achieved.
53

- The stimulated emission rate for particular mode is proportional to
intensity of radiation in that mode.
- The radiation intensity at a photon energy h varies exponentially
with the distance Z that it transverse along the lasing cavity according to
the relationship.
I(z)=I(0) ( ) { } ) ( ) ( exp v o v h h g I
effective absorption coefficient of material in optical path.
I optical field confinement factor or fraction of optical power in active
layer.
g gain coefficient, Z distance traverses along the lasing cavity,
h photon energy.
- Lasing occurs when the gain of guided modes exceeds above the optical
loss during one round trip through the cavity i.e,z=2L.
- If R1,R2 are reflectivities of 2 ends of mirror during 1 round trip then
Fresnel reflection coefficient is given by
R=
2
2 1
2 1
_
|
|
.
|

\
|
n n
n n

- The lasing condition becomes I(2L) is

| | L R R I L L 2 exp ) 0 ( ) 2 (
2 1
= { ( ) } ) ( ) ( v o v h h g I

- At threshold condition,
For amplitude I(2L)=I(0)
For phase 1 =
L j
e
|

- The condition to reach the lasing threshold is the point at which the
optical gain is equal to total loss
t
in the cavity.
- Total loss present in layer cavity.
end t th
th
th
R R L
g
g
g
o o o o
o
o
+ =
(

+ = = I
= I
=
2 1
1
ln
2
1

end
o mirror loss in lasing cavity.
For lasing action, the gain g
th
g > . i.e.,threshold gain.
54

For strong carrier confinement the threshold current density for stimulated
emission J
th
can be related with lasing threshold gain is given by

th th
g J = |












Figure:3.2.1.Relationship between optical output power & laser diode drive
currents
3.2.2.Laser diode Rate equation:
- The relationship b/w optical power & diode drive current can be found
by rate equation.
Total carrier population=carrier injection + Spontaneous recombn +
stimulated emission
- Total active region with a carrier confinement region of depth d rate
equation is given by

No of photons():

ph
sp
R Cn
dt
d
t
|
|
|
+ =
= stimulated emission +spontaneous emission+photon loss
55

No.0f electrons(n):
|
t
Cn
n
qd
J
dt
dn
sp
=
=Injection + spontaneous recombination + Stimulated emission
where,
c coefficient describing the strength of optical absorption &
emission interactions
Rsprate of spontaneous emission into lasing diode

ph
t photon lifetime

sp
t spontaneous recombn life time
Jinjection current density
- For steady state condition , 0 & 0 = =
dt
dn
dt
d|
when n & have non
zero values. Assume Rsp is negligible and nothing that
dt
d|
must be
positive when is small.
- At threshold point
s th
n n | | = = & .therefore,

0
1
0
0
1
) 2 ......( .......... .......... 0
) 1 ....( .......... .......... 0
= =
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+ =
ph
th s
ph
th s
s th
sp
th
ph
s
sp s th
Cn or
Cn
Cn
n
qd
J
R Cn
t
|
t
|
|
t
t
|
|

is always positive, so 0
1
>
ph
th
Cn
t
&
s
=0.
56

sp
th th
sp
th
n
qd
J
threshold At
n
qd
J
t
t
=
=

n must exceed threshold value n
th
then only we can get is positive.
Using equation 1 & 2.find the
s
In equation 1

ph
s
sp s th
R Cn
t
|
| + =
From equation 2

s th
th
Cn
qd
J
qd
J
| = 0
Substitute |
th
Cn :

( )
( )
ph sp th
ph
s
sp
th
ph
s
ph
s
sp
th
R J J
qd
R
qd
J J
R
qd
J
qd
J
t
t
|
t
|
t
|
.
0
+ =
+

=
+ =

3.2.3External quantum efficiency:
- It is defined as number of photons emitted per radiative electron hole
pair recombination above threshold.
( )
th
th
i ext
g
g o
q q

=
For high quality laser

i
q =(0.6-0.7)%

ext
q =(30-40)%
3.3.MODULATION OF LASER DIODE:
The process of imposing information on a light stream is called
modulation. There are 2 types of modulation.
57

1.Analog Modulation:
- It is carried out when the drive current above the threshold current is
directly proportional to information signal & there should be linear with
i/p and o/p.
2. Digital modulation:
- It is affected by photon and carrier lifetime. The photon life time is
th
ph
g C
n
.
= t
- Threshold current I
th
is the minimum value of direct to start the lasing
action. so in carrier life time
( )
th B p
p
d
I I I
I
t
+
= ln . t
Where,
I
B
bias current, I
P
=pulse current.
- The total current flow in laser cavity is
I= I
P
+ I
B

Therefore the frequency of oscillation is
( )
2
1
2
1
1 .
.
1
.
2
1
(

=
th
ph sp
I
I
f
t t
t

3.3.1.TEMPERATURE EFFECTS IN LASER DIODE:
- Threshold current I
th
(T) of laser diodes is temperature dependent. I
th
(T)
increases with temperatures in all types of semiconductor laser because
of various complex temperature dependent factors.
- Empirical expression that shows the relationship between I
th
(T) &
temperature is given as
0
) (
T
T
Z th
e I T I =
T
0
measure of relative temperature insensitivity.
I
Z
constant, Tdevice absolute temperature.
- Experimental values of T
0
for 1300nm InGaAsp lasers are typically 60-
80k(333-353
0
c)
For GaAlAs T
0
=120
0
c to 165
0
c
For quantum well laser T
0
=437
0
c
- Using temperature compensation circuit we get the constant laser o/p.

58

3.4.POWER LAUNCHING & COUPLING:
Lensing schemes for coupling improvement.
- If the source emitting area is larger than the fiber core area then
maximum optical power is coupled into the fiber. This is a result of
fundamental energy & radiance conservation principles. It is also known
as law of brightness.
- If the emitting area of source is smaller than the core area, miniature
lens may be placed between the source and fiber to improve the power
coupling efficiency.
- The function of micro lens is to magnify the emitting area of the source
to match exactly the core area of fiber end face.
- If the emitting area is increased by magnification factorM then the
solid angle within which optical power is coupled to the fiber from LED
source is also increased by same factor.

