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Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 0

nr. 2 / 2013
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 1
nr. 2 / 2013
E
CONOMIE yi SOCIOLOGI
E
REVIST
Ministerul Economiei
al Republicii Moldova
Academia de Stiinje
a Moldovei
revist teoretico-ytiinjific, fondat n anul 1953
Institutul de Economie, Finanje yi Statistic
Nr. 2 / 2013
ISSN: 1857-4130
Chiyinu, 2013
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 2
nr. 2 / 2013
COLEGIUL DE REDACTIE:
Redactor-yef:
Gheorghe ILIADI, doctor habilitat, proIesor, Republica Moldova
Redactor-yef adjunct, compartimentul Economie.
Vadim MACARI, doctor, conIerentiar, Republica Moldova
Redactor-yef adjunct, compartimentul Sociologie:
Andrei TIMU$, membru corespondent, Republica Moldova
Membrii:
Gheorghe MI$COI, membru corespondent, Republica Moldova
David SMALLBONE, doctor, proIesor, Maria Britanie
Michael GRINGS, doctor, proIesor, Germania
Lumini(a CHIVU, doctor, proIesor, Romnia
Alexandr NECHIPELOV, academician, Rusia
Vasa LASZLO, doctor, conIerentiar, Ungaria
Felix ZINOVIEV, academician, proIesor, Ucraina
1amila BOPIEVA, doctor habilitat, proIesor, Kazahstan
Vilayat VALIYEV, doctor, Azerbaijan
Ceslav CIOBANU, doctor, proIesor, SUA
Dumitru MOLDOVAN, membru corespondent, Republica Moldova
Elena PDUREAN, doctor, Romnia
Alexandru STRATAN, doctor habilitat, Republica Moldova
Galina ULIAN, doctor habilitat, proIesor, Republica Moldova
Alexandru GRIBINCEA, doctor habilitat, proIesor, Republica Moldova
Dmitrii PARMACLI, doctor habilitat, proIesor, Republica Moldova
Ion SARBU, doctor habilitat, proIesor universitar, Republica Moldova
Victoria GANEA, doctor, conIerentiar, Republica Moldova
Victoria TROFIMOV, doctor, conIerentiar, Republica Moldova
Tudor BA1URA, doctor habilitat, proIesor, Republica Moldova
Valeriu DOGA, doctor habilitat, proIesor, Republica Moldova
Tatiana MANOLE, doctor habilitat, proIesor, Republica Moldova
Victor MOCANU, doctor, conIerentiar, Republica Moldova
Anatol RO1CO, doctor, conIerentiar, Republica Moldova
Angela TIMU$, doctor, conIerentiar, Republica Moldova
Galina SAVELIEVA, doctor, conIerentiar, Republica Moldova
Radu CUHAL, doctor, conIerentiar, Republica Moldova
Marica DUMITRA$CO, doctor, conIerentiar, Republica Moldova
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Categoria ,B.
Institutul de Economie, Finante si Statistic al ASM si ME
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Preluarea textelor editate in revista ,Economie i Sociologie` este posibil doar cu acordul
autorului. Responsabilitatea asupra fiecrui text publicat apartine autorilor. Opinia redactiei nu coincide totdeauna cu
opinia autorilor.
Redactor-ef CE. Iulita BRC
Redactori (limba roman). Andrian SCLIFOS,
Tatiana PARVAN, Victoria BORDOS
Redactori (limba engle:). Eugenia LUCA$ENCO
Designer copert. Alexandru SANDULESCU
Redactare bibliografic. Nina DALINITCHI, Diana PELEPCIUC
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ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 3
nr. 2 / 2013
E
CONOMY and SOCIOLOG
Y
REVIST
Academy of Sciences
of Moldova
Ministry of Economy
of the Republic of Moldova
Institute of Economy, Finance and Statistics
theoretical and scientifical journal, founded in 1953
Chisinau, 2013
No. 2 / 2013
ISSN: 1857-4130
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 4
nr. 2 / 2013
EDITORIAL BOARD:
Editor-in-chief:
Gheorghe ILIADI, PhD, ProIessor, Republic oI Moldova
Editor-in-chief of Economics department:
Vadim MACARI, PhD, Associate ProIessor, Republic oI Moldova
Editor-in-chief of Sociology department:
Andrei TIMU$, Associate Member, Republic oI Moldova
Members:
Gheorghe MI$COI, Associate Member, Republic oI Moldova
David SMALLBONE, PhD, ProIessor, Great Britain
Michael GRINGS, PhD, ProIessor, Germany
Luminita CHIVU, PhD, ProIessor, Romania
Alexandr NECHIPELOV, Academician, Russia
Vasa LASZLO, PhD, Hungary
Felix ZINOVIEV, Academician, ProIessor, Ukraine
1amila BOPIEVA, PhD, Kazakhstan
Vilayat VALIYEV, PhD, Azerbaijan
Ceslav CIOBANU, PhD, ProIessor, USA
Dumitru MOLDOVAN, Associate Member, Republic oI Moldova
Elena PADUREAN, PhD, CCEE, Romanian Academy, Romania
Alexandru STRATAN, PhD, ProIessor, Republic oI Moldova
Galina ULIAN, PhD, ProIessor, Republic oI Moldova
Alexandru GRIBINCEA, PhD, ProIessor, Republic oI Moldova
Dmitrii PARMACLI, PhD, ProIessor, Republic oI Moldova
Ion SARBU, PhD, ProIessor, Republic oI Moldova
Victoria GANEA, PhD, Associate ProIessor, Republic oI Moldova
Victoria TROFIMOV, PhD, Associate ProIessor, Republic oI Moldova
Tudor BA1URA, PhD, ProIessor, Republic oI Moldova
Valeriu DOGA, PhD, ProIessor, Republic oI Moldova
Tatiana MANOLE, PhD, ProIessor, Republic oI Moldova
Victor MOCANU, PhD, Associate ProIessor, Republic oI Moldova
Anatol RO1CO, PhD, Associate ProIessor, Republic oI Moldova
Angela TIMU$, PhD, Associate ProIessor, Republic oI Moldova
Galina SAVELIEVA, PhD, Associate ProIessor, Republic oI Moldova
Radu CUHAL, PhD, Associate ProIessor, Republic oI Moldova
Marica DUMITRASCO, PhD, Associate ProIessor, Republic oI Moldova
According to the decision of the Supreme Attestation Commission of NCAA, the journal ,Economy and
Sociology is included in ,The list of recommended journals to be recognized as scientific profile publications,
and is accredited with ,B category.
Institute oI Economy, Finance and Statistics oI ASM and ME
Sociology Department oI Institute oI European Integration and Political Science oI ASM
1he taking over of the texts that are published in the journal ,Economy and Sociology" is possible only with the
author's agreement. Responsibility for each published text belongs to the authors. Authors views are not always
accorded the editorial board's opinion.
Editor-in-chief EC. Iulita BIRCA
Editors (Romanian). Andrian SCLIFOS
Tatiana PARVAN, Victoria BORDOS
Editor (English). Eugenia LUCASENCO
Designer. Alexandru SANDULESCU
Bibliographic editors. Nina DALINITCHI, Diana PELEPCIUC
Address: Editorial Complex, IEFS, MD-2064,
Chisinau, 45, Ion Creanga str., tel.: 50-11-30, fax: 74-37-94
web: www.ieIs.md/complexul-editorial/; e-mail: bircaiulitamail.ru
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 3
nr. 2 / 2013
CUPRINS
ECONOMIE
Ecaterina NAUMIK
SISTEMUL DE REGLEMENTARE DE STAT N SFERA ACTIVITTII COMUNICATIONALE: PRINCIPII SI
ELEMENTE.................................................... 9
Vadim MACARI
ABORDRI TEORETICO-METODOLOGICE ALE COMPETITIVITTII ECONOMICE (Partea a II-a)................... 15
Tatiana MANOLE, Sofia ANGHEL
UTILIZAREA MODELELOR MACROECONOMICE N ANALIZA ECHILIBRULUI VALORIC........ 21
Natalia DOBRYANSKAYA, Vasilie POPOVICI
UCRAINA: PIATA BOVINELOR SI A CRNII DE VIT......................... 34
Silvia BUCIU$CAN, Mariana $ENDREA
DEZVOLTAREA RESPONSABILITTII SOCIALE N CADRUL NTREPRINDERILOR DIN REPUBLICA
MOLDOVA CA OBIECTIV STRATEGIC DE INTEGRARE N COMUNITATEA EUROPEAN......... 42
Radu CUHAL, Ludmila STARITNA, Nicolae BASISTI
POLITICA MACROPRUDENTIAL: POZITII CONCEPTUALE...................... 47
Mihail PRODANCIUK
INTEGRAREA RAPOARTELOR FINANCIARE I NEFINANCIARE N CONDITIILE MANAGERIALE...... 60
Lidia MAIER
INCUBATOARELE DE INOVARE ENTITTI DE SUSTINERE A COMPETITIVITTII NTREPRINDERILOR
MICI SI MIJLOCII N ECONOMIA MODERN............................. 67
Galina ZAP$A
ASPECTE REGIONALE DE DEZVOLTARE A RELATIILOR DE PROPRIETATE N AGRICULTUR..... 87
Vitalii NITENKO
ORIENTAREA AGROECOLOGIC A COMPANIILOR VERTICAL INTEGRATE N ASIGURAREA
DEZVOLTRII STABILE A TERITORIILOR RURALE............................ 93
Cornel CO$ER
ESENTA ECONOMIC A COMPETITIVITTII PRODUSELOR AGROALIMENTARE SI A
MANAGEMENTULUI ACESTEIA................................... 102
Zinaida BARBACARU (PISTOL)
EVOLUTIA SI STRATEGIA DE DEZVOLTARE A PRODUCTIEI AVICOLE N REPUBLICA MOLDOVA..... 108
Sergiu DUTA
ANALIZA ECONOMIC A ACTIVITTII NTREPRINDERILOR MICI SI MIJLOCII DIN JUDETUL VASLUI,
ROMNIA............................................. 115
Stela CRI1ANOVSCHI
DINAMICA DATORIEI DE STAT: ASPECTUL METODOLOGIC.................... 122
Svetlana DODON
CILE DE PERFECTIONARE A ASPECTELOR CONCEPTUALE PRIVIND ECHILIBRAREA BUGETAR........ 125
STELA EFROS
ASPECTE ALE ANTREPRENORIATULUI CONSTRUCTIV N CONTEXTUL RELATIILOR ECONOMICE DE
PIAT.................................................................................................................................................................................. 134
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 6
nr. 2 / 2013
Marina POPOVA
MOLDOVA SI BULGARIA: 20 DE ANI DE COLABORARE BINEFCTOARE.............. 149
Aliona CROITORU
ABORDAREA FACTORIAL A COMPETITIVITII N DOMENIUL MANAGEMENTULUI BANCAR.... 161
Adriana BUZDUGAN
MODALITTI DE EFICIENTIZARE A MUNCII N COMPLEXUL COMUNAL-LOCATIV................ 169
Lilia TARANENCO
IMPACTUL CRIZEI ECONOMICE ASUPRA NTREPRINDERILOR MICI SI MIJLOCII DIN REPUBLICA
MOLDOVA SI EFICIENTA UTILIZRII METODELOR MANAGERIALE................. 179
SOCIOLOGIE
Victor MOCANU, Andrei DUMBRVEANU
ASPECTE ISTORICE SI SOCIO-POLITICE ALE STRATIFICRII SOCIETTII N REPUBLICA
MOLDOVA............................................ 190
CERINTE DE PREZENTARE A ARTICOLELOR $TIINTIFICE SPRE PUBLICARE N REVISTA
,ECONOMIE $I SOCIOLOGIE ......................................................................................... 200
Tatiana MANOLE
Edi(ie suplimentar: METODE SI TEHNICI DE EFICIENTIZARE N DOMENIUL MANAGEMENTULUI
FINANTELOR PUBLICE
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 7
nr. 2 / 2013
CONTENTS
ECONOMY
Catherine NAUMIK
SYSTEM OF STATE REGULATION OF COMMUNICATION ACTIVITY DEVELOPMENT: PRINCIPLES AND
ELEMENTS.......................................................... 9
Vadim MACARI
THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS (Part II)....... 15
Tatiana MANOLE, Sofia ANGHEL
USE OF THE MACROECONOMIC MODELS IN THE ANALYSIS OF THE BALANCE VALUE ............. 21
Natalia DOBRYANSKAYA, Vasilie POPOVICI
UKRAINE: THE MARKET OF DOMESTIC BOVINE AND BEEF.......................... 34
Silvia BUCIU$CAN, Mariana $ENDREA
DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN MOLDOVAN ENTERPRISES AS A STRATEGIC
INTEGRATION INTO THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY................................ 42
Radu CUHAL, Ludmila STARITNA, Nicolae BASISTI
MACROPRUDENTIAL POLICY: CONCEPTUAL POSITIONS............................ 47
Mihail PRODANCIUK
INTEGRATION OF FINANCIAL AND NON-FINANCIAL REPORTS UNDER MANAGEMENT CONDITIONS... 60
Lidia MAIER
INNOVATION INCUBATORS ENTITIES OF SUPPORT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES`
COMPETITIVENESS IN THE MODERN ECONOMY....................................................... 67
Galina ZAPSA
REGIONAL ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROPERTY RELATIONS IN THE AGRARIAN
SECTOR............................................................................................................................................................................. 87
Vitalii NITENKO
AGROECOLOGICAL DIRECTED VERTICALLY INTEGRATED COMPANIES IN SUSTAINABILITY RURAL
DEVELOPMENT........................................................... 93
Cornel CO$ER
ECONOMIC ESSENCE OF COMPETITIVENESS OF AGRO-FOOD PRODUCTS AND ITS
MANAGEMENT............................................... 102
Zinaida BARBACARU (Pistol)
EVOLUTION AND STRATEGY OF POULTRY PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF
MOLDOVA.................................................. 108
Sergiu DUTA
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SMALL AND MEDIUM BUSINESS FROM VASLUI, ROMANIA............ 115
Stela CRI1ANOVSCHI
STATE DEBT DYNAMICS: THE METHODOLOGICAL ASPECT.......................... 122
Svetlana DODON
WAYS TO IMPROVE CONCEPTUAL ASPECTS OF BALANCING THE BUDGET .................... 125
Stela EFROS
ASPECTS OF CONSTRUCTIVE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE MARKET ECONOMIC RELATIONS........ 134
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 8
nr. 2 / 2013
Marina POPOVA
MOLDOVA AND BULGARIA: 20 YEARS OF BENEFICIAL COLLABORATION..................................................... 149
Aliona CROITORU
FACTORIAL APPROACH OF THE COMPETITIVENESS IN THE BANKING MANAGEMENT SECTOR............. 161
Adriana BUZDUGAN
WAYS TO OPTIMIZE THE LABOUR IN THE COMMUNAL HOUSING COMPLEX................................................ 169
Lilia TARANENCO
ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT ON SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES FROM THE REPUBLIC OF
MOLDOVA AND EFFICIENCY OF USE OF MANAGERIAL METHODS .................................................................. 179
SOCIOLOGY
Victor MOCANU, Andrei DUMBRVEANU
HISTORICAL AND SOCIO-POLITICAL ASPECTS OF THE STRATIFICATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF
MOLDOVA`S SOCIETY.............................................. 190
REQUIREMENTS FOR PREZENTATION OF THE SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES FOR PUBLICATION IN
,ECONOMY AND SOCIOLOGY................................ 200
Tatiana MANOLE
Extra edition: METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF EFFICIENCY IN PUBLIC FINANCE MANAGEMENT
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 9
nr. 2 / 2013
ECONOMIE / ECONOMY
SISTEMUL DE REGLEMENTARE DE STAT
N SFERA ACTIVITTII COMUNICATIONALE:
PRINCIPII $I ELEMENTE
SYSTEM OF STATE REGULATION OF
COMMUNICATION ACTIVITY DEVELOPMENT:
PRINCIPLES AND ELEMENTS
Ecaterina AAUMIK, dr., conf. univ.,
Universitatea Aajional de Economie din Harkov, Ucraina
Catherine AAUMIK, PhD, Associate Professor,
Kharkiv Aational Economic University, Ukraine
Acest articol descrie caracteristicile reglementrii de stat
in sfera activittii comunicationale, in ba:a abordrii
sistemice, a fost efectuat conclu:ia cu privire la formarea
sistemic i de:voltarea sferei activittii comunicationale la
nivel de stat, principiile reglementrii de stat sunt anali:ate
in calitate de limitatori ai de:voltrii sferei activittii
comunicationale.
This article describes the features of state regulation of the
communications activities sector, based on a svstematic
approach, there were made conclusions on the svstematic
formation and development of the communication activities
area at the state level, the principles of state regulation are
considered as limiting the development of the area of
communication activities.
Cuvinte cheie: reglementare de stat, activitate
comunicational, formare sistemic.
Key words: state regulation, communication activities,
svstematic formation.
1EL classification: D83, D9, H11, O1
CZU 159.923.2+31.354+58.3
Introducere Investigarea particularittilor reglementrii
de stat n sIera activittii comunicationale a condus la
urmtoarele concluzii: n primul rnd, Iormarea unei
economii eIiciente, bazat pe cunoastere att ca resurs ct si
bun produs, este posibil doar n baza abordrii sistemice de
multinivel, studierii particularittilor interactiunii dintre
nivelurile macroeconomic si microeconomic ale economiei
nationale. n al doilea rnd, pentru economia trilor dezvoltate
este caracteristic o relatie reciproc ntre procesele micro- si
macroeconomice, iar existenta mecanismelor de inIluent a
Iactorilor macroeconomici privind comportamentul actorilor
micronivelului creeaz o baz obiectiv pentru realizarea
modelelor clasice keynesiene, monetariste de reglementare
macroeconomic. n trile post-sovietice, dimpotriv, n ciuda
practicii de lung durat de management centralizat, impactul
macroreglementrii asupra comportamentului micro-
economic n perioada post-reIorm s-a diminuat drastic din
cauza proceselor economice tenebre.
AstIel, conIorm totalizrii studiului realizat de ctre
Organizatia International Transparency International privind
nivelul de coruptie, Rusia ocup locul 133, iar Ucraina 144
din 174 posibile |9|. Acest lucru limiteaz, n mod
semniIicativ, utilizarea pentru lumea occidental a modelelor
traditionale si standardele de macro-reglementare si auto-
reglementare a economiei, care necesit elaborarea
principiilor si procedurilor de reglementare de stat din sIera
activittii comunicationale, tinnd cont de particularittile
spatiului socio-economic national.
Con(inutul de baz. Studierea problemei se bazeaz pe
abordarea sistemic, care permite cercetarea activittii
comunicationale n procesul su de dezvoltare, n contextul
principiilor de reglementrii de stat, de a analiza
particularittile actuale de reglementare de stat att n
comparatie cu alte domenii ale economiei, ct si n comparatie
cu traditia de reglementare macroeconomic a altor state.
Aceast sarcin poate Ii realizat n baza metodelor istorico-
logice complexe, comparative, structurale si Iunctionale,
Introduction Research oI the Ieatures oI state regulation
in the Iield oI communication has allowed to make the
Iollowing conclusions: Iirst oI all, the construction oI an
eIIicient economy, which is based on knowledge as a
resource and product production, is possible only on the basis
oI a multi-level system approach, taking into account the
Ieatures oI the interaction between macroeconomic and
microeconomic levels oI the economy. Secondly, the
relationship between micro-and macro-economic processes is
inherent Ior the economies oI developed countries, and the
existence oI mechanisms oI inIluence oI macroeconomic
Iactors on the behavior oI the micro-level actors creates an
objective basis Ior the implementation oI the classical
Keynesian, monetarist models oI macroeconomic regulation.
In contrast, in post-Soviet countries, despite the long-
standing practice oI centralized management, the impact oI
macro-regulations on microeconomic behavior in post-reIorm
period sharply diminished due to the shadow economic
processes.
Thus, according to the results oI a study conducted by
Transparency International on the level oI corruption, Russia
ranks 133rd position, and Ukraine 144 out oI 174 possible
|9|. This signiIicantly limits the possibility to use the
traditional and standard models oI macro regulation and selI-
regulation oI the economy Ior the Western world and requires
the development oI policies and procedures oI state
regulation in the Iield oI communication activities taking into
account the peculiarities oI the national socio-economic area.
The basic content. Research oI the issue is constructed
on the basis oI a systematic approach, which allows to study
the communication activities in its development, in the
context oI the principles oI state regulation, to analyze the
Ieatures oI the current state oI regulation as compared with
other areas oI the economy and in comparison with the
tradition oI macro-economic regulation oI other states. This
task can be implemented in integrated, historical, logical,
comparative, structural, Iunctional, regional and managerial
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 10
nr. 2 / 2013
regionale si manageriale ale cercetrii stiintiIice.
Reglementarea de stat n sIera activittii comunicationale
este acceptabil de a Ii analizat ca una dintre caracteristicile
procesului politic. Trsturile abordrii institutionale sunt
demonstrate de ctre relatiile structurale de stat si
administrative: inIluenta statului asupra subiectilor sIerei
comunicationale si schimbrile din arhitectonica
institutional.
Abordarea comportamental va reIlecta relatia: impactul
reglementrilor de stat asupra subiectilor activittilor
comunicationale si a comunicatiilor, va dezvlui motivatia
actorilor interactiunii socio-economice n sistemul cercetat.
Abordarea structural-Iunctional integreaz reglementarea
drept impact asupra institutelor cu gestionarea
comportamentului actorilor din sIera activittii
comunicationale.
Reglementarea din sIera activittii comunicationale este
studiat n cadrul managementului diverselor scoli. ,Scoala
clasic (D. Mooney, A. Fayolle, L. Urvik) presupune, n
principal, studierea structurilor organizatorice, ierarhia
acestora, a structurilor Iormale si relatiilor, reglementarea
normativ a comunicrii; scoala ,relatiilor umane de
E. Mayo si abordarea umanist a lui M. Follett, A. si Maslow
mentioneaz, n primul rnd, despre relatiile personale
neinIormale nzestrate n cadrul comunicrii organizationale,
studiaz bazele psihologice, motivarea activittii actorilor ai
procesului de management. n cadrul gestionrii sociale
trebuie s remarcm si conceptul rationalismului clasic, expus
de Wilson si F. Gudnou, care const n dezvoltarea unei
birocratii rationale, expuse de Max Weber.
Problemele dezvoltrii sIerei activittii comunicationale au
Iost cercetate sub diIerite aspecte n cadrul studiului complex al
ctorva stiintelor. Aspectele reglementrii de stat din
publicatiile despre istoria gestionrii de stat sunt privite prin
intermediul principiilor de baz ale gestiunii teritoriilor la
diIerite etape ale dezvoltrii socio-economice. Att
macrogestiunea de stat, ct si gestiunea social evidentiaz
politica comunicational, dar, totusi, nu subliniaz n special
speciIicul reglementrii de stat privind obiectele gestionate,
deosebirile Iat de gestiunea politic, social si strategic
(macroeconomic). Fr ndoial, este just opinia expertului
V. Kistanov privind reglementarea de stat, problema gestionrii
teritoriale ,deseori este studiat insuIicient. De obicei este
privit de ctre oamenii de stiint-manageri separat de
caracteristicile socio-economice ale tipurilor speciIice si
diverselor tipuri de regiuni, iar cele economico-geograIice si
economisti regionalisti n lucrrile sale practic nu abordeaz
aspectele manageriale de gestiune. Totodat, este deosebit de
important abordarea de complex si sistemic |2|.
Perceperea clasic a abordrii sistemice este prezentat n
lucrrile clasicilor Ludwig von BertalanIIy, I. Blauberg si
M. Mesarovici, care pun accent pe abordarea endogen a
sistemului. Versiune moderna nou a bazei exogene a
abordrii sistemice combin abordrile normative si
descriptive. Sistemul este interpretat ca ,relativ stabil n
spatiu si n timp, o parte integrant a lumii nconjurtoare,
evidentiat din cadrul acestuia de ctre un observator potrivit
caracteristicilor spatiale sau Iunctionale (deIinitie exogen).
ntelegerea sistemului drept o imagine complet a realittii n
constiinta individual sau social este sonorizat prin
methods oI scientiIic research.
State regulation oI the development oI communications
sphere oI activity is permissible to regard as one oI the
characteristics oI the political process. Features oI the
institutional approach will be shown by the structural state-
administrative relations: the impact oI the state on the
subjects oI communication sector, changes in the institutional
architectonics.
Behavioral approach will reIlect the relationships: the
impact oI government regulation on the subjects oI
communication and communicative activities will reveal the
motivation oI the actors oI the socio-economic interaction in
the studied system. The structural-Iunctional approach
integrates regulation as the impact on the institutions with
management oI the behavior oI actors in the sphere oI
communications activities.
Regulation oI the communications sphere is studied in the
management oI the various schools. "Classical school"
(D. Mooney, A. Fayolle, L. Urvik) involves mainly the study
oI organizational structures, their hierarchy, Iormal structures
and relationships, legal regulation oI communications; the
school oI "human relations" E. Mayo and humanistic
direction M. Follett, A. Maslow points out, Iirst oI all, on the
individual-painted inIormal relationships in organizational
communication, exploring the psychological Ioundations, the
motivation oI actors activity in the management process.
In the Iramework oI social management there should be
noted the concept oI classical rationalism oI W. Wilson and
F. Gudnou, which is the development oI the rational
bureaucracy oI M. Weber.
Problems oI development oI the communication activities
were considered in various aspects in the complex studies oI
several sciences. The problems oI state regulation in the
publications on the history oI public administration are viewed
through the prism oI the basic principles oI management oI
territories at diIIerent stages oI socio-economic development.
The state macro-management as the social management
Iocuses on the communication policy, but there is not
emphasized the speciIic oI the state regulations on the
managed objects, its diIIerences Irom the political, social, and
strategic (macroeconomic) management. No doubt, a true
opinion oI the expert on state regulation oI V. Kistanova, the
issue oI territorial control "is oIten not Iully investigated.
Usually it is considered by scientists and managers in isolation
Irom the socio-economic characteristics oI speciIic types and
varieties oI regions, and the economists-geographers and
economists-regionalists in their works hardly touched the
administrative aspects. Meanwhile, the integrated and
systematic approaches are especially important here" |2|.
The classic understanding oI the system approach
presented in the works oI classicals Ludwig von BertalanIIy,
I. Blauberg, M. Mesarovic Iocuses on the endogenous
treatment oI the system. The modern new version oI the
exogenous bases oI the system approach combines the
normative and descriptive approaches. The system is
understood as a "relatively stable in space and time, an
integral part oI the world, emphasized Irom it by an observer
in the spatial or Iunctional characteristics (exogenous
deIinition)". Understanding oI the system as a complete
image oI reality in the individual or in the public mind is in
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 11
nr. 2 / 2013
intermediul principiului abordrii Gestalt. ReIuzul la nivelul
bazei comune a sistemului se Iormeaz din dispozitiile
,noului sistem al Iondatorului su, I. Kornai |4|.
n mod evident, pe bun dreptate este considerat just
aIirmatia lui G.B. Kleiner |3|, c paradigma sistemic,
care reprezint economia ca un set de sisteme de interactiune,
de transIormare si de evolutie, este o alternativ la paradigma
neoclasic cu divizarea economiei n macro- si
microeconomie, pe de alt parte drept un concept, care
integreaz abordrile neoclasice, institutionale si evolutive.
AstIel, sIera activittii comunicationale reprezint un
sistem economic trinitar, care este inclus n procesele de
reproducere a capitalului; sistem social grup de oameni care
au un scop comun; a unui sistem nonliniar dinamic, n care se
ordoneaz si coordoneaz activitatea comunicational
comun, apare eIectul de sinergie si a semnalelor slabe.
AstIel, sistemul principiilor de Iormare si dezvoltare a sIerei
activittilor comunicationale trebuie coordonat cu principiile
de baz ale sistemelor economice, sociale, dinamice si non-
lineare. Contradictia practicii activittii comunicationale
const n urmtoarele: pe de o parte rspndirea tehnologiilor
inIormationale si comunicationale si cantitatea de inIormatii,
pe de alt parte necesitatea n concentrarea atentiei privitor
la anumite produse de inIormare pentru a gestiona
dezvoltarea social; pe de o parte, virtualizarea produselor de
inIormare si detasarea acestora de realitate, pe de alt parte
responsabilitatea social Iat de consumatori la producerea
produselor de inIormare, care constituie un Iactor n Iormarea
capitalului comunicational.
Autorul sustine opinia d-nei Larkas |5|, precum c
principiile activittii economice, ,instrumentele
economistului trebuie s posede un speciIic national. De
asemenea, A. Marshall mentioneaz despre caracterul social
al principiilor economice |1, p. 83|: ,Nu exist o distinctie
clar, accentuat ntre legile publice, care ar trebui s Iie
considerate ca Iiind si economice, si cele care nu ar trebui s
Iie tratate ca atare..., ,legile economice sunt legi publice n
raport cu domeniul de comportament uman, n care Iorta care
actioneaz motivele stimulente poate Ii msurat prin valoare
monetar. ,Baza principal pentru Iormarea si dezvoltarea
legilor sociale si, ca urmare, economice sunt instinctele
umane, care genereaz anumite categorii-principii. Deci,
instinctul de autoconservare este ,amenintare/oportunitate,
instinctul de turm ,individualism/asemnare" instinctul de
proprietate ,propriu/strin instinctul de agresiune
,libertate/ dependent.
Unele legi ale dinamicii nonliniare |11| la Iel trebuie s Iie
luate n considerare la Iormularea principiilor si
consecutivittii sistemului de reglementare de stat a sIerei
activittii comunicationale: absenta principiului superpozitiei,
caracteristic pentru modelele liniare (rezultatul organizrii
miscrii sistemului nonliniar este suma componentelor
individuale); oportunitatea existentei mai multor stri stabile
(disponibilitatea proiectelor alternative n economie); eIectul
de sincronizare (chiar si la prezenta legturii Ioarte slabe ntre
sistemele economice dinamice ale miscrii acestor sisteme
devine reciproce, coordonate, coerente (Ienomenul de moda),
biIurcarea solutiilor la evaluarea parametrului sistemului si
(sau) inIluentei externe; haosul determinist miscarea haotic
total a sistemului determinist, eIectul autoorganizrii
tune with the principles oI the gestalt approach. ReIusal oI
the multi-level basis oI the system is Iormed oI the provisions
oI the "new system" oI its Iounder J. Kornai |4|.
Obviously rightly is the assert oI G.B. Kleiner |3| that
states that the system paradigm, representing the economy as
a set oI interacting, transIorming and evolving systems is an
alternative to the neoclassical paradigm, with its division oI
the economy at the macro-and micro-economics, on the other
hand as a concept, integrating the neoclassical, institutional
and evolutionary approaches.
Thus, the sphere oI communication activity is a triune
economic system, which is included in the reproduction process
oI capital; social system, a group oI people who share a common
goal; nonlinear dynamic system in which communication
activities are ordered and coordinated overall, thus appearing a
synergetic eIIect and the eIIect oI weak signals.
Thus, the system oI principles oI Iormation and
development oI the area oI communication activities must be
consistent with the basic principles oI economic, social and
non-linear dynamical systems.
The contradictions oI the practice oI communication
activities are as Iollows: on the one hand the spread oI
inIormation and communication technologies and the amount
oI inIormation, on the other the need to Iocus on certain
inIormation products in order to manage the social
development; on the one hand virtualization oI inIormation
products and their detachment Irom reality, on the other - a
social responsibility to consumers during the production oI
inIormation products that are a Iactor that is Iorming the
communication capital.
The author agrees with Ms. Larkas |5| that the principles
oI economic activity, "the economist toolbox" should be
country-speciIic. Also, A. Marshall writes on the social
character oI economic principles |1, p. 83|: "There is no
clear, sharp distinction between public law, which should be
considered as well as economic, and those that should not be
considered as such...", "economic laws - are public laws
related to those areas oI human behavior, in which due to the
reasons that occur in them can be measured in money price.
The main basis Ior the Iormation and development oI social
and economic laws are the human instincts that give rise to
certain category-principles. Thus, the instinct oI selI-
preservation "threat/opportunity", herd instinct
"individualism/sameness, the instinct oI property "our/
another", instinct oI aggression - "Ireedom /dependence".
Some laws oI nonlinear dynamics |11| should be also
taken into account in the Iormulation oI principles and
procedures oI the system oI state regulation development oI
the communications sphere oI activity: absence oI the
principle oI superposition, which is characteristic Ior linear
models (the result oI the addition oI motion oI the nonlinear
system is not the sum oI the individual components); the
possible existence oI multiple stable states (availability oI
alternative projects in the economy); the eIIect oI
synchronization (with even very weak bonds between the
dynamic economic systems, the movement oI these systems
becomes interconnected, coordinated (the phenomenon oI
Iashion); biIurcation oI solutions due to the change oI
system`s parameter and (or) the external action; deterministic
chaos chaotic motion is completely determined by the
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 12
nr. 2 / 2013
teoria sinergiei; multidimensionalitatea sistemelor nonliniare
dinamice.
Principiile servesc n calitate de limitatori ai sistemului de
,reglementare de stat a dezvoltrii activittii
comunicationale, principiile de baz economice si sociale
sunt reIlectate n documentele normative la nivel de
Constitutie, Declaratia Drepturilor Omului si n traditia
natiunii. De exemplu, n China, este nchis accesul la unele
retele de socializare, site-uri cu continut agresiv si erotic.
Stimularea de stat direct se produce n ordine directiv prin
intermediul documentelor normative respective. Programele
de stat de stimulare a dezvoltrii sIerei comunicationale
trebuie s Iie coordonate si s se atribuie unui scop unic
stabilit la nivel national (Figura 1).
Dac vom analiza nivelul economiei nationale ca un
subsistem al economiei mondiale, atunci obiectivele
organizatiilor internationale sunt reIlectate n deciziile
politicii de stat. AstIel, Summit-ul Mondial privind Societatea
InIormational n 2015 au Iost expuse sarcinile |10|: ,Crearea
unei politici universale de band larg; crearea relatiilor
accesibile; conectarea spatiilor locative la retelele cu band
larg, accesul on-line pentru Iiecare. Aceste obiective au gsit
reIlectare: n RM ,n scopul promovrii eIiciente a imaginii
Republicii Moldova la nivel national si international,
asigurrii Iunctionrii continue a sistemului de interactiune a
administratiei publice din RM cu societatea civil,
organizatiile internationale si structurile, n conIormitate cu
Legea cu privire la inIormatii si la resursele de inIormare de
stat a Iost aprobat decizia de creare si dezvoltare a paginii
oIiciale a RM n Internet |7|; n Rusia, n discursul lui
Medvedev privind elaborarea msurilor de reducere a
costurilor de acces la Internet n Rusia |11|, n SUA, ntr-un
senzational discurs al Presedintelui B.Obama, citnd ordinul
din 06.06.2012 ,Assignment oI National Security and
Emergency Preparedness Communications Functions (cu
privire la cesiunea Securittii Nationale si pregtirea ctre
situatii de urgent a Iunctiilor comunicationale |12|, n care el
a spus, c ,Guvernul Iederal trebuie s Iie capabil s
comunice n orice moment si n toate conditiile pentru a
ndeplini cele mai importante si urgente sarcini. Evident, c
acest ordin oIer presedintelui si Departamentului pentru
Securitate National al Statelor Unite permisiunea de a
nationaliza si controla orice retea n orice moment. De
asemenea, organizatiile internationale sugereaz principiile de
baz de reglementare eIicient n telecomunicatie. De ex.,
Banca European de Reconstructie si Dezvoltare considera,
c cadrul Ierm juridic, normativ si institutional are o valoare
hotrtoare pentru atragerea investitiilor private n sectorul
telecomunicatiilor al trilor cu economia n tranzitie. Un
astIel de cadru este, de asemenea, esential pentru ca trile cu
economia n tranzitie s obtin posibilitti de maximizare a
beneIiciilor, care decurg din dezvoltarea sectorului competitiv
si de la introducerea, pe scar larg, a accesului la
tehnologiile inIormationale si comunicationale ca Iundament
al ,societtii inIormationale actuale. Necesitatea unei astIel
de abordri este deosebit de actual datorit cresterii cereri
Iat de capitalul de investitii limitat pentru extinderea si
modernizarea inIrastructurii. Ca urmare, potentialii investitori
au o gam larg de posibilitti pentru investitii, att n trile
cu economia n tranzitie, ct si n cele dezvoltate.
system; the selI-organization eIIect the theory oI synergy;
multidimensionality oI the nonlinear dynamic systems.
The principles are the restriction oI the "state regulation
development oI the communications sphere", the basic social
and economic principles are reIlected in the legislation oI the
level oI the Constitution, the Declaration oI Human Rights
and in the tradition oI the nation. For example, China has
closed access to some social networks, websites with
aggressive and erotic direction. Direct government incentive
is carried out in the decision-making procedure through the
appropriate regulations. Government programs that
encourage the development oI communication sector should
be agreed upon and be subject to the same goal, determined
at the national level (Figure 1).
II we consider the level oI the national economy as a
subsystem oI the world economy, the goals set by international
organizations are reIlected in the decisions oI government
policy. For example, the World Summit on the InIormation
Society in 2015 hailed as problems |10|: "The creation oI a
universal broadband policy; the creation oI accessible
communication; house connections to broadband; online
access to everyone. These objectives are reIlected: in
Moldova "in order to eIIectively promote the image oI the
Republic oI Moldova at national and international levels, to
ensure the continuing operation oI the system oI interaction
oI public administration bodies oI the Republic oI Moldova
with the civil society, international organizations and
institutions, on the basis oI the Law on InIormation and State
InIormation Resources" it was decided to create and develop
the oIIicial website oI the Republic oI Moldova on the
Internet |7|; in Russia, in Medvedev's speech on the
development oI measures to reduce the cost oI Internet access
in Russia |11|; in the United States in a sensational speech oI
President Barack Obama, quoting his order oI 06.06.2012
Assignment oI National Security and Emergency
Preparedness Communications Functions |12|, in which he
said that "the Federal Government must be able to
communicate at any time and under any circumstances to
perIorm its most important and urgent task". It is obvious that
this order gives the president and the Department oI
Homeland Security oI the United States the permission to
nationalize and control any communication link at any time.
Also, international organizations oIIer basic principles oI
eIIective regulation oI telecommunications. For example, the
European Bank Ior Reconstruction and Development believes
that a clear legal, regulatory and institutional Iramework is
crucial Ior attracting private investment in the
telecommunications sector oI countries with economies in
transition. Such a structure is also important Ior countries
with economies in transition to have the opportunity to
maximize the beneIits arising Irom the development oI a
competitive sector and the implementation oI access to
inIormation and communication technologies as the basis Ior
the modern "inIormation society". The need Ior such an
approach is particularly relevant because oI the growing
demand Ior investment capital Ior expansion and
modernization oI inIrastructure. As a result, potential
investors have a wide range oI investment opportunities, both
in the countries with economies in transition and developed
ones.
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 13
nr. 2 / 2013
Fig.1. Elemente de reglementare de stat a sferei activit(ii comunica(ionale /
Fig. 1. Elements of the state regulation development in the area of communication activity
Sursa/Source: Elaborat de autor./ Developed by the author.
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Domeniul activittii comunicationale / Area of communication activitv
Activitatea comunicational /
Communication activity
tehnologii /
technologies
tipuri / tvpes
subiecte /
subfects
Reglementare normativ direct /
Direct legal regulation
Reglementare socio-economic indirect /
Indirect socio-economic development
Scopul, definirea directiilor de de:voltare i principiilor de
stimulare / Purpose, the definition of development direction and
incentives principles
Reglementarea de stat a activittii comunicationale /
State regulation oI communication activity
Etapele activi:rii activittii / Stages of activitvs activi:ation
activitatea /
activity
necesitti /
necessity
scop / aim
Conditii socio-economice / Socio-economic conditions
Rezultate, eIecte /
Results, eIIects
Probleme, contradictii/
Problems,
contradictions
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 14
nr. 2 / 2013
EIicienta cadrului legal, normativ si institutional
poate Ii realizat prin intermediul unei reglementri de stat,
bazat pe principiile Iundamentale care stau la baza
procesului de reglementare a activittilor comunicationale.
Aceste principii sunt consolidate cu asistenta Organizatiei
Mondiale a Comertului, Uniunii Europene si alte organe
regionale, Iiind reIlectate pe deplin n sectorul politic,
legislativ, normativ, de implementare si administrare la
nivel national.
Concluzii. AstIel, la elaborarea recomandrilor privind
stimularea de stat a activittii comunicationale trebuie s se
ia n considerare limitarea dezvoltrii sistemului de principii
si utilizarea modelrii simulative n dezvoltarea scenariilor
pentru activittile propuse.
The eIIectiveness oI the legal, regulatory and institutional
Iramework can be achieved through government regulation
on the basis oI the Iundamental principles underlying the
process Ior the regulation oI the communications activities.
These principles are reinIorced with the assistance oI the
World Trade Organization, the European Union and other
regional bodies; they are Iully reIlected in the sector oI
policies, laws, regulations, implementation and
administration at the national level.
Conclusions. Thus, through the development oI
recommendations on government incentive oI communication
activity, it should be considered the principles oI restricting
development oI the system and to use simulation models to
develop scenarios oI the proposed activities.
Referin(e bibliografice / References
1. MAPBAHH, Ant]pe. Ocuoei orouo+u:ecro uavru Principles of Economics. Cepnx: Anronornx
+xonomnuecxo mtcnn. Mocxna: Hs-no 3xcmo, 2008. 832 c. ISBN 978-5-699-19302-8.
2. KHCTAHOB, B.B. 4eoepa.iuie orpvea Poccuu. earui uae e vrpen.euuu eocvoapcmea. Mocxna, 2000.
171 c.
3. KHEHHEP, I.F. Cncremnax napanrma n +xonomnuecxax nonnrnxa. B: Omecrnennte nayxn n conpemennocrt.
2007, N 2, cc. 141-149.
4. KHEHHEP, I.F. Cncremnax napanrma n +xonomnuecxax nonnrnxa. B: Omecrnennte nayxn n conpemennocrt.
2007, N 3, cc. 99-114.
5. KOPHAH, . Cncremnax napanrma. B: Bonpoct +xonomnxn. 2002, N 4, cc. 4-22.
6. HAPKAC, H.B. Hpnnnnnt +xonomnuecxo nayxn. 2011 |accesat 25 mai 2013|. Disponibil:
http://Ib.ru/article/4351/printsipyi-ekonomicheskoy-nauki
7. HETPOB, H.u. Merot nennneno nnamnxn xax nncrpymenrt ynpannennx +xonomnuecxo +]]exrnnnocrtm
|accesat 25 mai 2013|. Disponibil: http://www.e-c-m.ru/UER23032011.pdI
8. Hocranonnenne o o]nnnantno crpannne Pecnynnxn Monona n cern Hnrepner: N 765 or 5 nmnx 2006. In:
Monitorul OIicial al Republicii Moldova. 2006, nr. 106-111, art. 819.