General possible lensing schemes are
1. Rounded- end fiber:
The fiber itself rounded known as rounded end fiber. Here whole radiation from
LED emitting area is incident falls on the fiber end surface.
2.Non imaging microsphere:
A small glass sphere is contact with both fiber and source.
3. Imaging sphere:
A large spherical lens is used to image the source on the core area of teh source.
4. Cylindrical sphere:
Cylindrical lenses are generally formed from a short section of fiber.
5. Taper- ended fiber.
- If the width of taper ended fiber is equal to width of emitting surface of
LED, the maximum coupling efficiency is achieved.
- An the above techniques can improve the source to fiber coupling
efficiency, they also create additional complexities.
- One problem is that tha lens size is similar to source & fiber core
dimensions which introduces fabrication and bandling difficulties.
Non Imaging Micro sphere:
- Non imaging micro sphere is one of the most efficiency lensing methods
.
59

- The spherical lens has R.I is 2.0 and outer medium is 1.0 and emitting
area is circular.
- To collimate the output from LED, the emitting surface should be
located at focal point of lens,the focal point can be found from Gaussian
lens formula
r
n n
q
n
s
n
= +
' '

where
S Object distance,Q Image distance
S&Q are measured from lens surface
nR.I of lens
nR.I of outside medium
rradius of curvature if lens surface.
To find the focal point for right hand surface of lens is by some sign
conversions are :
1.Light travels from left to right
2.object distances are measured as +ve to left of vertex and -ve to the
right.
3.Images distances are measured as +ve to right vertex and ve to the
left.
4.All convex surfaces encountered by light have +ve radius of curvature
and concave surfaces have -ve radius of curvature.
When s is measured from point B.At q= , r=-R
L
,n=2.0 & n=1.0.
L
L
R s
R s
r
n n
q
n
s
n
2
0 . 1
0
0 . 2
' '
=

= +

= +

- Thus the focal point is located in the lens surface at point A.
- If LED is placed to lens surface,thus results in magnification M of
emitting area .
2
2
2
(

= =
s
L
s
L
r
R
r
R
M
t
t

60

- With the lens the optical power P
L
that can be coupled into full aperture
angle 2 is given by
u
2
2
sin .
(

=
s
L
s L
r
R
P P
Where
P
s
total output power from LED without lens.
- The maximum coupling efficiency n max is determined by fiber size
NA
a
r
f or
NA
a
r
f or
NA
r
a
s
s
s
>

s
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
1
) (
2
max
q
- When the radius of emitting area is larger than the fiber radius no
improvement in coupling efficiency is efficiency is possible with a lens.
3.5.SOURCE TO FIBER POWER LAUNCHING:
A measure of amount of optical power emitted from a source that can be
coupled into fiber is called coupling efficiency.
s
F
P
P
= q

F
P power coupled into the fiber

s
P power emitted from fiber.
- Many source suppliers offer devices with short length of optical fiber
(1m or Less) already attached in an optimum power coupling
configuration .this selection of fiber is referred to as flylead.
3.5.1.Source output pattern:
- To determine the optical power accepting capability of fiber the spatial
radiation pattern of source must be known.
- The spherical coordinate system characterized R,Q, with normal to
emitting surface.
- The radiance may be function of both &
s
&also vary from point to
point on emitting surface.
- Surface emitting LED s are characterized by their lambertian output
pattern which means the source is equally bright when viewed from any
direction.
- The power delivered at an angle measured relative to normal to
emitting surface, varies as cos
- The emission pattern for lambertial source is
61

u | u cos . ) , (
0
B B =
Where

0
B radiance along the normal to radiating surface.
- Edge emitting LEDs & laser diodes have more complex emission
pattern. These devices have radiances B(,0
0
) & B(,90
0
) in the planes
parallel & normal to emitting junction plane of device.
u
u
u
u
| u
L T
B B B cos
cos
cos
sin
, (
1
0
2
0
2
+ =
T & L are transverse & lateral power distribution coefficients.

3.5.2.Power coupling calculations:
- To calculate, the maximum optical power coupled into a fiber,consider
the symmetric source of brightness B(A
s
,
s
) where A
s
&
s
are
the area & solid emission angle of source.
- The coupled power can be found using the relationship
dr r s d d d B
A B s d dA P
rm
f
s s
Af
s
u | u u | u
t tu
} } } }
} }
(

=
O O =
O
2
0
2
0
max 0
0 0
sin ) , (
) , ( .

- Here emitting surface is taking as circular. If source radius rs is less than
core radius a, then r
m
=r
s
& assume surface emitting LED of radius r
s
less
than a then
} }
} }
} } }
=
=
(

=
rs
rs
rs
dr r s d NA B
dr r s d B
dr r s d d B P
0
2
0
2
0
0
2
0
0
2
0
2
0
max 0
0
0
0
. .
. . max sin
sin cos 2
t
t
t u
u t
u u t
u u u u t

- For SIF, the NA is independent of positions
s
& r on the fiber end.
A =
=
2
1 0
2 2
2
0
2 2
2
) ( ,
n B r
NA B r P P
s
s step LED
t
t

- Consider now the total optical power P
s
that is emitted from source of
area A
s
into hemisphere.
62

a r f or NA P
r
a
step P
a r f or NA P step P
B r
d B r
d d B A P
s s
s
LED
s s LED
s
s
s s
>
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
s =
=
=
=
}
} }
2
2
2
0
2 2
2 /
0
0
2
2
0
2 /
0
) ( ,
) ( ,
sin cos 2
sin ) , (
t
u u u t t
| u u | u
t
t t

For Graded Index Fiber:

| |
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+
A =
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+
A =
=
}
o
o
o
o
t
t
a
r
n P
a
r
n B r
dr r n r n B P
s
s
s
s
rs
graded LED
2
2
1 2
2
2
1 2
) ( 2
2
1
2
1 0
2 2
0
2
2
2
0
2
,

3.5.3.Power launching versus wavelength:
- The Optical power launched into fiber does not depend on the
wavelength of the source but only on its brightness.
- The no of modes that can propagate in GIF of core size a & index
profile is
A |
.
|

\
|
+
=
2
1
2
2
t
o
o an
M
twice as many modes propagate in a given fiber at 900nm than at 1300nm
- The radiated power per mode,P
s
/M ,from a source at a particular
wavelength is given by radiance multiplied by the square of nominal
source wavelength.
2
0
B
M
P
s
=
- Thus twice as much power is launched into a given mode at 1300 nm
than at 900nm.
- Hence two identically sized sources operating at different wavelengths
but having identical radiances will launch equal amounts of optical fiber
power into same fiber
.

63

3.6.LED COUPLING TO SMF.
- LED were considered only for MMF systems. However, around 1985,
researchers recognized that edge-emitting LEDs can launch sufficient
optical power into SMF for transmission at data rates up to 560 mb/s
over several kms.
- Edge-emitting LEDs are used since they have a larger like o/p pattern in
the direction perpendicular to junction plane.
- Coupling analyses of o/p from an edge emitting LED electromagnetic
theory are interpreted which involves defining a NA for SMP.
- The two cases for coupling is
i. Direct coupling of an LED into SMF &
ii. Coupling into SMF from multimode fly lead attached to LED.
- Edge emitting LEDs have Gaussian near o/p profiles with ye2 full width
of approximately 0.9 & 22 m in the direction perpendicular
&parallel to junction plane.
- The x(parallel) & y(perpendicular)directions, & let
x
&
y
be the x
& y power transmissivities.
- We can find the maximum LED to fiber coupling efficiency from the
relation
y x
s
in
P
P
t t q = =
in
P optical power launched into the fiber,
s
P total source output power












64

UNIT-IV
OPTICAL RECEIVERS
4.1.PIN PHOTODETECTOR:














Figure:4.1.1.Schematic representation of a pin photodiode circuit with an
applied reverse bias
- The device consists of p and n regions separated by very lightly
n-doped intrinsic(i) region. A large reverse bias voltage is
applied across the device so that the intrinsic region is fully
depleted of carriers.
- When an incident photon has an energy is greater than or equal
to bandgap energy, the photon can give up its energy & excite an
electron from valence band to conduction band. This process
generates electron-hole pair is known as photocarriers.
- Normally these carriers are generated mainly in depletion region
where most of the incident light is absorbed.
65

- The high electric field present in the depletion region causes the
carriers to separate & be collected across the reverse biased
junction.
- This gives rise to current flow in every external circuit, with one
electron flowing for every carrier pair generated. This current
flow is known as photocurrent.
- The charge carriers move a distance L
n
or L
p
for electrons &
holes. This distance is known as diffusion length.
- The time it takes for an electron or hole to recombine is known
as carrier lifetime & is represented by
n
&
p
. The lifetime &
diffusion lengths are related by
( ) ( )
2
1
2
1
&
p p p n n n
D L D L t t = =

n
D &

p
D electron & hole diffusion coefficients.
- Optical radiation is absorbed in semiconductor material
according to exponential law.
( )
x
s
e P x P
) (
0
1 ) (
o
=

) ( o
s
absorption coefficient at which wavelength .
P
0
incident optical power level.
P(x) optical power absorbed in a distance x.
- The cutoff wavelength is expressed by
) (
24 . 1
) (
ev E E
hc
m
g g
c
= =

- The cutoff wavelength is about 1.06m for Si & 1.6m for Ge .
For longer wavelength, the photon energy is not sufficient to
excite on electron from valence to conduction band.
- If the depletion region has a width w, then the total power
absorbed in the distance w is
( )
w
s
e P w P
o
= 1 ) (
0

- The primary photocurrent Ip resulting from power absorption is
given by
( ) ) 1 ( 1
0 f
w
p
R e P
h
q
I
s
=
o
u

Where,
f
R reflectivity
two important characteristics of photo detector are
i. Quantum efficiency.
ii. Response speed.
66

The quantum efficiency is the number of electron hole carrier pairs
generated per incident photon of energy h & is given by
v
q
h
P
q
I
p
0
=

The performance of photodiode is characterized by responsivity R. this
is related to quantum efficiency
v
q
h
q
P
I
R
p
= =
0

4.2.PHOTODETECTOR NOISE:
power noise Amplifier power noise ector photo
nt photocurre from power signal
N
S
+
=
det

To achieve high SNR
i. Quantum efficiency should be high to generate large signal power.
ii. Photodetector & amplifier noises should be kept as low .
4.2.1.NOISE SOURCES:






Fig:4.2.1.1.Photodetector receiver model Fig:4.2.1.2Equivalent
circuit

- The photodiode has series resistance R
s
, total capacitance C
d
,&
bias resistor R
L.

- The primary photocurrent i
p
(t) is generated when modulated
signal optical power P9t) falls on the detector.
) ( ) ( t P
h
q
t i
ph
v
q
=

67

- For pin photodiode, the mean square signal current <
s
i
2
> is

iance is t i i
p pin s s
var ) (
2 2
,
2
o o > =< >= <

For Avalanche photodiode,

2 2 2
,
2
. ) ( M t i i
p APD s s
> =< >= < o

Mavalanche multiplication factor.
< >ensemble average
- The signal component
2
p
i < > for sinusoid ally varying input signal of
modulation index m is
2
2
2 2
.
2
p p p
I
m
i = = > < o

- The noise associated with photodiode that have no internal gain are
i. Quantum noise or shot noise.
ii. Dark current noise.
iii. Bulk dark current
iv.Surface dark or surface leakage current noise.
1. Quantum noise.
- It arises from statistical nature of production & collection of photo-
electrons, when the optical signal is incident on a photodiode.
- The quantum noise current has a mean square value in bandwidth B
which is proportional to average value of photocurrent Ip.
) ( 2
2 2 2
M F qIpBM I
Q Q
= = > < o

Where, F(M) noise figure arised with random nature of avalanche
process(for pin P.D M=1)
F(M)=M
x

2. Dark current noise:
- The current that flows through the bias circuit when no light is incident
on the diode is known as dark current.
3.Bulk dark current:
- It is due to thermally generated electrons & holes in the pn junction of
P.D.The mean square of bulk current is given by
B M F M qI I
D DB DB
). ( 2
2 2 2
= = > < o

68

D
I primarly (unmultiplied)detector bulk dark current
4.Surface leakage current:
It is due to surface defects, cleanliness, bias voltage & surface area.
The mean square value
B qI I
L DS DS
2
2 2
= = > < o

The total mean square P.D. noise current <i
N
2
> is
( ) B qI B M F M I I q
i i i i
L D P
DS DB Q
DS DB Q N N
2 ) ( 2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
+ + =
+ + =
> < + > < + > =< >= <
o o o
o

Thermal noise(Amplifier noise):
The P.D. load resistor gives thermal noise

L
B
T T
R
T K
i
4
2 2
= >= < o

SNR:
( )
L
B
L D P
P
R
T K
B qI B M F M I I q
M I
N
S
4
2 ) ( 2
2
2 2
+ + +
> <
=

For sinusoidally modulated signal with m=1 & F(M) approximat4ed by
M
x
gives
) (
4
2
2
D P
L
B
L
X
opt
I I Xq
R
T K
qI
M
+
+
=
+

4.3.DETECTOR RESPONSE TIME:
4.3.1.Depletion layer photocurrent:
- The electron hole pairs generated due to absorption of incident photons
will be separated by reverse bias voltage induced by electric field.
- Under steady-state conditions, the total current density through
depletion layer is
diff dr tot
J J J + =

The drift current density is expressed as
69


( )
w P
dr
s
e q
A
I
J
o
|

= = 1
0

Aphotodiode area ,
0
| incident photon flux per unit area
( )
v
|
Ah
R P
f

=
1
0
0

f
R surface reflectivity
The hole diffusion can be determined by one dimensional diffusion
equation
0 ) (
0
2
2
= +

c
c
x G
P P
x
P
D
p
n n n
p
t

p
D hole diffusion co-efficient,
n
P hole concentration in n-type material

0 n
P equlilbrium hole density,
p
t excess hole life time
G(x)electron-hole generation rate & is given by

( )
x
s
s
e x G
o
o |

=
0
) (

Therefore the diffusion current density is
P
P
n
w
P s
P s
diff
L
D
qP e
L
L
q J
s
0 0
1
+
+
=
o
o
o
|