9. Core Principles Ior EIIective Telecommunication Regulation |accesat 25 mai 2013|. Disponibil:
http://www.ebrd.com/russian/pages/sector/legal/telecoms/coreprinciples.shtml
10. Camte xoppymnnponannte crpant n 2012 roy |accesat 25 mai 2013|. Disponibil:
http://rating.rbc.ru/article.shtml?2012/12/14/33843988
11. International telecommunication Union. Measuring the InIormation Society: executive summary. 2012 |accesat 25 mai
2013|. Disponibil: http://www.itu.int/dmspub/itu-d/opb/ind/D-IND-ICTOI-2012-SUM-PDF-E.pdI
12. Meneen pasan nopyuennx no pasnnrnm HT-orpacnn |accesat 25 mai 2013|. Disponibil:
http://www.cnews.ru/top/2013/01/14/medvedevrazdalporucheniyaporazvitiyuitotrasli515416
13. The White House OIIice oI the Press Secretary. Executive Order - Assignment oI National Security and
Emergency Preparedness Communications Functions |accesat 25 mai 2013|. Disponibil:
http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-oIIice/2012/07/06/executive-order-assignment-national-security-and-emergency-
preparedness-#.TsYsRJrre M.twitter
Recomandat spre publicare. 21.03.2013
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 13
nr. 2 / 2013
ABORDRI TEORETICO-METODOLOGICE
ALE COMPETITIVITTII ECONOMICE
(Partea a II-a)
THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL
APPROACHES TO ECONOMIC
COMPETITIVENESS (Part II)
Jadim MACARI, dr., conf. cercet., IEFS Jadim MACARI, PhD, associate researcher, IEFS
In articol, in ba:a studierii mai multor surse bibliografice
repre:entative, se cercetea: i se incearc de a ordona, din
punct de vedere logico-tiintific, cateva dintre cele mai
frecvente tratri teoretico-metodologice ale esentei,
definitiei, fenomenului, tipurilor, caracteristicilor i indicilor
competitivittii economice.
This article, on the basis of the studv of manv
representative bibliographic sources, examines and tries to
order from logical and scientific point of view some of the
most common theoretical and methodological treatments of
the essence, definition, phenomenon, tvpes, characteristics
and indices of economic competitiveness.
Cuvinte cheie: competitivitate economic, competitivitate
national, competitivitate teritorial, competitivitate
ramural, competitivitate a firmei, competitivitate a
mrfurilor (serviciilor), avantaf comparativ, avantaf
concurential, indici ai competitivittii, concurent.
Key words. economic competitiveness, national
competitiveness, territorial competitiveness, sectoral
competitiveness, enterprises competitiveness, competitiveness
of goods (services), comparative advantage, competitive
advantage, indices of competitiveness, competition.
1EL classification: A1,B41 O1
Introducere. Prin competitivitatea economiei nationale
se ntelege, de cele mai multe ori, nivelul eIicientei
institutelor trii si a politicilor guvernamentale, care, n plan
de perspectiv, corespund nivelului cresterii economice n
cadrul structurii economiei mondiale n ansamblu |1|.
Odat cu trecerea la economia de piat, savantii rusi
examineaz, n Iond, dou concepjii pentru definijia
competitivitjii: competitivitatea trilor pe pietele mondiale
si competitivitatea companiilor pe pietele nationale si
internationale, utiliznd, de cele mai multe ori, metodicele
acelorasi Forum Economic Mondial (WEF) i Institutului
International al Managementului i De:voltrii (IIMD).
Introduction. The competitiveness oI the national
economy means, in most cases, the eIIiciency level oI the
country's institutions and government policies, which in
prospect corresponds the level oI economic growth in
overall structure oI the world economy |1|.
AIter the transition to a market economy, Russian
scientists examine, in Iact, two concepts for the definition
of competitiveness: countries` competitiveness in global
markets and companies` competitiveness in domestic and
international markets, oIten using the same methods as the
World Economic Forum (WEF) and the International
Institute of Management and Development (IIMD) use.
Con(inutul de baz. Asadar, majoritatea cercettorilor
contemporani ai competitivittii trilor si companiilor ca
dou procese interconexe, pune accentul pe studierea, in
primul rand, a capacittii mediului politico-economic al
statului dat de a influenta competitivitatea intern i
international a companiilor sale prin crearea i mentinerea
celor mai eficiente structuri economice, institute i politici
ale guvernului.
n scopul satisIacerii necesittilor sale, subiecjii activitjii
economice (SAE), sau agentii economici, sunt impusi s se
includ n lupta concurential cu alti agenti economici, n
primul rnd, din cauza resurselor limitate necesare pentru a
Iunctiona ct mai eIicient. Pentru a-si asigura un anumit
segment al pietelor de resurse sau desIacere a productiei,
agentii economici trebuie s posede anumite avantafe
concurentiale.
La modul practic, totdeauna se poate de determinat
avantajul principal (sau cteva), pierderea crui (crora) are
consecinte grave, ntr-o perspectiv ndeprtat, pentru
agentul economic pe piata dat. Dac agentul economic
posed factori inertiali de competitivitate sau la el apare un
nou avantaj concurential solid, sau dac mediul su
concurential devine mai prielnic (beneIic), acesta are sanse
de a continua lupta concurential pe piata dat.
Un astIel de avantaj concurential unii savanti l numesc
dominant (Alescenco V.V.). Pierderea unui avantaj concurential
obisnuit schimb doar pozitia concurential a SAE.
Pozitia concurential a SAE se modiIic sub inIluenta
The basic content. Thus, most oI contemporary
researchers oI countries` and companies` competitiveness
as two interrelated processes, emphasi:e first and foremost
the studv of the capacitv of political and economic
environment of the state to influence domestic and
international competitiveness of companies bv creating and
maintaining the most efficient economic structures,
institutions and government policies.
In order to meet their needs, the subjects of economic
activity (SEA), or economic units, are Iorced to be included
in the competitive struggle with other economic units,
primarily because oI limited resources needed to work
eIIiciently. In order to ensure a certain segment oI the
resource market or sales market, economic units must have
certain competitive advantages.
Practically, it is always possible to determine the main
advantage (or several ones), loss oI which would have
serious consequences in a distant prospect Ior the economic
unit in the market. II the economic unit possesses inertial
factors of competitiveness or has a new solid competitive
advantage, or the competitive environment becomes more
Iavorable (beneIicial), it has the chance to continue the
competitive Iight in a given market.
Some scientists call the such type oI competitive
advantage dominant (Aleshchenko V.V.). Loss oI usual
competitive advantage changes only the competitive
position oI SEA.
SEA`s competitive position is changed under the
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nr. 2 / 2013
mediului extern conditiile (sau ,regulile de joc) curente
reale ale agentului economic sau, cu alte cuvinte, sub
impactul Iactorilor mediului extern, care pot Ii subiectivi,
reglementabili sau permanenti. Dinamica pozitiei
concurentiale a SAE poate Ii po:itiv, neutr sau negativ.
Piata pe care concureaz SAE poate Ii regional, national
sau mondial.
Un SAE concret este competitiv n momentul dat pe piata
dat nu numai n cazul cnd aceasta posed avantajul
dominant, ci si n cazul cnd totalitatea sa de avantaje
concurentiale simultane este superioar (rezist) concurentei
pe aceast piat.
Potenjialul concurenjial al SAE, Alescenco V.V. l
determin ca si capacitatea potential a subiectului de a-si
pstra pozitia sa concurential n conditiile schimbtoare ale
mediului extern (un tip de ,coeficient de sigurant`).
Capacitatea SAE de a concura este inIluentat si de
posibilittile ale nssi sistemului economic de a spori
aceast capacitate. Competitivitatea sistemului economic,
Alescenco V.V. o deIineste ca nivel al eIicientei sale (gradul
plenitudinii si calitatea solutiei) n realizarea acestei
destinatii |2|.
n literatura stiintiIic de specialitate se eIectueaz
analiza Iormrii categoriei de competitivitate si n calitate de
Iactor de superioritate a obiectilor economici.
Este bine cunoscut c baza economiei de piat o
constituie nojiunea de concurenj ca forj motrice a
evolutiei raporturilor dintre subiectii ce activeaz n mediul
dat. n aceast competitie cstig acel ce rezist n lupta
concurential pe piata intern si extern.
n literatura la tema respectiv se regsesc trei abordri
ale definijiei concurenjei. Prima concurenta este
competitia pe piat. A doua concurenta este un element al
mecanismului pietei ce permite de a echilibra cererea i
oferta, abordare speciIic pentru teoria economic clasic. A
treia criteriu, conIorm cruia se determin tipul pietei
ramurale si care se ba:ea: pe teoria modern a morfologiei
pietei.
De exemplu, n legea Federatiei Ruse ,Cu privire la
concurent si limitarea activittii monopoliste pe pietele de
mrIuri, concurenja se defineyte ca competitie a subiectilor
economici, cnd actiunile lor de sine stttoare limiteaz
eIicient posibilitatea Iiecruia din ei de a inIluenta unilateral
conditiile generale ale circuitului mrIurilor pe piata de
mrIuri respectiv.
O astIel de deIinitie unii savanti rusi (Bogomolova I.P.,
Hohlov E.V.) o consider unilateral, deoarece, n acest
caz, esenta competitivittii se reduce doar la existenta
posibilittii si mijloacelor de a limita libertatea actiunilor
concurentilor si lipseste principiul competitiei ca si
component de baz.
Concurenta, desi n diIerite interpretri, totusi se deIineste
ca si competitie a subiectilor economici. Iat cteva definijii
tipice:
a) competitie de rivalitate, competitie intre mai multi
subiecti economici, ce se maniIest prin tendinta Iiecrui de
a-i ntrece pe altii n atingerea aceluiasi scop, de a obtine un
rezultat mai bun;
b) mod deosebit de lupt economic cinstit, cnd, n
conditiile de sanse egale pentru toti concurentii, victoria o
inIluence oI the external environment actual current
conditions (or ,rules oI the game) oI the economic unit or,
in other words, under the impact oI Iactors oI the external
environment, which can be subfective, regulated or
permanent. The dynamics oI SEA`s competitive position
may be positive, neutral or negative. The market, where
SEA competes, may be regional, national or global.
A concrete SEA is a competitive one in the given
market at the present moment not only in case when it has
the dominant advantage, but also iI the totality oI
simultaneous competitive advantages exceeds (resists) the
competition in this market.
1he SEA's competitive potential is determined by V.V.
Aleshchenko as the potential ability oI the subject to
maintain its competitive position in the changing
conditions oI the external environment ("safetv coefficient"
tvpe). SEA ability to compete is also inIluenced by the
possibilities oI the economic system to increase this
capacity. 1he competitiveness of the economic system is
deIined by V.V. Aleshchenko as the level oI its
eIIectiveness (completeness degree and quality oI the
solution) in achieving this purpose |2|.
In scientiIic specialized literature, it is also carried out
the analysis oI the competitiveness category`s Iormation as
a Iactor oI superiority oI economic objectives.
It is well known that the basis oI the market economy is
Iormed oI the notion of competition as the driving force oI
the evolution oI relations between subjects acting in the
environment. In this competition wins that, who resists the
competitive Iight in domestic and Ioreign markets.
In specialized literature, there can be Iound three
approaches to definition of competition. The Iirst
competition is a rivalrv in the market. The second
competition is an element of a market mechanism that
allows to balance supplv and demand, the approach,
speciIic to classical economic theory. The third
competition is a criterion, according to which the branch
market type is determined, and which is based on the
modern theorv of market morphologv.
For instance, the law oI the Russian Federation ,On
competition and restriction oI monopolistic activity on
commodity markets defines competition as a rivalry oI
economic units in case their actions can limit eIIectively
their possibility to inIluence unilaterally the general
conditions oI goods` circuit in the commodity market.
Such deIinition is considered to be unilateral by some
Russian scientists (I.P. Bogomolova, E.V. Hohlov), as in
this case, the essence oI competitiveness is reduced just to
existence oI the possibility and means to limit Ireedom oI
competitors` actions and there is lack oI competition
principle and basic component.
Competition, being diIIerently interpreted, however is
deIined as a rivalry oI economic subjects. Here are some
typical definitions:
a) rivalry competition, competition between several
economic subfects, which is maniIested by the tendency oI
each oI them to exceed others in achieving the same goal,
to get a better result;
b) a special tvpe of honest economic struggle, when in
terms oI equal opportunities Ior all competitors, the victory
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 17
nr. 2 / 2013
obtine cel mai abil, capabil si cu mai mult spirit de
ntreprinztor (de initiativ);
c) competitia intre participantii de pe piat pentru
conditii mai bune de producere si desIacere a productiei.
A doua component de baz a concurenjei este
cointeresarea participanjilor.
Teoria economic clasic priveste concurenta ca un
element indispensabil al mecanismului de piat. A.Smith
trata concurenta ca o categorie de comportament, cnd
vnztorii si cumprtorii rivalizeaz pe piat pentru vnzri
si cumprri mai convenabile. Concurenta este acea ,man
invi:ibil` a pietei, care coordoneaz (noi am spune care
ordoneaz) activitatea participantilor si. Concurenta se
dezvolt la maximum n cadrul modului de producere
capitalist, avnd ca scop lupta pentru obtinerea unui profit
maxim posibil. Deci, Iorta motrice a concurentei pentru
agentii economici este motivul individual. Contracararea
rivalilor nu este un scop n sine al concurentei. Aceasta este
un mifloc de a obtine re:ultate de succes.
Din limba latin a concura nseamn ,a se ciocni.
EIectiv, concurenja este o lupt, o conIruntare de interese,
inclusiv prin punerea barierelor n calea concurentilor.
AstIel, competitivitatea obiectului este o stare ce
caracterizeaz posibilitatea real sau potential de a ndeplini
obligatiile Iunctionale n conditiile unei posibile contracarri
din partea rivalilor. Aceasta este cea mai general deIinitie a
competitivittii, aplicabil pentru toti obiectii |3|.
Aprecierea cantitativ a competitivittii se eIectueaz
prin estimarea comparativ, care n literatura economic a
Iost numit ,nivelul competitivitjii", ce reIlect anume
aceasta gradul superiorittii unui subiect Iat de altul.
Aceast caracteristic a Iost elaborat ca un indicator de
estimare si presupune prezenta subiectului, obiectului si
scopului estimrii |4|.
Dac scopul este estimarea perspectivelor reali:rii
mrfii pe o piat concret, analiza trebuie s contin date
despre produs, necesittile satisIcute de acesta, nivelul
veniturilor consumatorilor segmentului presupus al pietei,
standardele si legislatia trii, dinamica cererii de consum.
Subiectii aprecierii pot Ii diversi participanti ai pietei
(vnztorii, cumprtorii, intermediarii, concurentii),
organele de stat, investitorii. Competitivitatea este cel mai
universal indicator al situatiei pe piat a oricror obiecte.
Actualmente, n literatura de specialitate sunt delimitate
trei grupuri mari de obiecte pentru aprecierea
competitivitjii.
Relatiile de concurent pot avea trei niveluri: micronivel
(tipuri de produse, de producere, ntreprinderi); me:onivel
(ramuri, asociatii corporative de ntreprinderi si Iirme);
macronivel (complexe economice nationale, tri, asociatii de
tri). Respectiv, caracteristicile si factorii ce determin
aceste niveluri se divizeaz n cele de micronivel (calitatea si
pretul produsului); de me:onivel (ce asigur cresterea stabil
a indicatorilor de eIicient a utilizrii resurselor de producere
ale ramurilor) si de macronivel (ce reIlect starea general a
sistemelor economice, gradul de echilibrare, climatul
investitional, sistemul Iiscal, politica tariIelor vamale etc.).
A devenit traditional directia de analiz a
competitivittii mrIurilor, serviciilor si ntreprinderilor ce le
produc. Competitivitatea este apreciat de diversi agenti ai
comes to the most skilIul, capable and with the
entrepreneurial spirit (the initiative) one;
c) competition between market participants to better
conditions Ior production and sale oI goods.
1he second basic component of the competition is
motivating the participants.
The classical economic theory considers competition as
an indispensable element oI the market mechanism.
A.Smith treated competition as a behavior categorv, when
sellers and buyers rival in the market Ior more appropriate
selling and buying. Competition is fust that ,invisible
hand` oI the market, which coordinates (we say which
order) the activity oI its participants. Competition Iully
develops in the capitalist mode oI production, with the
purpose to fight for obtaining a maximal possible return.
Thus, the driving Iorce oI competition Ior economic units is
an individual motive. Rivals` countering is not the itselI
aim oI competition. This is the wav to obtain successful
results.
,To compete is equivalent to Latin ,to coincide.
Actually, competition is a battle, a conIrontation oI
interests, including through putting barriers to competitors.
Thus, competitiveness of an object is a state that
characterizes actual or potential ability to perIorm work
tasks in terms oI a possible rivals` counteraction. This is
the most general deIinition oI competitiveness, applicable
to all objects |3|.
Quantitative assessment oI the competitiveness is
perIormed by means oI comparative estimation, which in
economic literature has been called ,competitiveness level"
that reIlects exactly the degree oI superiority oI a subject to
another. This Ieature was developed as an estimating
indicator and implies the presence oI subject, object and
purpose oI estimation |4|.
If the goal is to estimate the perspective of the goods
reali:ation in a concrete market, the analysis should
include data about the product, the needs it meets, the
expected income oI consumers Irom the presupposed
segment oI the market, standards and country`s laws, the
dynamics oI consumer demand.
Subjects oI appreciation may include various market
participants (sellers, buyers, intermediaries, competitors),
governmental institutions, investors. Competitiveness is the
most universal measure of market situation of anv obfect.
Currently, in specialized literature there are three broad
groups of objects defined for assessing competitiveness.
Competition relations are oI three levels: micro level
(product type, production, enterprises); medium level
(branches, corporate associations oI enterprises and Iirms);
macro level (national economic complexes, countries,
associations oI countries). Accordingly, the characteristics
and Iactors that determine these levels are divided into
those oI micro level (product quality and price); medium
level (which ensures stable growth oI eIIiciency indicators
oI utilization oI production resources oI branches) and
macro level (which reIlects the general state oI economic
systems, balance degree, investment climate, tax system,
tariII policy etc.).
It has become traditional the direction oI analysis oI the
competitiveness oI goods, services and enterprises that
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nr. 2 / 2013
pietei, dar, n ultim instant, aceasta-i prerogativa
consumatorului.
n acest caz se tine cont si de alte circumstante ale oIertei
produsului cum ar Ii conditiile Iurnizrii (timpul, Iorma de
achitare, tipul transportrii etc.). Agentii economici (subiectii)
pot Ii apreciati n Iunctie de calitatea marketingului,
managementului, tehnologia producerii, utilaj etc.
Pentru nivelul micro al competitivittii este Ioarte
important relevarea interconexiunilor ntre costurile (pretul)
mrIii si calitatea ei. n opinia noastr, cea mai exact
msurtoare general a competitivitjii mrfii este raportul
dintre utilitatea si costul (pretul) mrIii. Si, respectiv, n
aceleasi conditii, competitivitatea propriu zis a mrfii este
maxim atunci, cnd este maxim utilitatea sa ce revine la o
unitate de cost (pret) al mrIii.
Lrgirea cmpului concurential are ca rezultat
declansarea mezocompetitivittii ca eIicient a activittii
unor ramuri aparte ale economiei, n conditiile interne si
externe date.
Competitivitatea la nivel de ramur poate Ii apreciat
prin intermediul anumitor indicatori (sau combinatii):
productivitatea muncii;
nivelul remunerrii muncii;
saturatia de capital;
scientointensivitatea si nivelul tehnic al productiei;
cunostintele si stocul lor, necesare pentru asimilarea
productiei si reproducerea sa;
gradul orientrii spre export sau al dependentei de
import al ramurii;
coraportul ntre nivelul dezvoltrii ramurii si a celui al
economiei nationale, ntre nivelurile preturilor;
expansiunea ramurii (volumul productiei sale utilizate
n alte ramuri) etc.
Aojiunea de competitivitate aplicat la nivel de jri,
economie (nivel macro) nu este determinat destul de clar si
riguros, desi concurenta economic international devine tot
mai acut.
Definijiile moderne ale competitivitjii najionale,
acceptate de un sir de organizatii oIiciale sau propuse de
savanti, n Iond, se reduc la competitivitate ca si capacitate a
companiilor, ramurilor, regiunilor si natiunilor de a asigura
un nivel relativ nalt de venituri si salarii, rmnnd deschise
pentru concurenta international.
Competitivitatea najional poate Ii msurat cu un set de
indicatori: soldul balantei comerciale; costurile Iactorilor de
productie la o unitate de produs, legate de cursul monedei
nationale; ponderile pe piete.
Ca indicator integral al competitivitjii najionale trebuie
considerat ,productivitatea muncii ce reIlect Iaptul, pe ct
tara poate deveni productor cu costuri mici n conditiile
salariului nalt, precum si ,productivitatea Iactorial deplin
ce se msoar cu cantitatea de productie Iabricat la o unitate
de costuri totale de munc si capital.
Lipseste o abordare unic a estimrii cantitative a
competitivittii, a descrierii unor metodici de calcul.
Totodat, metodica aprecierii competitivittii mrIurilor
presupune estimarea parametrilor calittii acestora, ceea ce
Iace ca rezultatele acestei analize s Iie destul de subiective.
Analiza competitivitjii ntreprinderilor se reduce la
selectarea anumitor parametri pentru comparare si, de
produce them. Competitiveness is estimated by various
market agents, but ultimately it is the consumer's
prerogative.
In this case we take into account and other
circumstances oI the product supply such as delivery
conditions (time, type oI payment, type oI transportation,
etc.). Economic agents (subjects) can be assessed based on
the quality oI marketing, management, production
technology, equipment, etc.
As Ior micro level oI competitiveness it is very
important to reveal the interconnections between cost
(price) and quality oI goods. In our opinion, the most
accurate measurement of the overall competitiveness of
the goods is the goods` utility-cost (price) ratio.
Respectively, under the same conditions, the actual
competitiveness of the goods is the highest in case oI
maximum utility per one unit oI goods` cost (price).
The competitive Iield`s broadening results in triggering
oI medium competitiveness as the eIIiciency oI activity oI
separate economic branches, under given internal and
external conditions.
1he competitiveness at sectoral level can be estimated
by certain indicators (or combinations):
labour productivity;
level oI labour remuneration;
capital saturation;
science intensity and technical level oI production;
knowledge and stock oI it, required Ior assimilation
oI its production and reproduction;
degree oI orientation to export or import dependency
oI the branch;
correlation between the development oI branch and
the national economy, between price levels;
branch expansion (its output used in other branches) etc.
1he notion of competitiveness used within the country,
the economy (macro level) is not quite clear and rigorously
determined, although international economic competition
becomes more acute.
Modern definitions of national competitiveness
supported by a number oI oIIicial organizations or
proposed by scientists, in Iact, reduce competitiveness as
the ability oI companies, industries, regions and nations to
ensure a relatively high level oI income and wages,
remaining open Ior international competition.
Aational competitiveness can be measured with a set oI
indicators: trade balance, input costs per unit oI product
related to the domestic currency, the weights on the market.
As an integral indicator of national competitiveness
should be considered 'labour productivity as reIlecting
that the country can become low-cost producers under high
salary and 'Iull productivity Iactor that measures the
amount oI output produced per unit oI total costs oI labor
and capital.
A unique approach to quantitative estimation oI
competitiveness, the description oI the calculation method
is missing. However, the method oI assessing the goods
competitiveness requires the estimation oI quality`s
parameter, which makes the results oI this analysis quite
subjective.
Analysis oI the competitiveness of enterprises is
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 19
nr. 2 / 2013
alegerea unor sau altor aspecte ale activittii ntreprinderii,
depinde rezultatul estimrii.
n opinia unor autori (Maximova I.), inIormatia cea mai
plenar ne-o oIer metoda bazat pe teoria concurenjei
eficiente, care oIer o idee despre competitivitatea
ntreprinderii, cuprinznd cele mai importante aspecte ale
activittii sale economice. ConIorm acestei metode, cele mai
competitive sunt acele ntreprinderi, la care lucrul tuturor
subdiviziunilor si serviciilor este organizat cel mai bine.
Aprecierea eIicientei Iunctionrii Iiecrui subdiviziuni
presupune estimarea eIicientei utilizrii resurselor acestora |3|.
n Rusia se pune problema necesittii elaborrii unui
program najional de sporire a competitivitjii, unui
megaproiect ce ar include politica structural, industrial si
demograIic, care ar reIlecta priorittile reale ale dezvoltrii.
Elaborarea politicii de stat pe aceste trei direcjii ar
putea avea urmtorul algoritm.
Punctul de plecare trebuie s Iie interesele nationale pe
termen lung ale trii ca subiect al competitivittii
internationale, pozitionarea sa n calitate de productor al
productiei scientointensive i exportator al productiei cu un
grad inalt de prelucrare (cu o pondere nalt a valorii
adugate). Aceast problem e valabil si pentru Republica
Moldova.
Aceasta va necesita constructia unui echilibru dinamic
ntre sectoarele intern si extern ale economiei, a specializrii
si a concurentilor economici si geopolitici duri, cu
standardele respective de relatii.
Solutionarea primelor dou probleme va permite de a
elabora politica economic structural cu determinarea
ponderii Iiecrei ramuri, care ar Ii ulterior detaliat pe
subramuri, cicluri de producere, ntreprinderi. Politica
ramural va putea Ii realizat doar printr-o strns
interactiune a structurilor de stat si antreprenoriatului privat
de toate nivelurile. Statul, desigur, trebuie s acorde ajutor cu
adrese exacte proiectelor-pilot de tehnologii nalte.
La programul larg al dezvoltrii trii se determin si se
racordeaz resursele si segmentele de timp necesare, se
structureaz programele nationale, regionale si locale.
Cea mai important este competitivitatea conceptual,
esenta creia este calea corect de dezvoltare, traiectoria
optim de dezvoltare a economiei nationale, apt s uneasc
Iortele nationale n lupta cu concurentii si globali (principali).
La baza politicii si strategiei competitivittii trii trebuie
puse interesele najionale. Aceast triad include geopolitica,
stabilitatea social si utilizarea eIicient a resurselor Iorta
de munc, bogtiile naturale, aparatul de productie (capitalul
Iix), potentialul stiintiIic si resursele Iinanciare. Dintre aceste
trei numai ultima se raporteaz la categoria competitivitate,
iar primele dou sunt premise necesare |5|.
Asa cum au procedat alte state, subliniaz academicianul
ASM, proIesorul Gr. Belostecinic, trebuie s trecem
de la o evaluare exhaustiv a strii economiei nationale
proprii n raport cu cerintele integrrii n UE. Avem
nevoie de o economie de piaj funcjional, care s
reziste noilor presiuni concurentiale, ntr-un mediu nou
concurential |6|.
reduced to selecting certain parameters to compare and oI
the choice oI one or other aspects oI the company depends
on the estimation results.
According to some authors (I. Maximova), the
inIormation gives us a method based on the theory of
effective competition, which gives an idea oI the
competitiveness oI the enterprise, including the most
important aspects oI his business. Under this method, the
most competitive are those enterprises in which work oI all
subdivisions and services are best organized. Assessing the
operating eIIectiveness oI each subdivision involves
estimating their resource eIIiciency |3|.
In Russia the problem is to develop a national program
to increase competitiveness, a mega project that will
include structural, industrial and demographic politic that
would reIlect the real priorities oI development.
State policy elaboration on these three lines could
have the following algorithm.
The starting point must be long-term national interests
oI the country as a subject oI international competitiveness,
positioning it as science-intensive production manufacturer
and exporter of production with a high degree of
processing (with a high share oI value added). This
problem is also valid Ior Moldova.
This will require the construction oI a dynamic equilibrium
between internal and external sectors oI the economy,
specialization and oI the economic and geopolitical tough
competitors, relationships with those standards.
Solving the Iirst two problems will allow to develop
structural economic policy in determining the weight oI
each branch, which would then be broken down by sub-
sectors, production cycles, enterprises. Branch policy can
only be achieved through close interaction between state
agencies and private enterprise at all levels. The state, oI
course, needs to provide support Ior speciIic addresses
high-tech pilot projects.
On wide program oI development oI the country is
determined and connected resources and time necessary
segments, are structured national, regional and local programmes.
Most important is the conceptual competitiveness
which is the right path oI development, optimal trajectory
oI development oI the national economy, able to join
domestic Iorces in combating global competitors.
At the base oI policy and country competitiveness
strategy must stay national interests. This triad includes
geopolitics, social stability and eIIicient use oI resources -
labor, natural riches, production apparat (Iixed capital), the
scientiIic potential and Iinancial resources. OI these three
only the last category relates to competitiveness and the
Iirst two are the necessary prerequisites |5|.
As the other countries did, says the ASM academician,
proIessor Gr. Belostecinic, there is a need to move
Irom a comprehensive assessment oI the state oI their
national economies in report oI the requirements oI EU
integration. We need a functioning market economy to
withstand new competitive pressures in a new competitive
environment |6|.
Concluzii. n articol sunt examinate dou concepjii pentru
definijia competitivitjii: competitivitatea trilor pe pietele
mondiale si competitivitatea companiilor pe pietele nationale
Conclusions. This paper examined two approaches for
the definition of competitiveness: countries` competitiveness
in global markets and companies` competitiveness on
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 20
nr. 2 / 2013
si internationale. Accentul se pune pe studierea, n primul
rnd, a capacittii mediului politico-economic al statului dat de
a inIluenta competitivitatea intern si international a
companiilor sale prin crearea si mentinerea celor mai eIiciente
structuri economice, institute si politici ale guvernului.
Subiecjii activitjii economice (SAE), sau agentii
economici, sunt impusi s se includ n lupta concurential
cu alti agenti economici, n primul rnd, din cauza resurselor
limitate necesare pentru a Iunctiona ct mai eIicient.
Sunt Iormulate trei deIinitii tipice ale concurentei.
Competitivitatea este cel mai universal indicator al
situatiei pe piat a oricror obiecte. Sunt delimitate trei
grupuri mari de obiecte pentru aprecierea competitivittii. Se
examineaz notiunile de ,competitivitate a obiectului" si
,nivelul competitivitjii".
n opinia noastr, cea mai exact msurtoare general
a competitivitjii mrfii este raportul dintre utilitatea si
costul (pretul) mrIii. Si, respectiv, n aceleasi conditii,
competitivitatea propriu-zis a mrIii este maxim atunci,
cnd este maxim utilitatea sa ce revine la o unitate de cost
(pret) al mrIii.
Competitivitatea national i competitivitatea la nivel de
ramur pot Ii apreciate prin intermediul anumitor indicatori
(sau combinatii). Notiunea de competitivitate la nivel de tri,
economie (nivel macro) nu este determinat destul de clar si
riguros. Definitiile moderne ale competitivittii nationale,
acceptate de un sir de organizatii oIiciale sau propuse de
savanti, n Iond, se reduc la competitivitate. Ca indicator
integral al competitivitjii najionale trebuie considerat
,productivitatea muncii. Cea mai important este
competitivitatea conceptual, esenta creia este calea corect
de dezvoltare, traiectoria optim de dezvoltare a economiei
nationale, apt s uneasc Iortele nationale n lupta cu
concurentii si principali.
Este necesar de a elabora un program najional de sporire
a competitivitjii, ce ar include politica structural,
industrial si demograIic etc., care ar reIlecta priorittile
reale ale dezvoltrii.
La etapa actual, n perspectiva medie si pe termen lung,
este necesar de a consolida economia de piaj funcjional,
care, conIorm concluziilor organizatiilor economice
internationale, n Republica Moldova, este la Iaza sa
incipient, economie care ar putea rezista si prospera n
conditiile presiunii concurentiale tot mai dure.
domestic and international markets. Firstly, the Iocus is on the
study oI the political and economic capacity oI the state to
inIluence domestic and international competitiveness oI
companies by creating and maintaining the most eIIicient
economic structures, institutions and government policies.
Business subjects or businesses are Iorced to include in
the competitive struggle with other companies, primarily
because oI limited resources necessary to Iunction
eIIiciently.
Three typical deIinitions oI the competition are
Iormulated.
Competitiveness is the universal measure oI market
situation oI any object. There are three broad groups oI objects
deIined Ior assessing competitiveness. It examines the notion
oI 'competitiveness object and 'competitive level.
In our opinion, the most accurate measurement of the
goods' competitiveness is the ratio oI utility and cost
(price) oI goods. Respectively, under the same conditions,
the actual competitiveness oI the goods is the biggest when
the utility is maximum per one unit cost (price) oI goods.
National competitiveness and competitiveness at sectoral
level can be assessed through certain indicators (or
combinations). The concept of competitiveness at the level of
countries, economv (macro level) is not quite clear and
rigorously determined. Modern definitions of national
competitiveness, supported by a number oI oIIicial
organizations or proposed by scientists, in Iact, reduce on
competitiveness. As an integral indicator of national
competitiveness it should be considered 'labour
productivity. Most important is the conceptual
competitiveness, which essence is the right path oI
development, optimal trajectory oI development oI the
national economy, able to join Iorces in the struggle with the
national key competitors.
It is necessary to develop a national program to
increase competitiveness, which would include structural,
industrial and demographic politic and so on, which would
reIlect the real priorities oI development.
At this stage, on medium and long term perspective, it is
necessary to strengthen the functioning market economy,
which, according to the Iindings oI international economic
organizations in Moldova it is on its early stage, economy
which could withstand and thrive under the increasingly
tough competitive pressure.
Referin(e bibliografice / References
1. SCHWAB, Klaus, PORTER, Michael E., SACHS, JeIIrey D. The Global Competitiveness report 2000. Word
Economic Forum. New York-OxIord: OxIord University Press, 2000. 332 p. ISBN 0-19-513820-1.
2. AHEBEHKO, B.B. Teopernxo-meroonornuecxne nonpoct xonxypenrnocnoconocrn +xonomnuecxo cncremt. B:
Mapxernnr n Poccnn n sa pyexom. 2005, N 1, cc. 106-112. ISSN 1026-5849.
3. FOIOMOHOBA, H.H., XOXHOB, E.B. Ananns ]opmnponannx xareropnn xonxypenrocnoconocrn xax ]axropa
npenocxocrna +xonomnuecxnx oexron. B: Mapxernnr n Poccnn n sa pyexom. 2005, N 1, cc. 113-118. ISSN
1026-5849.
4. uATXVTHHOB, P.A. Kourvpeumocnocoouocmi. orouo+ura, cmpameeu, vnpae.euue. Mocxna: HHuPA, 2000.
312 c. ISBN 5-16-000313-4.
5. IEHIBAHOBCKHH, M. Hannonantnte npoexrt n xonxypenrocnoconocrt poccncxo +xonomnxn. B: Bonpoct
+xonomnxn nepexonoro nepnoa. 2006, N 2, cc. 4-5.
6. BELOSTECINIC, G. Competitivitatea economic - obiectiv strategic al Republicii Moldova. In: Economica. 2007, nr.
1, pp. 5-6. ISSN 1582-6260.
Recomandat spre publicare. 22.02.2013
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 21
nr. 2 / 2013
UTILIZAREA MODELELOR
MACROECONOMICE N ANALIZA
ECHILIBRULUI VALORIC
USE OF THE MACROECONOMIC
MODELS IN THE ANALYSIS
OF THE BALANCE VALUE
1atiana MAAOLE, dr. hab., prof. univ., IEFS
Sofia SCU1ARI (AACHEL), drd., specialist principal la
Ministerul Finanjelor al Republicii Moldova
1atiana MAAOLE, PhD, professor, IEFS
Sofia SCU1ARI (AACHEL), PhD student, chief specialist,
Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Moldova
In acest articol este cercetat problema utili:rii
modelelor macroeconomice in anali:a echilibrului valoric.
Ca atare, anali:ele sunt efectuate in ba:a modelului IS-LM.
Deoarece echilibrul valoric depinde de echilibrul pe piata
bunurilor i serviciilor i pe piata monetar, autorii au
studiat posibilittile de echilibru pe aceste dou piete in
conditiile Republicii Moldova. Este cercetat raportul dintre
masa monetar i produsul intern brut in ba:a legii egalittii
cantittii banilor in circulatie. Ca:ul Republicii Moldova
indic o cretere devansat a masei monetare fat de
creterea produsului intern brut, ceea ce produce efecte
inflationiste. Rata doban:ii este un indicator de ba: in
anali:a echilibrului valoric.
Cuvinte cheie: modele macroeconomice, modelul IS-LM,
Curba IS, Curba LM, piata bunurilor i serviciilor, piata
monetar, cheltuieli guvernamentale (G), venit (Y), rata
doban:ii (i), venit de echilibru, rata doban:ii de echilibru,
consum, investitii, export.
This paper investigates the problem of using the
macroeconomic models to analv:e the balance value.
Actuallv, the analvses are performed under the IS-LM model.
Since the balance value depends on the balance of goods and
services market and the monev market, the authors have
studied the possibilities of balance on these two markets in
terms of conditions from the Republic of Moldova. There is
investigated the ratio of monetarv mass and GDP under the
law of equalitv of the amount of monev in circulation. The
case of the Republic of Moldova indicates a great increase of
the monetarv mass related to the GDP growth, fact that
produces an inflationarv effect. The interest rate is a kev
indicator in analv:ing the balance value.
Key words: macroeconomic models, the IS-LM model,
IS curve, LM curve, the goods and services market, monev
market, government spending (G), income (Y), the interest
rate (i) income balance, steadv interest rate, consumption,
investment, export.
1EL classification: C58, E22, E2, B41
Introducere. Echilibrul valoric este o oportunitate pentru
managementul Iinantelor publice, deoarece include echilibrul
bugetar, echilibrul monetar si echilibrul balantei de plti.
Mentinerea lui presupune un eIort colosal din partea politicii
bugetar-Iiscale si a politicii monetare. n prezent teoria
bugetului echilibrat poate Ii considerat o dogm, deoarece
ar putea constitui un instrument, care ar impune disciplina
Iiscal si ar asigura totodat utilizarea ct mai eIicient a
banului public. n conditiile actuale, ns, ale crizei Iinantelor
publice n Uniunea European, maniIestat prin cresterea
deIicitelor bugetare si a datoriilor publice n unele tri
membre ale UE, problema echilibrului bugetar ca parte
component a echilibrului valoric capt o semniIicatie
important, spre deosebire de liberalismul clasic, care
promova principiul non-interventionismului statului n
economie.
n economia modern, bugetul echilibrat ridic o serie de
probleme att privind necesitatea respectrii acestui
principiu, ct si orizontul de timp vizat pentru un buget
echilibrat. Un buget echilibrat contine n sine o serie de
indicatori, care rezult att din politica Iiscal ct si din
politica monetar. Cel mai simplu model al unui buget
echilibrat reiese din egalitatea: Y G I C (Y); V
d
Y
T; C a bV
d
, unde: Y venitul; C consumul; V
d

venitul disponibil; T taxele, a si b sunt coeIicienti exogeni.
Respectarea acestei egalitti, prezentat prin termeni reali,
poate determina un buget echilibrat. Un buget echilibrat,
ns, exclude Iinantarea cheltuielilor publice printr-un alt
procedeu dect acoperirea prin venituri Iiscale, iar Iinantarea
cheltuielilor publice recurente poate Ii eIectuat prin credit
public sau creante monetare, dar rambursate obligatoriu pn
la Iinele anului bugetar curent. Aceste modalitti de evident
Introduction. The balance value is an opportunity Ior
public Iinance management as it includes the budget
balance, cash balance and balance oI payments. Its
maintenance supposes a colossal eIIort Irom the Iiscal-
budgetary and monetary policy. Nowadays, the theory oI a
balanced budget can be considered as a dogma, because it
could be a tool that would impose Iiscal discipline and
should also ensure the most eIIicient use oI the public
money. Under current conditions, however, oI the crisis oI
public Iinances in the European Union, maniIested by
increasing budget deIicits and public debt in some EU
countries, the issue oI budget balance as part oI the
equilibrium value acquires signiIicance, unlike the classical
liberalism, that promoted the principle oI non-intervention
oI the state in the economy.
In the modern economy, balanced budget raises a
number oI issues both to the necessity to respect this
principle and the relevant time horizon Ior a balanced
budget. A balanced budget contains itselI a number oI
indicators, which come Irom both Iiscal policy and the
monetary policy. The simplest model oI a balanced budget
comes Irom the equality: Y G I C (Y); V
d
Y T; C
a bV
d
, where: Y income, C consumption, V
d

disposable income; T taxes, a and b are exogenous
coeIIicients. Compliance with this equality, presented
through real terms, can lead to a balanced budget. A
balanced budget, though, excludes Iinance public spending
through an other process than the coverage through tax
revenues, and Iinance oI the recurrent public expenditures
may be made by public credit or monetary claims, but
mandatory reimbursed by the end oI the current budget`s
year. These ways oI evidence oI public Iunds are managed
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 22
nr. 2 / 2013
a banului public sunt gestionate de ctre Trezoreria de Stat.
n articolul prezent am ncercat c cercetm echilibrul
valoric cu toate componentele lui, utiliznd modelul IS-LM
n baza practicii Republicii Moldova.
Con(inutul de baz. Analiza echilibrului pe pia(a
monetar yi pe pia(a bunurilor prin utilizarea modelului
IS-LM. Modelul IS-LM este cunoscut n literatura de
specialitate ca exprimnd ,esenta macroeconomiei
moderne. El este considerat un model de echilibru ntre
piata de mrIuri si piata de valori. Acest model ia n
consideratie inIluenta ratei dobnzii, dar si inIluenta
venitului. Prin urmare putem considera c modelul IS-LM
arat posibilittile de echilibru ntre aceste dou piete, dar
care sunt inIluentate de politica bugetar-Iiscal si de politica
monetar.
Acest model a Iost introdus pentru prima dat de J.K.
Hicks n anul 1937. El are dou curbe IS si LM. Curba IS
arat ,investitia` i , economiile si reIlect echilibrul de pe
piata mrIurilor si serviciilor. Curba LM arat ,lichidittile`
i ,oferta de banii`, reprezentnd echilibrul pe piata
monetar.
Modelul IS-LM are dou egalitti:
by the State Treasury. In the present article we tried to
research the balance value with all its components, using
the IS-LM model on the basis oI the practice oI the
Republic oI Moldova.
Basic content. Analysis of equilibrium on the
money market and goods market by using the IS-LM
model. IS-LM model is known in the literature as
expressing the "essence oI modern macroeconomics." It is
considered a model oI balance between commodity market
and stock market. This model takes into account the
inIluence oI interest rates, and income`s inIluence.
ThereIore, we believe that the IS-LM model shows the
possibilities oI balance between these two markets, but
they are inIluenced by budgetary-Iiscal policy and
monetary policy.
This model was Iirst introduced by J.K. Hicks in 1937.
It has two curves IS and LM. IS curve shows the
"investment" and "savings" and reIlects the balance Irom
the goods and services markets. LM curve shows the "cash"
and "monev supplv", representing the balance Irom the
monetary market.
The IS-LM model has two equalities:
(IS) Y C (Y-1) + I (i) + C,
(LM) M/P L (i, Y)
Politica bugetar-Iiscal (C yi 1), politica monetar-
creditar (M)si nivelul preturilor (P) n model se iau ca
exogene. La utilizarea variabilelor exogene curba IS
exprim combinatiile dintre i si Y, care asigur echilibrul
pe piata mrIurilor, iar curba LM d astIel de
combinatii pentru i si Y, care asigur echilibrul pe
piata monetar. Mai jos prezentm aceste dou curbe n
Figura 1.
Curba LM reIlect cererea de moned si oIerta de
moned. Dar, deoarece rata dobnzii inIluenteaz investitiile
si, deci, si cererea de moned, apoi anume aceast variabil
leag cele dou prti ale modelului IS-LM. Modelul arat n
ce msur legtura dintre aceste dou piete determin cererea
agregat.
The budgetary-Iiscal policy (C and 1), monetary and
credit policy (M) and the price level (P) are taken as
exogenous in the model. When using the exogenous
variables, the IS curve expresses combinations between i
and Y, which ensures the balance on the goods market and
LM curve gives such combinations Ior i and Y, which
ensure the balance on the monetary market. Below we
present these two curves in Figure 1.
LM curve reIlects money demand and money supply.
But as interest rate aIIects the investment and the demand
Ior money, then mainly these variables link the two parts oI
the IS-LM model. The model shows to what extent the
relationship between these two markets determines the
aggregate demand.
Fig. 1. Echilibrul n modelul IS-LM
Fig. 1. Balance in the model IS-LM
Sursa / Source: Elaborat de autor / Developed by the author.
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 23
nr. 2 / 2013
Punctul de intersectie a celor dou curbe semniIic
echilibru simultan pe cele dou piete.
Curba IS, care demonstreaz situatia de pe piata
bunurilor, la Iel se modiIic sub inIluenta ratei dobnzii.
Acest Ienomen l putem urmri n Figura 2.
The point oI intersection oI the two curves represents
the simultaneous balance on the two markets.
IS curve, which shows the situation Irom the goods
market, is inIluenced by the interest rate changes. This
phenomenon can be Iollowed on Figure 2.
Fig. 2. Comportamentul curbei IS la diferite nivele ale ratei dobnzii
Fig. 2. IS curve behaviour at different levels of interest rates
Sursa / Source: Elaborat de autor / Developed by the author.
Tot n aceast Iigur putem urmri si expansiunea Iiscal
asupra investitiilor. Expansiunea Iiscal duce la cresterea lui
i de la i
1
la i
3
, ceea ce determin scderea cheltuielilor pentru
investitii si ca urmarea y va scdea.
Din Iigur observm c la nivelul sczut al ratei dobnzii
(i
2
) cererea va Ii mai mare la Iiecare nivel al venitului,
deoarece cheltuiala investitional va Ii mai mare, iar punctul
corespunztor de echilibru pe curba IS va Ii E
2.
La nivel nalt al ratei dobnzii (i
1
), cererea va Ii mai mic,
deoarece cheltuiala investitional va Ii mai mic, iar punctul
corespunztor pe curba IS va Ii E
1.
Aceeasi tendint se
observ si la nivelul ratei dobnzii de i
3.
n concluzie putem spune c toate punctele de pe curba
IS sunt combinatii ale ratei dobnzii (i) si nivelului venitului
(productiei) Y, n care piata mrIurilor se echilibreaz. Din
aceste motive curba IS este numit curba echilibrrii pietei
mrIurilor.
Raportul invers proportional dintre rata dobnzii si
cererea agregat (cheltuieli, investitionale) Iace ca curba IS
s aib o pant negativ. Ca urmare, reducerea cheltuielii
investitionale duce la reducerea nivelului de echilibru al
venitului.
Prin urmare rata dobnzii inIluenteaz panta curbei IS.
Dac vom nota nclinatia curbei IS sub inIluenta ratei
dobnzii cu b, atunci nclinatia b va reIlecta sensibilitatea
cheltuielii investitionale la modiIicarea ratei dobnzii.
Tot pe aceast Iigur putem urmri si inIluenta politicii
Iiscale asupra investitiilor. AstIel, la o politic Iiscal
expansionist se va modiIica rata dobnzii, ceea ce va
inIluenta investitiile. Expansiunea Iiscal duce la cresterea
ratei dobnzii de la i
1
la i
3
, ceea ce determin scderea pentru
investitii, si, ca urmare, venitul (Y) se va reduce.
Modelul IS-LM ne demonstreaz si situatia de pe piata
Also in this Iigure we can Iollow on the Iiscal
expansion on the investment. Fiscal expansion leads to the
increase oI i Irom i
1
to i
3
, which determine the decreases oI
investment spending and thereIore y will decrease.
From the Iigure we see that at the low interest rate (i
2
)
demand will be higher at every level oI income, as the
investment expense will be higher and the corresponding
equilibrium point on the IS curve will be E
2
.
At a high level oI interest rates (i
1
), demand will be
lower as the investment expense will be lower, and the
corresponding point on the IS curve will be E
1
. The same
trend is observed in the level oI the interest rate oI i
3
.
In conclusion we can say that all points on the IS curve
are combinations oI the interest rate (i) and income level
(production) Y, where the goods market is balanced. For
these reasons the IS curve is called the curve oI balancing
the goods market.
Inverse correlation between the interest rate and
aggregate demand (investment spending) makes the IS
curve to have a negative slope. ThereIore, reducing
investment expenditure leads to the decrease oI the
equilibrium level oI income.
ThereIore the interest rate aIIects the slope oI IS. II we
note the IS curve slope under the inIluence oI interest rate
with b, then b inclination will reIlect the sensitivity oI
investment expenditure to changes in the interest rate.
Also in this Iigure we can trace the inIluence oI Iiscal
policy on investment. Thus, an expansionary Iiscal policy
will change the interest rate, which will inIluence
investment. Fiscal expansion leads to the increase oI the
interest rate i
1
to i
3
, which determine the decrease Ior
investment and thereIore income (Y) will be reduced.
IS-LM model demonstrates the situation in the
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 24
nr. 2 / 2013
monetar, inIluentnd totodat si rata dobnzii.
Pentru a demonstra comportamentul curbei LM o lum
separat n model (vezi Figura 3).
monetary market, inIluencing also the interest rate.
In order to demonstrate the behaviour oI the LM curve
we take it separately in the model (see Figure 3).
Fig. 3. Comportamentul curbei LM la diferite rate ale dobnzii
Fig. 3. LM curve`s behaviour at different interest rates
Sursa /Source: Elaborat de autor/Developed by the author.
Curba LM din modelul IS-LM demonstreaz
comportamentul masei monetare sub inIluenta ratei dobnzii
si a preturilor. Este stiut, c cantitatea nominal de bani de pe
piat este controlat de Banca National, care este si banc
de emisie de moned. ns cererea real de moned se poate
calcula mprtind cererea nominal de moned la nivelul
pretului mediu la mrIurile respective, astIel: L M / P.
Dac, de exemplu, cererea nominal de moned este de 200
mil. lei si pretul mediu este de 40 lei pe bucat, atunci
cererea real de bunuri va Ii de 5 mil. bucti. La dublarea
cererii nominale de bani si mentinnd pretul constant, cererea
real se va dubla si ea , iar dac paralel cu dublarea cererii
nominale are loc si o dublare a pretului, cererea real va
rmne neschimbat. n conditiile cresterii preturilor si
cantitatea de bani va trebui s creasc n aceeasi
msur, pentru a putea procura aceeasi cantitate de bunuri
economice.
Cererea real de bani depinde de mai multi Iactori si
anume: 1) de nivelul venitului real, deoarece orice persoan
si Iinanteaz cheltuielile n Iunctie de venitul su; 2) de rata
dobnzii, sau de ,costul detinerii banilor. Cu ct rata
dobnzii va Ii mai mare, cu att costul detinerii
banilor lichizi va Ii mai mare, lucru ce va determina
detintorii de bani lichizi s decid s-i plaseze pe
un cont la banc, micsorndu-se astIel cererea real de bani.
Prin urmare, cererea real de bani este o Iunctie a ratei
dobnzii.
Vom mentionat, c dac curba LM ar avea o directie
vertical, adic stocul de moned este Iixat de ctre Banca
National, apoi politica monetar are un eIect maxim asupra
economiei, pe cnd politica Iiscal n asa conditii nu are nici
un eIect asupra echilibrului economic. Cresterea cheltuielilor
guvernamentale (C) va deplasa curba IS spre stnga, spre
reducere, iar venitul (Y) va rmne neschimbat. La
LM curve Irom the IS-LM model demonstrates the
behaviour oI the monetary mass under the inIluence oI
interest rate and prices. It is known that the nominal
quantity oI money Irom the market is controlled by the
National Bank, which is the bank oI currency issue. But the
real money demand can be calculated by dividing the
nominal money demand at the average price oI goods, as
Iollows: L M / P. II, Ior example, nominal money
demand is 200 million MDL and the average price is 40
MDL per unit, then the real demand Ior goods will be 5
million pieces. When doubling the nominal money demand
and maintaining the steady price, the actual demand will
double as well, and iI in parallel with the duplication oI the
nominal demand occurs and a doubling oI price, actual
demand will remain unchanged. In conditions oI prices
rise, the amount oI money will have to grow to the same
extent in order to buy the same amount oI economic goods.
Real demand Ior money depends on several Iactors,
namely: 1) on the level oI real income because any person
Iinances its own expenditures according to its income;
2) on the interest rate, or the "cost oI holding money". As
the interest rate will be higher, the cost oI holding cash will
be higher, which will determine the cash holders to decide
to put them on a bank account, decreasing in such a way
the real demand Ior money. ThereIore, the real demand Ior
money is a Iunction oI the interest rate.
It's worth noting that iI the LM curve would have a
vertical direction, ie the stock oI money is Iixed by the
National Bank, and then monetary policy has a maximum
eIIect on the economy, while Iiscal policy in such
conditions has no eIIect on the economic balance.
Increasing government spending (C) will shiIt the IS curve
to the leIt, to the decrease, and income (Y) will remain
unchanged. At an interest rate increase, expenses, primarily
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 23
nr. 2 / 2013
o crestere a ratei dobnzii, cheltuielile, n primul rnd, cele
private, pentru investitii se vor reduce, reducnd,
astIel, venitul. Prin urmare, o politic Iiscal expansionist
duce la reducerea investitiilor si ca urmare la reducerea
venitului.
Comportamentul masei monetare n conformitate
cu legea egalit(ii cantitative a banilor n circula(ie.
Practica ne demonstreaz c cantitatea de bani disponibil
determin nivelul preturilor si, totodat, ritmul de crestere a
cantittii de bani determin rata inIlatiei. Oamenii detin bani
pentru a cumpra bunuri si servicii. Cu ct oamenii au
nevoie de mai multi bani pentru tranzactii, cu att ei
pstreaz mai multe mijloace bnesti lichide. Legtura dintre
tranzactii si bani este numit ecuatia cantitativ a banilor,
care reiese din legea egalitjii cantitative a banilor n
circulajie.
M x V P x T sau Banii x Viteza de rotatie Nivelul
preturilor x Tranzactii
Partea dreapt a ecuatiei cantitative se reIer la tranzactii.
T numrul de tranzactii dintr-o perioad de timp (de
exemplu, un an).
P pretul pentru o tranzactie tipic (numrul de lei
schimbati).
P x T numrul de lei schimbati ntr-un an.
Partea stng a ecuatiei cantitative se reIer la banii
Iolositi pentru realizarea tranzactiilor.
M cantitatea de bani (masa monetar)
V viteza de rotatie a banilor.
Exemplu din realitatea Republicii Moldova. n anul 2011,
n Republica Moldova, volumul produc(iei Iabricate
constituia 82349 milioane de lei. Stiind c masa monetar
din economie n anul 2011 a constituit suma de 40977.1
milioane de lei, se poate calcula viteza de rotatie a banilor:
Dar deoarece numrul de tranzactii din economie este
greu de msurat, putem purcede la rezolvarea acestei
probleme, nlocuind numrul de tranzactii (T) cu volumul
productiei totale din economie (Y).
those private, Ior investment will be reduced, thereby
reducing the income. ThereIore, an expansionary Iiscal
policy leads to reduced investment and thereIore reduced
income.
Behaviour of the monetary mass in accordance with
the law on quantitative balance of money in
circulation. Evidence shows that the available
amount oI money determines the price level and also the
growth oI the quantity oI money causes inIlation.
People hold money to buy goods and services. As the
people need more money Ior transactions, the more money
they keep liquids. The link between transactions and
money is called the quantity equation oI money, which
arises Irom the law on quantitative balance of money in
circulation.
M x V P x T or Money x Rotational speed Price
level x Transactions
The right side oI the quantitative equation reIers to the
transaction.
T the number oI transactions within a period oI time
(Ior example, one year).
P price oI a typical transaction (number oI changed
MDL).
P x T number oI MDL changed in a year.
LeIt side oI the quantitative equation reIers to money
used Ior the transactions.
M amount oI money (monetary mass)
V rotational speed oI money.
Example oI the reality Irom the Republic oI Moldova.
In 2011, the amount oI manuIactured goods accounted Ior
82349 million MDL. Knowing that the monetary mass in
the economy in 2011 amounted to 40977.1 million MDL,
we can calculate the rotational speed oI money:
But as the number oI transactions in the economy is
diIIicult to measure, we can proceed to solve this problem
by replacing the number oI transactions (T) with the total
output in the economy (Y).
times ori
M
T x P
J / 2
1 , 977 40
0 , 82349

n scopul echilibrrii masei monetare este necesar de
respectat Iormula teoriei cantitative a banilor:
In order to balance the monetary mass, it is necessary to
meet the Iormula oI the quantitative theory oI money:
J
PIB
sau
J
Y x P
whereM unde de Y x P J x M / ,
Masa monetar este direct proportional cu PIB si invers
proportional cu viteza de rotatie a banilor.
n cazul dat Republica Moldova este o economie mic
deschis. Aceast economie nu se ajusteaz imediat la
echilibru, asa c putem distinge att eIectele pe termen scurt
ct si pe termen lung. Mentionm, c atunci cnd analizm
economia pornind de la considerentul c ntotdeauna, M x
V P x Y, atunci viteza de rotatie a banilor este raportul
dintre venitul si banii nominali. Chiar dac economia ar Ii
ntr-un echilibru initial, totusi dezvoltarea economiei poate s
ne aduc surprize:
Un soc al cererii ar necesita o crestere de, presupunem,
10 a oIertei nominale de bani, suma care ar Ii utilizat
pentru Iinantarea cheltuielilor publice n crestere. Pe perioada
lung de timp (2002-2011) n Republica Moldova a
avut loc o crestere a cheltuielilor publice Iat de veniturile
Monetary mass is directly proportional to GDP and
inversely proportional to the rotational speed oI money.
In this case the Republic oI Moldova is a small open
economy. This economy does not immediately adjust to
equilibrium, so we can distinguish both short-term eIIects
and long term ones. We note that when analyzing the
economy, starting with the idea that always, M x V P x
Y, then the rotational speed oI money is the ratio oI income
and nominal money. Even iI the economy were in an initial
balance, though the economic development can bring us
surprises:
A demand shock would require an increase oI, let`s say,
10 oI the nominal supply oI money, which would be used
to Iinance the increased public spending. For a long period
oI time (2002-2011) in the Republic oI Moldova has been
an increase in public expenditure in regard to the
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 26
nr. 2 / 2013
publice.
Cresterea cheltuielilor publice a stimulat cresterea cererii,
avnd implicatii si asupra cresterii masei monetare.
Pentru a preveni inIlatia este necesar o crestere
concomitent si a venitului nominal. n cazul dat pentru
mentinerea echilibrului este necesar ca venitul nominal s se
modiIice n aceeasi proportie ca si stocul nominal de bani,
adic cu 10.
Aceast constatare o Iacem reiesind din teoria cantitativ
a banilor sau legea egalittii banilor n circulatie, pe
de o parte, iar pe de alt parte, reiesind din relatia direct
proportional ntre masa monetar si produsul intern
brut.
Analiza rela(iilor dintre masa monetar, produsul
intern brut yi rata infla(iei
Jom analiza acest raport existent n Republica
Moldova n diferite perioade de timp.
Masa monetar n Republica Moldova pe parcursul anilor
22-211 a Iost n crestere. Vom analiza diapazonul de
crestere a masei monetare pe diIerite segmente de timp.
De exemplu, n 2006 masa monetar a crescut Iat de
22 cu 3", sau de 3 ori. n 211 masa monetar a
crescut Iat de 2 cu 29" sau mai bine de 2 ori.
Calculm rata de crestere a masei monetare n 211 Iat
de 2 n Republica Moldova.
government revenue. Increasing oI public spending spurred
the increase oI demand, with implications Ior monetary
mass growth. In order to prevent the inIlation, it is
necessary a concomitant increase in the nominal income. In
this case, Ior maintaining the equilibrium it is necessary
that the nominal income to change in the same proportion
as the nominal stock oI money, ie by 10.
This Iinding is based on the quantitative theory oI
money or the law oI money equality currency in
circulation, on the one hand, and on the other hand, given
the proportional relationship between monetary mass and
GDP.
Analysis of the relationship between the monetary
mass, GDP and inflation.
We will review this report in the Republic of Moldova
in different time periods.
Monetary mass in Moldova during the years 2002-2011
was increasing. We will analyze the range oI monetary
expansion on diIIerent segments oI time.
For example, in 2006 the monetary mass increased by
3" compared to 22, or 3 times. In 211 the monetary
mass increased by 29" compared to 2, or more than 2
times.
We calculate the growth rate oI money supply in 211
compared to 2 in the Republic oI Moldova.


5 , 209 100
. 0 , 558 19
. 1 , 977 40
100
2006
2011
x
lei mil
lei mil
x
M
M
Comparatia masei monetare din 211 Iat de
22 a nregistrat o crestere esential de 29" sau mai mult
de 6 ori.
Comparing the monetary mass Irom 211 compared to
22, it showed a signiIicant increase oI 29" or more
than 6 times.


629 100
. 4 , 511 6
. 1 , 977 40
100
2002
2011
x
lei mil
lei mil
x
M
M
n rezultatul calculelor mentionm, c n
Republica Moldova n perioada analizat de 1 ani masa
monetar a crescut mai bine de ori. Cresterea masei
monetare a Iost conditionat de cresterea PIB-lui. Analiza
cresterii PIB-lui pe perioada analizat ne d urmtoarele
rezultate:
Rata de crestere a PIB-lui n perioadele analizate ne
demonstreaz c a avut loc o crestere, dar cu mult mai lent
dect cresterea masei monetare. AstIel:
As a result oI these calculations, we mention that in
Moldova in the analysed period oI 1 years, the monetary
mass increased more than times. Increase oI the monetary
mass was due to the CDP growth. Analysis oI the CDP
growth in the period under review gives us the Iollowing
results:
CDP growth rate oI the periods under review
demonstrates that there has been an increase, but much
slower than the increase in money supply. So:


0 ; 184 100
. 0 , 754 44
. 0 , 349 82
100
2006
2011
x
lei mil
lei mil
x
PIB
PIB


1 , 5 36 100
. 0 , 556 22
. 0 , 349 82
100
2002
2011
x
lei mil
lei mil
x
PIB
PIB
Calculele ne demonstreaz c masa monetar a devansai
circa de trei ori cresterea produsului intern brut. Fiind
comparate si alte perioade putem constata aceeasi tendint
de crestere a masei monetare cu un ritm mai mare dect
cresterea PIB-lui.
AstIel, rata de crestere a PIB-lui n 211 Iat de 2
este egal cu 184." sau de cca. 2 ori.
Rata de crestere a PIB-lui n 211 Iat de 22 este
egal cu 35,1") sau de 3, ori.
Din anul 22 pn n anul 211 masa monetar a crescut
cu 29", iar produsul intern brut n aceast perioad a
crescut cu 35,1". Cresterea masei monetare n perioada
Calculations show that money has surpassed almost
three times the GDP growth. As compared to other periods
we Iind the same trend oI increasing money supply at a rate
higher than CDP growth.
The growth rate oI CDP in 211 compared to 2 is
equal to 184." or approx. 2 times.
Growth rate oI CDP in 211 compared to 22 is equal
to 35.1" and by 3. times.
From 22 to 211 the money supply increased by
29" and GDP in this period increased by 35.1". Broad
money growth in the period outpaced the GDP growth oI
approx. 2 times (1.7). This has inIluenced the growth oI
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 27
nr. 2 / 2013
analizat a devansat cresterea PIB-lui de cca. 2 ori (1,7).
Acest Ienomen a inIluentat cresterea ratei inIlatiei.
Analiza ratei anuale a inIlatiei pe perioada analizat ne-a
demonstrat urmtoarele: rata medie anual a inIlatiei n anul
2011 a alctuit 7,", iar n anul 22 cresterea ratei inIlatiei
a Iost de 1,85".
Aceast analiz serveste drept baz pentru deciziile de
politic monetar. n acelasi timp, volumul si evolutia
agregatelor monetare si a componentelor vor Ii privite prin
prisma evolutiei ratei inIlatiei si asteptrilor inIlationiste.
AstIel, este necesar de a urmri permanent volumul
lichidittilor n sistemul bancar pentru asigurarea cresterii
economice scontate si stabilittii economice durabile.
Cercetarea echilibrului valoric la nivel
macroeconomic prin utilizarea modelului IS-LM
n scopul analizei echilibrului valoric la nivel
macroeconomic am utilizat modelul IS-LM. Deoarece
Trezoreria Public de Stat este o structur de nivel
macroeconomic, are ca Iunctie, n primul rnd, s contribuie
la stabilirea echilibrului pe piata Iinanciar mpreun cu
Banca National a Moldovei, mbinnd cele dou politici
Iinanciare politica bugetar-Iiscal si politica monetar. La
stabilizarea echilibrului pe piata Iinanciar un rol deosebit l
au Iluxurile Iinanciare.
Este stiut Iaptul, c Iluxurile Iinanciare depind de
Iluxurile reale de bunuri si servicii si invers. n acest context
considerm c un element de baz n stabilirea echilibrului
valoric este rata dobnzii, care inIluenteaz venitul de
echilibru n raport cu masa monetar, inIluentnd, totodat, si
asupra balantei de plti. Pentru a demonstra aceast
interdependent pe piata echilibrului valoric, considerm c
este necesar s analizm echilibrul pe piata bunurilor si
serviciilor si echilibrul pe piata monetar. n acest scop
considerm c stabilirea venitului de echilibru este n Iunctie
de rata dobnzii pe piata capitalului. Acest echilibru putem
s-l determinm utiliznd curba IS din modelul IS-LM.
Ecuatia curbei IS este dat de egalitatea:
inIlation.
Analysis oI the annual inIlation rate Ior the period
under review has shown us the Iollowing: annual average
inIlation rate in 211 made up 7." and inIlation growth in
22 was 1.85".
This analysis serves as the basis Ior monetary policy
decisions. At the same time, the volume and evolution oI
the monetary components and aggregates will be
considered in the light oI evolution oI inIlation rate and
inIlation expectations. Thus, it is necessary to constantly
monitor the amount oI liquidity in the banking system to
ensure the expected economic growth and sustainable
economic stability.
Research of the value equilibrium at the
macroeconomic level by using the IS-LM model
In order to analyze the macroeconomic value
equilibrium we used the IS-LM model. Since the Treasury
oI the State is a macroeconomic structure, its Iunction is
primarily to contribute to Iinancial market equilibrium
together with the National Bank oI Moldova, combining
the two Iinancial policies budgetary-Iiscal policy and
monetary policy. In stabilizing the Iinancial market
equilibrium, Iinancial Ilows have a special place.
It is a known the Iact that Iinancial Ilows depend on
the actual Ilows oI goods and services and vice versa. In
this context we believe that a key element in determining
the value equilibrium is the interest rate that inIluences the
steady income in relation to money, inIluencing, however,
and over the balance oI payments. To demonstrate
the interdependence on the value balance market, we
consider it necessary to analyze the balance on goods and
services market and the money market equilibrium. To this
end we consider that the establishment oI steady income is
due to the interest rate on the capital market. We can
determine this balance using the IS curve Irom the IS-LM
model.
IS curve equation is given by the equality:
Y C G I Nx,
unde:
Y venitul (se asociaz cu Produsul Intern Brut sau cu
Produsul National Brut);
C consumul gospodriilor;
G cheltuieli guvernamentale;
I investitiile;
Nx exportul net. Se calculeaz dup Iormula: Nx X
M, unde X export, M import.
CONSUMUL
Funcjia consumului: C C
a
c(Yd) C
a
c(Y-T
n
) C
a
c(Y-(T-Tr ))
Funcjia consumului reflect relatia direct dintre
venit i consum. odat cu creterea venitului crete i
consumul.
C
a
consum autonom, ce se ralizeaz indiIerent de
nivelul venitului;
c nclinatia marginal spre consum, reprezint ce parte
a venitului este orientat spre consum;
Yd venitul disponibil se calculeaz ca diIerent dintre
venit si taxe nete (T
n
): Yd Y-T
n
where:
Y- income (is associated with the GDP and the GNP);
C household consumption;
G governmental expenditure;
I investment;
Nx net export. Is calculated aIter the Iormula: Nx X
M, where X export, M import.
CONSUMPTION
Function of consumption: C C
a
c(Yd) C
a
c(Y-
T
n
) C
a
c(Y-(T-Tr ))
Function of consumption reIlects the direct
relationship between income and consumption. when
income increases, the consumption increases.
C
a
autonomous consumption, which is achieved
regardless oI the income level;
c marginal propensity to consume, represents what
part oI the revenue is consumer oriented;
Yd disposable income is calculated as the diIIerence
between income and net Iees (T
n
): Yd Y-T
n
T
n
the diIIerence between taxes per person (T) and
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 28
nr. 2 / 2013
T
n
reprezint diIerenta dintre impozite pe persoana ( T) si
transIeruri (Tr): T
n
T-Tr.
n exemplul nostru, considerat aproape de situatia din
Republica Moldova: C 47,5+0,85(Y-T
n
)
47,5 este consumul autonom, iar 0,85 - nclinatia
marginal spre consum.
Investi(iile
Funcjia investijiilor: I a-bi
Funcjia investijiilor repre:int relatia invers dintre
investitii i rata doban:ii (i). creterea ratei doban:ii duce la
descreterea investitiilor. La rate mai mari ale doban:ilor
agentii economici se imprumut mai putin, respectiv,
investesc mai putin.
a, b - coeIicienti, n exemplul nostru: a100, b -5
CoeIicientul a poate Ii asociat cu investitiile autonome
(investitii ce se realizeaza indiIerent de rata dobnzii)
Exportul
n exemplul nostru funcjia exportului: X 50 - 10Y
n cazul exemplului dat exportul este reprezentat ca fiind
intr-un raport invers cu venitul, asupra acestui Iapt indic
coeIicientul negativ (-10) din Iunctia exportului ce este n
Iata Venitului. Cresterea venitului determin un consum
intern mai mare a marIurilor produse n interiorul trii si ca
rezultat se export mai putin.
ConIorm egalittii curbei IS, vom utiliza urmtoarea
inIormatie:
Y C G I Nx, considernd c:
C 47,5+0,85(Y-T
n
),
T
n
100;
G 100;
I 100 5
i
;
X 50 - 10Y, de unde nlocuind n Iormul avem:
Y 47,50 + 0,85 (Y- 100)] + (100 - 5
i
) + 100 + 50 - 0,1Y;
Y 0,85 Y + 0,01Y 2012,50 - 5
i;
Y 850 - 20
i.
Concluzie: Venitul de echilibru pentru curba IS este
egal cu 850 - 20
i
(Y 850 - 20
i ).
Prezentarea pe grafic va avea urmtoarea nf(iyare:
transIers (Tr): T
n
T-Tr.
In our example, considered close to the situation Irom
the Republic oI Moldova: C 47,5+0,85(Y-T
n
)
47,5 is autonomous consumption, and 0,85 - marginal
propensity to consume.
Investmens
Function of investments: I a-bi
Function of investments is the inverse relationship
between investment and interest rate (i). increase of the
interest rate leads to a decrease in investment. At the high
interest rates, economic agents borrow less, respectivelv,
invest less.
a, b - coeIIicients, in our example: a100, b -5
CoeIIicient a can be associated with autonomous
investments (investments that are made regardless oI the
interest rate)
Export
In our example, the exports function: X 50 - 10Y
In the given example export is represented as being in
inverse ratio to income, on this Iact indicates the negative
coeIIicient (-10) oI the export Iunction which is in Iront oI
the income. Income growth causes a higher domestic
consumption oI goods produced within the country and as a
result exports are less.
According to the IS curve equality, we will use the
Iollowing inIormation:
Y C G I Nx, considering that:
C 47,5+0,85(Y-T
n
),
T
n
100;
G 100;
I 100 5
i
;
X 50 - 10Y, where replacing in the Iormula we have:
Y 47,50 + 0,85 (Y- 100)] + (100 - 5
i
) + 100 + 50 - 0,1Y;
Y 0,85 Y + 0,01Y 2012,50 - 5
i;
Y 850 - 20
i.
Conclusion: Steady income for the IS curve is equal
with 850 - 20
i
(Y 850 - 20
i ).
Graphic presentation will have the following form:
Fig. 4. Venitul de echilibru pentru curba IS/
Fig. 4. The balance income for the LM curve
Sursa /Source: Elaborat de autor / Developed by the author.
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 29
nr. 2 / 2013
Mai departe calculm venitul de echilibru pentru curba
LM. M L.
Situatia de pe piata monetar va depinde de M, L si i
,
unde M 1; L ,2Y-1
i ;
if 5", unde f este un coeIIicient pe lng rata dobnzii
(i), care va inIluenta nclinatia curbei LM.
Introducem n egalitatea ML inIormatia dat si
obtenem:
100 0,20Y - 10
i
0,20Y 100 + 10
i
Y 500 + 50
i .
Prin urmare, venitul de echilibru la curba LM,
utiliznd informa(ia dat este egal cu 500 + 50
i
(Y 500
+ 50
i
)
.
Concluzie: Venitul de echilibru pentru curba LM este
egal cu 500 + 50
i
(Y 500 + 50
i
)
.
Prezentarea pe grafic va avea urmtoarea nf(iyare:
Further we calculate the steady income Ior the curve
LM. M L.
Situation on the monetary market will depend on M, L
and i
,
where M 1; L ,2Y-1
i ;
if 5", where f is a coeIIicient in regard to the interest
rate (i), which will inIluence the slope oI the LM curve.
We introduce in the equality ML the given
inIormation and we obtain:
100 0,20Y - 10
i
0,20Y 100 + 10
i
Y 500 + 50
i .
Therefore, the balance income at the LM curve,
using the given information is equal to 500 + 50
i
(Y
500 + 50
i
)
.
Conclusion: The balance income for the LM curve is
equal to 500 + 50
i
(Y 500 + 50
i
)
.
Graphic presentation will have the following form:
Fig. 5. Venitul de echilibru pentru curba LM
Fig. 5. Balance income on those two markets at an interest rate equal to 5
Sursa / Source: elaborat de autor / developed by the author.
Din rezultatele obtinute prin determinarea venitului de
echilibru si a ratei dobnzii, utiliznd ecuatiile pentru ambele
curbe IS si LM ale modelului IS-LM, putem construi
modelul echilibrului simultan pe piata bunurilor si serviciilor
si pe piata monetar, care are loc n conditiile, cnd IS LM,
de unde n aceast egalitate punem rezultatele obtinute,
astIel: IS LM.
850 - 20
i
500+ 50
i
70
i
350
Y 500 + 50
i
Y 500 + 50 x 5
Y 750 u.m.
Concluzie: La o rat a dobnzii de 5, venitul de
echilibru n modelul IS-LM va Ii punctul de intersectie a
celor dou curbe, la care venitul de echilibru va Ii egal cu
750 u.m.
Acest echilibru este prezentat n Figura 6.
From the results obtained by determining the
equilibrium income and interest rate, using the equations
Ior both IS and LM curves oI the IS-LM model, we can
build the model oI the simultaneously balance on the goods
and services market and the monetary market, which takes
place under conditions where IS LM, where in this
equality we obtain results as Iollows: IS LM.
850 - 20
i
500+ 50
i
70
i
350
Y 500 + 50
i
Y 500 + 50 x 5
Y 750 u.m.
Conclusion: At an interest rate oI 5, steady income in
the IS-LM model will be the point oI intersection oI the
two curves, at which the steady income will be equal to
750 u.m.
This balance is shown in Figure 6.
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 30
nr. 2 / 2013
Fig. 6. Venitul de echilibru pe cele dou pie(e la o rat a dobnzii egal cu 5
Fig. 6. Balance income on those two markets at an interest rate equal to 5
Sursa /Source: Elaborat de autor / Developed by the author.
Acest echilibru simultan de pe piata bunurilor si de pe
piata monetar, sa realizat la o rat a dobnzii de 5. La
aceast rat, care echilibreaz cele dou piete, se pot crea
conditii pentru echilibrarea balantei de plti. AstIel,
considerm, c Iormulele modelului IS-LM pot s ne ajute s
analizm balanta de plti.
Din inIormatia expus mai sus rezult, c exportul net
este egal cu: X 50 - 10Y,
Soldul contului curent se determin nlocuind venitul de
echilibru n Iunctia exportului
X 50 - 10Y, astfel:
X 50 - 0,10 Y
X 50 - 0,10 x 750
X - 25 u.m.
Concluzie: deoarece balanta de plti este echilibrat,
nseamn c exist un surplus de 25 u.m. n contul de capital.
n cazul exemplului dat exportul este reprezentat ca fiind
intr-un raport invers cu venitul, asupra acestui Iapt indic
coeIicientul negativ (-10) din Iunctia exportului ce este n
Iata venitului (Y). Cresterea venitului determin un consum
intern mai mare a mrIurilor produse n interiorul trii si ca
rezultat se export mai putin. Balanta de plti se
mbuntteste, ceea ce d posibilitate guvernului s creasc
cheltuielile guvernamentale.
Trebuie de mentionat, c cresterea venitului chiar n
conditiile initiale de echilibrare, d posibilitate guvernului s
creasc cheltuielile guvernamentale (G), cu att mai mult c
exist un surplus n contul de capital. AstIel, prin
recalcularea ecuajiei curbei IS, ca rezultat al creyterii cu
1 u.m. n cheltuiala guvernamental (C 1 + 1
11 u.m.), vom objine yi o creytere a venitului de echilibru.
Prin urmare cresterea cheltuielilor guvernamentale va creste
venitul, care va devansa cresterea cheltuielilor, acestea
This simultaneous equilibrium on the goods and
monetary market was conducted at an interest rate oI 5.
At this rate, which balances the two markets, there can be
created conditions Ior the equilibrium oI the balance oI
payments. Thus, we believe that the IS-LM model Iormulas
can help us to analyze the balance oI payments.
From the above mentioned inIormation we have that net
exports are equal to X 50 - 10Y,
Current account balance is determined by substituting
the equilibrium income in the export Iunction
X 50 - 10Y, so:
X 50 - 0,10 Y
X 50 - 0,10 x 750
X - 25 u.m.
Conclusion: Since the balance oI payments is balanced,
there is a surplus oI 25 m.u. in the capital account. In the
given example, export is represented as being in an inverse
ratio to income, on this Iact indicates the negative
coeIIicient (-10) oI the export Iunction which is in Iront oI
the income (Y). Income growth causes a higher domestic
consumption oI goods produced within the country and as a
result exports are less. Balance oI payments is improving,
that gives the opportunity to the government to increase the
government spending.
It should be noted that the income growth even iI in the
initial balancing conditions, permits the government to
increase the government spending (G), the more so that
there is a surplus in the capital account. Thus, by
recalculating the curve IS equation, as a result of the
increase by 1 m.u. in government expenditure (C 1
+ 1 11 um), we get a growth of the steady income.
ThereIore, growth oI government spending will increase
the income, which will bring Iorward the
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 31
nr. 2 / 2013
din urm avnd un caracter de multiplicare a
venitului.
S revenim la echilibrul simultan pe cele dou piete, care
va exista atunci
cnd IS LM,
860 - 20
i
500 + 50
i
50
i
+ 20
i
860 - 500
70
i
360
i 360 : 70
i 5,14 (aceasta este rata dobnzii pe pia(a intern
a capitalului )
Y 860 - 20 i
Y 860 - 20 x 5,14
Y 860 - 102,8
Y 757,2
Prin urmare, la o crestere a cheltuielilor guvernamentale
cu 10 u.m. va creste si venitul de echilibru de la 750 u.m.
(vezi Figura 6) la 757,2 u.m. Dar cresterea venitului va
duce la cresterea cererii pe piata bunurilor si serviciilor, si,
prin urmare, rata dobnzii va avea tendint de crestere, de la
5 la 5,14. Aceast situatie poate Ii prezentat pe
Figura 7.
expenditure growth, the latter having a Ieature oI income
multiplier.
Let us return to simultaneous equilibrium on both
markets, which will be then
when IS LM,
860 - 20
i
500 + 50
i
50
i
+ 20
i
860 - 500
70
i
360
i 360 : 70
i 5,14 (this is the interest rate on the domestic
capital market)
Y 860 - 20 i
Y 860 - 20 x 5,14
Y 860 - 102,8
Y 757,2
ThereIore, at an increase in government spending
by 10 m.u., the equilibrium income will increase Irom
750 m.u. (see Figure 6) to 757.2 m.u. But income
growth will increase the demand in the goods and services
market, and thereIore, the interest rate will tend to increase
Irom 5 to 5.14. This situation can be presented on
Figure 7.
Fig. 7. Venitul de echilibru pe cele dou pie(e la o rat a dobnzii egal cu 5,14
Fig. 7. Steady income on the two markets at an interest rate equal to 5.14
Sursa/Source: Elaborat de autor in baza (1)./ Developed by the author based on (1).
Deoarece exist mobilitatea capitalului si rata
dobnzii pe piata intern a capitalului este putin mai mare
(5,14 ) dect rata dobnzii de 5, care coincidea cu
rata dobnzii pe piata extern a capitalului pe o perioad
scurt de timp pot avea modiIicri n Iluxurile de capital.
n aceast situatie pe piata intern a capitalului va exista un
Ilux de capital din aIar, Ilux de intrri de capital
din strintate n tar. Raportul dintre rata dobnzii
intern si extern are o semniIicatie important si
contradictorie, deoarece, poate atrage capitalul din
strintate. Pentru Republica Moldova, care este o tar mic,
Since there is mobility oI capital and the interest rate on
domestic capital market is slightly higher (5.14) than the
interest rate oI 5 that was corresponding to the interest
rate on the external capital market in a short period oI time
may have changes in capital Ilows. In this situation on the
internal capital market, there will be an external Ilow oI
capital, a Ilow oI Ioreign capital inIlows into the country.
Relationship between domestic and Ioreign interest rate has
an important signiIicance, but also a contradictory one,
because, on one hand, it can attract Ioreign capital. For the
Republic oI Moldova, which is a small country, this eIIect
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 32
nr. 2 / 2013
acest eIect va Ii pozitiv, deoarece se poate utiliza acest
avantaj pentru cresterea economic si cresterea venitului, de
unde, n consecint, guvernul poate creste cheltuielile
publice. Dar acest eIect pozitiv poate s se maniIeste numai
pe termen scurt. n situatia examinat de noi, cheltuielile
guvernamentale au Iost majorate cu 10 u.m. ca urmare a
Iluxului de capital strin, care a dus la cresterea venitului de
echilibru de la 750 u.m. la 757,2 u.m. n aceast situatie se va
modiIica si punctul de echilibru ntre cele dou curbe.
Aceast situatie o prezentm n Iigura 8
1
.
Dar pe termen lung rata dobnzii interne, ntr-o tar mic
si deschis, cum este Republica Moldova, nu se poate
mentine timp ndelungat, Iiind mai mare dect rata dobnzii
pe piata international a capitalului, din cauza Iluxului
excesiv de capital extern si imposibilitatea economiei
Republicii Moldova de a plti o astIel de rat investitorilor
strini.
Concluzia: dac i > i
`
-> va Ii un Ilux de intrri de
capital din strintate n tar.
AstIel, modelul IS-LM arat c politica monetar
creditar inIluenteaz nivelul venitului prin mijlocirea
modiIicrii ratei dobnzii. Aceast concluzie se reIer la
perioada scurt de timp, cnd preturile sunt putin Ilexibile,
iar mrirea oIertei de bani creste venitul.
Modelul IS-LM arat totodat c cresterea oIertei de
moned reduce rata dobnzii, care stimuleaz investitiile si
astIel lrgeste cererea la mrIuri si servicii.
will be positive, because there can be used this advantage
Ior the economic growth and income growth, hence,
thereIore, the government can increase public spending.
But this positive eIIect can be maniIested only in the short
term. In the situation examined by us, government
spending was increased by 10 m.u. as a result oI Ioreign
Ilow, that leads to the increase oI the balance revenue Irom
750 m.u. to 757.2 m.u. In this situation, the equilibrium
point between the two curves will also change. This
situation is presented in Figure 8
2
.
But in long-term, the domestic interest rate in a small
open country such as Moldova can not keep a long time,
being higher than the interest rate on the international
capital market due to excessive Ilow oI Ioreign capital and
the economic impossibility oI the Republic oI Moldova to
pay such a rate to Ioreign investors.
Conclusion: iI i~ i * -~ will be an inIlow oI Ioreign
capital into the country.
The IS-LM model shows that credit-monetary policy
inIluences the income level by means oI interest rate
changes. This conclusion reIers to the short period oI time
when prices are less Ilexible, and increase oI the money
supply leads to increased revenue.
The IS-LM model also shows that increase oI
the the money supply reduces the interest rates, thus
stimulating investment and expanding demand Ior goods
and services.
Fig. 8. Modificarea venitului de echilibru yi a ratei dobnzii n modelul IS-LM
Fig. 8. Changing the equilibrium income and interest rate in the IS-LM model
Sursa / Source: Elaborat de autor / Developed by the author.
1
i
*
- rata doban:ii interne, care coincide cu rata doban:ii pe piata international a capitalului
I - rata doban:ii pe piata intern a capitalului
2
i
*
- domestic interest rate, which corresponds to the interest rate on the international capital market
I - interest rate of the internal capital market
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 33
nr. 2 / 2013
Aceast situatie trebuie s Iie sub un control strict al
Guvernului si al BNM. Situatia poate Ii prezentat n
modelul Mundell-Fleming, care este o prelungire a modelului
IS-LM a lui John Hicks. Modelul Mundell-Fleming studiaz
inIluenta regimului ratei de schimb a monedei asupra
eIectelor de crestere economic pe care le au politia Iiscal si
politica monetar. Pornind de la ipoteza perIectei mobilitti a
capitalului, modelul demonstreaz c n cazul unei rate de
schimb Iixe politica monetar este ineIicient dup cum este
si politica Iiscal n cazul ratei de schimb Ilexibile. Acest
model este Ioarte important pentru c reprezint unul din
punctele de plecare n ceea ce priveste lucrurile din domeniul
macroeconomiei deschise si a determinrii ratelor de schimb
optime.
Concluzii:
1. Rata dobnzii de pe piata capitalului inIluenteaz
decizia agentilor economici de a investi capital n aIaceri.
Acest comportament al ratei dobnzii inIluenteaz venitul.
Deci observm c exist o relatie invers proportional ntre
rata dobnzii si venit (vezi Figura 2).