The total current density =
diff dr
J J +

( )
P
P
n
P s
w
P
P
n
P s
w
P s
w
P s
w
P s
P
P
n
w
P s
P s w
P
P
n
w
P s
P s w
tot
L
D
qP
L
e
q
L
D
qP
L
e L e L e L
q
L
D
qP e
L
L
e q
L
D
qP e
L
L
q e q J
s
s s s
s s
s s
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0 0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
=
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
+
+
+ =




o
|
o
o o o
|
o
o
|
o
o
| |
o
o o o
o o
o o

4.3.2.RESPONSE TIME:
The response time of photodiode are depends on
1. Transit time of photocarriers within the depletion region.
70

2. Diffusion time of photocarriers outside the depletion region.
3. RC time constant of photodiode & its associated circuit.
1. TRANSIT TIME:
The response speed of photodiode is primarily limited by time taken by
photo generated carriers travel across the depletion region.
d
d
v
w
t =

d
v carrier drift velocity, wdepletion layer width
2. DIFFUSION TIME:
i. Rise time:
The rise time
r
is measured from 10 to 90% of leading edge of output
pulse.
ii. Fall time:

f
is measured from 90 to 10% of falling edge of output pulse.
- For fully depleted photodiodes the rise time
r
& fall time
f
are same.
- Approximately within 1ns, the fast carriers allow the device output rise
to 50% of its maximum value but slow carriers cause a relatively long
delay before the output reaches its maximum value.
3.RC TIME CONSTANT:
- To achieve high quantum efficiency, the depletion layer width must
larger than
|
|
.
|

\
|
s
o
1
[inverse of absorption coefficient] so that most of light
will be absorbed.

Junction Capacitance:
- If the width of depletion region is too thin, the junction capacitance will
become high & is given by
w
A
C
s
j
c
=

s
c
permittivity of semiconductor material =
s
K
0
c

s
K semiconductor dielectric constant, Adiffusion layer area
The detector behaves like a simple RC low pass filter with pass band is
given by
71

T T
C R
B
t 2
1
=

T
R combination of load & amplifier input resistance
T
C sum of photodiode & amplifier capacitances.
4.3.3.AVALANCHE MULTIPLICATION NOISE:
- Every photogenerated carriers donot undergo the same multiplication
and hence the avalanche process is statistical in nature.
Excess noise factor(F):
tion multiplica avalanche of square
tion multiplica avalanche of square mean
F
M
m
m
m
=
> <
=
> <
> <
2
2 2

- Mean square gain is greater than average gain i.e., if m denotes the
statiscally varying gain, then
<m
2
> > <m>
2
=M
2

- The noise in avalanche process is relatively high because it depends on
mean square gain <m
2
>
<m
2
>=M
2+x
, 0<x<1.0
- The excess noise factor F has to derived for injected electrons & holes
separately
For injected electrons,

( )
) 1 (
1
1
) 1 (
1 2
1
2
2
1
2
1 1
2
2
1 2
K M
K
K
K K
M
K
K K
F
e
e e

=

For injected holes,

( )
2
1 2
2
2
1
2
2
1
1 2
2
2
1
2
1 2
) 1 (
1
1
) 1 (
) 1 (
2
) 1 ( K K M
K K
K K
K K
M
K K
K K
F
n
n n

+
(

=

1
K
&
2
K
are weighted ionization rates.
1
K &
2
K donot change much with variations in gain & can be considered as
constant & equal.
dx x M x
dx x M x
K
dx x M x
dx x M x
K
Wm
Wm
Wm
Wm
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
&
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
2
0
0
2
2
0
0
1
o
|
o
|
}
}
}
}
= =

Therefore
72


( )
( )
) 1 (
1
2
) 1 (
1
) 1 ( 2
1
2 2
2 2
1
2
2 1
1 1
2
2 1
1 1
2 1
1 1 1
1
1 1 1
2 2
2 2
2
2
eff
e
eff e e
eff
e
eff eff e
e
eff
e
eff eff e
eff
e
eff
eff e
e
e
eff
e
eff
eff
e
e
e
e
eff
e
eff
eff
e
e
e
e
e
eff e
e
eff e e
K
M
K M F
K
M
K K M
M
K
M
K K M
K
M
K
K M
M
M
K
M
K
K
M
M
M
M
K
M
K
K
M
M
M
M
M
K M
M
K M F

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+ =
+ + =
(

+ + +

=
(
(

+ + + =
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
=

For injected holes

eff
h eff
eff
h
h
h eff h eff
eff
h h
h
h eff h eff
eff
h h
h
h
h
eff
h
h eff
h h
K
M K
K
M
M
M K M K
K
M M
M
M K M K
K
M M
M
M
M
K
M
M K
M F
'
2
'
1
'
2
1
'
2
'
1
'
1 2 1
1 1
'
2
'
1
'
1 2 1
1 1
2 1
1
'
1
1 1
1
1
'
1
1 1
2 2
2 2
2
2
+ + +

=
(
(

+ + + =
(
(

(
(

+ + =
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=

73


( ) 1 "
1
2 "
1
'
1 1
2
'
'
1
1
1
2
'
'
1
1
1
'
1
1 2
'
'
1 1
'
2
2
'

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
(
(


(
(

+ =
+ + =
eff
h
eff h h
eff h eff
h
eff h eff
h
eff h eff eff
h
h eff
h eff eff
h
K
M
K M F
K M K
M
K M K
M
K M K K
M
M K
M K K
M

Where,

eff
K" =
eff
K'
1

The effective ionization rate ratios are

2
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
1 2
'
1
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K K
K
eff
eff
eff
= =
=

=


- It shows that F
e
as a function of average electron gain M
e
for various
value of effective ionization rate ratio K
eff
.
- If the ionization rates are equal , the excess noise is at its maximum then
F
e =
M
e
- Smaller value of K
eff
gives smaller excessive noise factor. K
eff
ranges
between 0.015 to 0.035 for silicon & 0.6 to 1.0 for germanium.
- For excess noise factor can be approximated as
F=M
x
4.4.FUNDAMENTAL RECEIVER OPERATION
- A decision circuit compares the solution in each time slot with a certain
reference voltage known as threshold level.
(i) Received signal > Threshold Level = 1
(ii) Received signal < Threshold Level = 0


74

4.4.1.ERROR SOURCE

Figure:4.4.1.1.noise sources & disturbances in the optical pulse
detection mechanism

- Photon detection
Quantum noise
- Bulk dark current
- Surface gain fluctuation ( for avalanche PD )
- If the detector is illuminated by an optical signal PD then the average
number of electron bole pairs N generated in a time t is

}
= =
t

q
0
) (
h
E
dt t p
h
N
Where
q the detector quantum efficiency
h Photon energy.
E Energy received in a time interval t
- The actual number of electron hole pairs n that are generated fluctuates
from the average according to Poisson distribution
!
) (
n
e
N n P
N
n
r