2. Politica Iiscal inIluenteaz rata dobnzii. La o
politic Iiscal expansionist rata dobnzii se va modiIica n
directia cresterii, deoarece venitul va creste, inIluentnd
beneIic investitiile. Acest eIect este, ca atare, pe termen
scurt, iar pe termen lung venitul se va modiIica,
echilibrndu-se cu rata dobnzii, si n consecint va scdea.
La promovarea politicii Iiscale o important crtucial are
timpul, care trebuie s corecteze acest decalaj.
Recomandri:
1. La elaborarea politicii monetare, Banca National a
Moldovei trebiue s tin cont de raportul dintre acesti doi
indicatori macroeconomici importanti masa monetar si
produsul intern brut. Cresterea masei monetare trebuie s Iie
aproximativ egal cu ritmul de crestere al produsului intern brut.
2. Banca National a Moldovei trebuie s tin sub
control rata dobnzii interne, Iiind aproximativ egal cu cea
de pe piata international a capitalului, contribuind astIel la
mbunttirea balantei de plti.
This situation must be under strict control oI the
government and the NBM. The situation may be presented
in the Mundell-Fleming model, which is an extension oI
the IS-LM model oI John Hicks. Mundell-Fleming model
studies the inIluence oI the exchange rate regime oI the
currency on the eIIects oI economic growth that Iiscal and
monetary policy have. Based on the assumption oI perIect
capital mobility, the model shows that iI a Iixed exchange
rate, monetary policy is ineIIective as the Iiscal policy is in
the case oI Ilexible exchange rates. This model is very
important because it is one oI the points oI departure in
respect to the macroeconomic open things and determining
the best exchange rate.
Conclusions:
1. Interest rates on the capital market inIluence the
decision oI economic agents to invest capital in businesses.
This behaviour oI interest rates aIIects the income. So we
see that there is an inverse relationship between interest
rate and income (see Figure 2).
2. Fiscal policy aIIects interest rates. In an
expansionary Iiscal policy, interest rate will change in the
direction oI growth, as income will increase, inIluencing in
a positive way the investment. This eIIect is, thereIore, on
short-term, and in long-term the income will change,
balancing with the interest rate, and thereIore will decrease.
In promoting Iiscal policy, time is very important, that
should correct this gap.
Recommendations:
1. When developing the monetary policy, the National
Bank oI Moldova should tak into account the relationship
between these two important macroeconomic indicators -
monetary mass and GDP. Increase oI the monetary mass
should be approximately equal to the growth rate oI the
gross domestic product.
2. National Bank oI Moldova must take control over
the domestic interest rate, being approximately equal with
the one Irom the international capital market, thereby
improving the balance oI payments.
Bibliografie / Bibliography
1. BCESCU, M., BCESCU, A. Macroeconomie. Ba:ele Macroeconomiei. Bucuresti: Ed. ALL, 1993. ISBN 973-
9156-13-4.
2. M3HKIR, H.I. Marpoorouo+ura. Hep. c anrn. Mocxna: Hs-no MIV, 1999. ISBN 0-87901-502-0.
3. Anuarul Statistic al Republicii Moldova Cmamucmu:ecru ereeoouur Pecnvo.uru Mo.ooea. Chisinu, 2002.
524 p.
4. Anuarul Statistic al Republicii Moldova Cmamucmu:ecru ereeoouur Pecnvo.uru Mo.ooea Statistical vearbook
of the Republic of Moldova. Chisinu, 2012. 560 p. ISBN 978-9975-78-932-5.
5. VCREL, Iu. si altii. Finante publice. Ed. Didactic si Pedagogic. Bucuresti R.A 2007.
6. MANOLESCU, G. Buget Moneda i iposta:ele ei. Bucuresti: Economica, 1997.
Recomandat spre publicare.12.03.2013
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 34
nr. 2 / 2013
UCRAINA: PIATA BOVINELOR
$I A CRNII DE VIT
UKRAINE: THE MARKET OF DOMESTIC
BOVINE AND BEEF
Aatalia DOBRYAASKAYA, dr., conf. univ.,
Universitatea Agrar de Stat din Odesa, Ucraina
Jasilie POPOJICI, dr., conf. univ.,
Universitatea Agrar de Stat din Odesa, Ucraina
Aatalia DOBRYAASKAYA, PhD, Associate Professor,
State Agrarian University from Odessa, Ukraine
Jasilie POPOJICI, PhD, Associate Professor,
State Agrarian University from Odessa, Ukraine
In articol este anali:at dinamica producerii i a
consumului de carne in Ucraina. Sunt stabilite principalele
motivele care conditionea: nivelul sc:ut al consumului de
carne.
Cuvinte cheie. piata bovinelor, carne de vit, producerea
i consumul de carne, eficient.
The article analv:es the dvnamics of production and
consumption of meat in Ukraine. There are established
the main reasons which determine the low level of meat
consumption.
Key words: market bovine, beef, production and
meat consumption, efficiencv.
1EL classification: Q12, Q13, Q21, O4
CZU 339.13:37.5
Introducere. Ucraina, Iiind unul dintre cei mai mari
exportatori de carne de vit n prima jumtate a anilor '90 ai
secolului al XX-lea, recent, a intensiIicat creterea
importurilor de acest produs. Piata de bovine suIer din cauza
eIectelor procesului ndelungat al crizei n dezvoltarea
acestei ramuri. Carne de vit a devenit o marI inaccesibil
pentru majoritatea populaiei, iar lipsa de materie prim a devenit
o srcie pentru multe ntreprinderi de prelucrare a crnii.
1. De la sIritul anului 1990 pn la nceputul anului 2010,
numrul de bovine din Ucraina s-a redus aproximativ de 6 ori;
2. La nceputul anului 2012, numrul de bovine, n
comparaie cu nceputul anului 2010 a sczut cu 1,5;
3. La 1 ianuarie 2012, numrul de bovine din Ucraina
constituia 4,43 milioane capete;
4. n 2011, n Ucraina au Iost vndute 679,1 mii tone
greutate n viu de bovine, iar n 2010 727,2 mii tone;
5. Cota de carne de vit n producia total de carne din ar
a sczut de la 21 n 2010 la 19 n 2011;
6. Producia de carne de vit n 2011, n toate categoriile de
gospodrii, a constituit 399,1 mii tone;
7. Cea mai mare parte a producerii de carne de vit revine
gospodriilor populaiei. Acestea, n anul 2011, au produs
302,0 mii tone de aceast producie sau 76 din indicatorul
general;
8. Pe parcursul anului 2011, piaa de bovine a Iost dominat
de trendul ascendent al preului pe toate canalele de vnzri,
att ca materie prim, ct i ca produse Iinite;
9. Exportul de carne de vit, n termeni monetari, este
semniIicativ n structura oIertei de carne. n 2011, Ucraina a
vndut n strintate 13,0 mii tone de carne de vit n valoare
de 60,6 milioane de euro SUA;
10. Ucraina continu s reduc volumul importurilor de
carne de vit. n 2011, acest volum a constituit 3,5 mii tone n
valoare de 13,8 milioane dolari SUA;
11. Cel mai mare exportator de carne de vit n Ucraina este
Brazilia.
Analiza cercetrii. Problemele dezvoltrii productiei
competitive a crnii de bovine au Iost studiate de ctre oamenii
de tiin din Ucraina, cum ar Ii: M. I. Malik, P.T. Sabluk,
I.F. Miller, V.I. Mesel-Veseliak, M.V. Zosi-Kior i alii. Dar
exist multe aspecte nerezolvate n ceea ce priveste dezvoltarea
si reconstituirea ramurii date.
Introduction. Ukraine, one oI the largest exporters
oI beeI in the Iirst halI oI the 90s and oI the twentieth
century, has recently increased imports oI this product.
The cattle market suIIers Irom the lengthy process oI the
crisis in development oI this branch. BeeI has become
an inaccessible commodity Ior most people, and the lack
oI raw materials represents an issue Ior many meat
processing businesses.
1. From late 1990 to early 2010, the number oI cattle
in Ukraine has decreased approximately 6 times;
2. In early 2012, the number oI cattle, compared
with the beginning oI 2010 dropped by 1.5;
3. On January 1
st
, 2012, the number oI cattle in
Ukraine amounted to 4.43 million heads;
4. In 2011, Ukraine sold 679 100 tons oI live weight
cattle, and in 2010 727200 tons;
5. The share oI beeI in total meat production in the
country Iell Irom 21 in 2010 to 19 in 2011;
6. BeeI production was 399,100 tons in 2011, in all
categories oI households;
7. Most oI the production oI beeI is Ior households.
These, in 2011, produced 302.000 tons oI this
production or 76 oI the general indicator;
8. During 2011, the cattle market was dominated by
the upward trend oI prices in all sales channels, including
the raw materials and the Iinished products as well;
9. BeeI exports in monetary terms, is signiIicant in
the structure oI the meat oIIers. In 2011, Ukraine sold
abroad 13.0 thousand tons oI beeI worth 60.6 million
U.S. dollars;
10. Ukraine continues to reduce the volume oI beeI
imports. In 2011, this volume was 3,500 tons which is
worth U.S. $ 13.8 million;
11. The largest exporter oI beeI in Ukraine is Brazil.
Review oI research. Problems oI the competitive
development oI bovine meat production have been
studied by scientists in Ukraine, such as M.I. Malik,
P.T. Sabluk, I.F. Miller, V.I. Mesel-Veseliak,
M.V. Zosia-Kior and others. But there are many
unresolved issues regarding the development and
reconstruction oI this branch.
The purpose oI this paper is to identiIy ways to
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 33
nr. 2 / 2013
Scopul acestei lucrri const n identiIicarea modalitilor
de cretere a produciei de carne de bovine n Ucraina, n
general, i elaborarea msurilor de sprijin a dezvoltrii acestei
ramuri.
Rezultatele cercetrii. Situaia de pe piaa crnii de bovine
continu s se agraveze, deoarece numrul acestor anual se
reduce. Principalul motiv, care a determinat i continu s
inIlueneze diminuarea treptat a crnii de bovine n Ucraina,
este scderea cererii pentru carnea de vit i vitel de la
ntreprinderile de prelucrare a crnii. nc la nceputul
anilor '90, peste 65 din carnea de bovine se consuma de ctre
populaie ntr-o varietate de preparate din carne i
mezeluri. n ultimii ani, carnea de vit, practic, a disprut din
produsele din carne Iinite. Cu scopul de a ieItini i pentru
disponibilitatea mai mare Iat de produse a populaiei Ucrainei,
sub acoperirea lipsei materiei prime pe pia, prelucrtorii de
carne au schimbat reteta produselor, nlocuind carnea de vit cu
cea de pasre, precum i cu o varietate de mruntaie.
La 1 ianuarie 2011, numrul de capete n toate categoriile
de gospodrii a constituit 4425,8 mii, din care n ntreprinderile
agricole sunt doar o treime 1510,6 mii, dup cum se poate
observa n tabelul 1. n anii '90, ntreprinderile agricole erau
principale pe piaa crnii de bovine. Dar destrmarea
inIrastructurii agricole, precum i a economiei trii n
ansamblu, pe parcursul anilor 1991-2000, a condus la evoluii
negative n ramura creterii animalelor.
increase the production beeI in Ukraine, in general,
and developing measures to support the development
oI this sector.
Research results. The situation on the bovine meat
market continues to worsen as their number decreases
annually. The main reason which led and continues to
inIluence the gradual reduction oI bovine meat in
Ukraine is the declining demand Ior beeI and veal at
meat processing enterprises. Since the early 90s, over
65 oI bovine meat was consumed by the population in
a variety oI dishes with meat and sausages. In recent
years, beeI has practically disappeared Irom the Iinished
meat products. In order to cheapen and to create a
higher availability oI the product Ior the population oI
Ukraine, meat processors have changed the recipe oI the
product due to the lack oI raw materials on the market
by replacing the beeI with chicken, and also, a variety oI
oIIal.
On January 1
st
, 2011, the number oI heads in all
categories oI households was 4,425,800, out oI which
Iarms are only a third 1510.6 million, as shown in
Table 1. In the '90s, Iarms were the main businesses in
the cattle meat market. But the collapse oI agricultural
inIrastructure and the country's economy as a whole,
during 1991-2000, led to adverse developments in the
livestock branch.
Tabelul 1/Table 1
Dinamica pe cap de bovine n Ucraina (la sfritul anului), mii capete/
Dynamics on cattle in Ukraine (end of year), thousand heads
Categoriile de gospodrii/
Categories oI households
1990 1995 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Toate categoriile/
All categories
24623,4 17557,3 6175,4 5490,9 5079,0 4826,7 4494,4 4425,8
ntreprinderi agricole/
Agricultural enterprises
21083,3 13701,4 2294,6 1926,8 1720,1 1627,1 1526,4 1510,6
Gospodriile populaiei /
Households
3540,1 3855,9 3880,8 3564,1 3358,9 3199,6 2968,0 2915,2
Sursa / Source: Elaborat de autor / Developed by the author.
Reducerea rentabilittii producerii crnii de vit, de la
20,6 n 1990 la un nivel negativ de -24,8 n 2011, s-a soldat
cu micsorarea numrului de bovine. Ca urmare, n 1990, 86
din numrul total de bovine era deinut de ctre ntreprinderile
agricole, iar n anul 2011 ponderea acestor ntreprinderi a
reprezentat deja 34,1, iar numrul de capete a sczut
aproximativ de 14 ori.
Trebuie remarcat Iaptul, c numrul de bovine din
gospodriile populaiei a crescut pn n anul 2002 (n primul
rnd, din cauza aciunilor de proprietate, obtinute de la
ntreprinderile agricole n conIormitate cu reIormele n
agricultur). Dar, n urmtorii ani, din cauza mbtrnirii
populaiei i a costului ridicat de ntretinere a bovinelor, cea
mai mare parte a populaiei a redus numrul de bovine. Ca
urmare, n perioada anilor 2002-2011, numrul de animale din
gospodriile populaiei a sczut de 1,7 ori, iar anul trecut a
atins nivelul de 2,9 milioane de capete.
Reduced proIitability oI the production oI beeI, Irom
20.6 in 1990 to a negative level oI -24.8 in 2011,
resulted in Iewer cattle. As a result, in 1990, 86 oI the
total number oI cattle was owned by agricultural
enterprises, and in 2011 the share oI these enterprises
was already 34.1 and the number oI heads dropped
about 14 times.
It should be noted that the number oI cattle in
households increased by 2002 (primarily because oI the
property actions, obtained Irom agricultural enterprises
in line with the reIorms in agriculture). But in the next
years, due to the aging population and the high cost oI
maintenance oI cattle, most oI the population has
reduced the number oI cattle. As a result, during 2002-
2011, the number oI animals Irom households
decreased by 1.7 times, and last year reached 2.9 million
heads.
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 36
nr. 2 / 2013
Tabelul 2/Table 2
Gruparea ntreprinderilor agricole conform numrului de bovine n anul 2011/
Grouping agricultural enterprises according to the number of cattle in 2011
ntreprinderi /
Enterprises
2011
Numrul de ntreprinderi/
Number oI enterprises
Numrul de animale/
Number oI animals
uniti/
units
n din total/
in oI all
mii capete/
thousand
heads
n din total/
in oI all
3996 100,0 1510,6 100,0
dintre ei cu animale, capete/
oI them with animal, heads
Pn la / Up to 5 383 9,6 1,1 0,1
6-10 203 5,1 1,6 0,1
11-15 174 4,4 2,3 0,2
16-20 133 3,3 2,4 0,2
21-29 213 5,4 5,2 0,3
30-39 168 4,2 5,7 0,4
40-49 117 2,9 5,1 0,3
50-99 397 10,0 28,0 1,9
100-199 460 11,5 66,9 4,4
200-299 328 8,2 81,0 5,4
300-399 233 5,8 80,5 5,3
400-499 225 5,6 100,1 6,6
500-999 552 13,8 392,8 26,0
1000-1999 304 7,6 420,7 27,8
2000-2999 73 1,8 174,8 11,6
3000-3999 17 0,4 57,7 3,8
4000-4999 11 0,3 50,0 3,3
Peste / over 4999 5 0,1 34,7 2,3
Sursa / Source: Elaborat de autor / Developed by the author.
n zootehnie, nu s-au produs redistribuiri regionale
semniIicative a capacitii de producie n ultimii cincisprezece
ani. Dintre principalele modiIicri vom mentiona
reducerea treptat n numrul total de bovine i a productiei
crnii de vit i vitel n regiunile centrale i de est ale
Ucrainei cu compensarea concentrrii produciei n direcia
regiunile vestice. n aceast perioad, cota numrului de
bovine din regiunile de est a sczut cu mai mult de 14.
Trebuie de mentionat si reducerea semniIicativ a numrului
de bovine n regiunile, cum ar Ii: Kiev, Dnepropetrovsk i
Donek. Dac n anii '90, ponderea acestor regiuni era
aproximativ de 16, n anul trecut, acest indicator a sczut
pn la 9.
In animal husbandry, there was no signiIicant
regional redistribution oI the capacity oI production in the
last IiIteen years. Among the main changes we noted is a
gradual reduction oI the total number oI cattle, beeI and
veal production in the central and eastern regions oI
Ukraine, with the compensation oI production
concentration towards the western regions oI the country.
In this period, the share oI the number oI cattle in the
eastern region has decreased by more than 14. It should
be noted the signiIicant reduction in the number oI cattle
in areas such as: Kiev, Dnepropetrovsk and Donetsk. II in
the 90s, the share oI these regions was approximately
16, last year this indicator dropped to 9.
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 37
nr. 2 / 2013
Tabelul 3/Table 3
Concentrarea regional a producerii crnii de vit i a numrului de bovine n 2011/
Regional concentration of production and beef cattle numbers in 2011
Regiunea /
Region
Numrul de bovine/
Number oI cattle
Regiunea / Region
Producia de carne de vit/
BeeI production
Mii capete/
thousands heads

Mii tone/
thousands tons

Toate categoriile de gospodrii / All households
Vinyta 313,4 7,1 Lviv 33,5 8,4
Poltava 267,4 6,0 Ivano-Frankovsk 25,8 6,5
Hmelnik 257,6 5,8 Harkov 22,1 5,5
Cernigov 238,8 5,8 Hmelnik 21,2 5,3
Lviv 237,6 5,8 Vinyta 19,6 4,9
ntreprinderile agricole / agricultural enterprises
Poltava 166,7 11,0 Cerkask 11,1 11,4
Cernigov 149,7 9,9 Cernigov 8,2 8,5
Cerkask 131,7 8,7 Poltava 8,1 8,4
Vinyta 105,0 7,0 Vinyta 7,9 8,1
Harkov 99,4 6,6 Kiev 7,5 7,7
Gospodriile populatie/ Households population
Lviv 213,4 7,3 Lviv 29,7 9,8
Vinnyta 208,4 7,1 Ivano-Frankovsk 24,7 8,2
Hmelnik 175,4 6,0 Harkov 17,7 5,9
Ivano-Frankovsk 173,2 5,9 Transcarpatia 16,7 5,5
Ternopol 155,5 5,3 Hmelnik 16,1 5,3
Sursa / Source: Elaborat de autor / Developed by the author.
Potrivit datelor din tabelul 3, la 1 ianuarie 2012, ponderea
esential a productiei de bovine a Iost concentrat n
regiunile Vinya, Poltava, Hmelnik, Cernigov i Lviv.
Ponderea total a acestor regiuni n numrul totalul a Iost de
29,8 sau 1,3 milioane capete.
ModiIicrile cantitative i structurale ale volumului de
producie de carne au tangente directe cu indicatorul de
realizare spre sacriIicare. Din momentul dezvoltrii active a
psrilor, n Ucraina s-a atestat tendina de sporire a
volumului produciei de carne, cu o cretere treptat a cotei
de carne de pasre n structura total a produciei. Din anul
2001 pn n 2011, volumul produciei de carne a crescut cu
41,3, pn la 2144,0 mii tone datorit creterii produciei
de carne de pasre n regiunile, cum ar Ii: Cerkask,
Dnepropetrovsk, Kiev, Lviv i Donek. n 2010, ponderea
acestor regiuni n producia total de carne ocupa
aproximativ jumtate 46,6. Trebuie de accentuat atenie
deosebit regiunii Cerkask, care, datorit activittii Iermelor
mari de psri, nivelul produciei a crescut de la 74,2 mii
tone n 2000 la 328,7 mii tone n 2011 (o cretere de 4,4 ori).
De asemenea, progrese semniIicative n aceast direcie a
obtinut i regiunea Dnepropetrovsk, unde, n aceeai
perioad, productia de carne a crescut de 2,7 ori pn la
225,9 mi tone.
According to the data in Table 3, Irom January 1
st
2012, the essential share oI cattle production was
concentrated in the regions Vinyta, Poltava, Khmelnitskiy,
Chernihiv and Lviv. The overall share oI these regions in
the total was 29.8 or 1.3 million heads.
Quantitative and structural changes in the volume oI
meat production are directly related to the indicator oI
achievement Ior slaughter. Since the active development
oI poultry, in Ukraine was conIirmed the tendency oI
enhancement oI the volume oI meat production, with a
gradual increase oI the poultry meat share in the total
structure oI production. From 2001 to 2011, the volume oI
meat production increased by 41.3 to 2144.0 thousand
tons due to increased poultry production in areas such as:
Cerkask, Dnepropetrovsk, Kiev, Lviv and Donetsk. In
2010, the share oI these regions in the total meat
production accounted Ior about halI 46.6. There
should be stressed particular attention to the Cerkask
region, which because oI the activity oI large bird Iarms,
increased production Irom 74,200 tons in 2000 to 328,700
tons in 2011 (an increase oI 4.4 times). Also, signiIicant
progress in this direction obtained Dnepropetrovsk region,
where in the same time period, the meat production has
increased 2.7 times up to 225.9 tons.
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 38
nr. 2 / 2013
Tabelul 4/Table 4
Volumul produc(iei de carne n Ucraina, mii tone, greutate n carcas/
The volume of meat production in Ukraine, thousand tons, carcass weight
Tipurile de
carne/
Types oI meat
Toate categoriile de gospodrii
/ All households
ntreprinderile agricole /
agricultural enterprises
Gospodriile populatie/
Households population
2010 2011
Anul 2011
n Iat
de 2010 /
Year 2011
in Irom
2010
2010 2011
Anul 2011
n Iat
de 2010 /
Year 2011
in Irom
2010
2010 2011
Anul 2011
n Iat
de 2010 /
Year 2011
in Irom
2010
Carne, toate
tipurile / Meat,
all types
2059,0 2143,8 104,1 1134,4 1215,2 107,1 924,6 928,6 100,4
Carne de vit si
vitel / BeeI and
veal
427,7 399,1 93,3 104,7 97,0 92,6 323,0 302,1 93,5
Carne de porc /
Pork
631,2 704,4 111,6 255,9 305,0 119,2 375,3 399,4 106,4
Carne de miel i
de capr / Lamb
meat and goat
21,0 19,6 93,3 1,2 1,3 108,3 19,8 18,3 92,4
Carne de pasre /
Poultry meat
953,5 995,2 104,4 772,0 811,0 105,1 181,5 184,2 101,5
Carne de iepure /
Rabbit meat
13,5 14,0 103,7 0,1 0,3 300,0 13,4 13,7 102,2
Carne de cal /
Meat oI horses
12,1 11,5 95,0 0,5 0,6 120,0 11,6 10,9 94,0
Sursa / Source: Elaborat de autor / Developed by the author.
Pe parcursul a multor ani, pn n 2006, piaa crnii de vit
i vitel nu a pierdut poziia de lider n structura general a
produciei de carne (realizarea bovinelor si a crnii de pasre
pentru sacriIicare). n medie, n anii 1990 i 2005, pentru
carnea de vit revenea peste 46 din producia total de carne
(greutate de sacriIicare) n toate categoriile de gospodrii. n
ultimii ani, ritmul i volumul de reducere a numrul de bovine
a ncetinit, n primul rnd, datorit activitii ntreprinderilor
din sectorul public. Pe de o parte, acest Iactor este o indicaie a
unor tendine pozitive i a evoluiei din sectorul de producere
pe scar larg a bovinelor (n special produse lactate), pe de
alt parte, este o conIirmare a utilizrii pe deplin a
potenialului de producie i de resurse, care a Iost Iormat nc
n anii 1970-1990.
Trebuie remarcat Iaptul, c pe parcursul unei perioade
ndelungate, n Ucraina, a predominat creterea extensiv a
bovinelor, care const n Iaptul, c volumul anual de realizare
pentru sacriIicare depete volumul de crestere. n general, n
perioada 2000-2011, soldul total negativ al produciei al
ramurii creterii animalelor a constituit 1,4 milioane tone de
bovine greutate n viu. n acelai timp, n 2011, n
ntreprinderile agricole a Iost nregistrat un sold pozitiv ntre
volumul de crestere i de realizare a bovinelor pentru
sacriIicare (tabelul 5). Potenialul de resurse al ramurii sporeste
datorit dezvoltrii sectorului produselor lactate.
n ceea ce privete productivitatea cresterii bovinelor, de
asemenea, exist unele evoluii pozitive. ncepnd cu anul
2008, conIorm indicatorului sporului mediu zilnic a greuttii n
viu a bovinelor, ntreprinderile agricole au atins nivelul anului
For several years, until 2006, the market oI beeI and
veal has not lost its leading position in the overall
structure oI meat production (achievement oI cattle and
poultry Ior slaughter). On average, in 1990 and 2005,
beeI was Ior over 46 oI total meat production
(slaughter weight) in all households. In recent years, the
pace and volume reduction oI the number oI cattle has
slowed, primarily on account oI the activity oI public
sector enterprises. On one hand, this Iactor is indicative
oI a positive trend and the development production oI
bovine on a large-scale (and in particular milk
products), on the other hand, this is a conIirmation oI
the Iull use oI the potential oI production and resources,
which has been Iormed yet in 1970-1990.
It should be noted that during a long period in
Ukraine prevailed the extensive breeding oI cattle, which
consists oI the Iact that the annual volume oI realization
Ior slaughter is higher than the volume oI growth.
Overall, during 2000-2011, the total negative balance in
the branch oI livestock production was 1.4 million tons oI
live weight cattle. Meanwhile, in 2011, agricultural
enterprises recorded a positive balance between the
volume oI growth and the achievement oI cattle Ior
slaughter (Table 5). Resource potential oI the sector
increases due to the development oI the dairy sector.
In terms oI cattle productivity, there are also
some positive developments. Since 2008, as indicated
by the average daily gain oI live weight oI cattle,
agricultural enterprises reached the level oI 1990,
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 39
nr. 2 / 2013
1990, stabilindu-se la nivelul de 460-480 g/zi. Comparativ cu
nceputul anilor 2000, greutatea medie n viu pe cap de bovine,
realizat pentru sacriIicare a crescut cu peste 50. n
comparaie: la cele mai eIiciente ntreprinderi din Ucraina,
specializate n rase de carne de bovine, ctigul mediu zilnic al
greuttii n viu i greutate medie pe cap de bovine,
realizat pentru sacriIicare, a Iost de 850-900 g i 380-420 kg,
respectiv.
establishing the level oI 460-480 g / day. Compared to
the early 2000s, the average live weight per head oI
cattle Ior slaughter increased by over 50. In
comparison: in the most eIIicient companies Irom
Ukraine specialized in beeI breeds, the average
daily gain in live weight and the average weight per
head oI cattle, carried Ior slaughter was 850-900 g and
380-420 kg, respectively.
Tabelul 4/Table 4
Bilan(ul yi elementele de bilan de bovine din anii 2008-2011
Balance and balance sheet items cattle for the 2008-2011
Bilantul bovinelor (n termeni de carne), mii t./
Balance cattle (in terms oI meat), thousand tons
2009 2010 2011
Producie/ production 453 428 408
ModiIicarea stocurilor la sIritul anului/ Changes in inventories at
the end oI
2 -8 -2
Import/ Import 14 25 30
Total resurse / total resources 465 461 440
Export / Export 20 13 15
Cheltuit n scopuri nealimentare (hran, pierderi etc.)/ Spent on
non-Iood purposes (Iood, loss, etc.)
1 1 1
Fondul de consumul, total / Fund consumption, total 444 447 424
Pentru 1 persoan, kg/an / For one person, kg / year 9,6 9,8 9,3
Articolele de bilan de bovine n structura bilanului de carne, /
Articles oI balance sheet structure oI bovine meat,
2009 2010 2011
Producia/ production 23,6 20,8 19,0
Import/ Import 3,2 6,6 12,2
Total resurse / total resources 19,9 18,9 18,6
Export / Export 50,0 27,1 18,8
Cheltuit n scopuri nealimentare (hran, pierderi etc.)/ Spent on
non-Iood purposes (Iood, loss, etc.)
10,0 12,5 14,3
Fondul de consumul, total / Fund consumption, total 19,4 18,8 18,1
Sursa / Source: Elaborat de autor / Developed by the author.
Creterea sporului mediu zilnic n greutate n viu i a
greuttii medie n viu a crnii pe cap de bovin, realizat pentru
sacriIicare, demonstreaz despre unele schimbri pozitive spre
mbuntirea Iondului genetic de cretere i de utilizare a
sistemelor de alimentare mai eIiciente.
n contextul declinului general al numrului de bovine,
persist tendinta negativ de scdere a volumului productiei
crnii de vit. ConIorm rezultatelor anului 2011, volumul
produciei a sczut cu 4,5, la 408,3 mii tone, inclusiv n
gospodriile populatiei s-a redus cu 3,5, la 311,7 mii tone; n
Increase in average daily gain in live weight and
average live weight oI meat per head, carried Ior
slaughter proves some positive changes to improve the
genetic Iund oI growth and more eIIicient use oI
Ioodsystems.
In the context oI the general decline in the number
oI cattle, the negative trend persists in the declining
volume oI beeI production. According to the results oI
2011, the production volume decreased by 4.5 to 408
300 tons, including in households, decreasing by 3.5
to 311 700 tons, and in agricultural enterprises
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 40
nr. 2 / 2013
ntreprinderile agricole cu 7,7, la 96,6 mii tone. Aceast
scdere brusc a volumului de producere a crnii de vit n
ntreprinderile agricole sugereaz, c sectorul public, trecnd
printr-o perioad de structurare i optimizare a activelor de
producere, n aceast perioad, practic, a epuizat potenialul de
resurse al produciei prime extinse. Avnd n vedere, c, n
general, piaa de carne a artat o tendin pozitiv de cretere
de 4,2 pn la 2146,1 mii tone, ponderea proporiei de
carne de vit si vitel n structura de producie a sczut la un
nivel record 19,0. Ponderea ntreprinderilor agricole n
producia de carne de vit rmne neesential de mai puin de
un sIert din volumul produciei totale, i cu Iiecare an, continu
s scad. Avnd n vedere interesul sczut al productorului de
carne de bovine spre dezvoltarea productiei de carne de bovine,
aceast tendin va continua.
Odat cu scderea produciei, n ultimii zece ani, a existat o
reducere treptat a numrului de ntreprinderi implicate n
creterea bovinelor.
n ultimii ani, pe piata din Ucraina au nceput s apar
agroholding-uri mari. Dar majoritatea dintre ele preIer
dezvoltarea produselor lactate, iar sporirea greuttii n viu este
o direcie concomitent/de nsotire. La aceast categorie se
poate reIeri astIel de agroholding-uri, ca ,AlIa Agro,
,Astarta, ,Compania de Lapte din Ucraina,
,Agroprodinvest i multe altele. De asemenea, exist
agroholding-uri pentru care carnea de bovine constituie
domeniul principal de activitate, la care se atribuie: ,MHP,
,Kiev Atlantic Group, ,OSI Group, precum i ntreprinderile
companiei ,Ukrland Farming.
Avnd n vedere, c rata principal la cresterea bovinelor se
produce n baza dezvoltrii complexelor de producie de lapte
nalt productive, stabilizarea numrului de bovine pe termen
scurt va Ii urmat de o scdere n continuare a oIertelor de
carne de bovine din partea sectorului public.
Reducerea n continuare a numrului de capete de bovine n
gospodriile populatiei va stopa diminuarea volumului de
producie de carne de vit de 2-3 anual, care se va reIlecta
asupra nivelului indicatorilor de consum al produsului
respectiv de ctre populatie.
DeIicitul de oIerte i preurile mai mari pentru
consumatorul Iinal, comparativ cu analogul tradiional de
carne carne de porc, precum si de pasre, n general provoc
scderea n continuare a consumului de carne de vit. n anii
2009-2011, consumul a atins un nivel record de 9,6-9,2 kg pe
cap de locuitor anual. Rata minim a consumului de carne de
vit pentru populatia apt de munc (Decretul Cabinetului de
Minitri N 656) trebuie s Iie la nivel de 14 kg/an, iar norma
raional (n conIormitate cu cerintele Ministerului Sntii)
de 31,3 kg/an.
n urmtorii doi-trei ani, consumul de carne de vit si vitel
va rmne la un nivel sczut, cu o tendin de scdere.
Se mentine diIicil situaia pentru consumatorul primar de
carne de bovine industria de prelucrare a crnii. DeIicitul de
oIert din cauza preurilor ridicate de cumprare pentru carnea
de bovine, n comparaie cu alte tipuri de carne, impun
ntreprinderile de prelucrare a crnii, Iorat, s mearg spre
modiIicrile din reteta produselor Iinite din carne, nlocuind
carnea de vit cu alte tipuri de carne, mai uor accesibile i mai
ieItine.
dropping by 7.7 at 96 600 tons. This sharp decline in
the volume oI production oI beeI in agricultural
businesses suggests that the public sector is going
through a period oI structuring and optimization oI
production assets and in this period it has practically
exhausted the resource potential Ior raw production.
Considering that, in general, the meat market showed a
positive trend oI increase 4,2 to 2.1461 million tons,
the weight proportion oI beeI, veal meat production in
the structure has dropped to a record level oI 19.0.
The share oI agricultural enterprises in the production oI
beeI remains insigniIicant oI less than a quarter oI the
total output, and each year it continues to decline. Given
the low interest oI the producers oI beeI in the cattle
meat production, this trend will continue.
With the decline in production in the last ten years,
there has been a gradual reduction in the number oI
businesses involved in cattle breeding.
In recent years, in the market oI Ukraine began to
appear huge agricultural companies. But most oI them
preIer the development oI dairy products and the
increased oI live weight is a concurrent direction /
accompanying. In this category can reIer companies
such as "AlIa Agro", "Astarta", "Ukrainian Milk
Company," "Agroprodinvest" and many others. There
are also agricultural companies Ior which bovine meat is
the main activity; some oI them are "MHP", "Kiev
Atlantic Group", "OSI Group" and businesses oI
"Ukrland Farming".
Given that the main rate in cattle breeding occurs
based on the development oI highly productive
companies oI dairy products, the stabilization oI cattle
number in the short term will be Iollowed by a Iurther
decline in beeI tenders Irom the public sector.
The continuing reduction in the number oI heads oI
cattle in households will decrease the production
volume oI beeI by 2-3 annually, which will be
reIlected on the level oI the respective product
consumption indicators by the population.
The deIicit oI supplies and the higher prices Ior the
end consumer, compared to the traditional analog meat
pork and poultry, generally causes Iurther decline in
beeI consumption. In the years 2009-2011, the
consumption reached a record level oI 9.6 to 9.2 kg
per capita annually. The minimum rate oI beeI
consumption Ior the working age population (Decree oI
Cabinet oI Ministers N 656) must be at the level oI 14
kg / year, and the rational norm (in accordance with the
Ministry oI Health) 31.3 kg / year.
In the next two to three years, the consumption oI
beeI and veal will remain at a low level, with a
downward trend.
The diIIicult situation will remain Ior the primary
consumer oI beeI the meat processing industry.
Supply deIicit due to high purchase prices Ior beeI cattle
compared to other meats, require Iorcibly the meat
processing enterprises to changes the Iinished meat
recipe, substituting beeI with other meat, more available
and cheaper.
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 41
nr. 2 / 2013
n 2011, ntreprinderile de prelucrare a crnii au redus
drastic volumul achiziiilor de bovine pentru prelucrare
ulterioar. ConIorm rezultatelor anului, volumul de achiziii de
carne de bovine a sczut la un nivel record 151,8 mii tone
greutate n viu (-30,3 n 2010).
Situaia este agravat si pentru poziia gospodriilor
populatiei, care, tot mai mult, preIer personal s sacriIice
bovinele, cu vnzare ulterioar a crnii pe pia. Principalul
motiv anularea sistemului de subvenionare a productorilor
agricoli (inclusiv a populatiei) prin rambursarea de TVA la
realizarea de ctre acestia a materiei prime din carne la
ntreprinderile de prelucrare. n prezent, Iondurilor acumulate
de TVA sunt ndreptate spre Iondul special al bugetului de stat,
din care sunt distribuite n conIormitate cu programul bugetului
,Sprijinul de stat pentru industria creterii animalelor. Din
2,03 miliarde de dolari de cheltuieli, care urmau s Iie
distribuite n conIormitate cu programul dat 1,5 miliarde
grivne trebuiau s Iie distribuite pentru compensarea costurile
de construcie i reconstrucie, 0,5 miliarde UAH pentru
compensarea ratelor dobnzilor la credite. Din cauza acestor
modiIicri, productorul agricol nu a primit prima de 10-12
la preul de achiziie, care anterior se constituia ca urmare a
compensrii TVA. Cel mai mult au avut de suIerit, totusi,
gospodriile populatiei. Pe parcursul unui an, ponderea
gospodriilor populatiei n structura achizitiilor de bovine la
ntreprinderile de prelucrare a crnii a sczut pn la 22,
comparativ cu 50 n 2010, n timp ce volumele Iizice de
vnzri de bovine pentru prelucrare de la populaie s-a redus de
2,8 ori.
Concluzii. Una dintre cele mai importante modaliti de
mbuntire a organizrii producerii n creterea animalelor
const n justiIicarea raional a modalitilor de crestere a
animalelor i a sistemelor de management al ramurii n
conditiile unei ntreprinderi agricole concrete. Acest Iapt detine
o inIluen decisiv asupra Iormrii unui sistem de maini
pentru mecanizarea proceselor de munc, de care depinde
alegerea Iormei de organizare a muncii n Ierme i complexe,
precum si a indicatorilor economici.
Prin urmare, combinaia Iactorilor de organizare si
economici, menionati anterior, cu sprijinul de stat de
dezvoltare a agriculturii, va permite producerea unor
produse din carne de bovin competitive si de nalt
calitate.
In 2011, meat processing companies have slashed
the amount oI purchases oI cattle Ior Iurther processing.
According to the results oI the year, the volume oI beeI
purchases Iell to a record level oI 151,800 tons oI live
weight (-30.3 in 2010).
This is compounded Ior the positions by households,
which increasingly preIer to sacriIice the cattle
personally, with subsequent sale oI the meat on the
market. The main reason annulment oI the subsidy
system Ior Iarmers (including population) by reIunding
VAT to the realization by them oI meat raw materials at
meat processing companies. Currently, Iunds raised by
the VAT are directed to a special Iund oI the state
budget, Irom which are distributed under the budget
program "State support Ior the livestock industry." 2.03
billion dollars in spending, which would be distributed
in accordance with the given schedule 1.5 billion
UAH to be distributed to oIIset the costs oI construction
and reconstruction, 0.5 billion UAH to compensate Ior
interest rates on loans. Because oI these changes, the
Iarmer has not received the 10-12 premium to the
purchase price, which previously was Iormed as a result
oI oIIsetting VAT. Households were aIIected the most
by this situation. During the year, the share oI
households in the purchasing structure oI bovine meat at
processing enterprises decreased by 22 compared with
50 in 2010, while physical volumes oI cattle sales Ior
processing decreased 2.8 times.
Conclusions. One oI the most important ways to
improve the organization oI production in animal
breeding is the rational justiIication oI methods oI
animal husbandry and management systems oI the
branch, under a speciIic agricultural business. This has a
decisive inIluence on the Iormation oI a system oI
machines to mechanize work processes that depend on
the choice oI organizational Iorm oI work in Iarms, and
also economic indicators.
ThereIore, the combination oI organization and
economic Iactors, mentioned above, with the state
support Ior agricultural development, will allow the
production oI competitive and high quality bovine meat
products.
Referin(e bibliografice / References
1. Hpoonontua i cintctxorocnoapctxa opranisanix OOH. FAO |accesat 25 mai 2013|. Disponibil: http: //
www.Iao.org
2. HPHCXHRK, M.B., 3VFEHI, M.B. ra in. Aepapuu cermop erouo+iru Vrpauu: cmau i nepcnermueu
poseumrv. Knn: HHH IAE, 2011. 1008 c.
3. Knmuoni nnrannx pnnxy xnonnunnn ra mnxxn x nnpimennx: pesyntrarn ocnixennx |accesat 25 mai 2013|.
Disponibil: http://www.swap-rural.org.ua/Iiles/ua/market inIrastructure/BeeIreportUkr.pdI
4. HIuKVP, T., FAHVPEHKO, I., 3ACEKIH, . Cran yxpanctxoro pnnxy m`xca i m`xconpoyxrin. B: Tonapn i
pnnxn. 2011, N 2, cc. 46-53.
5. Pnnox m`xca ni sarposom |accesat 5 mai 2013|. Disponibil: http://a7d.com.ua/2007/07/25/
rinokmjasapdzagrozoju.html
Recomandat spre publicare. 12.03.2013
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 42
nr. 2 / 2013
DEZVOLTAREA RESPONSABILITTII
SOCIALE N CADRUL NTREPRINDERILOR DIN
REPUBLICA MOLDOVA CA OBIECTIV STRATEGIC
DE INTEGRARE N COMUNITATEA EUROPEAN
DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
IN MOLDOVAN ENTERPRISES AS A STRATEGIC
OB1ECTIVE OF INTEGRATION IN THE
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY
Silvia BUCIUSCAA, dr., conf. univ., ASEM
Mariana SEADREA, dr., conf. univ., ASEM
Silvia BUCIUSCAA, PhD, associate professor, ASEM
Mariana SEADREA, PhD, associate professor, ASEM
Integrarea socio-economic a Republicii Moldova in
Comunitatea European poate fi detinut de ctre
intreprinderi pentru a reali:a msuri concrete intru
asigurarea functionrii eficiente a standardelor internationale
de management al calittii, responsabilitate social i
management al mediului ISO 9000, SA 800 i ISO 14000.
Cuvinte cheie: responsabilitate sociala,integrare in
comunitatea europeana, raport social, actiuni filantropice,
plan strategic.
Socio-economic integration of the Republic of Moldova
into the European Communitv mav be held bv the companies
to achieve concrete measures in order to ensure the effective
functioning of the international standards of qualitv
management, social responsibilitv and environmental
management ISO 9000 series, SA 800 and ISO 14000.
Key words: social responsibilitv, integration in the
European communitv, social report, philanthropic actions,
strategic plan.
1EL classification: D1, F15, I31, M1
Introducere. Principalele bunuri ale unei ntreprinderi
sunt legate de valoarea numelui si imaginea acesteia.
Utilizarea responsabilittii sociale drept strategie de aIaceri
conduce la rezultate bune si satisIactie emotional pentru
lucrurile bine Icute, dar n aIar de satisIactie apare si
aprecierea extern a activittii realizate.
Con(inutul de baz. Actiunile ce se eIectueaz n
prezent de ntreprinderile din Republica Moldova n
domeniul responsabilittii sociale sunt de mai multe Iorme
cum ar Ii: donatii, Iilantropie si sponsorizri. Tendinta actual
de dezvoltare a societtii impune noi cerinte Iat de agentii
economici de a modiIica actiunile Iilantropice n actiuni
planiIicate de responsabilitate social. O tranzitie treptat de la
Iilantropie la responsabilitate social poate Ii abordat prin mai
multe etape.
Concomitent cu realizarea msurilor de baz de
Iunctionare a ntreprinderilor este important de a realiza si
actiuni de responsabilitate social orientate spre o tranzitie
treptat de la Iilantropie la responsabilitate social a
ntreprinderii. n realizarea acestor scopuri propunem una din
metodele de sporire a responsabilittii sociale n cadrul
ntreprinderilor din RM pentru perioada de integrare n CE.
Metoda pe care am propus-o este adaptat dup modelul
cercettorului american Curt Weeden |1, p.338| care
cuprinde sase etape reprezentate n Figura 1.
1. nlocuirea abordrii tradi(ionale a activit(ilor
filantropice din ntreprindere cu un concept mai nou de
responsabilitate social a ntreprinderii (RSI)
La aceast etap actiunile de responsabilitate social a
ntreprinderii implic investitii sociale suplimentare care sunt
reprezentate sub Iorm de cheltuieli de aIaceri n procesul
ndeplinirii misiunii, dar nu sub Iorm de donatii pentru
organizatii non-proIit. Aici se includ: sponsorizri, cotizatii de
membru, burse, credite, premii pentru cercetrile si importanta
marketingului social. La actiunile de responsabilitate social se
mai altur si cheltuielile administrative ce includ salariul
managerilor, implicati n procesul de implementarea a
investitiilor sociale din ntreprindere. O parte din investitiile
sociale pot Ii doar subventii cu impact major, ce sunt orientate
spre ndeplinirea obiectivelor necesare ale comunittii locale,
au un eIect tangibil si msurabil si, cu sigurant, sunt legate de
obiectivele de aIaceri ale ntreprinderii.
Introduction. The main assets oI an enterprise are linked
to the value oI its name and image. Use oI social
responsibility as a business strategy leads to good results and
emotional satisIaction Ior the good done things, but apart
Irom satisIaction, external appreciation oI the made activity
also appears.
The basic content. Actions perIormed today by
Moldovan enterprises in the Iield oI social responsibility are
oI several Iorms such as: donations, philanthropy and
sponsorship. The current trend oI social development sets
new requirements Ior economic agents to change
philanthrophic actions in social responsibility planned
actions. A gradual transition Irom philanthropy to social
responsibility can be addressed through several stages.
Along with achieving basic measures oI companies`
Iunctioning is important also to realize social responsibility
measures, aimed at a gradual transition Irom philanthropy to
corporate social responsibility. In order to achieve these
goals, we propose one oI the methods oI increasing social
responsibility in companies Irom the Republic oI Moldova
Ior the period oI integration in the European Community.
The proposed method is adapted Irom the model oI
American researcher Curt Weeden |1, p.338| that includes
six stages that are represented in Figure 1.
1. Replacing the traditional approach of
philanthropic activities from the company with a new
concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR)
At this stage, corporate social responsibility
actions involve additional social investments that are
represented as business expenses in the process oI achieving
the mission, but not in the Iorm oI donations to non-proIit
organizations. Here there are included: sponsorships,
membership Iees, grants, loans, awards Ior research and the
importance oI social marketing. Also, other social
responsibility actions are administrative expenses that
include salaries oI managers who are involved in the process
oI implementation oI social investments Irom the company.
Some oI the social investments can be only subsidies with a
major impact that are aimed at achieving the objectives
required by the local community and which have a tangible
and measurable eIIect and, oI course, are related to the
business objectives oI the enterprise.
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 43
nr. 2 / 2013
Fig. 1. Etapele de adaptare a metodei de sporire a responsabilit(ii sociale n cadrul ntreprinderilor din RM
Fig.1. Stages to adapt the method of enhancing social responsibility in enterprises from the Republic of Moldova
Sursa Source: Elaborat de autori n baza modelului Curt Weeden [1, p.338j Developed by the authors based on Curt
Weeden model [1, p.338j.
Alegerea domeniului pentru investitii sociale se poate Iace
n baza experientei altor ntreprinderi conexe ramurale sau
teritoriale. Aceast optiune este speciIic si pentru tara noastr.
ncercrile de a aIla care domeniu este mai solicitat de prtile
cointeresate (parteneri, actionari, clienti, societate) sunt la o
etap initial. n urma cercetrii elaborate am putea evidentia
directiile de investitii sociale sustinute de ntreprinderile
autohtone. Cele mai Irecvente investitii sunt orientate spre
perIectionarea angajatilor (59,66), activitti pentru
sprijinirea comunittii locale (38,65) si sprijinirea
activittilor culturale, sportive etc. (41,17) (Figura 2).
Companiile americane au tendinta de a sprijini programele
de educatie (inclusiv pentru angajatii lor) si a programelor
pentru comunitatea local. De aici rezult c activitatea
ntreprinderilor din Republica Moldova n domeniul
investitiilor sociale are o directie corect.
2. Implicarea direct a conduceri yi crearea echipei
manageriale pentru ac(iunile de responsabilitate social
Toate actiunile de responsabilitate social nu au nici o
sans de succes dac acestea nu sunt sustinute de conducerea
de vrI a ntreprinderii. n conditiile cnd trecerea la investitii
sociale sau actiuni de responsabilitate social se conIrunt cu
riscuri, doar conductorul ntreprinderii poate lua decizia de a
cere de la managerii de departamente elaborarea si prezentarea
programelor corespunztoare. Cea mai mare problem const
n Iaptul c nu ntotdeauna exist o persoan responsabil de
actiuni de RSI, care s explice posibilittile si avantajele
programelor sociale.
Choice oI the Iield Ior social investment can be made due
to the experience oI other related companies in the local
branch. This option is also speciIic Ior our country.
Attempts to Iind out which Iield is more requested by the
interested parties (partners, shareholders, customers, society)
are at an early stage. As a result oI the research, we can
highlight the social investment directions supported by local
enterprises. The most common investments are aimed at
improving employees (59.66), activities to support the
local community (38.65) and supporting cultural activities,
sports, etc. (41.17) (Figure 2).
U.S.A. companies tend to support educational
programs (including Ior their employees) and local
community programs. Hence, the activity oI
enterprises Irom the Republic oI Moldova in the Iield oI
social investments has the right direction.
2. The direct involvement of managers
and formation of the managerial team for socially
responsible actions
All social responsibility actions have no chance to
succeed iI they are not supported by the top managers
oI the company. Given the transition to social investment or
social responsibility actions Iace risks, only the enterprise`s
manager can decide to ask the managers oI departments to
develope and present appropriate programs. The biggest
problem is that there is always a person responsible Ior CSR
activities, that would explain the possibilities and beneIits oI
social programs.
nlocuirea abordarii traditionale
a activittilor Iilantropice
printr-un concept de
responsabilitate social a
ntreprinderii Replacing the
traditional approach oI
undertaking philanthropic
activities with a new concept oI
corporate social responsibility
(CSR)
.
Implicarea direct a
conducerii si crearea
echipei manageriale
pentru actiunile de
responsabilitate social
1he direct involvement oI
leadership and
management team to
create socially responsible
actions.
Declaratia despre trecerea la
responsabilitatea social si
abtinerea de la alte programe, n
cazul n care acestea nu sunt
legate de investitii sociale
Declaration about switching to
social responsibility activities
and reIraining Irom other
programs, iI they are not related
to social investment
.
Elaborarea unui plan
strategic si propunerea
indicatorilor msurabili
pentru actiunile de
responsabilitate social
Develop a strategic plan and
proposal measurable
indicators Ior social
responsibility
.
Elaborarea unui plan
lunar si a sistemelor de
evaluare Develop a
monthly plan and
evaluation systems
Raportul privind
responsabilitatea social a
ntreprinderii Report on
corporate social responsibility
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 44
nr. 2 / 2013
Fig. 2. Ini(iativele de RSI realizate n cadrul ntreprinderilor/
Fig. 2. CSR initiatives carried out in enterprises
Sursa Source: Elaborat de autori Developed by the authors.
Pentru aceasta este Ioarte important realizarea unor
actiuni prin crearea echipelor manageriale si angajati executori
la diIerite nivele. n activitatea acestora pot s apar rezultate
perIormante numai n cazurile cnd programele de
mbunttire, initiate de conducerea superioar, vor reIlecta
convingerile si interesele tuturor membrilor echipei. n acest
context, ntreprinderea poate nregistra mbunttiri
Iundamentale n combinarea administrrii descendente si
ascendente (de sus n jos si de jos n sus). Coordonarea
activittii echipelor respective n domeniul dezvoltrii
investitiilor sociale este exercitat de ctre unul dintre
loctiitorii directorului, care este obligat s elaboreze si s pun
n aplicare proiecte lunare n care s Iie numite persoanele
responsabile de ndeplinire.
n activitatea echipelor respective este important s se
respecte urmtoarele cerinte ale standardelor internationale de
management al calittii:
ntocmirea organigramei detaliate a ntreprinderii;
Excluderea din organigram a Iunctiilor si
responsabilittilor care se dubleaz;
DeIinirea clar a aptitudinilor si competentelor Iiecrei
persoane;
Descrierea clar a responsabilittilor individuale;
Stabilirea clar a schemei de autoritate;
Impactul pozitiv al tuturor deciziilor conducerii asupra
angajatilor;
Expunerea clar a regulilor si reglementrilor
ntreprinderii;
Crearea unui sistem de promovare prin idei si sugestii
orientate spre atingerea perIormantelor umane si economice;
ntrunirea Irecvent a sedintelor scurte, operative, care
pot avea loc n timpul orelor de munc. Abordarea
problemelor ,din mers. Selectarea solutiilor optime. Luarea
deciziilor rapide;
La sedintele din aIara orelor de munc se poate discuta
ntr-o manier degajat si relaxant;
Toate sedintele au loc cu sprijinul personal al conducerii
ntreprinderii;
Procesul de instruire trebuie s-i asigure Iiecrui angajat
cunoasterea standardelor internationale implementate la
For this, there is very important to make some actions by
creating managerial temas and executive employees at
diIIerent levels. In their activity, perIormant results may
occur only in cases when improvement programs initiated by
top management, will reIlect the belieIs and interests oI all
team members. In this context, the company may record
Iundamental improvements in combining top-down and
bottom-up management. Coordinating the activities oI those
teams in the Iield oI development oI social investment is
exercised by one deputy director, which is required to
develop and implement monthly projects where persons
responsible Ior the realization should be appointed.
In the work oI those teams is important to meet the
Iollowing requirements oI international standards oI quality
management:
Preparation oI detailed organization chart oI the
company;
Exclusion oI Iunctions and responsibilities that are
doubled Irom the organization chart;
Clear deIinition oI the skills and competencies oI
each person;
Clear description oI individual responsibilities;
Clear establishment oI the authority scheme;
The positive impact oI all management decisions on
employees;
Clear exposure oI company`s rules and
regulations;
Creation oI a promotion system through ideas and
suggestions aimed at achieving human and economic
perIormances;
Frequent meetings is short and operative sessions,
which may occur during working hours. Addressing the
problems 'on the Ily. Selection oI optimal solutions. Quick
decision-making;
At meetings outside working hours there can be
carried out discussions in a relaxed and relaxing way;
All meetings are held with the support oI the
management staII;
Training process should assure each employee the
awareness oI international standards implemented by the
48,6%
18,9%
48,6%
35,1%
40,5%
73,0%
45,9%
45,9%
59,5%
58,5%
17,1%
73,2%
48,8%
43,9%
53,7%
39,0%
19,5%
29,3%
55,5%
17,6%
65,5%
44,5%
42,9%
59,7%
41,2%
27,7%
38,7%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100 %
kesearch on the degree of customer
sat|sfact|on
Contro| the aspects of the env|ronment
on the f|na| product
Launch of qua||ty products
kespons|b|e and fa|r commerce products
ua||ty contro| for raw mater|a|s and products
supp||ers
Lmp|oyee tra|n|ng courses
Support|ng cu|tura| act|v|t|es, sports, ect.
Lqua| opportun|t|es to
emp|oyment
Act|v|t|es to support |oca| commun|ty
es No 1ota|
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 43
nr. 2 / 2013
ntreprindere ;
De promovat instruirea reciproc a meseriilor conexe si
perIormanta individual ca teme pentru mbunttirea
proiectelor de echip |2|.
Conducerea trebuie constientizeze c procesul instruirii
presupune obstacole temporare, cum ar Ii scderea eIicacittii,
a volumului de productie si cresterea costurilor cauzate de
graIicul de instruire. Pe termen scurt, aceste pierderi sunt
recuperabile. Pe termen lung, cnd Iiecare angajat va Ii n stare
s presteze munca sa, sau a colegului si s obtin rezultate
perIormante, ntreprinderea si va mri potentialul de productie
si cel competitiv, adaptndu-se prompt la cerintele pietii.
3. Declara(ia despre trecerea la activit(i de
responsabilitate social yi ab(inerea de la alte programe, n
cazul n care acestea nu sunt legate de investi(ii sociale
Aceast declaratie poate evidentia multe claritti pentru
prtile cointeresate,. Angajatii trebuie s stie c investitiile
sociale sunt incluse n cheltuieli de aIaceri si nu sunt deduse
din salariile lor. n cazul n care selectarea temelor de
programe sociale sunt n baza opiniei lor, este posibil ca aceste
programe s Iie sprijinite de angajati, inclusiv Iinanciar.
Managerii trebuie s nteleag la ce ne reIerim atunci cnd
vorbim de investitii sociale: Ceea ce vrei s Iaci exact; Ceea ce
ar trebui s Iaci si cnd; n ce msur si n ce mod Iiecare
manager va Ii ncurajat prin implicarea n investitiile sociale;
Vor exista sanctiuni n cazul, n care managerul nu particip la
astIel de programe. Managerii ar trebui s se reIere la
investitiile sociale nu ca la o obligatie mpovrtoare, ci ca la o
oportunitate unic. La ntrebarea Ct de mult pot s sacriIice
companiile pentru programele sociale?, cercettorii n
domeniul respectiv consider, c aceast sum trebuie s
constituie 2,5 din proIitul neimpozitat al ntreprinderilor
neproductoare si 3,5 - pentru ntreprinderile productoare.
ntreprinderile productoare se angajeaz s Ioloseasc pentru
programele sociale numai produse calitative, lund n
consideratie valoarea real a produselor pe piat.
ntreprinderilor din RM, suportnd presiuni din partea
autorittilor locale si a organizatiilor non-proIit, le este Ioarte
greu s renunte la actiunile Iilantropice traditionale, la care
particip de mai multi ani. Rmnnd n acelasi cadru tematic
(cultur, sntate si orIelinate), este necesar de a ncerca si alte
activitti, de un nivel mai calitativ. De exemplu, n loc de
sustinea material speciIic de sprijin pentru orIelinate, ar Ii
bine s se organizeze un seminar pentru managerii de
orIelinate si instruirea lor n atragerea de sine stttor a
resurselor necesare. Avnd n vedere c noua politic social
va avea unele rezultate reale, apare posibilitatea de a transIera
o parte din bugetul Iilantropic n programe inovationale ale
investitiilor sociale.
4. Elaborarea unui plan strategic yi propunerea
indicatorilor msurabili pentru ac(iunile de
responsabilitate social
De regul, investitiile sociale totdeauna sunt legate de
scopurile de aIaceri ale ntreprinderii. Pentru o astIel de legtur
sunt studiate toate necesittile prtilor cointeresate. Este necesar
s se nteleag ce potential ar putea Ii stabilit n produsele sau
serviciile Iirmei, ce beneIicii noi va primi Iiecare consumator.
Sunt analizate posibilittile de inIluent asupra calittii
vietii (problemele comunittii locale criminalitatea, educatia,
sntatea, lipsa de adpost, cultur etc.). Se evidentiaz
punctele de intersectie a intereselor ntreprinderii cu cele ale
comunittii locale. Este important de a tine cont de interesele
autorittilor locale, a partenerilor si a concurentilor. Apoi se
investigheaz posibilitatea Iiecrui program n parte, se
selecteaz partenerii pentru a Ii pusi n aplicare.
ntreprinderile sustin proiectele selectate cu toate resursele
de investitie si voluntari proprii. AstIel prin programele sociale
organization;
To promote mutual training oI related activities and
individual perIormance as themes Ior improvement oI team
projects |2|.
Management should be aware that the training requires
temporary obstructions such as decrease oI perIormance, oI
production volume and increased costs due to the training
schedule. These losses are recoverable in the short term. In a
long term, when each employee will be able to perIorm its
work or it`s colleague`s and obtain perIormant results, the
company will increase its production and competitive
potential, adapting quickly to market demands.
3. Declaration about passing to social responsibility
activities and refraining from other programs, if they are
not related to social investment
For interested parties, this statement may reveal more
aspects. Employees should be aware that social
investments are included in business expenses and they are
not deducted Irom their wages. When selection oI social
programs topics is made on the basis oI their opinion, it is
possible that these programs could be supported by
employees oI the company, including in their Iinancial
aspects. Managers need to understand what we mean when
we speak about social investment: What do you want exactly
to do; What you should do and when; To what extent and in
what way each manager will be encouraged through
involvement in social investment; There will be penalties iI
the manager does not participate in such programs.
Managers should reIer to social investment not as at a
burdensome obligation, but as an unique opportunity. At the
question 'How much can companies sacriIice Ior social
programs?, researchers in this Iield consider that this
amount should be 2.5 oI untaxed proIits oI non-producing
companies and 3.5 Ior manuIacturing enterprises.
ManuIacturing enterprises use Ior their social programs only
qualitative products, taking into account the real value oI
products on the market.
Enterprises Irom the Republic Moldova, bearing pressure
Irom local authorities and non-proIit organization, give up
very diIIicult to traditional philanthrophic actions that they
participate in Ior a long time already. Remaining in the same
Iramework (culture, health and orphanages), it is necessary
to try new activities, with a new qualitative level. For
example, instead oI speciIic material support to orphanages,
it would be good to organize a seminar Ior managers oI
orphanages and their training in attracting necessary
resources independently. Since the new social policy will
have some real results, it is possible to transIer a part oI the
philanthropic budget in innovative programs oI social
investments.
4. Development of a strategic plan and proposal of
measurable indicators for social responsibility actions
Social investments are usually linked to the business
goals oI the enterprise. For such a link, there are studied all
the needs oI all concerned parties. It is necessary to
understand what potential could be established within the
products or services oI a company and what beneIits will be
received by each consumer.
There are analyzed the possibilities oI inIluence on quality
oI liIe (local community issues crime, education, health,
homelessness, culture and so on). There are highlighted the
intersection points oI company`s interests with those oI the
local community. It is important to take into account the
interests oI local authorities, partners and competitors. Then,
there is investigated the possibility oI each program, there are
selected partners in order to be implemented.
Companies support selected projects with all investment
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 46
nr. 2 / 2013
promovate ntreprinderea si sporeste imaginea, iar rezultatul
n marketing este mult mai bun dect rezultatul de pe urma
promovrii sau publicittii.
5. Elaborarea unui plan lunar yi a sistemelor de evaluare
n mod real lucrrile la realizarea proiectelor de investitii
sociale trebuie s Iie similare cu activittile de baz. Prin
urmare, planul de lucru pentru investitiile sociale va Ii similar
cu oricare alt plan curent. De asemenea este necesar, n msura
posibilittilor, de a monitoriza si evalua eIicienta programelor.
Evidentierea beneIiciilor de aIaceri n investitiile sociale si
implicarea oamenilor n actiunile de caritate se bazeaz pe 2
motive principale. n primul rnd, este un subiect important si
interesant pe care l sustin. n al doilea rnd, ei retriesc
emotional problema oamenilor care cer ajutor. De aici putem
mentiona ideea, c dac nu sunt destule motive de implicare n
actiunile de RSI, nu trebuie de implicat. Dac managerii se
decid ns, este important s se caute o astIel de motivatie de
aIaceri pentru a apropia actiunile Iilantropice de obiectivele
aIacerii propriu-zise.
6. Raportul privind responsabilitatea social a
ntreprinderii
Cea mai rspndit Iorm a rapoartelor sociale sunt
rapoartele anuale. De obicei ele sunt destinate pentru publicul
larg si toate prtile cointeresate. Rapoartele sociale cuprind un
spectru larg al importantelor sociale ale proiectelor. n primul
rnd, o declaratie de scop. Multe companii declar paralel cu
misiunile de investitii sociale si misiunea companiei. n al
doilea rnd, va Ii util ca raportul s contin o scurt descriere a
gestionrii planului de investitii sociale. n calitate de variant
se poate propune planul treptat de trecere la investitiile sociale.
n al treilea rnd, trebuie s Iie clare sursele de Iinantare a
programelor.
Pentru a explica publicului si tuturor prtilor interesate ct
de multe cheltuieli se Iac pentru programele sociale, nu este
necesar de a arta sursele de inIormatii interne, de a Iace
publice inIormatiile conIidentiale. Dac ntreprinderea Iace
cheltuieli de 1 din venitul impozabil pentru programele
sociale, aceast ciIr ar trebui s corespund realittii. Dac
voluntarii ntreprinderii au lucrat n sum de 100 mii lei pe an,
este necesar de explicat, cum a Iost evaluat ora de lucru.
Este rezonabil de a include n raportul anual o sectiune
privind investitiile sociale. De ex., investitiile pentru
personalul ntreprinderii, siguranta la locul de munc,
dezvoltarea unui mediu concurential etc. Participarea
ntreprinderii n asociatii, la dezvoltarea mediului de aIaceri de
asemenea se consider investitii sociale, deoarece acestea pot
aIecta pozitiv consumatorii si comunitatea local. Este
rezonabil s se precizeze n raportul social Iormele prin care se
pun n aplicare programele sociale (de sponsorizare, programe
de Iinantare, donatii, cotizatii de membru, personalul de
voluntariat etc.).
Concluzia este evident: O ntreprindere, care doreste sa
activeze pe termen lung si s rmn competitiv n contextul
unei economii tot mai globalizate prin tendinta de aderare n
viitor a RM la UE, trebuie s elaboreze strategii si politici n
vederea transIormrii Iirmei ntr-o aIacere responsabil din
punct de vedere social.
resources and their own volunteers. In such a way, the
company increases its image through the promoted social
programs and the marketing result is much better than the
result Irom promotion or advertising.
5. Development of a monthly plan and evaluation
systems
In real terms works on realization oI social investment
projects should be similar to core activities. ThereIore, social
investment work plan will be similar to any current plan. It is
also necessary to monitor and evaluate the eIIectiveness oI
programs where possible. Highlighting the business beneIits
in social investment and involvement oI people in charity are
based on two main reasons. FirstoI all, it is an important and
interesting subject that they support. Secondly, they relive
the emotional problem oI people who ask Ior help. From
here we can mention the Iollowing idea, iI there are not
enough reasons to engage in CSR activities, you should not
involve into them. But iI managers decide, it is important to
look Ior such a business motivation to make closer the
philanthropic actions to the business` objectives.
6. Report on corporate social responsibility
The most common Iorm oI social reports are
the annual reports. Usually they are intended Ior the general
public and all interested parties. Social reports cover a wide
range oI important social projects. First oI all - a statement oI
purpose. Many companies have together with the social
investment missions the company's mission. Secondly, the
report will be useIul to have a brieI description oI the
management plan oI social investments. As a variant, there
can be proposed the gradual plan oI passing to social
investments. Thirdly, the Iinancing sources Ior programs
should be clearly speciIied.
In order to explain the public and all interested parties
how much spending are made on social programs, it is not
necessary to present the internal inIormation sources or to
make public conIidential inIormation. II the company is
spending on social programs 1 oI taxable income, this
Iigure should correspond to the reality. II volunteers oI the
company have worked in the amount oI 100 thousand lei per
year, it is necessary to explain the assessment oI the work
hour.
In the annual report, it is reasonable to include a section
on social investments, Ior example, investments in
personnel, saIety at work, developing a competitive
environment, etc. Enterprise`s participation in associations,
development oI the business environment also is considered
as social investment, because they can positively aIIect
consumers and the local community. It is reasonable to
present in the social report the Iorms through which social
programs are implemented (sponsorships, Iunding programs,
donations, membership Iees, voluntary staII, etc.).
The conclusion is clear: A company wishing to operate in
the long term and remain competitive in the
context oI an increasingly globalized economy through the
trend oI the Iuture membership oI the Republic oI Moldova in
the European Union should develop strategies and policies to
transIorm the company into a socially responsible business.
Referin(e bibliografice / References
1. TVPKHH, C. Kar eieoouo oimi ooopi+. Coe.ame ceo ousuec coua.iuo omeemcmeeuui+. Mocxna: Antnnna Hannmep,
2007. 384 c. ISBN 5-9614-0472-2.
2. KOBAYASHI, I. 20 de chei ale succesului. Program practic de revolutionare a intreprinderilor. Chisinu: Ed. Arc, 2001. ISBN 9975611958.
3. JOHNSON, Homer H. Does it pay to be good? Social responsibility and Iinancial perIormance. In: Business Horizons. 2003, vol. 46
(6), pp. 34-40.
4. OPREA, L. Responsabilitatea Social Corporatist. Bucuresti: Tritonic, 2005. 159 p. ISBN 973-733-056-0.
5. PORTER, M. Strategie concurential. Manual de supravietuire i creare a firmelor in conditiile economiei de piat. Bucuresti:
Teora, 2001. 344 p. ISBN 9732004177.
Recomandat spre publicare. 20.03.2013
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 47
nr. 2 / 2013
POLITICA MACROPRUDENTIAL:
POZITII CONCEPTUALE
MACROPRUDENTIAL POLICY:
CONCEPTUAL POSITIONS
Radu CUHAL, dr., conf. univ., BAM
Ludmila S1ARIJAA, dr., conf. cercet., BAM
Aicolae BASIS1I, drd., IEFS
Radu CUHAL, PhD, Associate Professor, BAM
Ludmila S1ARIJAA, PhD, Associate Professor, BAM
Aicolae BASIS1I, PhD student, IEFS
In articolul respectiv sunt fundamentate principiile
conceptuale ale politicii macroprudentiale, obiectivele
principale i instrumentele acesteia. Este definit
clasificarea instrumentelor politicii macroprudentiale a
comitetului sistemului financiar. Totodat, sunt examinate
caracteristicile comparative ale politicii macroprudentiale
in trile occidentale de:voltate.
The article explains the conceptual principles of
macroprudential policv, its main obfectives and
instruments. The classification of macroprudential policv
tools of the Committee on the Global Financial Svstem is
defined. The comparative characteristics of macro-
prudential policv in the Western developed countries are
also examined.
Cuvinte cheie: politica macroprudential, instrumente
macroprudentiale, stabilitatea financiar, risc sistemic,
piete financiare, lichiditatea bancar.
Key words: macroprudential policv, macroprudential
instruments, financial stabilitv, svstemic risk, financial
market, banks liquiditv.
1EL classification: D81, C32, E52, E58
Introducere. Politica macroprudential reprezint un set
de msuri preventive menite s minimizeze riscul crizei
Iinanciare sistemice, care, prin deIinitie, reprezint riscul
unei situatii, n care o parte semniIicativ a sectorului
Iinanciar devine insolvabil sau nelichid, ca rezultat
participantii pietei nu au posibilitate de a continua s
Iunctioneze Ir sprijinul autorittilor monetare si de
supraveghere. n Ghidul pentru evaluarea importantei
sistemice a institutiilor Iinanciare, pietelor si instrumentelor,
publicat de Banca Decontrilor Internationale si Consiliul
pentru stabilitate Iinanciar n colaborare cu FMI, n anul
2009, riscul sistemic este deIinit ca ,riscul de esec al
serviciilor Iinanciare, care este cauzat de deteriorarea
sistemului Iinanciar sau a unei prti ale acestuia si are
consecinte potentiale negative pentru economia real
3
. n
raportul organizatiilor internationale, sub notiunea de
servicii financiare se subnteleg serviciile de intermediere
Iinanciar, de dirijare a riscurilor de plat, care reprezint
ntregul set de Iunctii ndeplinite de ctre sistemul
Iinanciar.
n octombrie anul 2010 Grupul Consultativ treizeci
4
a
elaborat un scurt ghid cu privire la politica
macroprudential. n acest document sunt marcate patru
caracteristici esentiale ale politicii: responsabilitatea pentru
stabilitatea sistemului Iinanciar, limitarea riscurilor
sistemice, utilizarea unui set de instrumente speciIic,
colaborarea cu alte institutii de politic ale statului
5
.
Introduction. Macroprudential policy is a set oI
preventive measures aimed at minimizing the risk oI a
systemic Iinancial crisis, that is, the risk oI a situation in
which a signiIicant part oI the Iinancial sector becomes
insolvent or illiquid, making market participants not being
able to continue to operate without the support oI the
monetary authorities and the supervisory authority. The
Guide to the evaluation oI systemic importance Ior
Iinancial institutions, markets and instruments, issued in
cooperation with the IMF, the Bank Ior International
Settlements and the Financial Stability Board in 2009,
deIines the systemic risk as "the risk oI Iinancial services
Iailure, which is caused by the deterioration oI the whole
Iinancial system or its part and has potentially serious
negative consequences Ior the real economy"
1
. The report
oI international organizations establishes that Iinancial
intermediation services, risk management Ior the payment,
(i.e., the entire set oI Iunctions carried out by the Iinancial
system) should be understood under the deIinition oI
Iinancial services.
In October 2010 the Advisory Group oI Thirty
2
developed a brieI guide on macroprudential policy. It
marked the Iollowing Iour key characteristics: the
responsibility Ior the stability oI the Iinancial system, the
limitation oI systemic risks, the use oI a speciIic set oI
instruments, the interaction with the other state policy
institutions
3
.
Con(inutul de baz. n calitate de obiecte ale a politicii
macroprudentiale sunt identiIicate relatiile dintre
intermediari Iinanciari, pietele, inIrastructura pietei
Iinanciare, precum si ntre sistemul Iinanciar si economia
real. Politica macroprudential ocup o pozitie intermediar
The basic content. The objects oI macroprudential
policy are the relationship between Iinancial
intermediaries, markets, Iinancial market inIrastructure, as
well as between the Iinancial system and the real economy.
Macroprudential policy takes an intermediate position
3
Guidance to assess the svstemic importance of financial institutions, markets and instruments. initial considerations. International Monetarv Fund, Bank
for International Settlements, Financial Stabilitv Board, November 2009.
4
Grup trei:eci infiintat in 1978, organi:atie privat, non-profit, care reunete experti internationali din sectoarele publice i private. In 2010, "Grupul
trei:eci" a fost condus de Jacob Frenkel (preedinte al JP Morgan Chase, i in trecut - guvernator al Bncii Israelului) i Paul Walker (consilier al
preedintelui SUA, Barack Obama, in trecut preedintele Sistemului Federal de Re:erve al SUA). Mai mult. www.group30.org
5
Enhancing Financial Stabilitv and Resilience. Macroprudential Policv, Tools, and Svstems for the Future. Group of Thirtv, October 2010.
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 48
nr. 2 / 2013
ntre politica monetar a bncii centrale orientat spre
realizarea obiectivelor macroeconomice, si reglementarea
microprudential a organului de supraveghere, destinat s
previn esecurile unor intermediari Iinanciari, precum si s
monitorizeze ndeplinirea obligatiilor lor Iat de creditori,
clienti si deponenti. Comisia Warwick, privind reIorma
Iinanciar international
4
a concluzionat c, dac
reglementarea Iinanciar este prea axat pe rezistenta unor
participanti la riscurile externe, atunci aceasta poate duce la
o crestere a probabilittii unui risc sistemic.
Obiectivele politicii macroprudentiale sunt:
- Mentinerea stabilittii sistemului Iinanciar la socuri
agregate, inclusiv recesiunea si socurile externe;
- Limitarea riscurilor Iinanciare excesive asumate de
ctre sistemul Iinanciar;
- Temperarea ciclului Iinanciar: prevenirea Iormrii
de ,bule pe pietele activelor Iinanciare, dac acestea
reprezint un pericol potential pentru stabilitatea sistemului
Iinanciar sau vor avea eIecte negative semniIicative pentru
sectorul non-Iinanciar.
Obiectivele politicii macroprudentiale sunt
complementare. Pe de o parte, la nivel instrumental, se
bazeaz pe reglementare micro-pruden(ial si trebuie s
deIineasc normele de activitate, sub inIluenta crora unele
bnci vor avea lichiditti si capital propriu suIicient pentru a
gestiona independent socuri si a onora angajamente.
Cu toate acestea, atunci cnd sectorul Iinanciar se
conIrunt cu Iluctuatii ciclice si toti participantii pietei sunt
la Iel de expusi la socuri, reglementrile microprudentiale
posibil s nu Iie suIiciente. Politica macroprudential este
orientat spre acele momente, care sunt, de obicei, ignorate
de reglementarea microprudential si ia n consideratie
interesele participantilor de sistem, relatiile dintre ele (care
se maniIest ca eIect al unui ,domino n perioada de criz),
si relatiile dintre bnci cu alti juctori de pe piata Iinanciar,
inclusiv Iondurile de pensii, de asigurare si companii de
investitii.
AstIel, politica macroprudential n mai multe moduri
diIer de supravegherea microprudential. n primul
rnd, analiza stabilittii sectorului Iinanciar se eIectueaz la
nivel agregat, dar nu la nivelul unor organizatii. n al doilea
rnd, ntregul sector Iinanciar este luat n considerare si nu
doar bncile comerciale. n al treilea rnd, sunt analizate
relatiile dintre juctori de important sistemic, care
opereaz pe piete diIerite pentru a preveni lanturi
negative de eIecte ,domino. n aIar de aceasta, criza se
rspndeste nu numai prin pozitiile interbancare, dar si prin
pozitiile bncilor pe pietele unor active Iinanciare si merit,
de asemenea, o atentie sporit. n al patrulea rnd, este
necesar ca analiza macroprudential s contin o valoare
aplicativ: pe baza creia e nevoie de luat decizii, privind
modiIicarea setrilor de reglementare si supraveghere
(Tabelul 1).
between the monetary policy oI the central bank, aimed at
achieving macroeconomic goals, micro-prudential
regulation and supervisory body, designed to prevent the
Iailure oI individual Iinancial intermediaries, as well as to
monitor the IulIillment oI their obligations towards their
creditors, customers and investors. The Warwick
Commission on International Financial ReIorm
4
concluded
that iI Iinancial regulation is overly Iocused on resistance
oI individual market participants to external risks, then it
can lead to an increase in the probability oI a systemic risk.
Macroprudential policy objectives are:
- The stability maintenance oI the Iinancial system
against aggregate shocks, including the recession and
external shocks;
- The limitation oI excessive Iinancial risks assumed
by the Iinancial system as a whole;
- The smoothing oI the whole Iinancial cycle (i.e., the
prevention oI "bubbles" creation in the Iinancial assets
markets, iI they are carrying a potential threat to the overall
Iinancial system stability, or will have signiIicantly
negative impacts on the non-Iinancial sector).
Macroprudential policy objectives have complementary
nature. On the one hand, on the instrumental level, it is
based on micro-prudential regulation and should deIine
the norms and activities, under the inIluence oI which the
individual banks will have suIIicient equity capital and
liquidity in order to manage shocks and meet obligations
independently. However, when the Iinancial sector is
experiencing cyclical Iluctuations and all market participants
are equally exposed to shocks, micro-prudential regulations
may not be enough. Macroprudential policy does not miss
those moments that are usually ignored by micro-prudential
regulation: Macroprudential policy takes into account the
interests oI system constituent participants, the relationship
between them (which are shown as the domino eIIect in the
period oI a crisis), and the relationship oI banks with other
players in the Iinancial market, including pension Iunds,
insurance and investment companies.
Thus, macroprudential policy diIIers Irom the micro
prudential supervision in several ways. First, the analysis
oI the stability oI the Iinancial sector is done at the
aggregate level, but not at the level oI individual
organizations. Second, the entire Iinancial sector is taken
into account, and not just banks. Third, analysis oI the
relationship between systemically important players
operating in diIIerent markets is done in order to predict
the chains in a domino eIIect. In addition to cross interbank
positions the crisis spreads through the exposure oI banks
to the markets oI individual Iinancial assets that also
should deserve a certain attention. Fourthly, the
macroprudential analysis should have an applied value: it
should be based on the need to take decisions on changing
the settings oI the overall regulation and supervision
(Table 1).
4
Comisia Warwick (Warwick Commission), infiintat in Marea Britanie, in 2009 la Universitatea din Warwick, aceasta a inclus experti europeni bine-
cunoscuti in reglementarea financiar. Re:ultatul al Comisiei a fost un raport ,In Praise of Unlevel Plaving Fields` (publicat la sfaritul anului 2009),
destinat bncilor centrale i nationale i autorittilor de supraveghere financiar. Mai mult. www2.warwick.ac.uk/research/warwickcommission.
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 49
nr. 2 / 2013
Tabelul 1/Table 1
Compara(iile abordrilor macropruden(iale yi micropruden(iale/
Macro-and microprudencial approaches comparison
Caracteristica/Caracteristic Politica macropruden(ial/
Macroprudential policy
Politica micropruden(ial/
Microprudential policy
Scopul Iinal/
Final goal
Reducerea costurilor de instabilitate, legate de
criza Iinanciar/ Reducing costs oI instability,
which are related with the Iinancial crisis.
Protectia intereselor deponentilor
si creditorilor bancari/ Protection
oI bank depositors` and
creditors` interests
Scopul intermediar/
Intermediate goal
Mentinerea stabilittii Iinanciare n general/
Maintaining Iinancial stability in general
Prevenirea Ialimentrii unor
bnci/ Preventing individual
bank failures
Factor macroeconomic/
Macroeconomic Iactor
Conditiile macroeconomice sunt privite ca un
Iactor endogen/ Macroeconomic conditions
are considered as an endogenous Iactor
Conditiile macroeconomice sunt
privite ca un Iactor exogen/
Macroeconomic conditions are
considered as an exogenous
Iactor
Modelul riscurilor n sectorul
Iinanciar/ The risk model in the
Iinancial sector
Socuri generale si corelate/ General and
correlated shocks
Socuri idiosincratice /
Idiosyncratic shocks
Evaluarea perspectivelor/
Evaluation oI the prospects
Abordare probabilistic, bazat pe evaluarea
riscurilor, accent pe analiza scenariilor/
Probabilistic approach, based on the risk
assessment; the emphasis is on the scenario
analysis
Abordare bazat pe analiza
raportrii, accent pe control si
audit intern/ Approach, based on
the analysis oI the Iormal
accounting; the emphasis is on
the internal control and audit
(inspections)
Relatiile si riscurile generale ale
participantilor pietii/
Interconnection and common
risks oI market participants
Factori de baz/ Fundamental Iactors Nu se ia n consideratie/ Are not
counted
Setarea normelor prudentiale/
Prudential norm adjustment
Abordare ,de sus n jos: supravegherea
socurilor sistemice n sectorul Iinanciar/'Top-
down approach: monitoring the systemic
shocks oI the Iinancial sector
Abordare ,de jos n sus:
supravegherea riscurilor unor
participanti ai pietii/ A "bottom-
up" approach: monitoring the
risks oI individual market
participants
Dezvluirea inIormatiei/
InIormation disclosure
DiIuzare larg a rezultatelor evalurii si a
indicatorilor stabilittii Iinanciare, a
indicatorilor macroprudentiali, a semnalelor
metodelor de avertizare prealabil/ Wide
dissemination oI the assessment results
including indicators oI Iinancial stability,
macroprudential indicators, signals oI early
warning models
Raportare standartizat si
inIormatia conIidential n
scopurile supravegherii/
Standardized reports and
conIidential inIormation Ior
supervisory purposes
Sursa/Source: Hirtle B., Schuermann 1. and Stiroh K. Macroprudential Supervision of Financial Institutions: Lessons
from the SCAP. Federal Reserve Bank of Aew York Staff Reports Ao 49, Aovember 29.P. 13.
Politica macroprudential este adiacent cu politica
monetar. n conditiile conjuncturii macroeconomice
echilibrate, realizarea obiectivelor politicii macroprudentiale
va contribui la atingerea tintelor politicii monetare. Cu toate
acestea, n cazul unor dezechilibre macroeconomice, ntre
acestea este posibil un conIlict de interese. Autoritatea de
reglementare va Ii nevoit s aleag ntre sustinerea
economiei reale sau a sistemului Iinanciar. De
exemplu, n cazul unor presiuni speculative pe piata valutar
si panic n rndul deponentilor, autorittile monetare se vor
Macroprudential policy is adjacent to the monetary
policy. With the implementation oI a balanced
macroeconomic conditions macroprudential policy
objectives will contribute to the achievement oI the
monetary policy objectives. However, in case oI
macroeconomic imbalances, a conIlict oI interest is
possible between them. The regulator will have to choose
between supporting the real economy or the Iinancial
system. For example, in case, when speculative pressure on
the currency market and panic among depositors arise, the
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 30
nr. 2 / 2013
conIrunta cu o dilem: s Iurnizeze lichiditti bncilor
comerciale n scopul rscumprrii angajamentelor
Iinanciare sau s reziste crizei valutare prin limitarea
lichidittii bancare.
n Iunctie de caracteristicile sistemului Iinanciar,
impactul acestuia asupra economiei reale si speciIicul
socului agregat, alegerea unui regulator poart un caracter
discretionar. n unele cazuri extreme, politica monetar
poate Ii insolvabil pentru a atinge echilibrul
macroeconomic, de exemplu, ratele dobnzilor sunt aproape
de zero sau, dimpotriv, n lupta cu reIlux de capital si
deprecierea monedei nationale, banca central este nevoit
s stabileasc ratele dobnzilor excesiv de nalte, care
aIecteaz n mod negativ economia real. Politica
macroprudential poate salva situatia n cazul, n care
instrumentele standarde ale politicii monetare nu sunt n
stare s oIere perIormant adecvat.
monetary authorities Iace the Iollowing dilemma: to
provide liquidity to banks in order to redeem Iinancial
commitments, or to resist currency crisis, limiting the
bank's liquidity.
Depending on the characteristics oI the Iinancial
system, its impact on the real economy and the
speciIication oI aggregate shock the selection oI a regulator
carries the discretionary character. In some extreme cases,
the monetary policy may be untenable to achieve
macroeconomic balance (Ior example, interest rates
are near to zero), or, conversely, to Iight against capital
outIlows and depreciation oI the national currency,
and the central bank has to set excessively high interest
rates, adversely aIIecting the real economy.
Macroprudential policy can help in case when standard
monetary instruments are not able to provide adequate
perIormance.
Instrumentele macropruden(iale. De mentionat c, n
ceea ce priveste instrumentele, politica macroprudential se
bazeaz pe reglementarea microprudential. Aceasta
utilizeaz aceleasi cerinte prudentiale cerinte Iat de
capital si lichiditate, reglementarea bilantului si limitarea
riscurilor. Grupul de treizeci a identiIicat dou abordri
pentru utilizarea instrumentelor politicii macroprudentiale
(tabelul 2). Acestea sunt: abordarea instrumentelor variabile
(variable approach) care implic utilizarea normelor
prudentiale, parametrii crora variaz n timp, precum si
abordarea instrumentelor Iixe (Iixed approach) care se
bazeaz pe utilizarea normativelor permanente obligatorii.