=
Where
) (n P
r
Probability that n
=
e are emitted in an internal t
- The random nature of avalanche multiplication process gives rise to
type of shot noise.
- A detector with a mean avalanche gain and an ionization rate ration
K the excess noise factor F( for
=
e injection is
( ) K
M
KM M F |
.
|

\
|
+ = 1
1
2 ) (
75

This equation is approximated by empirical expression
1 0 ) ( < < = x M M F
x

4.4.2. RECEIVER CONFIGURATION:
- The rectangular digital pulse falls on P.D is found by
) ( ) (
b
n
p n
nT t h b t P =

=

n
b Received optical power
b
T bit speed
p
h (t) Received pulse shape
-
p
h (t) are always non negative pulse under the unities
1 ) ( =
}


dt t h
p

- The mean value of optical current from photodiode at time t regulating
pulse train

) (
) ( ) (
b
n
p n o
nT t h b R
t p
h
q
t i
=
=

q

4.4.3.FOURIER TRANSFORM REPRESENTATION:
- To evaluate the specifies of equalizer out put voltage, we need to use
F.T techniques.
- The mean voltage at the out put equalizer of current with amplifier
impulse response.
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
0
t h t h t P AR t V
eq out
- - =
|

A amplifier gain,
P.D gain,
) (t h
|
Impulse response of buys circuit
) (t h
eq
Equalizer impulse response.
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
0
t h t h t P GR t V
eq out
- - =
|

- ) (t h
|
is given by inverse F.T of buys circuit transfer function ) (t H
|


| |
df e f H
f H F t h
ft j
B
B
t
|
2
1
) (
) ( ) (
}

=
=

76

- ) ( f H
B
is the parallel combination of
a d a b
c c R R & , ,
,


d a
B
c c c
Rb Ra R
where
fc j
R
f H
+ = + =
+
=
&
1 1 1
2
1
1
) (
t

- The mean voltage out put from equalizer can be
) ( ) (
b
n
out n out
nT t h b t V =

=

) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
0
t h t h t Gh R t h
eq p out
- - =
|

This equation represents the shape of an isolated amplified & filted pulse.

) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
0
2
f H f H f GH R dt e t h f H
eq B p
ft j
out out
- - = =


}
t

T F f A
p
. ) ( = of rxed pulse shape ) (t h
p
, ) ( f H
eq
transfer function
of equation .

4.5.DIGITAL RECEIVER PERFORMANCE :

(i) Probability of error
(ii) Quantum limits
4.5.1.QUANTUM LIMIT:
- For ideal PD Quantum efficiency is equal to 1 & which produces no
dark current (ie) no electron hole pairs are generated in the absence of
optical pulse.
- In this condition it is possible to find the minimum received for a
specific between error rate performance in a digital system. This
minimum received power level is known as Quantum limit.

- Assume that optical pulse of energy falls on the photodiode in a time
interval t , then no
=
e note pairs generated at the output in a time
interval t is

77


N
N
r
N
n
r
e
e
N n P
o n
n
e
N n P

= =
=
=
! 0
) (
!
) (
0


4.5.2.PROBABILITY OF ERROR:
BIT ERROR RATE (BET):
- Ratio between no errors ( )
e
N occurring over a certain time interval t to
the no of pulses transmitted ( )
t
N during this interval

rate bit
T
B
B
N
N
N
BER
b
t
t
e
t
e
=
= =
1

(the pulse transmission rate).
Its range from
12 9
10 10

to
- The probability distribution of solution at the equalizer out put should be
known to compute BER .Here the decision is mode as to whether 0 or
1 is sent.

dy
y
P v P
dy
y
P v P
th
th
v
v
}
}


=
=
)
0
( ) (
)
1
( ) (
0
1

Probability of error = probability of occurrence X conditional
probability
) ( ) (
0 1 1 1 th th e
V P b V P a P + =
- Probability of occurrence for 0 & 1 is equal probability

2
1
1 1
= = b a
- Let us assume that signal S has a Gaussian probability distribution
function with mean value m.

( )
ds s f
m s
2
2
2
2
2
1
) (
o
o
to

=
The conditional probability of occurence f(0) 1 & 0 is
th off on
V m b b S = = , &
78

( )
( )
dv
b V
V P
dv
V b
V P
th
th
V OFF
OFF th
OFF
th
V
ON
th ON
ON
th
}
}


(
(


=
(
(


=
2
2
0
2
2
1
2
exp
. 2
1
) (
2
exp
. 2
1
) (
o o t
o o t

The probability of error is
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
OFF
th
ON
th
ON
th
OFF
OFF th
ON
th ON
V OFF
OFF th
OFF
V
ON
th ON
ON
e
dv
dx
dv dv
dx
b V V b
x
dv
b V
dv
V b
P
th
th
o
o o
o o
o o t o o t
. 2
. 2 . 2
2 2
2
exp .
. 2
1
2
1
2
exp .
. 2
1
2
1
2 2
2
2
2
2
=
=

=
(
(


+
(
(


=
} }



ON
th ON
OFF
OFF th
x
x
OFF
x FF
ON
x
ON
e
V b b V
Q
dx x dx x
dx x dx x P
o o
t t
o
o t
o
o t

=
+ =
+ =
} }
} }


) exp( .
1
2
1
. ) exp( .
1
2
1
. 2 . ) exp( .
. 2
1
2
1
. 2 . ) exp( .
. 2
1
2
1
2 2
2 2

Therefore,
The probabilityof error is
(

|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
2
1
Q
erf P
e

Consider
OFF
o = o o =
ON

. , 0 ,
2
value b f ind b
V
V
ON OFF th
= =
79

o
o o
o o
2
,
2 2
V
Q V b
V
b
V
V b b V
Q
ON
ON
ON
th ON
OFF
OFF th
= =

= =

=

(

|
.
|

\
|
=
(

|
.
|

\
|
=
o . 2 2
1 .
2
1
2
1 .
2
1
V
erf
Q
erf P
e
It is possible for unipolar & symmetric, where,
V/ is peak signal to noise ratio.V/ is 2 times increases, i.e., doubling
signal to noise ratio, BER decreased by 10
4
. is a nonzero extrinsic
ratio.Zero pulse is slightly greater or less than zero so that we have to
maintain safety margin is 3-6dB.
4.6.PREAMPLIFIERS:
- Receiver amplifiers are called front end preamplifier.
Requirements:
1. low noise level.
2. High bandwidth.
3. high dynamic range.
4. High sensitivity.
5. high gain.
Types:
i. low impedance.
ii.high impedance.
iii. Transimpedance.

80

1. Low Impedance:
Due to low impedance , noise is high.
bandwidth is moderate, sensitivity is also low. So need of equalizer at output.
Due to low impedance, thermal noise affects the receiver.
2. High Impedance:

Due to high impedance, noise is low.
Input signal is integrated by time constant =RC. So bandwidth is low.
Range is upto 1G bits/sec, we have to prefer.
Equalizer is necessary to boostup the high impedance. Upto 1Gb/s, high
impedance preamplifier are used.