Grupul de treizeci consider c, pentru realizarea eIectiv a
politicii macroprudentiale este nevoie de a mentine ambele
abordri.
Macroprudential instruments. It is important to note
that in terms oI its instruments the macroprudential policy
is based on micro prudential regulation. It uses the same
prudential requirements (i.e., the requirements Ior capital
and liquidity, the regulation oI the balance and the
limitation oI risks. The Group oI Thirty assigned two
approaches to the use oI macroprudential policy
instruments (Table 2). These are the Iollowing: the
variable approach instruments that involve the use oI
prudential norms, and the parameters oI which may vary
over time, as well as the Iixed approach instruments that
are based on the use oI permanent and mandatory
standards. The Group oI Thirty believes that both
approaches should be met in order to implement an
eIIective macroprudential policy.
Tabelul 2/Table 2
Clasificarea instrumentelor politicii macropruden(iale ale Grupului de treizeci/
Classification of macroprudential policy instruments of the Group of Thirty
Obiectul de reglementare/ The object
of the regulation
Instrumentul/
Instrument
Levier /Leverage
CoeIicientul sporit al riscului ponderat al normativului eIicientei
capitalului n portoIoliul valorilor mobiliare/ Increased risk weighted
capital adequacy ratio Ior the trading portIolio oI securities
Rezerva contraciclic a capitalului/ Countercyclical capital buIIer
Stres-testingul pentru evaluarea eIicientei capitalului/ Stress testing to
assess the capital adequacy
CoeIicientul levierului brut (raportul capitalului la active)/ Gross leverage
ratio (a simple capital to assets ratio)
Lichiditate/Liquidity
Rezerva suplimentar a lichidittii/ Supplemental liquidity buIIer
Normativul raportului activelor si pasivelor pe termen lung/ Guidelines
Ior long-term assets and long-term liabilities
Normativul raportului activelor si pasivelor pe termen scurt/ Guidelines
Ior short-term assets and short-term liabilities
Expansiunea creditar/ Credit
expansion
Normativ dinamic al raportului volumului creditelor si costului gajului./
Dynamic norm oI loan-to-value ratio
Sursa/Source: Enhancing Financial Stability and Resilience: Macroprudential Policy, 1ools, and Systems for the
Future. Croup of 1hirty, October 21.
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 31
nr. 2 / 2013
Spre deosebire de standardele microprudentiale, care sunt
egale pentru toti n mentinerea unui mediu concurential, politica
macroprudential are dou caracteristici.
n primul rnd, aceasta presupune standarde mai nalte
pentru institutiile, pietele si instrumentele, care sunt recunoscute
ca important sistemic. n caz de instabilitate Iinanciar
cerintele suplimentare permit juctorilor de important
sistemic s obtin un exces de capital si lichiditate si s nu
depind de nici un ajutor al autorittilor monetare sau Iiscale.
Desi cerintele suplimentare Iat de juctori sistemici nu sunt
distribuite pe larg, estimrile preliminare sugereaz c, acestea
pot semniIicativ reduce riscul socurilor Iinanciare. De ex.,
analiza eIectuat de Banca Canadei pe datele bilanturilor celor
mai mari sase bnci locale (care detin 90 din activele
sectorului bancar al Canadei) a artat c cerintele suplimentare
Iat de capital pentru bncile cu important sistemic permit
minimizarea riscului crizei sistemice cu 25 |1|.
n al doilea rnd, normele prudentiale ar trebui s mentin
un caracter contraciclic (dinamic), pentru a rezista "bulelor" si
dezechilibrelor de pe pietele activelor Iinanciare. Problema este
c, majoritatea modelelor de evaluare a riscurilor se bazeaz pe
date istorice, care au proprietti de a se mbuntti n timpul
boom-ului economic sau Iinanciar. Ca o consecint, n timpul
cresterii economice riscurile pietii creditare sunt subestimate.
Normele prudentiale dinamice sunt concepute pentru a netezi
eIectul de evaluare a riscurilor prociclice.
Pentru instrumentele recomandate de ctre Comitetul
sistemului mondial Iinanciar (Committee on the Global
Financial System) al Bncii Decontrilor Internationale sunt
atribuite unele cerinte suplimentare Iat de exces de capital si
lichiditate, Iat de limitele de levier pentru diIerite tipuri de
creante Iinanciare si Iat de neconcordantele pe scadent a
angajamentelor pe termene si pe valute, precum si cerintele
speciale pentru institutiile Iinanciare de piat (Tabelul 3).
Majoritatea dintre ele pot Ii utilizate simultan att pentru
mentinerea stabilittii, ct si pentru a netezi ciclul
Iinanciar.
Important de mentionat c Banca Decontrilor
Internationale arat c termenul ,macroprudential a Iost
utilizat pentru prima dat la reuniunea Comitetului Cook
(predecesorul Comitetului de la Basel pentru supraveghere
bancar), n anul 1979 |2|. Comitetul a lansat un proiect pentru
colectarea datelor statistice reIeritoare la creditarea
international, principala sarcina Iiind n Iuziunea micro- si
macro-problemelor. Aceast expresie a servit ca un cod secret
pentru proIesionisti dedicati, doar dup criza asiatic la sIrsitul
anilor 1990 a devenit bine cunoscut publicului larg. ,Steagul
politicii macroprudentiale a trecut la FMI. n raportul su anual
n anul 1998, FMI a declarat urmtoarele: ,Supravegherea
bancar eIicient trebuie s Iie continu. Acest lucru poate Ii
realizat, n primul rnd, prin intermediul reglementrii
documentare att la nivel micro, ct si la nivel macroprudential.
Analiza macropruden(ial este bazat pe cercetarea pie(ii yi
date macroeconomice, accentul acestei analize este
concentrat pe principalele pie(e de active, intermediari
financiari, dezvoltare macroeconomic yi dezechilibrele
poten(iale. n anul 2000 pentru o analiz macroprudential
FMI a elaborat indicatori macroprudentiali (macroprudential
indicators), care peste un an au Iost redenumiti n indicatori ai
stabilittii Iinanciare (Iinancial soundness indicators).
In contrast to the micro prudential standards that are
equal Ior all to maintain a competitive environment, the
macroprudential policy has two Ieatures.
First, it implies higher standards Ior institutions, markets
and instruments, which are recognized as systemically
important. In case oI Iinancial instability additional
requirements allow systemically important players to have
a buIIer oI capital and liquidity being not dependent on any
help oI monetary or Iiscal authorities. While the additional
requirements Ior the major players are not widely
applicable, preliminary estimates suggest that they can
signiIicantly reduce the likelihood oI Iinancial shocks. For
example, the Bank oI Canada analysis done on balance
sheet data oI the six largest local banks (which hold 90 oI
assets oI the whole banking sector in Canada) showed that
the additional capital requirements Ior systemically
important banks can help to minimize the risk oI a systemic
crisis by 25 |1|.
Second, prudential norms should be carrying a
cyclical (dynamic) character to resist the "bubbles" and
imbalances in the Iinancial assets markets. The problem is
that the majority oI risk assessment models are based on
historical data, which have properties to improve
during economic and Iinancial boom. As a consequence,
during the credit market rise the risks are under estimated.
Dynamic prudential rules are designed to smooth out the
eIIect oI pro-cyclical risk assessment.
The instruments recommended by the Committee
on the Global Financial System oI the Bank Ior
International Settlements are assigned to additional buIIer
requirements Ior capital and liquidity, to leverage
limits Ior diIIerent types oI Iinancial claims and
mismatches by maturity and currency, as well as to special
requirements Ior Iinancial market inIrastructure institutions
(Table 3). Most oI them can be used simultaneously
Ior the stability maintenance and to smooth the Iinancial
cycle.
It is important to note that the Bank Ior International
Settlements indicates that the term "macroprudential" was
sounded Iirst at the meeting oI Cook Committee (the
predecessor oI the Basel Committee on Banking
Supervision) in 1979 |2|. The Committee launched a
project to collect statistics on international lending, and the
project itselI reIerred to junction oI micro- and macro-
problems. This expression served as a secret code Ior
associated proIessionals until it came out to public at large
aIter the Asian crisis in the late 1990s. The "Ilag" oI
macroprudential policy turned to the IMF. In 1998 in its
annual report the IMF said the Iollowing: "An eIIective
banking supervision must be continuous. This can be
achieved primarily through site supervision at both the
micro- and macroprudential levels. Macroprudential
analysis is based on market research and
macroeconomic data; the focus of this analysis consists
in the key asset markets, financial intermediaries,
macroeconomic developments and potential
imbalances". In 2000 the IMF has developed
Macroprudential indicators Ior macroprudential analysis,
which were renamed in the Iinancial soundness indicators
on the next year.
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 32
nr. 2 / 2013
Tabelul 3/Table 3
Clasificarea instrumentelor politicii macropruden(iale a Comitetului sistemului financiar global/
Classification of macroprudential policy instruments of the Committee on the Global Financial System
Aria de
instabilitate/ The
area of
instability
Banca/Bank
Al(i investitori
cu excep(ia
bncilor/
Investors
other than
banks
Participan(i
ai pie(ii
valorilor
mobiliare/
Participants
in the
securities
market
Institu(ii de
infrastructur/
Infrastructure
institutions
Structura bilan(ului/
Balance structure
Cerin(e de credit/
Credit
requirements
Levier Iinanciar/
Financial
leverage
Normativele suIicientei
de capital:
- coeIicienti de ponderare
la risc;
- norma rezervelor pentru
pierderi;
- restrictii privind
distribuirea proIitului;
- restrictii privind
cresterea portoIoliului de
credite/
Capital adequacy ratio:
-weighted risk Iactors;
- reserve requirements Ior
possible losses
- restrictions on the proIit
distribution
- loan growth limits
PlaIoanele
raportului sumei
creditului si gajului:
- restrictii privind
raportul pltilor
procentuale si
veniturilor
debitorului;
- restrictii privind
scadenta termenilor
pasivelor si
activelor/
The restrictions on
limit correlation
between the loan
amount and the
pledge:
- restriction limiting
ratio oI interest
payments and
income oI the
borrower;
- restriction oI term
mismatching
between assets and
liabilities
Limitele
marjei si
discontului
minim/
Limits on the
margin and
the minimum
discount
Riscul lichidittii
si riscul de piat/
Liquidity risk and
market risk
- norma lichidittii;
- restrictii privind
creditare n valut;
- restrictii privind
termenele activelor si
pasivelor;
- restrictii privind pozitia
valutar/
- Liquiditv Regulation,
- restrictions on Ioreign
currency loans;
- restriction oI term
mismatching oI assets and
liabilities;
- currency position limit
Regulile de evaluare
a instrumentelor
Iinanciare/
Rules Ior assessing
values oI Iinancial
instruments
Restrictii
privind pozitia
valutar/
Foreign
currencv
position limit
EIectuarea
operatiunilor
pe piata
deschis de
ctre banca
central/
Transactions
oI the central
bank's open
market
Cerinte Iat de
participantii la
tranzactii valutare
(Iond de garantare,
depozitare
preliminar)/
Requirements Ior
Ioreign exchange
market participants
(guarantee Iund,
preliminary deposit)
Interdependenta
participantilor
globali/
Interdependence
oI system players
- limite privind riscul de
contrare;
- cerinte suplimentare de
capital;
- cerinte Iat de
sucursale;/
- concentration risk limits;
- additional capital
requirements;
- requirements Ior
subsidiaries;
Cerinte Iat de
contragentii
principali/
Requirements Ior
central counterparties
Sursa/Source: Macroprudential instruments and frameworks: a stocktaking of issues and experiences. CCFS
Publications. Ao 38, may 21.
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 33
nr. 2 / 2013
Organizarea politicii macropruden(iale. n lume exist
o varietate de abordri n cadrul organizrii politicii
macroprudentiale, precum responsabilitatea poate Ii atribuit
unei autoritti de reglementare sau divizat ntre mai multe
institutii guvernamentale. InIluenta crizei Iinanciare a generat
o polarizare a regulatorilor: supravegherea asupra tuturor
intermediarilor Iinanciari implementeaz sau banca central
sau mega-regulator unic. O solutie intermediar este de a
institutionaliza o coordonare ntre regulatori. Ca urmare,
responsabilitatea Iinal revine comisiei interdepartamentale
sau Consiliului pentru stabilitate Iinanciar. n trile, n care
exist megaregulatoare, exist o tendint de post-criz de
consolidare a rolului bncii centrale.
n Marea Britanie, unde pentru prima dat a Iost creat
megaregulator si care se consider legiuitor n domeniul
reglementrii monetare si Iinanciare, ideea megaregulatorului
a suIerit Iiasco-ul din anul 2009 a Iost dat start reIormei de
reglementare Iinanciar, Iiind asociat cu revenirea Iunctiilor
de supraveghere ctre Banca Angliei (Tabelul 4).
n SUA are loc o redistribuire a Iunctiilor: de la Securities
and Exchange Commission sunt transIerate la US Federal
Reserve System. Pe lng aceasta, a Iost creat Consiliul
pentru monitorizarea stabilittii Iinanciare (Financial Stability
Oversight Council), n care sub egida Trezoreriei SUA au Iost
incluse autorittile Iinanciare americane pentru eIectuarea
controlului asupra participantilor strategice din piat.
Europa a mers pe calea crerii suprastructurii pan-
europene asupra autorittilor de reglementare. Ca urmare a
negocierilor dintre Comisia European, Parlamentul European
si reprezentanti ai guvernelor UE, a Iost luat decizia, din
anul 2011, de a crea un Sistem European de Supraveghere
Financiar (European System oI Financial Supervisors,
ESFS), n componenta cruia vor intra agentii de proIil:
pentru sectorul bancar (European Banking
Authority, EBA), pentru sectorul asigurrilor (European
Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority, EIOPA),
pentru participantii pietii valorilor mobiliare (European
Securities and Markets Authority, ESMA) si, totodat,
Consiliul European de monitorizare a riscurilor
sistemice (CERS sau European Systemic Risk Board,
ESRB).
Organization of macroprudential policy. In the world
there is a variety oI approaches to macroprudential policy
organization, and the responsibility may be assigned to a
single regulator or shared between other government
agencies. Under the inIluence oI the Iinancial crisis there
was the Iollowing polarization oI regulators: the oversight
oI all Iinancial intermediaries should be operated by either
the central bank or a single mega-regulator. An
intermediate solution is to institutionalize the coordination
between regulators. As a result, the ultimate responsibility
should lie with the inter-ministerial committee or the
Iinancial stability board. In countries where there are mega-
regulators, there is a post-crisis trend to strengthen the role
oI the central bank.
In the UK, where the mega-regulator originated Irom,
and which is considered to be mega-trendsetter in
the area oI monetary and Iinancial regulation, the idea oI
mega-regulator came to its Iiasco: in 2009 the reIorm oI
Iinancial regulation began and it was associated with the
return oI oversight Iunctions to the Bank oI England
(Table 4).
In the U.S.A., there is a redistribution oI Iunctions: Irom
the Securities and Exchange Commission these Iunctions
are transIerred to the U.S. Federal Reserve System. Besides
this, there was created the Financial Stability Oversight
Council, which included the U.S. Iinancial authorities
under the aegis oI the U.S. Treasury in order to control the
systemic market participants.
Europe has taken the path oI building pan-European
superstructures over its regulators. As a result oI
negotiations between the European Commission, European
Parliament and government representatives oI the EU
countries, in 2011 a special decision was taken to
establish the European System oI Financial Supervisors
(ESFS), which will include the Iollowing specialized
agencies: the European Banking Authority (EBA) Ior
banks, the European Insurance and Occupational
Pensions Authority (EIOPA) Ior insurance companies, and
the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA)
Ior the participants oI the securities market, as well as the
European Systemic Risk Board, (ESRB).
Tabelul 4/Table 4
Caracteristicile comparative ale politicii macropruden(iale n Uniunea European, SUA yi Marea Britanie/
Comparative characteristics of macroprudential policy in Europe, the U.S. and the UK
Caracteristica/
Caracteristic
Marea Britanie/
UK
SUA/
USA
Uniunea European/
Europe
Institutia
responsabil/
Responsible
authority
Comitetul politicii Iinanciare/Financial
Stability Board
Consiliul privind monitorizarea
stabilittii Iinanciare/Financial
Stability Monitoring Board
Consiliul European de monitorizare a
riscurilor sistemice/European Systemic
Risk Board
Obiectivele politicii - identiIicarea si gestionarea riscurilor
cumulative si vulnerabilittilor sistemului
Iinanciar;
- mentinerea stabilittii macroeconomice
printr-un control al dezechilibrelor
Iinanciare, inclusiv si ciclul de credit/
- identiIication and management oI cumulative
risks and vulnerabilities oI the Iinancial
system;
- maintaining macroeconomic stability
through control oI Iinancial
imbalances, including the credit
cycle
- identiIicarea riscurilor
stabilittii Iinanciare;
- promovarea disciplinei de piat;
- nivelarea amenintrilor n
adresa stabilittii pietelor
Iinanciare/
- identiIication oI risks oI
Iinancial stability;
- promoting market discipline;
- leveling emerging threats to the
stability oI Iinancial markets
- prevenirea sau reducerea riscului de
stabilitate Iinanciar n UE;
- promovarea Iunctionrii stabile a pietei
interne/
- prevent or reduce the risks oI Iinancial
stability in the EU;
- promoting the smooth Iunctioning oI the
internal market
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 34
nr. 2 / 2013
Tabelul 4/Table 4 (continuare)
Rolul bncii
centrale/The role oI
the central bank
- Banca Angliei joac un rol-cheie, deoarece
el prezideaz si are o majoritate n Comisia
pentru politic Iinanciar;
- Directia reglementrii prudentiale (care
eIectueaz supraveghere Iinanciar integrat)
este o Iilial a Bncii Angliei;
- Banca Angliei are posibilitate de a
interveni direct si prudent prin Directia
reglementrii prudentiale;
- Banca Angliei supravegheaz:
contrapartide strategice, sistemele de
decontare si de plat;
- Banca Angliei are un mandat de sanare a
bncilor./
- The Bank oI England has played a key role,
because he presides and has a majority in the
Financial Stability Board;
- Department oI prudential management
(perIorming integrated Iinancial supervision)
is a subsidiary oI the Bank oI England;
- The Bank oI England may implement a
direct interventions by the Department oI
prudential management;
- Bank oI England supervise the central
counterparty, clearing and payment systems;
- Bank oI England has a mandate to bank
resolution
- Consiliul de administratie al
Sistemului Federal de Rezerv al
SUA joac un rol important de
regulator al jucatorilor strategice
la nivel macro- si
microprudential, consiliului
raporteaz companiile Iinanciare
nebancare si holdinguri bancare;
- Sistemul Federal de Rezerv al
SUA nu conduce Consiliul
privind monitorizarea stabilittii
Iinanciare, acest rol este realizat
de ctre Trezoreria SUA n
calitate de coordonator al politicii
macroprudentiale./
- Board oI Governors oI the U.S.
Federal Reserve plays a role in
both the macro-and micro-
controller system-players, beIore
him reports nonbank Iinancial
companies and bank holding
companies;
- U.S. Fed don't head the
Financial Stability Monitoring
Board, this role is perIormed by
the U.S. Treasury as the
coordinator oI macroprudential
policy
- Presedintele Bncii Centrale Europene
(BCE) conduce Consiliul general si
Comitetul de conducere (cel putin primii 5
ani) a Consiliului European de
monitorizare a riscurilor sistemice;
- BCE actioneaz ca secretariat al
Consiliului pentru monitorizarea riscurilor
sistemice, adic oIer suport analitic si
administrativ.
Bncile centrale nationale din Europa
(BC):
- Toti guvernatorii BC au dreptul de vot
la Consiliul general;
- 4 Guvernatori ai BC sunt membrii
Comitetului de conducere;
- Personalul BC constituie personalul
Secretariatului Consiliului;
- BC au un rol principal n analiza si
adoptarea deciziilor n domeniul politicii
macroprudentiale/
- ECB president as head oI the General
Council and the Steering Committee (or at
least the Iirst 5 years) oI the European
Systemic Risk Board;
- ECB acts as the secretariat oI the
European Systemic Risk Board, it provides
analytical and administrative support.
The national central banks oI Europe
(CBE):
- CBE-all governors have the right to vote
on the General Council;
- 4 CBE Governors are members oI the
Steering Committee;
- CBE-staII is the Council Secretariat staII;
- CBE has a leading role in the analysis
and decision-making in the Iield oI macro-
prudential policy
Distributia
competentelor si
responsabilittilor
n procesul
implementrii
politicii anticriz/
Distribution oI
authorities and
responsibilities in
the implementation
oI anti-crisis policy
- Comitetul politicii Iinanciare este implicat
n adoptarea solutiilor anticriz;
- Banca Angliei are mandat de banc
central, de regulator prudential, de
,senator bancar si este responsabil pentru
politica anticriz;
- Trezoreria Regatului Unit este implicat n
adoptarea deciziilor, dac se asteapt
utilizarea Iondurilor din bugetul de stat./
- The Financial Stability Board is involved in
the adoption oI anti-crisis solutions;
- Bank oI England has authorities oI the
central bank, prudential regulator, cleanup oI
banks and is responsible Ior the anti-crisis
policy;
- UK Treasury is involved in decision
making, iI its planed to use Iunds Irom the
state budget;
- Consiliul privind monitorizarea
stabilittii Iinanciare este implicat
n procesul decizional anticriz;
- Sistemul Federal de Rezerv al
SUA, are mandat de o banc
central, de regulator prudential,
de reorganizator bancar si este
responsabil pentru politica
anticriz;
- Trezoreria SUA mentine control
asupra tuturor deciziilor ce tin de
utilizarea resurselor bugetului de
stat;
- Corporatia Iederal de asigurare
a depozitelor actioneaz ca
institutia autorizat pentru
lichidarea ordonat a juctorilor
de pe piata Iinanciar./
- Financial Stability Monitoring
Board involved in the decision-
making crisis;
- U.S. Federal Reserve, has
authorities oI the central bank,
prudential regulator, cleanup oI
banks and is responsible Ior the
anti-crisis policy;
- The U.S. Treasury controls in
decision making, iI its planed to
use Iunds Irom the state budget;
- The Federal Deposit Insurance
Corporation acts as the authority
Ior the orderly liquidation oI
Iinancial market players
Consiliul European de monitorizare a
riscurilor sistemice nu are mputerniciri si
joac un rol consultativ/
European Systemic Risk Board is not
authorized and has a consultative role
Sursa/Source: Macro-financial environment // ECB Financial Stability Review, December 21. p.1.
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 33
nr. 2 / 2013
CERS (Consiliul European de monitorizare a riscurilor
sistemice) are n Iat 3 sarcini:
1) CERS trebuie s monitorizeze, s identiIice si s
determine priorittile riscurilor sistemice la adresa stabilittii
Iinanciare. Pentru a eIectua aceast sarcin trebuie s |3|:
- participe la dialog cu comunitatea Iinanciar pentru
colectarea si procesarea inIormatiei de pe piat;
- mentin legturii cu alti parteneri din aIara Europei
(cum ar Ii Consiliul privind monitorizarea stabilittii Iinanciare
n SUA);
- implementeze schimb de idei cu comunitatea
academic.
2) CERS trebuie s elaboreze propuneri pentru autorittile de
reglementare bazate pe o evaluare a riscurilor sistemice.
ConIorm perceperii Bncii Centrale Europene riscul sistemic
este riscul de acumulare pe termen lung a dezechilibrelor
Iinanciare, riscul unei ,epidemii de criz si riscul de socuri ale
sectorului Iinanciar, care poate provoca instabilitate
macroeconomic |4|.
3) CERS va servi ca un Iorum pentru schimbul de inIormatii
ntre bncile centrale si a autorittilor de supraveghere. n asa
mod ar trebui s oIere interactiune ntre politica micro- si
macroprudential. La sIrsitul anului 2010, pentru dezvoltarea
de concepte, modele si instrumente pentru politica
macroprudential n Europa a Iost creat Mars (macroprudential
research network) o retea de cercetare, care include 27 de
bnci centrale.
Grupul de treizeci recomand Banca Central n calitate de
regulator macroprudential. n cazul n care n jurisdictia
national actioneaz ca un model de distributie a competentelor
ntre autorittile de reglementare, care sunt coordonate de ctre
consiliul interdepartamental, atunci Banca Central ar trebui s
joace un rol-cheie. n consiliile interdepartamentale au Iost clar
deIinite domeniile de responsabilitate, ordinea de interactiune si
politica de comunicare.
ESRB has the Iollowing three objectives.
1) ESRB should monitor, identiIy and prioritize
systemic risks reIerring to Iinancial stability. To perIorm
this task, it will have to do the Iollowing |3|:
- to participate in a dialogue with the Iinancial
community to gather and process market inIormation;
- to maintain the contacts with other partners outside
Europe (such as the Council on the monitoring oI Iinancial
stability in the U.S.A.);
- to share ideas with the academic community.
2) ESRB should develop proposals Ior
regulatory authorities based on an assessment oI systemic
risks. Under the systemic risk the European Central Bank
understands the risk oI long-term accumulation oI Iinancial
imbalances, the risk oI an "epidemic" spread oI the crisis
and the risk oI shocks in the Iinancial sector, which can
cause macroeconomic instability |4|.
3) ESRB will provide a Iorum Ior the exchange oI
inIormation between the national central banks and
supervisory authorities. Thus, it is expected to provide
interaction between micro-and Macroprudential policies.
At the end oI 2010 in Europe there was created Mars
(Macroprudential research network) - a research network
that includes 27 national central banks; it was established
Ior the development oI concepts, models and instruments
Ior macroprudential policy.
The Group oI Thirty recommends the central
bank as a macroprudential regulator. II in the national
jurisdiction there is a working model oI the distribution
oI powers among several regulators, which are
coordinated through an interagency council, then the
central bank should play a key role. The areas oI
responsibility, the order oI interaction and the
communication policy were clearly deIined within
interagency councils.
Adoptarea deciziilor discre(ionare yi politica
suveran. Banca Angliei argumenteaz c, din cauza
diIiculttilor de stabilire a normelor de politic
macroprudential este necesar s Iie elaborate, n cea mai
mare msur, pe avizul expertilor dect pe estimrile
cantitative, modele sau inIormatii despre participantii de pe
piat. n plus, deciziile de politic discretionar
macroprudential vor oIeri o mai mare Ilexibilitate. Pentru
a compensa lipsa de Iormalizare a procesului decizional si a
previzibilittii lui, Banca Angliei propune s-si extind
transparenta prin Iurnizarea mai larg de inIormatii cu
privire la obiectivele, instrumentele, mecanismele si
motivele n adoptarea deciziilor.
De regul, bncile centrale raporteaz despre starea
sectorului Iinanciar si despre realizarea sarcinilor
macroprudentiale ntr-un raport privind stabilitatea
Iinanciar (Iinancial stability reports). Primul raport a Iost
emis de ctre Banca Angliei n anul 1996. Pn la sIrsitul
anului 2010, numrul autorittilor de reglementare au
eliberat rapoarte depsind ciIra 40. Dup cum arat practica,
Discretionary decision-making and sovereign policy.
The Bank oI England says that because oI the diIIiculty in
establishing rules Ior macroprudential policy the overall
approach should be built largely on expert opinions rather
than on the quantitative estimates, models, or inIormation
about the participants oI the market. In addition,
discretionary decisions will give more Ilexibility to
macroprudential policy. To compensate the lack oI
Iormalization in decision-making and predictability, the Bank
oI England proposes to expand its transparency, that is, to
provide greater disclosure oI inIormation about the
objectives, instruments, mechanisms and reasons Ior decisions
taken.
Typically, central banks report about the Iinancial
sector state and the achievements oI macroprudential tasks
in their reports dedicated to Iinancial stability (i.e.,
Iinancial stability reports). The Iirst report was issued by
the Bank oI England in 1996. By the end oI 2010 the
number oI regulators producing such reports had
exceeded Iour tens. As practice shows, the inIormation
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 36
nr. 2 / 2013
inIormatiile continute n rapoarte au un eIect substantial asupra
volatilittii pietei Iinanciare |5|. n plus, autorittile de
reglementare ar trebui s-si consolideze responsabilitatea
public pentru obiectivele macroprudentiale (de preIerint la
nivel legislativ sau n documentele ce tin de strategiile
autorittilor de reglementare).
Centrul International de Studii monetare
5
si Centrul de
Cercetare a Politicilor Economice
6
n anul 2009, au lansat la
Geneva un raport privind economia global ,Principiile
Iundamentale ale regulamentului Iinanciar|6|. Acesta
prevede c politica macroprudential poate Ii mai eIicient
n cazul, n care este pus n aplicare la nivel national, dect
la nivel international. Motivul acestui Iapt este c ciclurile
de credit, de stabilire a preturilor la active Iinanciare si
caracteristicile de risc sistemic n diIerite tri sunt diverse.
n plus, autoritatea de reglementare local cunoaste
speciIicul pietei interne si este mai capabil s pun n
aplicare politica macroprudential.
n acelasi timp, n cazul n care numrul de sisteme
Iinanciare nationale sunt strns integrate, n special, prin
intermediul Iilialelor sau a bncilor aIiliate, va Ii nevoie s-
si coordoneze politica macroprudential, n scopul de a
evita arbitrajul de reglementare si rspndirea international
a socurilor. La nivel international, obligatia de a monitoriza
indicatorii macroprudentiali si de a evalua riscurile
Iinanciare globale i revine Consiliului pentru Stabilitate
Financiar (Financial Stability Board). n aprilie 2009,
Grupul celor douzeci (G20) au dat un mandat vast pentru a
promova stabilitatea Iinanciar.
contained in the reports has a substantial eIIect on the
volatility oI the Iinancial market |5|. In addition, regulatory
authorities are expected to carry a public responsibility
Ior their macroprudential objectives (preIerably Iixed in
legislative acts or in policy documents oI such
regulators).
In 2009 in Geneva the International Center oI Monetary
Studies
5
and the Center Ior Economic Policy Research
6
issued a report on the global economy having the Iollowing
title: "The Iundamental principles oI Iinancial regulation"
|6|. It states that macroprudential policy can be more
eIIective iI it is implemented at the national level rather
than at the international or global level. The reason is that
credit cycles, Iinancial assets pricing and systemic risk
characteristics in many countries are diIIerent. In addition,
the local regulator knows the speciIics oI the internal
market and is better able to implement macroprudential
policy.
At the same time, iI the number oI national
Iinancial systems is closely integrated, in particular
through subsidiaries or aIIiliates oI the banks, then it is
necessary to coordinate macroprudential policy in order to
avoid regulatory arbitrage and the international
spread oI shocks. At international level, the obligation to
monitor macroprudential indicators and to assess global
Iinancial risks is entrusted to the Financial Stability Board.
In April 2009, the Group oI Twenty (G20) had given a
broad mandate to the Financial Stability Board in order to
promote Iinancial stability.
Subiecte de reglementare. Care sunt intermediarii
Iinanciari ce ar trebui s actioneze ca Iiind subiecte n
reglementarea macroprudential? Desi Banca Angliei nu
d un rspuns clar, de Iacto, autorittile de reglementare
din Marea Britanie sunt clasate n trei grupuri: grupurile
britanice bancare si companiile de mprumut, Iilialele
bncilor strine si a bncilor nerezidente, bncile britanice
din grupurile non-bancare. Cea mai mare atentie va Ii
acordat grupurilor sau organizatiilor, ale cror active
totale sunt de cel putin 20 de miliarde de lire sterline (16,3
miliarde de dolari). De Iapt, toat atentia se va concentra
asupra primelor cinci bnci de top.
n raportul ,Principiile Iundamentale ale reglementrii
Iinanciare, autorii propun s se respecte urmtoarele
criterii: orice institutie Iinanciar, care contribuie la riscul
sistemic, trebuie s cad sub incidenta politicii
macroprudentiale. Autorii mpart institutiile de important
sistemic n patru grupe, n Iunctie de contributia lor la
The parties liable to regulation. What Iinancial
intermediaries should act as parties liable to
macroprudential regulation? Although the Bank oI England
does not give any clear answer to this question, in the UK
de Iacto the Iollowing three groups oI organizations are
established as parties liable to regulation: British banking
groups and savings and loan associations, Ioreign bank
subsidiaries and branches oI non-resident banks, British
banks belonging to the non-banking groups. Most attention
will be given to groups or organizations whose total assets
amount to at least 20 billion pounds (16.3 billion dollars).
In Iact, the entire regulator`s attention will be Iocused on
top Iive banks.
In the report titled "The Iundamental principles oI
Iinancial regulation" the authors oIIer to adhere to the
Iollowing criteria: any Iinancial institution that contributes
to systemic risk appearance should be subject to
macroprudential policy. The authors divide the
5
Centrul International de Studii monetare (International Center for Monetarv and Banking Studies) - organi:atie non-profit fondat in anul 1972, la
Geneva, i care actionea: din contul sponsori:rii a bncilor centrale europene (Banca Frantei, Banca Spaniei, Banca Italiei, Bundesbank, Banca
Olandei, Banca National a Elvetiei) i din contul principalelor bnci comerciale europene. In anul 2010, centrul a fost condus de ctre preedintele
Bncii Nationale a Elvetiei.
6
Centrul de Cercetare a Politicilor Economice (Centre for Economic Policv Research) - o organi:atie non-profit infiintat in 1983 in Londra, de ctre
Richard Portes, profesor de economie la London Business School. Centrul functionea: din contul subventiilor a bncilor centrale, guvernelor europene i
Comisiei Europene.
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 37
nr. 2 / 2013
riscul sistemic (CoVaR metodologia propus, bazat pe
modelul Value at Risk):
- juctori independenti si sistemic importanti
(individually systemic) institutii Iinanciare (grupuri)
mari, complexi si interconectati cu statut de campioni
nationali, ale cror incoerent poate ameninta stabilitatea
sistemului Iinanciar;
- juctori sistemic importanti din punct de vedere al
retelei Iinanciare (systemic as part oI a herd) juctori
relativ mici si nesemniIicativi sistemic, dar care au
comportamente corelate. Ca urmare, ca un grup, ei pot
contribui la riscul sistemic (de exemplu, juctori cu o
pondere ridicat a datoriei);
- juctori semniIicativi extrasistemici (non-systemic) -
mari jucatori cu prghie Iinanciar sczut, pentru care
reglementarea micro-prudential este mai important
dect cea macro-prudential (de exemplu: companiile de
investitii si societtile de asigurri mari, Ionduri de
pensii).
- ,copii (tinies) juctori mici care lucreaz n
mare parte din contul capitalurilor proprii. Acestia ar
trebui s Iie supusi minim la regulamentarea
macroprudential.
Subiectii politicii macroprudentiale ar trebui s Iie
juctori din primele dou grupuri. Supraveghetorul ar
trebui s actualizeze periodic lista juctorilor de
important sistemic, precum si s oIere aceste inIormatii
altor autoritti de reglementare. Lista nu trebuie s Iie
public n contextul evitrii intensiIicrii riscului de
comportament abuziv al membrilor si.
systemically important institutions into Iour groups
according to their contribution to systemic risk; the authors
proposed also the methodology CoVaR, which is based on
the model oI Value at Risk:
- Independent and systemically important players
(individually systemic): large, complex structured and
interconnected Iinancial institutions (groups) with the
status oI national champions, whose inconsistency may
threaten the stability oI the whole Iinancial system;
- The systemically important players Irom the point oI
view oI their Iinancial network (systemic as part oI a herd):
relatively small and systemically selI-insigniIicant players
who have mutual (correlated) behavior. As a result, they,
as a group, can contribute to systemic risk (Ior example,
players with a high share oI debt);
- Non-systemic relevant players (non-systemic) are
major players with low Iinancial leverage, Ior which the
micro-prudential regulation is more important than
macroprudential one (primarily large investment and
insurance companies, pension Iunds).
- ,Kids (tinies) are small players who act primarily
Ior account oI their own equity. They should be supposed
to any Macroprudential regulation minimally.
The subjects oI Macroprudential policy should be major
players Irom the Iirst two groups mentioned above. The
supervisor should periodically update a list oI systemically
important players, as well as share such inIormation with
other regulators. The list should carry non-public nature in
order to avoid any increasing risk oI unIair behavior oI its
members.
Structura corporativ yi instrumentele analitice.
n cazul n care responsabilitatea pentru politica
macroprudential este atribuit Bncii Centrale, structura sa
corporativ se schimb. n primul rnd, sarcini
macroprudentiale sunt alocate ntr-o zon separat de
responsabilitate a autorittii de reglementare. Coordonarea
politicilor se realizeaz prin intermediul organul permanent
existent Comitetul de politica Iinanciar, care combin
unittile structurale ale Bncii Centrale pentru a asigura
implementarea obiectivelor macroprudentiale. De exemplu,
n anul 2010, cu sprijinul Guvernului din partea Bncii
Angliei, paralel cu Comitetul de politic monetar a Iost
creat Comitetul de politic Iinanciar, responsabil pentru
realizarea obiectivelor macroprudentiale. La sIrsitul anului
2010, pe lng Banca Angliei Comitetul de politic
Iinanciar (n conIormitate cu inIormatia disponibil) a
operat la Banca National a Belgiei, Banca de Rezerve a
Republicii Sud-AIricane, Banca Central din Sri Lanka,
Banca Central a Ugandei.
n structura corporativ se evidentiaz departamentul de
proIil, care este responsabil pentru Iunctiile cheie ale
politicii macroprudentiale. Ca regul, acesta este numit
Departamentul de Stabilitate Financiar. n unele cazuri (de
exemplu, la Banca Spaniei) implementarea politicii
macroprudentiale este atribuit Departamentului de
Corporate structure and analytical instruments.
II responsibility Ior Macroprudential policy is assigned
to the central bank, its corporate structure should change.
First oI all, macroprudential tasks are allocated to a
separate area oI the regulator`s responsibility. Policy
coordination is carried out via the existing permanent body
- the Financial Policy Committee, which unites all the
divisions oI the central bank responsible Ior the
implementation oI macroprudential objectives. For
example, in 2010, with the support oI the British
government in the Bank oI England, along with the
Monetary Policy Committee, there was established the
Financial Policy Committee responsible Ior
macroprudential objectives. At the end oI 2010 besides the
Bank oI England`s Financial Policy Committee (according
to the available inIormation) there were Iinancial policy
committee established by the National Bank oI Belgium,
South AIrican Reserve Bank, the Central Bank oI Sri
Lanka, the Bank oI Uganda.
In the corporate structure there is a proIile department
responsible Ior key Iunctions oI macroprudential policy.
Typically, it is called the Department oI Financial
Stability. In some cases (Ior example, in the Bank oI
Spain) the implementation oI macroprudential policy is
assigned to the department oI banking regulation and
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 38
nr. 2 / 2013
Reglementare si Supraveghere Bancar.
n cadrul Departamentului de Stabilitate Financiar sunt
create directii specializate: mai ales de analiza
macroprudential, de monitorizare a inIrastructurii
Iinanciare, de monitorizare separat a bncilor de important
sistemic, institutii Iinanciare internationale.
Este interesant cazul Bncii Nationale a Slovaciei. n
anul 2006, dup reIorma reglementrii Iinanciare, Iostul
megaregulator Directia pietei Iinanciare a Iost eliminat,
iar Bncii Nationale i-a revenit reglementarea bncilor,
pietei de capital, companiilor de asigurri si Iondurilor de
pensii. Scopul reIormei reglementrii Iinanciare integrate a
constat n promovarea stabilittii n piata Iinanciar n
ansamblu. n cadrul Bncii Nationale a Iost creat
departamentul de reglementare si analiz Iinanciar, care a
inclus subdiviziunele de supraveghere a pietelor Iinanciare,
precum si sectia de analiz macroprudential.
n ceea ce priveste modelul operational, politica
macroprudential a avansat nesemniIicativ. n anul 2010 o
serie de bnci centrale a declarat despre dezvoltarea
indicatorilor si procedurilor de politic macroprudential.
Printre acestea au Iost Banca Central a Indiei, Banca
Coreei, Banca National Ceh, Banca Israelului etc. Dar se
pare ca Banca Angliei va Ii prima institutie care a
implementat politica macroprudential. Raportul su
intitulat Rolul politicii macroprudentiale |7|, care a pus
bazele teoretice ale noii politici si a devenit unul dintre cele
mai citate printre guvernatorii bncilor centrale. Pentru anul
2011 banca a planiIicat crearea unui model operational al
politicii sale macroprudentiale |8, p. 23|. Este de asteptat c
instituirea unui model operational realizat de ctre Banca
Angliei va stimula dezvoltarea unei politici similare de ctre
alte bnci centrale.
Printre instrumentele analitice ale politicii
macroprudentiale, care n ziua de azi au obtinut
recunoasterea, exist urmtoarele trei grupe de instrumente
|9|:
- Monitorizarea stabilittii Iinanciare (de exemplu,
indicatori de stabilitate Iinanciar, care sunt observate
n cadrul Programului privind evaluarea stabilittii
sectorului Iinanciar implementat n comun de ctre
autorittile nationale de reglementare, FMI si Banca
Mondial);
- Sisteme de prevenire preliminar a crizelor (de
exemplu, sisteme de alert rapid, n principal, pe baza unor
indicatori avansate macroeconomice);
- Stres-testare a bncilor, utiliznd n calitatea
parametrilor de baz datele scenariilor macroeconomice
(macro-stres-testare).
supervision.
Within the Department oI Financial Stability there are
created specialized departments mostly Ior
macroprudential analysis, monitoring oI Iinancial
inIrastructure, as well as separate monitoring oI
systemically important banks and international Iinancial
institutions.
The National Bank oI Slovakia represents a certain
interest. In 2006, aIter the reIorm oI Iinancial regulation,
the Iormer mega-regulator the Financial Markets
Department was eliminated, and the National Bank had
got the responsibility to monitor and regulate the activity
oI banks, capital markets, insurance companies and
pension Iunds. The reIorm purpose oI integrated Iinancial
regulation consisted in promotion oI stability in the
Iinancial market on the whole. Within the National Bank
the Management and Financial Analysis Department was
created, which included oversight units Ior individual
Iinancial markets monitoring, as well as the Department oI
Macroprudential Analysis.
Regarding operational model, macroprudential policy
has moved Iorward insigniIicantly. In 2010 a number oI
central banks declared the development oI macroprudential
policy indicators and procedures. The Iollowing banks
were among them: the Reserve Bank oI India, Bank oI
Korea, the Czech National Bank, the Bank oI Israel, etc.
But it looks like the Bank oI England will be the Iirst
institution implementing macroprudential policy. Its report
titled "The Role oI macroprudential policy" |7|, which laid
the theoretical basis oI the new policy, has become one oI
the most cited among central banks. The bank has planned
creation oI an operational model oI its macroprudential
policy Ior the year 2011 |8, p.23|. It is expected that the
establishment oI an operational model done by the Bank oI
England will boost the development oI a similar policy by
the other central banks.