3. Trans impedance:
Due to high resistance, noise is low, high bandwidth. Sensitivity is increased
by both transistors. 90% efficiency.
Source is directly connected to ground. High dynamic range>1Gb/s,
transimpedance preamplifier are used for application purpose.

4.7.TEMPERATURE AFFECTS ON AVALANCHEC GAIN:
- The gain of APD is very temperature sensitive because of
temperature dependence of electron and hole ionization rate.
- This temperature is particularly critical at high bias voltage, where
small changes in temperature can cause large variations in gain.
- To mailtain a constant gain as the temperature changes, the electric
field in the multiplying region of pn junction must also be changed.
- The temperature dependent expression can be obtained from
empirical relation ship
n
B
V
V
M
|
.
|

\
|

=
1
1


B
V breakdown voltage, nvaries between 2.5 &7

M M a
R I V V =

a
V reverse bias voltage applied to the detector

M
I multiplied photocurrent

M
R photodetector series resistance
Breakdown voltage is varied with temperature is
| | ) ( 1 ) ( ) (
0 0
T T a T V T V
B B
+ =
4.8.AVALANCHE PHOTODETECTOR:
- APD internally multiply the primary signal photocurrent before it enters
the input circuitry of the amplifier. This increases the receiver
sensitivity.
81

- In order for carrier multiplication to take place, the photogenerated
carriers must traverse a region where a very high electric field is present.
- In this high field region, a photogenerated electron or hole can gain
enough energy so that it ionizes bound electrons in valence band upon
colliding with them. This carrier multiplication mechanism is known as
impact ionization.
- The newly created carriers also accelerated by high electric field, thus
gaining enough energy to cause further impact ionization. This
phenomenon is called avalanche effect.
- A commonly used structure for achieving carrier multiplication with
very little excess noise is the reach through construction. The reach-
through avalanche photodiode(RAPD) is composed of high-resistivity p-
type material deposited as an epitaxial layer on a p
+
(heavily doped p-
type)substrate.
- The term reach-through arises from the photodiode operation. When a
low reverse bias voltage is applied, most of the potential drop is across
the pn
+
junction.
- The depletion layer widens with increasing bias untila a certain voltage
is reached at which the peak electric field at the pn
+
junction is about 5-
10 percent below that needed to cause avalanche breakdown. At this
point, the depletion layer just reaches through to the nearly intrinsic
region.
- The average number of electron-hole pair created by a carrier per unit
distance traveled is called ionization rate.most materials exhibit different
electron ionization rates and hole ionization rates .
- The ratio
|
o
= k of the two ionization rates is a measure of
photodetector performance.











82

Figure:4.8.1.Avalanche photodiode structure

- The multiplication M for all carriers generated in the photodiode is
defined by

P
M
I
I
M =
M
I average value of the total multiplied output current
P
I primary unmultiplied photocurrent
- In practice, the avalanche mechanism is a statistical process, since not
every carrier pair generated in the diode experiences the same
multiplication. Thus, the measured value of M is expresed as an average
quantity.
4.9.PHOTOTRANSISTOR:
- In common with APD the phototransistor provides internal gain of
photocurrent. This is achieved through transistor action rather than
avalanche multiplication.
- The phototransistor is same as conventional transistior except that it uses
radiation instead of electricity as its input signal.
- The advantages of phototransistor over photodiode is current
amplification produced by transistor.

Figure:4.9.1.Common Emitter type of phototransistor
- A p-n-p or n-p-n germanium transistor wafer is mounted so that the lens
focusses the light rays on the area around the base emitter junction.
83

- Leads are connected to collector & emitter regions of wafer. In some
phototransistor , a third lead is connected to base layer of wafer as in a
conventional transistor.
- When light falls on photosensitive surface of germanium wafer,
additional electron-hole pairs are produced on absorption of light & base
current is set up.
- This base current is as usual amplified B times where B is the common
emitter current gain of phototransistor.
- This amplified current flows through the load resistance R
L
. Before the
phototransistor is exposed to any light, a small dark current flows & is
equal to saturation current of back biased p-n junction.
- The typical uses of photoelectric devices are light meters & other
instruments, punched card & punched tape readers, objects counters,
door openers, automatic camera control, light beam communications,
infrared detection, automatic light control, tone & function generators.
4.10.SCHOTTKY BARRIER DIODE:
- The metal contacts are required to be ohmic & no pn junctions to be
formed between the metal & silicon layers.
- The N
+
diffusion region serves the purpose of generating ohmic
contacts.
- On the otherhand, if aluminium is deposited directly on N-type
silicon, then a metal-semiconductor diode can be said to be formed.
- Such a metal semiconductor diode junction exhibits the same type of
V-I characteristics as that of an ordinary PN junction.
- Contact 1 ia a schottky barrier & contact 2 is an ohmic contact. The
contact potential between the semiconductor & metal ganerates a
barrier for the flow of conducting electrons from semiconductor to
metal.


84

Figure:4.10.1.Schottky Barrier diode structure
- When the junction is forward biased, this barrier is lowered & electron
flow is allowed from semiconductor to metal, where the electrons
are in large quantities.
- The majority carriers carry the condition current in the schottky diode
whereas in PN junction, minority carriers carry the conduction
current and it occurs an appreciable time delay from ON state to
OFF state.
- This is due to the fact that the minority carriers stored in junction have
to be totally removed.
- This characteristic puts the schottky barrier diode at an advantage
since it exhibits negligible storage time to flow the elctron from N-
type silicon into aluminium almost right at the contact surface,
where they mix with free electrons.
- The other advantage of this type of diode is that it has less forward
voltage(approximately 0.4v).Thus it can be used for clamping &
detection in high frequency applications & microwave integrated
circuits.















85

UNIT-V
DIGITAL SIGNAL TRANSMISSION
5.1.POINT TO POINT LINKS:
The simplest transmission link is point to point link that has transmitter
on one end and receiver on other end.


Figure:5.1.1.Simplex point-to-point link
- Point to point link is used at less demand on optical fiber technology.
- While analyzing the system the following key systems are required to
design
1. distance b/w transmitter & receiver
2. Bandwidth
3. Bit error rate
To fulfill these requirements we have to select the following components.
1. MM & SMF
Core radius & core size
NA
RI Profile
BW
Attenuation

2. LED or Laser
Emission W.L
O/p Power
Effective radiatory area
Emission Pattern
Spectral line width
No. of emitting modes

3. Pin or Avalanche PD
Responsivity
Operating W.L
Speed
Sensitivity
Efficiency



86

Two important analysis for deciding performance of fiber link are
i. Link power budget
ii. Time budget analysis
1. Used to determine the power margin b/w txr pr & rxr power with a
specified BER.
2. Used to determine the desired overall system performance
requirements like maximum bit rate and maximum transmission
distance etc.
5.2.SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS:
- If the transmission system is too large, we have to prefer the W.L is
1300 or 1550nm.
- Distance is short means prefer 800- 900nm
- System performance having 3 major blocks.
1. Transmitter
2. Optical fiber
3. Receiver

5.2.1.TRANSMITTER:
- For choosing the transmitter, we have to consider s/l dispersion, data
rate & transmission distance & cost.
- Dispersion for silica fibers limit the data rate is 150 mbps. Km. for laser-
2500 mbps.
- Suppose the W.L is around 1.3 um, bit rate for LED=1500 Mbps. Km.
- For SMF at 1550nm bit rate is 500 Gbps .km

5.2.2.OPTICAL FIBER:
- Choose of optical fiber depends on light source type & amount of
dispersion.
- Dispersion is greater with increasing core- cladding RI
- The Optical power coupled into the fiber depends upon NA.

5.2.3.RECEIVER:
- Choose the receiver according to transmission distance b/w
transmitter& Receiver.
- According to the quantum limits we have to choose the PD.
- The Receiver should be simple & stable with temp changes.
- For Pin P.D bias voltage is < 5v
- Avalanche.P.D range is 40 100 v
- Advantage of pin P.D is high sensitivity at low power level.



87

5.3.LINX POWER BUDGET






Figure:5.3.1.Optical power loss model for a point to point link
The Optical Power received at P.D depends on
i. Amount of light coupled into the fiber.
ii. Losses occurring in the fiber &Connectors & splices
The link power loss considers the total optical power loss P
T
between
the light source & P.D. This loss is allocated to cable attenuation,
connector loss , splice loss & system margin.
Total power loss= optical power at light source optical power at receiver
P
T
= P
s
- P
R

Total Optical power loss PT=connector loss + (splicing loss & fiber
attenuation+ system margin.
P
T
= in m system L l
f c
arg 2 + +o
The system margin is nominally taken as 6db
5.4.RISE TIME BUDGET:
- It determines the dispersion limitation in digital system design.
- The total rise time of fiber link is the root sum square of rise times from
each contributor ti to the pulse rise time degradation
- Rise time and fall time determines the overall system response time is
related with B.W
- Light sources & detectors has a finite response time to the inputs , so the
device does not switched ON & OFF instantaneous.
- For getting adequate B.W the link components should be switched fast
manner & dispersion is low.
- Connectors & splices does not affect the system speed. So it is not
included for rise time budget.
Basic contributors for rise time budget.
88

1. Transmitter rise time(t
TX
)
2. Group velocity dispersion rise time(t
gvd
)
3. Model dispersion rise time(t
mod
)
4. Receiver rise time (t
RX
)
The total rise time T
sys
.
Tsys=
2
1
1
2
|
.
|

\
|

=
N
i
i
t
5.4.1.Transmitter rise time:
It is in primarily, due to light source & its drive circuitry.
t
tx
=350 / B
tx

5.4.2.GVD:
It is over a length L is given as
t
GVD
=| D | L


Where,D- dispersion factor,

-half power spectral width.


5.4.3.Model Dispersion:
To find the model dispersion rise time, band width P1 in a link of length
L can be expressed by empirical relation.
t
mod
= 0.44 / B
M
= 440L
q
/ B
0
(ns)
5.4.4.Receiver:
Total rise time of a digital link should not exceed 70% for a NRZ bit
period, and 35% of a RZ bit period

t
rx
= 350/B
rx
ns; where
The total rise time

| |
2
1
2
2 2 2
2
0
2
2
1
2 2 2
mod
2
350 440
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+ + + =
rx
q
tx
rx GVD tx sys
B
L D
B
L
t
t t t t t

o



89

5.5.NOISE EFFECTS ON SYSTEM PERFORMANCE:
1. Modal noise
2. Mode partition noise
3. Chirping
4. Reflection noise

5.5.1. Modal noise:
- It occurs only in MMF Laser source coupled with mmf to get modal
noise.
- If the speed is around 400 MHZ/Sec ,the noise will be high.
There are 2 factors to produce modal raqise are
i. Mechanical disturbances.
ii. Fluctuation in frequency components
- The modal distortion resulting from interference between single pair of
modes will appear as sinusoidal ripple of frequency

dt
dv
T
source
o u =
dt
dv
source
the rate of change of optical frequency
Reduction of Model noise:
- Use LED
- Use fiber with high NA value
- Use single mode Laser.
- Use Laser with more no of longitudinal modes.








Figure:5.5.1.1Modal noise in single-mode fiber link

90

5.5.2.Mode partition noise:
- Source is MM Laser, fiber is SM fiber, so the power distribution is not
uniform manner, then intensity fluctuation exists & pulse spreading
occurs in o/p is called mode partition noise. It can be minimized by
suppress the higher order modge.
- The power penalty receiver side is
( )
(

+
+
=
4
2 2
2
1 log
1
2
5

o tBLD
Q k
x
x
p
mpn

5.5.3.Chirping:
- Source is SM Laser, input wave is continuous wave operation may
experience dynamic line broadening when the injection current is
directly modulated. This line broadening is a frequency chirp
associated with modulation-induced changes in the carrier density.
- It can be reduced by decreasing the extinction ratio.
- Laser chirping can lead to significant dispersion effects for intensity-
modulated pulses when the laser emission wavelength is displaced from
zero-dispersion wavelength of the fiber.
- To a good approximation, the time independent frequency change v(t)
of the laser can be given in terms of the output power P(t).
(

= A ) ( ) ( ln
4
) ( t P t P
dt
d
t v k
t
o

o linewidth enhancement factor
k frequency independent factor that depends on the laser structure.
- When the effect of laser chirp is small, the eye closure can be
approximated by
( )
(

+ |
.
|

\
|
= A
chirp chirp
t DL DLB t o o t
3
2
1 8
3
4
2 2

chirp
t chirp duration, Bbit rate, Dfiber chromatic dispersion,
Lfiber length, ochirp induced wavelength excursion.
5.5.4.Reflection Noise:
- When light travels through a fiber link , some optical power gets
reflected of refracting index discontinuities such as in splices, couplers
and filters or at air glass interfaces in connectors.
- The reflected signal can be degrade both transmitter and receiver
performance.
- In the high speed systems, this reflected power causes optical feedback
which can induced laser instabilities.
91

percent R 6 . 3
0 . 1 47 . 1
0 . 1 47 . 1
2
= |
.
|

\
|
+

=
The techniques for reducing optical feedback include the following
- Prepare fiber end faces with a curved surface or an angle relative to the
laser emitting facet.
- Use index-matching oil 0r gel at air-glass interfaces. The return loss
with this technique is usually greater than 30dB.
- Use connectors in which the end faces make physical contact. Return
loss of 25-40 dB have been measured with these connectors.
- Use optical isolators within the laser transmitter module. These devices
easily achieve 25-dB return losses, but they also can introduce up to 1
dB of forward loss in the link.