Among the analytical instruments oI macroprudential
policy that have obtained the recognition today, there are
the Iollowing three groups oI instruments |9|:
- Monitoring oI Iinancial stability (i.e., Financial
Soundness Indicators, which are being watched in the
Iramework oI the Program on stability assessment oI the
Iinancial sector implemented jointly by national regulators,
the IMF and the World Bank);
- Systems Ior preliminary crisis prevention (i.e., early
warning systems, mainly on the basis oI macro-economic
leading indicators);
- Stress-testing Ior banks using the macroeconomic
scenario data as input parameters (macro stress testing).
Concluzii. Rezumnd toate cele de mai sus, putem Iormula
unele concluzii si consecinte reiesind din elaborarea politicii
macroprudentiale. Ele pot Ii descrise ca o conceptie preliminar,
care va Ii completat cu experienta acumulat din implementarea
politicii macroprudentiale. Mare parte dintre ele au Iost deja
acceptate n Basel 3. AstIel, acestea sunt urmtoarele:
Conclusions. Summarizing all the aIoresaid, we can
Iormulate some conclusions and consequences oI the
macroprudential policy development. They can be
described as 'an early concept, which will be
supplemented as the experience on macroprudential policy
implementation will be accumulated. Most oI them have
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 39
nr. 2 / 2013
- Cerintele cantitative si calitative Iat de capital pentru
bnci ar trebui s Iie majorate n mod corespunztor Iat de
perioada pre-criz;
- Cerintele de capital pentru participantii pietei cu
important sistemic ar trebui s Iie mai nalte, dect pentru
ceilalti juctori;
- Capitalul propriu al bncilor trebuie s Iie constituit, n
primul rnd, din capital Iix, din contul crui vor Ii acoperite
pierderile;
- CoeIicientii activelor ponderate la risc ar trebui s Iie
revizuite n partea cresterii cerintelor de capital pentru activele
Ir nici o evaluare transparent a riscurilor si portoIoliului
valorilor mobiliare;
- Necesitatea minimizrii tendintelor prociclice a activittii
bancare prin introducerea normelor prudentiale dinamice;
- n plus la normativele traditionale ale suIicientei
capitalului, este potrivit de utilizat coeIicientul de levier brut
(adic, un simplu raport ntre capital si active);
- Este necesar de nsprit normativele lichidittii curente si
pe termen lung ale bncilor;
- De a extinde reglementarea prudential pentru
participantii pietelor Iinanciare non-bancare care au o
important sistemic.
already been accepted in Basel 3. Thus, they are the
Iollowing:
- Quantitative and qualitative capital requirements Ior
banks should be raised appropriately as compared to the
pre-crisis period;
- Capital requirements Ior systemically important
market participants should be higher than Ior other
players;
- Equity capital oI banks should consist primarily oI
Iixed assets, which may be used to cover losses;
- Risk-weighted asset ratio should be revised towards
the rise oI capital requirements Ior assets without any
transparent assessment oI risks and trading portIolio
securities;
- Procyclicality oI banking activity should be reduced
by introducing dynamic prudential norms;
- In addition to traditional capital requirements it is
appropriate to use the gross leverage Iactor (i.e., a simple
ratio oI capital and assets);
- It is required to tighten the standards Ior current and
long-term liquidity oI the banks;
- It is necessary to extend the prudential regulation Ior
non-bank Iinancial market participants who have systemic
importance.
Referin(e bibliografice / References
1. GAUTHIER, C., LEHAR, A., SOUISSI, M. Macroprudential Regulation and Systemic Capital Requirements. In:
Bank oI Canada Working Paper. 2010, no. 4, january, pp. 2-37.
2. PIET, C. The term macroprudentia: origins and evolution. In: BIS Quarterly Review. 2010, march, pp. 59-67.
3. CONSTANCIO, V. Macro-prudential supervision in Europe. In: Macro-prudential regulation as an approach to
containing systemic risk: economic Ioundations, diagnostic tools and policy instruments: conIerence, 27 september
2010. Speech at the ECB-CFS-CERP. FrankIurt am Main |accesat 25 mai 2013|. Disponibil:
http://www.ecb.int/press/key/date/2010/html/sp1009273.en. html
4. Analytical models and tools Ior the identiIication and assessment oI systemic risks. In: ECB Financial Stability
Review. 2010, june, pp. 138-144.
5. BORN, B., EHRMANN, M., FRATZSCHER, M. Macroprudential policy and central bank communication. In: CEPR
Discussion Papers. 2010, no 8094, november |accesat 25 mai 2013|. Disponibil: http://ideas.repec.org/h/bis/bisbpc/60-
14.html
6. BRUNNERMEIER, M., CROCKETT, A., GOODHART, C., PERSAUD, A., SHIN, H. The Fundamental Principles oI
Financial Regulation. Geneva Report on the World Economy 11. 2009 |accesat 25 mai 2013|. Disponibil:
http://www.princeton.edu/~markus/research/papers/ Geneva11.pdI
7. Bank oI England. The role oI macroprudential policy. 2009, november |accesat 25 mai 2013|. Disponibil:
http://www.bankoIengland.co.uk/publications/Documents/other/Iinancialstability/
roleoImacroprudentialpolicy091121.pdI
8. Bank oI England. Annual Report 2010 |accesat 25 mai 2013|. Disponibil: http://www.
bankoIengland.co.uk/publications/Documents/annualreport/2010/2010report.pdI
9. VINCENZO, A., FRENI, M., GENERALE, A. et al. Lessons learned Irom the Iinancial crisis Ior Iinancial stability
and banking supervision. Bank oI Italy. Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional paper). 2010, nr. 76, december
|accesat 25 mai 2013|. Disponibil: http://www.bancaditalia.it/pubblicazioni/econo/questecoIin2/QF76/QEF76.pdI
Recomandat spre publicare. 11.04.2013
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 60
nr. 2 / 2013
INTEGRAREA RAPOARTELOR
FINANCIARE 5I NON-FINANCIARE
N CONDITIILE MANAGERIALE
INTEGRATION OF FINANCIAL
AND NON-FINANCIAL REPORTS
UNDER MANAGEMENT CONDITIONS
Mihail PRODAACIUK, dr., conf. univ.,
Universitatea de Stat de Finanje yi Economie
din Bucovina, Cernuji, Ucraina
Mihail PRODAACIUK, PhD, Associate Professor,
State University of Finance and Economics
from Bukovina, Cernauti, Ukraine
In lucrare este pre:entat estimarea de:voltrii
rapoartelor integrate de peste hotare i descrise etapele de
instituire a unui astfel de sistem. Este elaborat forma i
structura de raportare corporativ, care este diferentiat,
reflectand informatia integrat cu privire la aspectele
activittii financiare i non-financiare. indicatori statistici,
economici, financiari i sociali, strategia companiei,
fluxurile viitoare de numerar, valoarea capitalului uman,
stabilitatea modelului de afaceri. Sunt determinate scopurile
i obiectivele rapoartelor corporative, care constau in
oferirea informatiei fiabile despre toate activittile
companiei, in conformitate cu obiectivele strategice i
modelele de management.
Structura raportului integrat ia in considerare cerintele
sistemului de management, ale organelor legislative i ale
altor institutii, constituie ba:a pentru de:voltarea modelelor
de rapoarte ramurale. Structura acesteia va depinde de
dimensiunea formei organi:ational-furidice i a valorii
sociale ale companiei in societate. Autorul propune in
articol trei abordri ale reali:rii rapoartelor corporative in
sectiunea indicatorilor de responsabilitate social, in care
fiecare companie alege forma de raportare in conformitate
cu categoriile, care depind de mrimea i politica
strategic. Rapoartele integrate propuse contribuie la
respectarea doctrinelor de de:voltare stabil i va deveni un
instrument, care, in perspectiva apropiat, va asigura
intreprinderii o interactiune eficient cu pietele financiare i
prtile interesate ale relatiilor de piat.
The paper presents the assessment of the development of
integrated reports overseas and describes the stages
of establishment of such a svstem. The form and structure of
corporate reporting is developed, and is differentiated,
reflecting the integrated information regarding aspects of
financial and non-financial activitv. statistical indicators,
economical, financial and social, companv strategv, future
cash flows, the value of human capital, and the stabilitv
of the business model. Goals and obfectives of corporate
reports are determined, which consist in providing reliable
information on all companv activities in accordance with
strategic obfectives and management models.
The structure of the integrated report takes into
consideration the requirements of the management svstem,
of the legislative bodies and other institutions, and is
considered the basis for the development of branch reports
models. Its structure will depend on the si:e of the legal-
organi:ational form and the social value of the companv in
societv. The author of the article suggests three approaches
to achieving corporate reports in the section of social
responsibilitv indicators, where each companv chooses the
form of reporting in accordance with the available
categories that depend on the si:e and strategic policv. The
suggested integrated reports are instrumental to the
observance of the stable development doctrines and will
become a tool that, in the near future, will ensure the
companv an effective interaction with financial markets and
the stakeholders of market relations.
Cuvinte cheie: rapoarte integrate, rapoarte corporative,
de:voltare stabil, strategie, informatii financiare, informatii
non-financiare, prti ale companiei, riscuri, valoarea afacerii.
Key words. integrated reports, corporate reports, stable
development, strategv, financial information, non-financial
information, stakeholders, risks, business value.
1EL classification: F3, C32, M1, M21
Introducere. Cerintele actuale Iat de baza
inIormational a managementului ntreprinderii depsesc
nivelul rapoartelor Iinanciare si impun relevarea datelor,
privind aspectele activittii economice, sociale si de mediu.
Anume rapoartele non-Iinanciare vor deveni un instrument
eIicient al politicilor interne si externe ale activittii
ntreprinderilor, vor constitui Iundamentul pentru elaborarea
si realizarea proiectelor strategice de aIaceri.
Introduction. Current requirements regarding the
inIormational basis oI enterprise management are beyond
the level oI Iinancial reports and enIorce data disclosure on
aspects oI economic, social and environmental activity.
Namely non-Iinancial reports will become an eIIective tool
oI internal and external policies oI enterprise activity, and
will be the Ioundation Ior developing and implementing
strategic business projects.
Con(inutul de baz. n Ucraina, n ultimii ani, se atest
o tendint constant de constientizare a necesittii pentru
desIsurarea social si responsabil a businessului.
Dezvoltarea retelei nationale a Pactului Global al ONU a dat
un impuls pentru auditurile non-Iinanciare din Ucraina,
deoarece prezentarea Raportului anual privind progresul n
realizarea principiilor Pactului Global este un angajament
care si-l asum semnatarul Pactului Global. n special, 90
din rapoartele non-Iinanciare, care au aprut n Ucraina n
ultimii ani, apartin membrilor Pactului Global. Cu toate
The basic content. In Ukraine, in recent years, there has
been a steady trend oI awareness oI the need Ior social and
responsible business conduct. The development oI the
national network oI the UN Global Agreement has given a
boost to non-Iinancial audits in Ukraine, as presenting the
Annual Report on progress in implementing the Global
Agreement principles is a commitment taken by the
signatory oI the Global Agreement. In particular, 90 oI
non-Iinancial reports, which have appeared in recent years
in Ukraine, belong to members oI the Global Agreement.
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 61
nr. 2 / 2013
acestea, inIormarea publicului despre realizrile ecologice,
economice si sociale ale comunittilor de aIaceri nu a
devenit nc o practic comun |1|.
Integrarea rapoartelor Iinanciare si non-Iinanciare a Iost
cercetat n lucrrile oamenilor de stiint autohtoni si strini,
printre care: Bittl D., Vorobei V., Gheitem V., Glazrina I.,
Dipiaza S., Nijnii M., Jglei I., Jurovscaia I., Ecclz R.,
Malinovscaia O., Melnic L., Potravni I., Sidorov V.,
Siniachevici I. O atentie sporit inIormrii publicului cu
privire la responsabilittile sociale si de mediu ale
activittii subiectilor este acordat n lucrrile lui: Baydon N.,
Rasid S. K., Kozyrev A.N., Makarov V. L., Muhammad
Akram Han, Monderz K.
However, public awareness oI ecological, economical and
social achievements oI business communities has not yet
become a common practice |1|.
Integration oI Iinancial and non-Iinancial reports has
been researched in the works oI local and Ioreign scientists,
including: Bittl D., Vorobei V., Gheit V., Glazrina I.,
Dipiaza S., Nijnii M., Jglei I., Jurovscaia I., Ecclz R.,
Malinovscaia O., Melnik L., Potravni I., Sidorov V.,
Siniachevici I. Increased attention to inIorming the public
about the social and environmental responsibilities o the
subject`s activities is given in the works oI: Baydon N.,
Rashid S.K., Kozyrev A.N., Makarov V.L., Muhammad
Akram Khan, Monderz K.
Scopul acestui studiu este Iundamentarea conceptual a
rolului rapoartelor corporative n conditiile managementului
si constructia Iormei si structurii rapoartelor corporative n
contextul realizrii conceptiei dezvoltrii strategice a
ntreprinderilor.
n trile strine, un rol important n rspndirea
raportului non-Iinanciar l joac guvernul, care l consider
un instrument de promovare a responsabilittii sociale a
businessului. Companiile din Belgia, din anul 1995, sunt
obligate s adauge n componenta raportului anual al
companiei Raportul Social, care este parte obligatorie pentru
toate companiile, n care numrul de angajati depseste 20
de persoane. Deci, companiile mari prezint raportul social
detaliat, iar cele mici si mijlocii succint. n anul 2005,
Institutul National de Standardizare din Marea Britanie, n
conIormitate cu Legislatia cu privire la rapoartele
corporative sociale obligatorii, a emis un standard pentru
elaborarea unui astIel de raport. Acesta contine: inIormatie
non-Iinanciar privind productivitatea muncii angajatilor si
motivarea lor, privind sntatea si securitatea muncii, etica
n aIaceri. n anul 1995, n Londra, la solicitarea Societtii
Regale pentru ncurajarea Artei, Industriei si Comertului, a
Iost publicat Conceptul ,Compania viitorului. Rolul aIacerii
n lume. Ce se modiIic?. Conceptul viitorului
ntreprinderii nu presupune modiIicri n raportul Iinanciar,
dar i oIer un rol mai putin important n modelul rapoartelor
detaliate, viznd includerea declaratiilor despre rezultatele
non-Iinanciare, n special, cu privire la aspecte,
precum mediul si relatiile cu angajatii, clientii, Iurnizorii si
publicul.
Experienta trilor strine privind organizarea ntocmirii
si prezentrii rapoartelor non-Iinanciare este important
pentru Ucraina, ceea ce impune cercetare n scopul viitoarei
determinri a dezvoltrii n tara noastr. n companiile
lideri n lume, deja multi ani, modelele de management
al businessului se bazeaz pe armonizarea indicatorilor
Iinanciari si non-Iinanciari, ceea ce constituie o premis
pentru tranzitia la urmtoarea etap crearea unui
nou produs pentru raportul corporativ integrat al
companiilor.
Raportul corporativ reprezint armonizarea rapoartelor
Iinanciare si non-Iinanciare, unde este generalizat
inIormatia cu privire la situatia Iinanciar si rezultatele
activittii Iinanciare si de gospodrire, sociale si de mediu
ale companiilor, ceea ce permite evaluarea eIicacittii
deciziilor manageriale si identiIicarea aspectelor strategice
ale dezvoltrii. Scopul principal al rapoartelor corporative
The purpose of this study is the conceptual Ioundation
oI the role oI corporate reports in terms oI management
conditions; Iorm and structure oI corporate reports in the
context oI achieving the concept oI strategic development oI
businesses.
In Ioreign countries, an important role in the spread oI
non-Iinancial reports plays the government, which is
regarded as a promotion tool oI social responsibility in
business. Companies in Belgium, since 1995, are required to
add the Social Report to the composition oI the company's
annual report, which is mandatory Ior all the companies in
which the number oI employees exceeds 20 people.
ThereIore, large companies present a detailed social report,
and the small and medium ones a brieI report. In 2005, the
UK National Institute Ior Standards, according to the
legislation regarding compulsory social corporate reports,
issued a standard Ior achieving such a report. It contains:
non-Iinancial inIormation regarding the work productivity
oI the employees and their motivation, their health and
saIety, their business ethics. In 1995, in London, at the
request oI the Royal Society Ior the encouragement oI Arts,
Industry and Trade, was published the concept "Company oI
the Iuture. The role oI business in the world. What is
changing? ". The concept oI the Iuture Ior a business does
not involve changes in the Iinancial report, but oIIers it a
less important role in the model oI detailed reports,
regarding the incorporation oI the results oI non-Iinancial
reports, especially on aspects such as environment and
relationships with employees, customers, suppliers and the
public.
The experience oI Ioreign countries regarding the
preparation and presentation oI non-Iinancial reports is
important Ior Ukraine, which requires research Ior the Iuture
determination oI the development oI our country. The
leading companies in the world, Ior many years already,
have based their business management models on the
harmonization oI Iinancial and non-Iinancial indicators,
which is a prerequisite Ior the transition to the next stage
the creation oI a new product Ior the companies` integrated
corporate report.
The corporate report represents the harmonization oI
Iinancial and non-Iinancial reports, where the inIormation
about the Iinancial position and the results oI Iinancial and
management activity, social and environmental impacts oI
companies is summarized; which allows assessment oI the
eIIectiveness oI management decisions and identiIication oI
the strategic development issues. The main purpose oI
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 62
nr. 2 / 2013
este prezentarea inIormatiei Iiabile cu privire la activitatea
multiaspectual a ntreprinderii n conIormitate cu
obiectivele strategice si modelele de management.
Sarcinile unei astIel de metodologii conceptuale constau
n urmtoarele:
- asocierea ntr-un sistem economic a indicatorilor
Iinanciari si non-Iinanciari;
- crearea unei baze moderne de inIormatii pentru
gestionarea responsabilittii sociale si activittii Iinanciare si
de gospodrire, orientat spre extinderea evalurii
investitiilor n capitalul intelectual;
- trecerea rezultatelor de evaluare de la priorittile pe
termen scurt ale rezultativittii la stabilirea eIicacittii
prognozrii Iunctionrii companiei;
- crearea valorii ntreprinderii.
Ideea principal a constituirii rapoartelor corporative se
concentreaz pe strategia ntreprinderii de a Iurniza
inIormatii n timp util, veridice si transparente pentru luarea
deciziilor, atragerea investitorilor interesati, stabilitatea
modelului de aIaceri al companiei.
Raportarea corporativ este diIerentiat, incluznd
reIlectarea inIormatiei integrate despre aspectele Iinanciare
si non-Iinanciare ale activittii statistice, economice,
Iinanciare si sociale, strategiile companiei, Iluxurile
viitoare de numerar, valoarea capitalului uman,
sustenabilitatea modelului de aIaceri. Structura raportului
integrat trebuie s ia n considerare cerintele sistemului de
management, ale organelor legislative si altor institute, ceea
ce va deveni baz pentru dezvoltarea modelelor de raport
ramural. Structura acesteia depinde de dimensiunea, de
Iorma organizational-juridic si valoarea social a companiei
n societate.
Rapoartele integrate reunesc sectiunile esentiale de date,
care, n prezent, sunt dispersate n anumite sectiuni de
raportare (rapoarte Iinanciare, notiIicri ale conducerii,
raportul privind gestionarea corporativ si remunerarea,
raportul privind dezvoltarea durabil) |2|. Potrivit
propunerilor prezentate mai sus despre instituirea raportului
corporativ, naintm urmtoarea structur de dezvluire a
inIormatiei despre activitatea Iinanciar, social si de mediu
(Tabelul 1).
corporate reports is to present reliable inIormation
concerning the multidimensional activities oI the company
in compliance with strategic objectives and management
models.
The tasks oI such a conceptual methodology are the
Iollowing:
- association in an economic system oI Iinancial and
non-Iinancial indicators;
- creation oI a modern inIormation data base Ior social
responsibility management, business and Iinancial
management; oriented to expand the assessment oI
investments in intellectual capital;
- passing evaluation results Irom short term priorities oI
the outcome to the determination oI the eIIicacy oI
Iorecasting company operations;
- establishin the value oI the enterprise.
The main idea oI the establishment oI corporate reports
is Iocused on the strategy oI the enterprise to provide
inIormation timely; accurate and transparent decision
making, attracting interested investors, stability oI the
company's business model.
Corporate Reporting is diIIerentiated, including
coverage oI integrated inIormation about Iinancial and non-
Iinancial aspects oI statistical work, economic, Iinancial and
social, company strategies, Iuture cash Ilows, the value oI
human capital, sustainability oI the business model. The
structure oI the integrated report should take into account
the requirements oI the management system, legislative
bodies and other institutions, which will become the basis
Ior developing branch model reports. Its structure depends
on the size, on the organizational-legal Iorm and the
company's social value in society.
Integrated reports gather together essential data
sections, which are currently scattered in some report
sections (Iinancial reports, notices oI management, report on
corporate management and remuneration, report on
sustainability) |2|. According to the above proposals on the
establishment oI the corporate report, we submitt
the Iollowing structure Ior disclosure oI inIormation
about Iinancial, social and environmental activity
(Table 1).
Tabelul 1/Table 1
Structura rapoartelor corporative/The structure of corporate reports
Sec(iunea/
Section
Structura yi elementele de raportare/
Structure and reporting elements
Caracteristica indicatorilor/
Indicator features
I. Situa(ia financiar yi rezultatele activit(ii/Financial situation and activity results
1.1. Situatia Iinanciar a activittii companiei/
The financial situation of the companvs
activities
Situatia Iinanciar a activelor, obligatiunilor si a capitalului propriu, reIlectate la o anumit
dat/
Financial statement of assets, liabilities and equitv, reflected at a certain date.
1.2. Rezultate Iinanciare/
Financial results
Venituri, cheltuieli, rezultate Iinanciare, elementele cheltuielilor operationale, venitul total,
calculul indicatorilor proIitabilittii actiunilor/
Revenues, expenses, financial results, items of operational costs, total income, calculating
profitabilitv indicators of actions.
1.3. Fluxul mijloacelor monetare/
Currencv cash flow
Intrrile si iesirile mijloacelor monetare n perioada de raportare n rezultatul activittii
operationale, investitionale si Iinanciare/
The inputs and outputs of monetarv means during the reporting period as a result of
operational, financial and investment activities.
1.4. Circulatia elementelor capitalului propriu/
Transfer of equitv elements
ModiIicrile din cadrul capitalului propriu al ntreprinderii pe perioada de raportare/
Changes in the Equitv of the companv during the reporting period.
II. Impozite yi indicatori statistici/1axes and statistical indicators
2.1. Impozite si taxe/
Taxes and fees
Stabilirea si stingerea obligatiilor privind impozitele si taxele: impozitul pe proIitul ntreprinderii,
impozitul pe venit al persoanelor Iizice, taxa pe valoarea adugat, impozite pe accize, taxe de
mediu, taxa auto la prima nmatriculare a unui vehicul, redevente, taxa pentru teren si altele/
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 63
nr. 2 / 2013
Establish and settle obligations regarding taxes and fees. tax on companv profits, personal
income tax, value added tax, excise taxes, environmental taxes, car tax on the first
registration of a vehicle, rovalties, fee for land and others.
2.2. Date statistice privind Iunctionarea companiei/Operating statistics regarding the companvs activities
2.2.1 Statistica comertului exterior/
Foreign trade statistics
Exportul (importul) de bunuri, neincluse n declaratia vamal, cumprarea (vnzarea) de
bunuri pentru asigurarea activittii mijloacelor de transport, nevoilor pasagerilor si a
membrilor echipajului; exportul (importul) serviciilor/
Export (import) of goods, not included in the customs declaration, the purchase (sale) of
assets to ensure the activitv of transport businesses, passenger and crew needs, export
(import) of services.
2.2.2 Statistica comertului intern/
Internal trade statistics
CiIra de aIaceri pentru perioada de raportare; vnzrile si stocurile de bunuri n reteaua
comercial si retelele businessului restaurantelor, desIsurarea achizitiilor de bunuri,
lucrrilor si serviciilor din contul mijloacele bugetare, disponibilitatea retelei comerciale si a
retelei de business al restaurantelor/
The annual turnover for the reporting period, sales and inventorv of goods in the
commercial network and the networks of restaurant businesses, conduct procurement of
goods, works and services from the budget, the availabilitv of the commercial network and
the network for the restaurant business.
2.2.3 Statistica volumului de investitii si
inovatii/
The statistics of the volume of investments
and innovations
Investitii de capital, investitii strine n Ucraina; investitiile Ucrainei n economia altor tri;
cercetarea activittii inovationale a ntreprinderii/
Capital investments, foreign investments in Ukraine, Ukrainian investments in the economv
of other countries, research of innovational companv activitv.
2.2.4 Statistica disponibilittii si circulatiei
mijloacelor Iixe/
Availabilitv and traffic statistics of fixed
assets
Disponibilitatea si circulatia mijloacelor Iixe, amortizarea/
Availabilitv and movement of fixed assets, depreciation.
III. Responsabilitatea social yi de mediu / Social and Environmental Responsibility
3.1. Dezvoltarea social si investitiile sociale / Social development and social investment
3.1.1 Organizarea muncii/
Organi:ation of work
Conditiile de munc si de protectie social, securitatea muncii siguranta la locul de munc,
dezvoltarea potentialului uman si Iormarea la locul de munc/
Work and social protection conditions, workplace safetv and occupational safetv, human
capital development and training in the workplace.
3.1.2 Drepturile omului/
Human rights
Angajare si relatiile de munc; practicile de munc, nediscriminarea, libertatea de asociere si
negocierile colective; abordarea asigurrii, drepturile popoarelor indigene si minorittilor/
Emplovment and labor relations, labor practices, discrimination, freedom of association
and collective bargaining, safetv of approach, the rights of indigenous peoples and
minorities.
3.1.3 Investitiile sociale/
Social Investments
Proiecte educationale, asistent social pturilor sociale vulnerabile ale populatiei,
spiritualitatea si mostenirea istoric si cultural ale populatiei, dezvoltarea sportului/
Educational profects, supporting the social vulnerable sectors of the population, spiritual,
historical and cultural heritage of the population, the development of sports.
3.2. Responsabilitatea ecologic a companiei / Environmental responsibilitv of the companv
3.2.1. Cultura ecologic a proceselor de
producere/
The organic culture of production
processes
Ecologia proceselor de producere; proiecte ecologice inovationale n producere, prevenirea
polurii, utilizarea durabil a resurselor; productia ecologic pur, managementul ecologic/
Ecologv, production processes, innovative environmental profects in production, pollution
prevention, use of sustainable resources, ecologicallv clean production, environmental
management.
3.2.2. Activitti de ocrotire a mediului/
Environmental protection activities
Mediul, protectia si restabilirea mediului natural, eIicienta utilizrii resurselor Iunciare,
cheltuieli pentru mbunttirea resurselor Iunciare/
Environment, protection and restoration of the natural environment, efficient use of land
resources, costs to improve land resources.
IV. Indicatorii economici ai activit(ii / Economic indicators of the activity
4.1 Indicatorii economici ai activittii/
Economic indicators of the activitv
Principalii indicatori economici ai rezultatelor activittii companiei si subdiviziunilor sale
structurale, sistemul indicatorilor de producere, impactul crizei asupra activittii companiei;
personalul, resursele de capital, sectorul bugetar si public, Iurnizorii, deservirea si suportul
consumatorilor si solutionarea litigiilor, organizarea gestionrii; planiIicare strategic,
modele de aIaceri/
The main macroeconomic indicators of the output of the companvs activities and its
structural subdivisions, indicators of the production svstem, the impact of the crisis on the
companv, staff, capital resources, public and private sector, providers, customer service and
support, dispute litigation, management organi:ation, strategic planning, business models.
V. Notificri la raportarea corporativ / Corporate reporting notifications
5.1 NotiIicri la raportarea corporativ/
Corporate reporting notifications
Totalitatea inIormatiilor, datelor si explicatiilor, care asigur detalierea si justiIicarea
articolelor rapoartelor corporative, precum si alte inIormatii privind indicatorii calitativi si de
cost, a cror divulgare va Ii prevzut n conIormitate cu standardele nationale si
internationale de evident contabil si de dezvoltare durabil/
All the information, data and explanations that provide details and fustification of corporate
reports articles and other information on qualitv indicators and costs, the disclosure of
which will be provided in accordance with national and international standards of
accounting and sustainable development records.
Sursa Source: Elaborat de autori Developed by the authors.
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 64
nr. 2 / 2013
Forma raportului corporativ propus asociaz
principalele compartimente ale rapoartelor Iinanciare,
Iiscale, statistice, interne, sociale, care, n prezent, sunt
dispersate n diIerite Iorme. Structura unui astIel de raport va
depinde de cerintele sistemului de management si de modelul
de aIaceri.
Actualitatea problemei de generalizare a inIormatiilor n
raportarea corporativ se mentine din cauz c indicatorii,
care caracterizeaz responsabilitatea social, n marea
majoritate, sunt exprimati n evaluare calitativ si nu prevd
reIlectarea lor n msurtorul valorilor monetare, care, n
viitor, va necesita reIormri suplimentare sau deplasri ntr-un
anumit context. De obicei, pentru manageri, inIormatia
necesar este exprimat n msurtoarele monetare,
corespunztoare cerintelor esentiale ale calittii inIormatiilor:
relevant, Iiabilitate, claritate si comparabilitate. AstIel de
inIormatie, prezentat n raportarea corporativ, va Ii util
pentru management si va deveni un instrument de baz pentru
analiz, planiIicare si prognoz. Acest lucru va contribui la
Iaptul ca continutul raportului non-Iinanciar s oIere unitti
compatibile cu cel Iinanciar. Deci, propunem ca indicatorii
din sectiunile raportului corporativ III si IV, ai activittii
sociale, ecologice si economice, s Iie exprimati n unitti de
cost. n aceast Iorm, raportul corporativ, la capitolul
indicatorilor rezultativittii sociale, va corespunde principiului
evidentei contabile al ,msurtorului unic de valori
monetare. n notiIicrile la rapoartele corporative se va
reIlecta inIormatia n conIormitate cu aspectul analitic
consolidat, n sectiunea activittii Iinanciare si de gestiune,
sociale si de mediu, n indicatori calitativi si de cost, cu
comentariile de rigoare.
Aceast Iorm a raportului corporativ, de structur si
continut corespunztor, rezultatul creia constituie inIormatia
Iiabil, clar si comparabil, va spori transparenta activittilor
complexe ale companiei. Totodat, n procesul de integrare,
raportul non-Iinanciar se va completa cu o serie de indicatori
Iinanciari, ce vor deveni compatibili reciproc, Iapt ce va
asigura calitatea nalt a managementului corporativ. Aceast
abordare va Iacilita dezvoltarea raportului corporativ la nivel
mondial, ceea ce va permite companiei crearea valorii si
construirea perspectivelor strategice. Actualmente, multe
companii practic ntocmirea unei astIel de raportri, desi
standardele sunt nc n curs de elaborare.
Propunem companiilor autohtone de a implementa
raportarea corporativ integrat de var, n conIormitate cu
cerintele legislative. Normele si reglementrile legislative s
solicite companiilor dezvluirea n rapoartele sale a
mecanismelor de control Iinanciar, adic conIirmarea Iaptului,
c inIormatiile oIerite reIlect obiectiv situatia si rezultatele
activittii companiei. Completrile calitative ale reglementrii
normative a rapoartelor corporative vor crea conditii pentru o
,iluminare Iiabil si complet a inIormatiei Iinanciare si non-
Iinanciare privind activitatea companiei.
AstIel, n prezent, expertii din Ucraina elaboreaz
Conceptul Strategiei Nationale de Responsabilitate Social a
Businessului, care este analizat ca o component a Strategiei
generale de dezvoltare a Europei-2020. Adoptarea strategiei
de responsabilitate social a businessului va deveni un pas
important spre modernizarea economiei, sporirea
competitivittii pe pietele internationale si globale, precum si
The proposed Iormat oI corporate reports blends the
main compartments oI Iinancial reports: Iiscal, statistical,
internal and social; which are currently scattered in diIIerent
Iorms. The structure oI such a report will depend on the
requirements oI the management system and the business
model.
The contemporaneity oI the problem oI news
generalization in reporting corporate inIormation is
maintained because the indicators which determine social
responsibility, are mostly expressed in qualitative evaluation
and do not provide their reIlection in measures oI monetary
values, which in the Iuture will require additional recast or
movements in a particular context. Usually, the required
inIormation is expressed to managers in monetary measures
corresponding to essential requirements oI inIormation
quality: relevance, reliability, clarity and comparability.
Such inIormation, presented in corporate reporting will be
useIul Ior management and will become a crucial tool Ior
analysis, planning and Iorecasting. This will contribute to
the Iact that the non-Iinancial report content will provide
compatible inIormation to the Iinancial one. So, we propose
that the corporate report indicators, Sections III and IV oI
social, environmental and economic activities, to be
expressed in units oI cost. In this Iorm, the corporate report,
in the Section oI social results indicators, will correspond to
the principle oI accounting assesment oI the "single
monetary value measurements". The notiIications oI
corporate reporsts will reIlect inIormation in accordance
with the consolidated analytical aspect, in the Section oI
Iinancial and management activity, social and
environmental, in quality and cost indicators, with the
necessary comments.
This Iorm oI corporate report, oI structure and
appropriate content, the outcome oI which is reliable
inIormation, clear and comparable, will increase the
transparency oI the company's comprehensive activities.
However, in the process oI integration, the non-Iinancial
report will be completed with a number oI Iinancial
indicators, which will become mutually compatible, and will
ensure the high quality oI corporate management. This
approach will Iacilitate the development oI global corporate
reports, which will allow the company to create value and
build strategic perspectives. Currently, many companies
practice preparing such reports, although standards are still
under development.
We propose local companies to implement integrated
corporate summer reporting, according to legislative
requirements. Rules and regulations are to require
companies to disclose in their reports the mechanisms oI
Iinancial control, and thereIore conIirming that the
inIormation provided reIlects objectively the situation and
the results oI the company`s activities. Qualitative additions
to normative regulation oI corporate reports will create
conditions Ior a reliable and complete "enlightenment" oI
the Iinancial and non-Iinancial inIormation regarding the
company's activity.
So Iar, experts Irom Ukraine develop the The Concept oI
National Strategy Ior Social Responsibility oI business,
which is being analyzed as part oI the overall development
strategy oI Europe-2020. Adopting the strategy oI social
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 63
nr. 2 / 2013
Iacilitarea procesului de integrare european n ansamblu.
Crearea unui cadru legislativ cu Politica National de
Dezvoltare Social va contribui la Iormarea climatului de
aIaceri si celui investitional n Ucraina. Va mbuntti relatiile
cu UE, atragerea investitiilor, iesirea Ucrainei si a
ntreprinderilor autohtone pe noi piete.
Trebuie remarcat c, n anul 2009, ntreprinderea de Stat
Centrul Ucrainean de Cercetare StiintiIic si de Instruire pe
probleme de Standardizare, CertiIicare si Calitate, .S.
,VxpHHH, a elaborat proiectul Standardului National al
Ucrainei ,Sistemul de management al cerintelor de
responsabilitate social. Acest standard permite companiilor
s coordoneze propriul sistem de management al
responsabilittii sociale cu cerintele corespunztoare ale altor
sisteme de management. Obiectivul general al acestui
standard const n sporirea maxim a investitiei proprii n
dezvoltarea durabil, precum si mbunttirea satisIactiei
prtilor interesate. Standardul ia n considerare prevederile
ISO CD 26000:2009, ISO 9001:2008, OHSAS 18001:2007,
ISO 14001:2004, SA 8000:2001.
Compania, n conIormitate cu acest standard, poate
elabora sistemul de management al responsabilittii sociale
bazat pe dou niveluri. Primul nivel de executare a
standardului prevede respectarea obligatorie de ctre
organizatie a cerintelor legislatiei si a normativelor,
concomitent cu respectarea principiilor responsabilittii
sociale. Al doilea nivel prevede realizarea conditiilor de la
primul nivel si aplicarea Aspectelor responsabilittii sociale,
unde sunt incluse urmtoarele aspecte principale:
managementul organizational, drepturile omului; experienta
de munc, mediul nconjurtor; practica de aIaceri
constiincioas, probleme privind raportul (coraportul) cu
consumatorii, investitiile sociale, igiena si siguranta muncii.
Necesit a Ii subliniat Iaptul, c standardul respectiv este
prevzut a Ii aplicat n mod voluntar de toate organizatiile,
inclusiv cele guvernamentale si non-guvernamentale,
indiIerent de dimensiune si tip.
Totusi, noi nu sustinem cerintele implementrii voluntare
a proiectului standardului. Si, n acest scop, propunem
evidentierea a trei abordri ale ntocmirii raportului corporativ
n sectiunea indicatorilor responsabilittii sociale, n care
Iiecare companie selecteaz Iorma de raportare dup
categoriile ce depind de mrimea si de politica strategic a
acesteia:
1. Prima categorie ntreprinderile, companiile cu
investitii strine sau care intentioneaz s le atrag: raportarea
non-Iinanciar este ntocmit n conIormitate cu standardele
internationale:
- raportul privind progresul realizrii principiilor
Pactului Global;
- raportul privind dezvoltarea durabil, pregtit n
conIormitate cu cerintele Initiativei Mondiale de Raportare;
- raportul social separat privind indicatorii determinati
de ctre companie;
- raportul cu privire la standardul GRI;
- raportul cu privire la standardul AA1000 si altele.
2. A doua categorie ntreprinderile de dimensiuni
medii si mari: ntocmesc raportarea non-Iinanciar n
conIormitate cu standardele nationale elaborare.
3. A treia categorie ntreprinderile mici: un document
responsibility oI business will become a major step towards
the modernization oI the economy, increase the
competitiveness oI international and global markets, and
Iacilitate the European integration process as a whole. A
legislative Iramework with the National Policy Ior Social
Development will help shape the business and investment
environment in Ukraine. We improve relations with the EU,
attracting investments, introducing Ukrainian enterprises to
new markets.
It should be noted that, in 2009, Ukrainian State Centre
oI ScientiIic Research and Training on issues oI
Standardization, CertiIication and Quality, State Enterprise
"VxpHHH", draIted the project oI Ukraine's National
Standards oI "The management system oI requirements Ior
social responsibility". This standard allows companies to
coordinate their own social responsibility management
system with the requirements oI other management systems.
The overall objective oI this standard is maximizing
company investments in sustainable development, and
improving stakeholder satisIaction. The standard assumes
the requirements oI ISO standard CD 26000:2009, ISO
9001:2008, OHSAS 18001:2007, ISO 14001:2004, SA
8000:2001.
The company, in accordance with this standard may
develop its social responsibility management system based
on two levels. The Iirst level oI the standard enIorcement
requires mandatory compliance oI the organization to the
requirements oI laws and regulations, along with observance
oI the principles oI social responsibility. The second level
provides the necessary conditions on the Iirst level and
application oI Aspects oI social responsibility, which
include the Iollowing main aspects: organizational
management, human rights, employment, environment,
conscientious business practice, problems regarding
(correlation) consumer relations, social investments,
hygiene and labor saIety. Needs to be emphasized that this
standard is expected to be applied voluntarily by all
organizations, including governmental and non-
governmental organizations, regardless oI size and type.
However, we do not support the requirements Ior
voluntary implementation oI the standard. And, to this end,
we propose three approaches Ior draIting the corporate
report in the section on social responsibility indicators, in
which each company selects the reporting Iorm based on the
categories that depend on the size and its strategic policy:
1. The Iirst category - businesses, companies with
Ioreign investments or seeking to attract them: non-Iinancial
reporting is draIted in accordance with international standards:
- report on the progress oI the implementation oI the
Global Agreement principles;
- report on sustainable development, prepared in
accordance with the requirements oI the World Reporting
Initiative;
- separate social report on indicators determined by the
company;
- report on the GRI standard;
- report on the standard AA1000 and others.
2. The second category medium and large
enterprises: draIt non-Iinancial reports in accordance with
national development standards.
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 66
nr. 2 / 2013
ntocmit sub Iorm liber, care descrie activittile sociale si
ecologice ale companiei.
Raportul trebuie s prezinte inIormatii cu privire la
dezvoltarea durabil a companiei pentru un sir de
utilizatori si, n special, pentru sistemul de management, n
scopul lurii deciziilor. Doar n acest caz, o astIel de raportare
va preocupa pe toate pr(ile interesate si va inIluenta att
valoarea, imaginea companiei, ct si luarea deciziilor
manageriale.
3. The third category small: a document Iree Iorm,
which describes the company's social and environmental
activities.
The report should provide inIormation on sustainable
development oI the company Ior a number oI users,
particularly Ior the system management oI decision making.
Only in this case, such reporting will interest all the
stakeholders and inIluence both the value and the image oI
the company, and managerial decision making as well.
Concluzii. Rezultatul cercetrii eIectuate este elaborarea
abordrii stiintiIico-metodice a implementrii n activittile
practice ale companiilor autohtone a raportului corporativ.
Integrarea raportului Iinanciar si raportul cu privire la
responsabilitatea social a businessului vor crea o baz
inIormational unic pentru managementul activittii
ntreprinderii. Acestea se vor completa reciproc din punct de
vedere inIormational si vor construi ntre ele legturi
inIormationale, vor determina locul su n sistemul de
raportare al ntreprinderii. Acest lucru va permite companiilor
s ating echilibrul indicatorilor n Iunctie de necesittile
sistemului de management si diverse institutii. Datorit acestui
Iapt, vor Ii dezvluite integral inIormatii veridice si relevante
cu privire la politica social si impactul asupra mediului,
despre indicatorii economici si activittile strategice ale
companiei. Prin urmare, inIormatia respectiv este
transparent, prezentarea creia nu ncalc obligatiunile
juridice si comerciale, precum si respectarea vietii private.
Totodat, va crea premise Iavorabile pentru a o transIorma
ntr-o Iorm util pentru managementul estimrii valorii
companiei.
InIormatiile raportului corporativ al companiei va spori
competitivitatea ei pe piat datorit mbunttirii sistemului de
management al personalului, vor crea conditii de securitate a
muncii si de sistem eIicient al protectiei snttii. Pentru
management, raportarea corporativ reprezint trecerea la un
nou nivel calitativ, la care raportul Iinanciar si raportul privind
responsabilitatea social sunt integrate ntr-un Iormat nou,
ceea ce va permite evaluarea obiectiv a eIicientei si calittii
managementului businessului.
Conclusions. The result oI the research is the
development oI the scientiIic-methodological approach
in the implementation oI practical activities oI domestic
companies in the corporate report. Integration oI the Iinancial
report and the report on the social responsibility oI the
business will create a unique inIormational bases Ior
business activity management. They complement each other
in terms oI inIormation and build inIormation links between
them, will also determine its place in the enterprise
reporting system. This will enable companies to achieve
balanced indicators according to the needs oI the
management system and various institutions. Due to this,
relevant inIormation will be Iully and accurately disclosed,
regarding social policy and environmental impact,
economic indicators and strategic activities oI the company.
ThereIore, the inIormation is transparent, its presentation
does not violate legal and commercial obligations, or privacy.
It will also create Iavorable conditions to transIorm it
into a useIul Iorm Ior estimating the management company
value.