Figure:5.5.4.1Multiple reflections in a fiber link
5.6.OPEREATIONAL PRINCIPLES OF WDM:
Passive/active devices are needed to combine, distribute, isolate and
amplify optical power at different wavelengths
Capacity upgrade of existing fiber networks (without adding fibers)
Transparency: Each optical channel can carry any transmission format
(different asynchronous bit rates, analog or digital)
Scalability Buy and install equipment for additional demand as needed
Wavelength routing and switching: Wavelength is used as another
dimension to time and space

92









Figure:5.6.1.Implementation of a typical WDM network containing various
types of optical amplifiers
5.6.1.Key components for WDM
i. Passive Components:
- Wavelength selective splitters.
- Wavelength selective couplers.

ii. Active components:
- Tunable optical filter.
- Tunable source.
- Optical amplifier.
- Add-drop Multiplexer and De-multiplexer









Figure:5.6.1.1.Various components of WDM
93

5.7.SOLITONS:
- Group velocity dispersion(GVD) causes most pulses to broaden in time
as they propagate through an optical fiber. However, a particular pulse
shape known as a soliton takes advantage of nonlinear effects in silica,
particularly self phase modulation(SPM) resulting from nonlinearity,
to overcome the pulswe broadening effects of GVD.
- The term soliton refers to special to special kinds of waves that can
propagate undistorted over long distances and remain unaffected after
collisions with each other.
Soliton Pulses:




Original pulse, a
compressed pulse and a dispersed
pulse are shown.


Figure:5.7.1.various soliton pulses
- The use of SRS amplifiers only helps in reducing one of the problems
of long haul transmission, namely the loss of the signal.
- The second problem, pulse broadening brought on by dispersion, still
remains even with the use of SRS or SBS based amplifiers.
- Indeed, the fundamental limitation of the fiberoptic communication
systems arises from dispersion.
- Dispersion can be compensated if it is possible to keep the pulse from
expanding or broadening. But, the dispersion in the fiber can only be
reduced, not eliminated.
- However, along with pulse broadening if we can introduce pulse
compression, the two counteracting effects, broadening and
compression, will ensure that the pulses do not spread in time.
- Pulses that are not dispersed are referred to as solitons or solitary pulses.
These pulses must have a certain definite shape and will require a
minimum strength.
- The energy in the pulse introduces intensity induced refractive index
change in the material of the fiber. Index changes from intensity
variations are a manifestation of the non-linearity of the material.
- Intensity induced changes leads to pulse compression because such
changes are equivalent to self-phase modulation. Phase modulation and
frequency modulation increase the frequency content in the pulse.
94

- Using the Fourier property of duality (expansion in the frequency
domain causes a compression in the frequency domain and vice versa),
the pulse must now be narrower. This narrowing of the pulse will be
sufficient to compensate for the dispersion in the fiber, keeping the pulse
from spreading.
5.8.EDFAs:












Figure:5.8.1.Energy level diagrams & various transition processes
- This triggers stimulated emission of erbium ions from
- Erbium ions left at E1 will absorb the incoming 1550 nm photons and
rise to E2.
- Stimulated emission must exceed light absorption to achieve light
amplification.
- Therefore there must be more erbium ions at E2 then at E1.
- Assume N2 and N1 are the number if erbium ions at E2 and E1.
- The difference between stimulated emission (E2 toE1) and
absorption (E1 to E2) rate controls the optical gain.
o G
op
K (N
2
N
1
)

where K is a constant that depends on pumping intensity
5.8.1.Considerations:
- Spontaneous decay of erbium ions from E2 to E1 will
95

generate noise in the amplified light signal.
- If the EDFA is not pumped then it presents itself as an
attenuator. 1550 nm photons will be absorbed by ions
which will rise from E1 to E2.
- The range of stimulated transistions from E2 to E1
correspond to a wavelength range of 1525 to 1565 nm that
can be amplified.
- This delivers an optical bandwidth of 40 nm.
- This permits usage with a WDM.
- Problem => Gain is not uniform across bandwidth.
- Techniques must be implemented to flatten the response.
Factors controlling the degree of gain uniformity:
1. Concentrations of the active ion (erbium).
2. Optical gain flattening filter.
3. Additional (second ) pump laser at each end of the fibre.
One pump beam propagates with signal beam while the other propagates
against it. Ensures that population inversion and gain remains constant along the
fiber.
5.8.2.Physical Components of EDFA:
1. Biconical fused fibre couplers.
2. One or two (if high output required) laser pumps.
3. Polarization-insensitive optical isolators front and back. Allows only
1550 nm signals to pass. Pump radiation should not enter main fibre
as well as optical feedback from reflections.
4. Optical filter for gain flattening.
5. Photodetector system to monitor pump power or EDFA output power.

5.9.BASIC CONCEPS OF SONET/SDH:
Synchronous Optical NETwork
- Designed for optical transport (high bitrate)
- Direct mapping of lower levels into higher ones
- Carry all PDH types in one universal hierarchy
- ITU version = Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
- different terminology but interoperable
- Overhead doesnt increase with rate
- OAM designed-in from beginning

5.9.1.Standardization:
- hierarchy of signals, all multiple of basic rate (50.688)
- basic rate about 50 Mbps to carry DS3 payload
- bit-oriented mux
- mechanisms to carry DS1, DS2, DS3
- US would use basic rate of 51.84 Mbps, 9 rows * 90 columns
- CEPT would use three times that rate - 155.52 Mbps, 9 rows * 270
columns
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5.9.2.SONET/SDH architecture:
Layers:
SONET was designed with definite layering concepts
- Physical layer optical fiber (linear or ring)

when exceed fiber reach regenerators
regenerators are not mere amplifiers,
regenerators use their own overhead
fiber between regenerators called section (regenerator section)
- Line layer link between SONET muxes (Add/Drop Multiplexers)
input and output at this level are Virtual Tributaries (VCs)
actually layers
lower order VC (for low bitrate payloads)
- higher order VC (for high bitrate payloads) Path
layer end-to-end path of client data (tributaries)
client data (payload) may be
PDH
ATM
packet data

5.9.3.SONET architecture:







Figure:5.9.3.1.SONET structure


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SONET (SDH) has at 3 layers:
path end-to-end data connection, muxes tributary signals path
section

there are STS paths + Virtual Tributary (VT) paths
line protected multiplexed SONET payload
section physical link between adjacent elements regenerator section
Each layer has its own overhead to support needed functionality


A SONET signal is called a Synchronous Transport
Signal The basic STS is STS-1, all others are
multiples of it - STS-N
The (optical) physical layer signal corresponding to an STS-N is an
OC-N
5.9.4.SONET frame structure:
- Synchronous Transfer Signals are bit-signals (OC are optical)
- Like all TDM signals, there are framing bits at the beginning of the
frame However, it is convenient to draw SONET/SDH signals as
rectangles






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