The company`s corporate report inIormation will
enhance its competitiveness in the market due to the
improvement oI the personnel management system,
will create a saIe work environment and eIIicient health
protection. For management, corporate reporting represents
the transition to a qualitatively new level, where the Iinancial
report and the report on social responsibility are integrated in
a new Iormat, which will allow Ior objective assessment
oI the eIIectiveness and quality oI business
management.
Referin(e bibliografice / References
1. BOPOFEH, B., XVPOBCKA, H. Hequuaucoea om:emuocmi. uucmpv+eum coua.iuo omeemcmeeuuoeo
ousueca. Knen: uH Kocrmuenxo A.H., 2010. 77 c.
2. Communicating Value in the 21st Century: towards integrated reporting |accesat 18 aprilie 2013|. Disponibil:
http://theiirc.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/IR-Discussion-Paper-2011spreads.pdI
3. HHPRHIHHKOBA, H., HAHAH, B. n p. Aua.us quuaucoeo om:emuocmu. uucmpv+eumi, +emooi u
mexuu:ecrue npue+i oeuru quuaucoeo-ovxea.mepcro uuqop+auu e npoecce npuumu peueuu: yuennx nx
+xon. yue. saneenn. Knmnn+y, 2005. 375 c. ISBN 9975-9565-6-4.
4. Non-Iinancial reporting |accesat 8 mai 2013|. Disponibil: http://ec.europa.eu/internalmarket/accounting/ non-
Iinancialreporting/
5. The non-Iinancial reporting: conIerence, 28 june 2013. London, 2013 |accesat 27 martie 2013|. Disponibil:
http://www.nIrconIerence.co.uk/
Recomandat spre publicare. 15.03.2013
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 67
nr. 2 / 2013
INCUBATOARELE DE INOVARE - ENTITTI
DE SUSTINERE A COMPETITIVITTII
NTREPRINDERILOR MICI $I MI1LOCII
N ECONOMIA MODERN
INNOVATION INCUBATORS - ENTITIES
OF SUPPORT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED
ENTERPRISES` COMPETITIVENESS IN THE
MODERN ECONOMY
Lidia MAIER, cercetator stiintific, IEFS Lidia MAIER, scientific researcher, IEFS
Incubatoarele de inovare sunt entitti din reteaua de
infrastructuri de sustinere a intreprinderilor mici i miflocii,
care, la etapa de maxim vulnerabilitate a acestora, prin
gama de servicii i facilitti acordat, asigura creterea
ratei de supravietuire a afacerilor inovative. Acestea au
rolul de a atenua impactul problemelor cu care se confrunt
IMM-urile, care elaborea: i implementea: inovatii,
asigurnd sustenabilitate i competitivitate. De rand cu
promovarea spiritului antreprenorial, incubatoarele de
inovare foac un rol esential in promovarea transferului de
cunotinte, a inovatiilor, introducerea in circuitul economic
a re:ultatelor cercetrii, creea: legturi intre mediul de
afaceri, universitti, institutii de cercetare, etc., legturi
intre persoane, talente i resurse.
In pre:entul articol ne vom concentra atentia asupra
incubatoarelor de inovare, asupra rolului acestora in
de:voltarea IMM-urilor in general in lume, precum i in
RM, punand accentul in special pe crearea i de:voltarea
primului Incubator de Inovare din tar ,Inovatorul`.
Innovation incubators are entities of the infrastructure
network of support of small and medium-si:ed enterprises.
At the stage of SMEs maximum vulnerabilitv, thev
improve the survival of innovative businesses through the
range of services and facilities provided. Thev are
designed to mitigate the problems faced bv SMEs, which
develop and implement innovations, ensuring
sustainabilitv and competitiveness. Along with promoting
the entrepreneurial spirit, innovation incubators plav an
essential role in promoting knowledge and innovation
transfer, introduction of the research results into economic
circuit, creating links between businesses, universities,
research institutions, etc., links between people, talents
and resources.
In this article, we will focus on innovation incubators,
their role in the development of SMEs in the world and in
the Republic of Moldova, making an accent in the creation
and development of the countrvs first Innovation
Incubator ,Inovatorul`.
Cuvinte cheie: competitivitate, intreprinderi mici i
miflocii, inovatii, transfer tehnologic, infrastructuri
de sustinere a afacerilor inovative, incubatoare de
inovare.
Key words: competitiveness, small and medium-si:ed
enterprises, innovation, technologv transfer, supporting
infrastructures of innovative businesses, innovation
incubators.
1EL classification: L32, L53, M1, O31, O35
n prezent elaborarea si implementarea inovatiilor
reprezint o provocare att pentru echipele de cercetare,
sectoare de producere mari si economii n general,
deoarece este privit ca un catalizator pentru
competitivitate ntr-o lume tot mai concurential. Accentul
asupra inovatiei este element indispensabil al politicilor de
dezvoltare a trilor, deoarece crearea, transIerul si
utilizarea eIicient a cunostintelor, diIuzarea inovatiei este
conditie principal pentru o crestere economic durabil.
Cu att mai mult inovatia este pe larg recunoscut ca o
conditie esential pentru succesul ntreprinderilor si
aIacerilor mici si mijlocii, reprezentnd principalul motor
de crestere si asigurnd sustenabilitate si competitivitate.
Fie c este vorba de dezvoltarea unor produse sau servicii
noi sau de identiIicarea celor mai eIiciente metode de
realizare a celor existente, inovatia aduce valoare unei
ntreprinderi, ii permite s-si mentin sau s-si
mbuntteasc cota de piat.
n acelasi timp IMM-urile ntlnesc multe diIicultti
atunci cnd ncearc s transIorme ideile noi, inovatoare n
produse si servicii vndabile si rentabile pe termen lung,
vulnerabilitatea Iiind maxim mai ales la etapa de initiere a
aIacerii si n primii ani de activitate. Experienta strin de
elaborare si implementare a inovatiilor n cadrul IMM-
urilor, precum si o privire retrospectiv a situatiei din
Republica Moldova, au constatat, c aceasta se datoreaz
unui complex de Iactori, cum ar Ii:
At present, the development and implementation oI
innovations is a challenge Ior research teams, large-scale
production sectors and the economies in general as it is
regarded as a catalyst Ior the competitiveness in an
increasingly competitive world. The Iocus on innovation is
indispensable Ior the policies Ior countries` development
since the creation, transIer and eIIective use oI knowledge,
diIIusion oI innovation is the main condition Ior the
sustainable economic growth.
All the more, innovation is widely recognized as a
prerequisite Ior the success oI small and medium-sized
enterprises, being the main engine oI growth and ensuring
sustainability and competitiveness. Whether the case,
being the development oI new products, services or
identiIying the most eIIective ways oI realization oI those
existing, innovation brings value to an enterprise, allows
maintaining or improving the market share.
Meanwhile SMEs Iace many diIIiculties when they try
to turn new innovative ideas into products and services,
good-traded and proIitable in a long term; the maximum
vulnerability is especially in the initial stage oI the
business and during Iirst years oI activity. Foreign
experience oI developing and implementing innovations in
SMEs, as well as a retrospective view oI the situation in
the Republic oI Moldova have Iound that this results Irom
a number oI Iactors, such as:
- all types oI resources necessary to start a business,
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 68
nr. 2 / 2013
- toate tipurile de resurse necesare pentru initierea
aIacerii, n special a celei bazate pe inovare, sunt reduse;
- lipsa/insuIicienta de experient managerial, n
special experient de management a inovatiei;
- lipsa/insuIicienta inIrastructurii organizatorice;
- diIicultatea de a obtine Iinantare datorit statutului de
ntreprindere nou, si n special, inovativ;
- diIicultatea de a crea cooperri si parteneriate
tehnologice cu ntreprinderile mari, precum si cu alti
parteneri pentru realizarea proiectelor inovative, etc.
Asadar, pentru a promova si Iacilita inovarea, dar si a
asigura competitivitatea s-a dovedit a Ii Ioarte important de
a gsi solutii de sustinere a ntreprinderilor mici si mijlocii,
care elaboreaz si implementeaz inovatii. Una dintre
aceste solutii este crearea unor inIrastructuri de sustinere,
care s promoveze cultura inovrii si spiritul antreprenorial
prin instituirea unui mediu Iavorabil si sustenabil pentru
nIiintarea si dezvoltarea IMM-urilor inovative. Stimularea
si cultivarea talentului de antreprenor n cadrul acestor
inIrastructuri s-a prevzut prin oIerirea unor servicii si a
unui suport, acestea completnd competentele
antreprenorului si determinnd cresterea sanselor de succes
ale ntreprinderilor mici si mijlocii. Existenta
inIrastructurilor de sustinere pentru dezvoltarea aIacerilor
inovative permit antreprenorilor s ajung ntr-un stadiu, n
care s-si poat sustine ntreprinderea din resurse proprii.
n literatura de specialitate international exist o
diversitate relativ de termeni aIerenti acestor
inIrastructuri, ns cele mai cunoscute si des analizate sunt
centrele de inovare, centrele de transIer tehnologic,
parcurile stiintiIice si tehnologice, incubatoarele de
inovare, clusterele inovationale, etc. Aceste entitti au
rolul de a atenua impactul problemelor cu care se
conIrunt IMM-urile si de a sustine crearea si Iunctionarea
ntreprinderilor inovative n perioada de maxim
vulnerabilitate a acestora, prin Iurnizarea unei game largi
de servicii pentru antreprenori si start-up-uri:
- infrastructura fi:ic (spatii de birouri, laboratoare,
utilaje, etc.),
- suport de management (planiIicarea aIacerilor,
consultant si instruire de aIaceri, inclusiv managerial, n
special pentru proiectarea corect a proceselor de inovare
n cadrul ntreprinderii, marketing),
- sustinere tiintific, tehnic i tehnologic
(cercettori, baze de date, etc.),
- accesul la finantare (Ionduri cu capital de risc,
retele de business angels),
- asistent furidic (licentiere, proprietate
intelectual),
- asistent in crearea de retele i schimb de bune
practici i transfer de experient ntre Iirmele incubate sau
asistate, diversi parteneri, etc.
Si deoarece inovarea este considerat catalizator
pentru crestere si competitivitate, este evident si important
ca aceste inIrastructuri s Iaciliteze inovarea si transIerul
tehnologic, dezvoltarea si cresterea interactiunii dintre
educatie, stiint, tehnologie si mediul economic, stimulnd
potentialul de dezvoltare si viabilitate al IMM-urilor si
crend sinergii prin cooperare, ca mijloace de crestere
economic.
especially one based on innovation, are reduced;
- lack/shortage oI managerial experience, especially
innovation management experience;
- lack / insuIIiciency oI organizational inIrastructure;
- diIIiculty in obtaining Iinancing because oI the
status oI newly created enterprise, especially innovative
one;
- diIIiculty in creating technological cooperation and
partnerships with large companies and other partners in
order to realize innovative projects, etc.
ThereIore, in order to promote and Iacilitate innovation
and to ensure the competitiveness, it was proved to be very
important to Iind solutions to support small and medium-
sized enterprises, which develop and implement
innovations. One oI these solutions is the creation oI the
support inIrastructure that promotes the culture oI
innovation and entrepreneurial spirit by creating a
Iavorable and sustainable environment Ior the
initiation and development oI innovative SMEs.
Stimulating and nurturing oI the entrepreneurial talent
within these inIrastructure Iacilities was provided by
oIIering service and support, which complement
entrepreneur skills and increase chances oI success Ior
small and medium-sized enterprises. The existence oI
support inIrastructure Ior the innovative businesses`
development allows entrepreneurs to reach a stage, when
the enterprise should be able to support itselI Irom own
resources.
In the international specialized literature there is a
relative diversity oI terms Ior this inIrastructure, but the
most well-known and Irequently analyzed are
innovation centers, technology transIer centers, science
and technology parks, innovation incubators,
innovation clusters, etc. These entities are designed to
mitigate the impact oI the problems Iaced by SMEs and to
support the establishment and operation oI innovative
enterprises in the period oI their maximum vulnerability by
providing a range oI services Ior entrepreneurs and
start-ups:
- phvsical infrastructure (oIIices, laboratories,
equipment, etc.),
- management support (business planning, business
consulting and training, including in management sphere,
especially Ior correct design oI innovation processes at the
enterprise, marketing),
- scientific, technical and technological support
(researchers, databases, etc.)
- access to finance (venture capital Iunds, business
angels` networks),
- legal assistance (licensing, intellectual property),
- assistance in networking and exchange of best
practices and experience transfer between the incubated or
assisted companies, various partners, etc.
Since the innovation is considered a catalyst Ior growth
and competitiveness, it is obvious and important
that this inIrastructure Iacilitate innovation and technology
transIer, development and improvement oI interaction
between education, science, technology and economic
environment, stimulating the potential oI development
and viability oI SMEs and creating synergies
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 69
nr. 2 / 2013
In pre:entul articol ne vom concentra atentia asupra
incubatoarelor de inovare, asupra rolului acestora in
de:voltarea IMM-urilor in general in lume, precum i in
Republica Moldova, punand accentul in special pe crearea
i de:voltarea primului Incubator de Inovare din tar
,Inovatorul`.
ConIorm deIinitiei promovate de Comisia European,
incubatorul de aIaceri n general este privit ca un spatiu, n
care sunt concentrate Iirme nou nIiintate, avnd ca scop
mbunttirea ratei lor de supravietuire si crestere, prin
asigurarea unor Iacilitti comune (teleIax, echipamente IT,
etc.), precum si a suportului managerial necesar. Accentul
se pune pe dezvoltarea local si crearea de locuri de
munc.
Aceast deIinitie este mult prea general si se reIer
mai mult la incubatoarele traditionale de aIaceri, ns, cu
reIerire la incubatoarele de inovare putem spune, c
acestea sunt entitti, care urmresc crearea unui mediu
favorabil i sustenabil pentru firmele nou infiintate, aflate
la etapa incipient de de:voltare doar a celor afaceri, care
sunt ba:ate pe elaborarea i implementarea inovatiilor i
utili:area tehnologiilor noi, pe modele noi de afaceri,
inclusiv eco-eficiente, care contribuie la creterea calittii
i a productivittii muncii, creterea competitivittii
produselor i serviciilor, etc. Incubatoarele de inovare se
aIl la intersectia dintre antreprenoriat si inovatie, si le
permite antreprenorilor s obtin proIit din valoarea
adugat a ideilor inovative.
Incubatoarele de inovare vin cu programe speciale, cu
abordri sistematice si strategice, care mobilizeaz eIicient si
pun n legtur combinatii de oameni puternici, capital, resurse
si idei, ceea ce reprezint debusee importante pentru
activittile antreprenoriale. Acestea ,alimenteaz Iirmele
mici inovative, ajutndu-le s supravietuiasc si s creasc
n perioada de nceput, atunci cnd sunt cel mai
vulnerabile. Notiunea de incubare acoper o gam larg de
procese si contribuie la reducerea ratei de esec a
companiilor aIlate n Iaz incipient si la accelerarea
dezvoltrii companiilor, care au potential de a deveni
generatoare de locuri de munc si bunstare.
Incubatoarele de inovare asigur trei componente
principale pentru competitivitatea companiilor inovative:
un mediu antreprenorial si de nvtare, acces rapid la
mentori si investitori, vizibilitate pe piat. Mai mult dect
att, acestea stimuleaz comercializarea tehnologiilor noi
si sporesc imaginea regiunii, n care activeaz. n general,
incubatoarele contribuie nu doar la recuperarea economic
curent, ci si la dezvoltarea general a unei economii.
Deaceea, recunoastem, c incubatoarele de inovare sunt
locatii Iizice, care oIer un set deIinit de servicii
ntreprinderilor inovative, pentru ca acestea din urm s
poat supravietui n Iaza incipient de dezvoltare.
AstIel, de rnd cu promovarea spiritului antreprenorial,
incubatoarele de inovare joac un rol esential n
promovarea transIerului de cunostinte, a inovatiilor,
introducerea n circuitul economic a rezultatelor cercetrii,
creeaz legturi ntre mediul de aIaceri, universitti, institutii
de cercetare, etc., legturi ntre persoane, talente si resurse. n
acelasi timp, noile ntreprinderile incubate pot deveni primii
candidati ai parcurilor stiintiIico-tehnologice.
through cooperation as a means oI economic
growth.
In this article, we will focus on incubators
of innovation, their role in the development of
SMEs in general in the world and in the Republic
of Moldova, with particular emphasis on the creation and
development of the countrvs first Innovation Incubator
"Inovatorul".
According to the European Commission`s deIinition,
business incubator in general meaning is viewed as a
space, in which start-ups are concentrated, aimed at
improving their survival rate and growth by providing
common Iacilities (Iax, computer equipment, etc.) as well
as necessary management support. The emphasis is on
local development and job creation.
This deIinition is a general one and relates more to
traditional business incubators. As reIer to innovation
incubators we can say that they are entities that aim to
create a sustainable environment for those business start-
ups, which are based on developing and implementing of
innovations and using of new technologies, new business
models, including eco-efficient ones, which contribute to
increasing of qualitv and labor productivitv, growth of
competitiveness of products and services, etc. Innovation
incubators are at the intersection oI entrepreneurship and
innovation and enable entrepreneurs to get proIit Irom the
added value oI innovative ideas.
Innovation incubators come with special programs, with
systematic and strategic approaches that mobilize
eIIectively and bring about the combination oI active
people, capital, resources and ideas which are important
outlets Ior entrepreneurial activities. They ,Ieed small
innovative companies, helping them to survive and grow
during the start-up stage, when they are most vulnerable.
Incubation concept covers a wide range oI processes and
contributes to the reduction oI the Iailure rate oI
companies in the initial stage and to acceleration oI the
development oI companies that have the potential to
become those generating jobs and wealth.
Incubators oI innovation provide three main
components oI the competitiveness oI innovative
companies: an entrepreneurial and learning environment,
quick access to mentors and investors, visibility in the
market. Moreover, they stimulate the commercialization oI
new technologies and enhance the image oI the region in
which it operates. In general, incubators contribute not
only to the current economic recovery, but also to overall
development oI an economy. ThereIore, we recognize that
innovation incubators are physical locations that provide a
certain set oI services to innovative enterprises, in order to
make the latter to survive in an incipient stage oI
development.
Thus, along with promoting entrepreneurial spirit,
innovation incubators play an essential role in promoting
transIer oI knowledge and innovation, introduction oI the
research results in economic circulation; create links
between business, universities, research institutions, etc.,
links between people, talents and resources. At the same
time, new incubated businesses may become the Iirst
candidates oI scientiIic-technological parks.
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 70
nr. 2 / 2013
ntreprinderile incubate sunt gzduite n incubator pe o
perioad determinat de timp, numit ciclu de incubare. n
acest interval, Iirmele beneIiciaz de birouri dotate si utilate,
suport Iinanciar si servicii de consultant. Alturi de
asigurarea sustinerii logistice, necesare demarrii
activittii, incubatorul organizeaz traininguri, cursuri de
pregtire, acord asistent n realizarea strategiilor de
aIaceri sau n scrierea de proiecte, necesare atragerii de
Iinantare si Iaciliteaz participarea la activitti de
networking, promoveaz intens activitatea si produsele
rezidentilor si. Incubatorul de inovare vine n sustinerea
rezidentilor si pentru a depsi barierele legislative,
administrative etc.
Toate acestea au rolul de a sustine dezvoltarea mai
rapid a ntreprinderilor inovative nou create, astIel nct
acestea s poat ajunge la un nivel de stabilitate si
autonomie, care s le permit s prsesc incubatorul si
s Iunctioneze pe cont propriu, cu sanse crescute de a Iace
Iat mediului concurential.
Incubatoarele - entit(i importante de sus(inere a
IMM-urilor n strintate. Procesul de incubare a luat
nastere n anii `50, transIormndu-se n industrie n anii
`80. Cel mai rapid incubatoarele s-au dezvoltat n SUA, n
special dup anul 1983, extinzndu-se ctre Europa sub
diIerite denumiri: centre de inovare (innovation centres),
centre de aIaceri si inovare (business and innovation
centres), pepiniere de ntreprinderi (pepinieres
d`entreprises), parcuri tehnico-stiintiIice (technopoles/
science parks), parcuri tehnologice (technology parks),
incubatoare tehnologice (technology incubators),
incubatoare de aIaceri si de inovare (business and
innovation incubators), etc. Initial procesul de incubare
avea drept obiectiv principal ncurajarea spiritului
antreprenorial, utilizarea supraIetelor si spatiilor ,goale,
prevenind totodat ,scurgerea de Iort de munc
caliIicat. ns ntr-o lume tot mai complex, n care
realittile se schimb de la o zi la alta, procesul de
incubare a urmat o evolutie ascendent n timp, Iiind supus
unui salt calitativ marcant. Dup anul 1989, conceptul a Iost
preluat si dezvoltat cu succes si de trile europene, acesta Iiind
recunoscut ca un mod eIicient de a satisIace o varietate de
nevoi ale politicilor social-economice, care includ:
ocuparea Iortei de munc si crearea de bunstare; sprijin
pentru Iirmele mici, cu potential ridicat de crestere;
transIerul de tehnologie; promovarea inovrii;
consolidarea legturilor dintre universitti, institutii de
cercetare si comunitatea de aIaceri; dezvoltarea clusterelor;
evaluarea proIilului de risc al unei companii.
TransIormrile care au avut loc n economie au deschis
drumul inovrii tehnologice, dezvoltrii spiritului de
ntreprinztor si Iormelor noi de sustinere a diIeritor tipuri de
ntreprinderi, dezvoltnd totodat si conceptul de incubare.
Fiind deja dovedit, c anume inovarea contribuie la cresterea
economic rapid, s-a ajuns si la concluzia, c ntreprinderile
care elaboreaz si implementeaz inovatii, cu att mai mult au
nevoie de sustinere special din partea statului.
n aceast perioad s-a simtit necesitatea de a delimita
denumirile entittilor de sustinere prin incubare,
atribuindu-le diIerite Iunctii si Iorme. Spre exemplu,
parcurile stiintiIico-tehnologice sustineau ntreprinderile
Incubated companies are housed in the incubator
Ior a Iixed period oI time, called ,the incubation cycle. In
the meantime, companies beneIit Irom Iitted and
equipped oIIices, Iinancial support and consulting services.
Along with providing logistical support, which is
necessary to start a business, the incubator organizes
trainings, preparation courses, assists in implementing
business strategies or writing projects, needed to attract
Iunding and Iacilitates participation in networking
activities, strongly promotes activity and products
oI its residents. Innovation incubator comes to help its
residents to overcome legislative, administrative, etc.
barriers.
All these are designed to support Iaster development oI
newly created innovative enterprises so that they can reach
a certain level oI stability and autonomy, enabling them to
leave the incubator and operate on their own, with
increased opportunities to operate in the competitive
environment.
Incubators are important entities to support SMEs
abroad. The incubation process was born in 1950s,
turning into an industry in 1980s. The most rapidly,
incubators were developed in the U.S.A., especially aIter
1983, expanding to Europe under diIIerent names:
innovation centers, business and innovation centers,
business nurseries (pepinieres d'entreprises), technopoles/
science parks, technology parks, technology incubators,
business and innovation incubators, etc. Initially the
incubation process had as the principal objective the
Iostering oI entrepreneurial spirit, usage oI areas and
empty spaces, preventing the skilled labor`s ,drain. But in
an increasingly complex world, in which reality changes
Irom one day to another, the process oI incubation
Iollowed an upward trend, being subjected to a qualitative
remarkable leap. AIter 1989, the concept was adopted and
successIully developed by the European countries, being
recognized as an eIIective way to meet a variety oI needs
oI social and economic policies, which include:
employment and wealth creation; support Ior small Iirms
with high growth potential; transIer oI technology;
promoting innovation; strengthening links between
universities, research institutions and the business
community; development oI clusters; assessment oI the
risk proIile oI a company. TransIormations that have
occurred in the economy paved the way Ior
technological innovation, development oI entrepreneurial
spirit and new Iorms oI support Ior diIIerent types oI
businesses, at the same time building upon the concept oI
incubation. As it was already shown, namely the
innovation contributes to rapid economic growth, also, it
was reached the conclusion that enterprises, which develop
and implement innovations are especially in need oI
special support Irom the state.
During this period it was Ielt the need to delimit the
titles oI entities oI support by incubation, assigning them
diIIerent Iunctions and Iorms. For example, scientiIic-
technological parks supported large enterprises that
developed and implemented large-scale projects,
including the creation and development oI incubators; but
incubators did not support all types oI businesses,
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 71
nr. 2 / 2013
mari, care elaboreaz si implementeaz proiecte de mare
anvergur, inclusiv - crearea si dezvoltarea incubatoarelor;
iar incubatoarele nu sustineau toate tipurile de
ntreprinderi, ci doar start-up-urile si ntreprinderile mici si
mijlocii aIlate la etapa incipient de dezvoltare; centrele de
aIaceri si de inovare si cele tehnologice sustineau
ntreprinderile, activitatea crora era bazat pe cercetare.
Incubatoarele, la rndul lor, s-au dezvoltat, lund Iorme si
Iunctii diIerite n diIerite perioade de timp. La momentul
actual cunoastem 4 generatii de incubatoare:
Prima generatie oIerea spatiu si Iacilitti comune;
A doua generatie consultant, dezvoltarea
abilittilor antreprenoriale, crearea de retele;
Noul model stabilirea incubatoarelor sectoriale;
Incubatorul modern generatoare de aIaceri spin-oII
cu valoare adugat ridicat si Iacilitatori ai inovrii si de
transIer tehnologic ctre economie, retele regionale,
nationale si transnationale.
Viitorul model se prevede a Ii unul bazat pe
dezvoltarea si integrarea ulterioar a incubatoarelor n
cadrul politicilor nationale inovative.
Cu reIerire la speciIicarea notiunii de incubator, n
multe tri nu exist pn n prezent o clar delimitare a
notiunii de incubator de aIaceri si incubator de inovare.
DeIinirea, tipul si orientarea incubatoarelor variaz Ioarte
mult att n cadrul Iiecrei tri, ct si ntre tri. ntr-o mare
msur acestea sunt determinate de conditiile locale,
cultur, gama de servicii acordate si obiectivele
sponsorilor, care au contribuit la crearea lor: spre exemplu,
agentiile de dezvoltare economic local tind s stimuleze
cresterea economic si crearea de locuri de munc, n timp
ce universittile, agentiile de inovare si transIer tehnologic
tind s promoveze transIerul tehnologic si diIuzarea de
cunostinte, inovatiile. n unele tri incubatoarele au o
denumire general: ,de afaceri, iar n altele se speciIic:
,ba:ate pe tehnologii sau inovatii, ns toate au o
abordare interesant pentru a accelera dezvoltarea de
tehnologii, a promova inovatiile si dezvolta industrii
speciIice si abilitti noi de aIaceri.
Potrivit OCDE, tipologia incubatoarelor de aIaceri este
de trei Ieluri: incubatoare care acord suport
general/mixt (general/mixed use); incubatoare pentru
dezvoltare economic (economic development),
incubatoare tehnologice (technologv) (Boxa nr.1). n
Iunctie de tipologia si stilurile de incubare a aIacerilor
aceeasi surs identiIic dou grupe principale, conditiile
speciIic locale, regionale putnd impune alegerea unui
anumit tip de incubator:
- incubatoare multifunctionale, care permit
incubarea Iirmelor din diverse domenii de activitate;
- incubatoare speciali:ate, care incubeaz Iirme
Iocalizate pe activitti particulare speciIice.
ntre cele dou categorii distincte, n diIerite tri exist
o serie de alte tipuri de incubatoare precum Centre de
AIaceri si Inovare (business and innovation centre (BIC),
si Centre de transIer tehnologic, toate pstrnd
caracteristicile de baz ale unui incubator.
but start-ups and small and medium-sized enterprises at
early stage oI development; centers oI entrepreneurship
and innovation as well as technology centers
supported companies, whose work was based on the
research.
Incubators, in their turn, has been developed,
taking diIIerent shapes and Iunctions in diIIerent periods
oI time. Currently there are known 4 generations oI
incubators:
First generation oIIered shared premises and
Iacilities;
Second generation consulting, entrepreneurial skills`
development, networking;
The new model establishing sectoral incubators;
Modern incubator generating oI spin-oII businesses
with high added value and Iacilitators oI innovation and
technology transIer to the economy, regional, national and
transnational networks.
The Iuture model is expected to be based on
development and Iurther integration oI incubators within
national innovative policies.
With reIerence to the speciIication oI the incubator
concept, there is no a clear delimitation oI the concept oI
business incubator and innovation incubator until now in
many countries. DeIinition, type and orientation oI
incubators varies greatly both within an individual country
and between countries. To a large extent they are
determined by local conditions, culture, the range oI
services provided and the objectives oI the sponsors who
have contributed to their creation: Ior example, local
economic development agencies tend to stimulate
economic growth and jobs creation, while universities,
innovation and technology transIer agencies tend to
promote technology transIer and dissemination oI
knowledge, innovations. In some countries incubators have
a general designation ,business incubators; in other
countries they are speciIied as ,based on technologies or
innovations, but all have an interesting approach to
accelerate the development oI technologies, to promote
innovation and develop speciIic industries and new
business skills.
According to the OECD, the typology oI business
incubators is oI three kinds: incubators providing
general/mixed use; incubators for economic
development, technology incubators (Box 1). Depending
on the type and style oI incubation oI business, the same
source identiIies two main groups, the speciIic local,
regional conditions, requiring the choosing oI a particular
type oI incubator:
- multifunction incubators, which allow the incubation
oI companies oI various Iields oI activity;
- speciali:ed incubators, that incubate companies
Iocused on particular speciIic activities.
Between the two categories, in diIIerent countries
there are many other types oI incubators, like Business and
Innovation Centres (BIC) and Technology transIer centers,
all retaining the basic Ieatures oI an incubator.
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 72
nr. 2 / 2013
Boxa 1/ Box 1. Tipologia incubatoarelor de afaceri / Typoligy of business incubators
Incubatoare care acord suport general/mixt / General/Mixed-Use Incubators: Scopul principal al acestor
incubatoare este de a promova cresterea continu regional industrial si economic prin dezvoltarea aIacerilor n
general. Aceste incubatoare includ si Iirme, bazare pe cunostinte sciento-intensive, precum si Iirme, bazate pe
tehnologii n domeniul serviciilor si industriei usoare. Cel mai important suport pentru Iirmele incubate este accesul
la surse locale / regionale de resurse tehnice, manageriale, de marketing si Iinanciare. / The main goal of these
incubators is to promote continuous regional industrial and economic growth through general business
development. While these incubators include knowledge-intensive firms, thev also include low technologv firms in
services and light manufacturing. A main focus of support is access to local/regional sources of technical,
managerial, marketing and financial resources.
Incubatoare pentru dezvoltare economic / Economic Development Incubators: Acestea sunt incubatoare al
cror scop principal este de a stimula obiective economice speciIice, cum ar Ii crearea de locuri de munc si
restructurarea industrial. Adesea, rezultatul initiativelor autorittilor locale au obiectivul principal de a contribui la
crearea de noi ntreprinderi si sustine dezvoltarea Iirmele existente, inclusiv inovative, care creeaz locuri de munc.
n unele tri, acest obiectiv poate viza grupuri speciIice, cum ar Ii tinerii, somerii, Iemeile si minorittile. n Statele
Unite, acestea sustin si IMM-urile social responsabile. / These are business incubators whose main aim is to
stimulate specific economic obfectives such as fob creation and industrial restructuring. Often the result of local
government initiatives, the main goal is to help create new firms and nurture existing firms that create fobs. In some
countries, this goal mav target specific groups such as vouth, long-term unemploved, women and minorities. In the
United States, examples include 'empowerment/micro-enterprise` incubators.
Incubatoare tehnologice / 1echnology Incubators: Acestea sunt incubatoare al cror scop principal este de a
promova dezvoltarea Iirmelor bazate pe tehnologii. Acestea sunt n principal situate n cadrul sau n apropierea
universittilor si a parcurilor stiintiIice si tehnologice. / These are incubators whose primarv goal is to promote the
development of technologv-based firms. These are mainlv located at or near universities and science and technologv
parks.
Ele sunt conectate la sursele institutionale de cunostinte, inclusiv universitti, agentii de transIer tehnologic,
centre de cercetare, laboratoare, alte institutii de cercetare. Deseori acestea au ca tint domeniul biotehnologiei,
nanotejnologiei, soItware sau tehnologiile inIormatiei si comunicatiilor. Un obiectiv principal este de a promova
transIerul si diIuzarea de tehnologie, ncurajnd n acelasi timp spiritul antreprenorial n rndul cercettorilor si
cadrelor universitare. n unele tri, incubatoarele tehnologice nu sunt concentrate doar asupra Iirmelor noi, dar, de
asemenea, sustin si Iirmele mici si mijlocii deja existente bazate pe noi tehnologii. / Thev are characterised bv
institutionalised links to knowledge sources including universities, technologv-transfer agencies, research centres,
national laboratories and skilled R&D personnel. Specific industrial clusters and technologies mav also be targeted
such as biotechnologv, software or information and communications technologies. A main aim is to promote
technologv transfer and diffusion while encouraging entrepreneurship among researches and academics. In some
countries, technologv incubators not onlv focus on new firms but also help existing technologv/based small firms,
including subsidiaries of larger established firms.
Sursa/Source: 1echnology Incubators: Aurturing Small Firms, OECD, 1997, Paris, France.
Tipologia incubatoarelor diIer de la o tar la alta. Mai
mult, n multe tri exist dou si chiar trei tipuri de
incubatoare. Marea majoritate a incubatoarelor tehnologice
sau de inovare sunt create n baza parteneriatului dintre
institutii publice si private, cum ar Ii universittile,
institutiile de cercetare, parcurile stiintiIice si tehnologice,
sau clusterele cu capacitate de C&D. Sprijinul public pentru
aceste incubatoare se acord, n general, la nivelul
autorittilor locale si regionale, dar autorittile centrale joac
un rol att direct, ct si indirect.
Spre exemplu, n Statele Unite ale Americii deseori
incubatoarele sunt create cu suportul universittilor,
organelor de administrare local, care sunt preocupate de
dezvoltarea economic. Guvernul joac un rol important n
crearea incubatoarelor prin abordri legislative si crearea de
programe de incubare. Denumirile incubatoarelor variaz n
Iunctie de serviciile Iurnizate, de structura organizatoric si
de tipurile de clienti pe care i deservesc. Aici incubatoarele
au obiective diIerite, inclusiv diversiIicarea economiilor
rurale, crearea de locuri de munc, dezvoltarea si cresterea
oraselor, precum si transIerul de tehnologie de la universitti
Typology oI incubators diIIers Irom country to
country. Moreover, in many countries there are two or
even three types oI incubators. The vast majority oI
technological or innovation incubators are created in the
partnership between public and private institutions, such as
universities, research institutions, scientiIic and
technological parks or clusters with capacity Ior R&D. The
public support Ior these incubators is generally provided at
the level oI local and regional authorities, but central
authorities play both direct and indirect role.
For example, in the United States, the incubators are
oIten created under support oI universities, local
government bodies that are concerned with the economic
development. The Government plays an important role in
incubators` creation by means oI legislative approaches
and incubation programs creation. Names oI incubators
vary depending on the services provided, the
organizational structure and the types oI clients they serve.
Here incubators have diIIerent objectives, including
diversiIication oI rural economies, jobs creation, urban
development and growth and the technology transIer Irom
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 73
nr. 2 / 2013
si corporatii mari. n ultimii ani programele de incubare
sprijin crearea de microntreprinderi pentru nevoile
Iemeilor si ale minorittilor, sunt caracterizate printr-o
concentrare sectorial n vederea dezvoltrii si diIuzrii
biotehnologiilor si tehnologiilor inIormationale, inclusiv
acord suport Iirmelor, care au n prim plan dezvoltarea de
noi tehnologii inovatoare, crend astIel produse si servicii,
care mbunttesc calitatea vietii att n comunittile n care
activeaz, ct si n ntreaga lume.
n Asia exist cteva mii de incubatoare, cele mai multe
dintre care sunt localizate n India, China, Asia de Est. n
mod traditional cele mai multe sunt incubatoare tehnologice
n mediul urban, dar n ultimii 5 ani, au aprut un
numr tot mai mare de modele inovatoare, stimulate de
programul inIoDev (program special al Bncii Mondiale),
care Iac ca incubatoarele s Iie mai relevante pentru
comunittile rurale, mediile mai diIicile si pentru reducerea
srciei.
1aponia a maniIestat dintotdeauna interes pentru
antreprenoriat. Concentrrile economice de suport au
nceput s Iie create dup al doilea rzboi mondial, pentru a
sprijini activittile de Iabricare a electronicelor si industria
chimic, bazat pe tehnologii know-how. Procesul de
incubare a luat amploare la Iinele anilor `90. n a.2004 a Iost
creat Organizatia pentru ntreprinderi Mici si Mijlocii si
Inovare Regional, care a jucat un rol primordial n crearea
si managementul incubatoarelor de tip nou. Aceste
incubatoare acordau suport IMM-urilor inovative, n special
aIacerilor cu un nivel nalt de risc.
La nivelul Uniunii Europene, unde incubatoarele s-au
dezvoltat mai recent, exist de asemenea o diversitate mare
de denumiri de incubatoare conIorm obiectivelor si
abordrilor prtilor interesate. ConIorm statisticelor
existente Germania, Franta i Marea Britanie ocup
primele pozitii dup nivelul de dezvoltare a incubatoarelor.
Dezvoltarea incubatoarelor tehnologice si de inovare n
Europa se datoreaz dezvoltrii stiintei si tehnologiei; n
cele mai multe cazuri acestea sunt parte a parcurilor
stiintiIico-tehnologice sau sunt create n cadrul sau pe lng
universitti si institutiile academice.
Spre exemplu, in Franta, incubatoarele oIer cazare
temporar pentru antreprenori si ntreprinderi mici, inclusiv
inovative si sunt Iinantate n special de autorittile locale si
municipale si actorii comunitari, interesati n crearea
locurilor de munc si dezvoltarea comunitar.
In Germania majoritatea incubatoarelor sunt
tehnologice si de inovare si joac un rol important n
consolidarea cooperrii dintre actorii publici si privati pentru
dezvoltarea regional. n general, n cadrul incubatoarelor
sunt dezvoltate trei tipuri de tehnologii principale: inIormatii
si comunicatii, soItware si tehnologii de mediu. 20 la suta
din incubatoare nu oIer Iacilitti, ci mai curnd servicii de
incubare.
In Marea Britanie primele incubatoare au Iost
create n rezultatul politicilor pentru revigorarea regiunilor
n declin. n prezent cele mai multe sunt incubatoare
tehnologice si de inovare. Aici incubatoarele sunt create n
cadrul parcurilor stiintiIico-tehnologice, pe lng
universitti si institutii de cercetare. Acestea Iaciliteaz n
mare parte transIerul de cunostinte de la mediul de cercetare
universities and big corporations. In recent years, the
incubation programs support the creation oI micro-
enterprises Ior the needs oI women and minorities, they are
characterized by a sectorial concentration Ior the
development and dissemination oI biotechnologies and
inIormation technologies, including granting oI support to
companies that have in the IoreIront the development oI
new technologies, creating products and services that
enhance the quality oI liIe both in the communities in
which they operate, as well as around the world.
In Asia, there are several thousand incubators, most oI
which are located in India, China, East Asia. Traditionally
most oI them are technology incubators in urban areas, but
in the last 5 years, it was appeared the growing number oI
innovative models, stimulated by the program inIoDev (the
World Bank special program), which makes incubators to
be more relevant Ior rural communities, more complex
circles and Ior poverty reduction.
1apan has always shown an interest in
entrepreneurship. Economic support concentrations began
to be created aIter the Second World War to support the
manuIacturing oI electronics and chemical industries based
on know-how technologies. The incubation process has
achieved great scopes in the late 1990s. In 2004, the
Organization Ior Small and Medium-sized Enterprises and
Regional Innovation was created, which played a key role
in the creation and management oI incubators oI a new
type. These incubators provided support to innovative
SMEs, especially businesses with a high risk level.
In the European Union, where incubators were
developed recently, there is also a large variety oI the
incubators` names according to the objectives and the
stakeholders` approaches. According to the available
statistics, Germanv, France and Great Britain occupy top
positions by the development oI incubators. The
development oI incubators oI technology and innovation in
Europe is due to the development oI science and
technology; in most cases they Iorm the part oI the
scientiIic-technological parks or are created within or near
universities and academic institutions.
For example, in France, incubators provide temporary
accommodation Ior entrepreneurs and small enterprises,
including innovative ones and are Iunded mainly by local
and municipal authorities and community stakeholders
interested in job creation and community development.
In Germanv most incubators are oI technology and
innovation ones and play an important role in
strengthening cooperation between public and private
actors Ior regional development. In general, within the
incubators there are developed three core technologies:
inIormation and communication technologies, soItware
and environment technologies. 20 per cent oI incubators
do not provide Iacilities, but rather incubation services.
In Great Britain, the Iirst incubators were created as a
result oI policies to revive declining regions. Currently
most oI incubators are incubators oI technology and
innovation. Here incubators are created within the
scientiIic and technological parks, at universities and
research institutions. This largely Iacilitates the transIer oI
knowledge Irom the research sphere to economic
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 74
nr. 2 / 2013
ctre mediul economic, dar si ncurajeaz cercetarea si
inovarea n cadrul IMM-urilor incubate. Principalii actori
implicati n crearea si Iinantarea incubatoarelor sunt
agentiile guvernamentale, autorittile locale si companiile
private.
Tinnd cont de globalizare, dar si n scopul identiIicrii
si realizrii proiectelor strategice, incubatoarele se reunesc
n asociatii regionale si retele de dezvoltare (Boxa 2). Mai
mult dect att, asociatiile se reunesc n retele globale
(Global Network oI Business Incubation Associations), care
ntrunesc cele mai mari si mai de succes asociatii a
incubatoarelor de aIaceri, pentru a Iace schimb de cunostinte
si experiente, si care oIer de asemenea inIormatii cu privire
la realizrile n dezvoltarea si sustinerea antreprenoriatului.
Retelele de dezvoltare vin de asemenea cu programe
speciale pentru sustinerea crerii de incubatoare n trile mai
putin dezvoltate. Spre exemplu, infoDev programul
special al Bncii Mondiale, promovat de reteaua ECAbit, a
contribuit la crearea a peste 400 de incubatoare n 107 tri
ale lumii 25 000 de Iirme sunt n curs de incubare, peste 3
500 de Iirme au Iinisat deja programele de incubare si 250
000 locuri de munc au Iost create. inIoDev a Iacilitat
crearea retelelor regionale de inovare n AIrica, Asia,
Europa de Est si Asia Central, America Latin si trile
Bazinului Caribian, n Orientul Mijlociu si AIrica de Nord.
n prezent sprijin activitatea a peste 40 de incubatoare
tehnologice si de inovare n Europa cu o rat de succes de
aproximativ 80 la sut, si n Asia contribuie la dezvoltarea
a circa 2 980 de IMM-uri incubate, crend peste 40 900
locuri noi de munc.
environment, and also encourages research and innovation
in the incubated SMEs. The main actors involved in the
creation and Iunding oI incubators are government
agencies, local authorities and private companies.
In view oI globalization, but also with the purpose to
identiIy and realize strategic projects, incubators join
together in regional associations and networks oI
development (Box 2). Moreover, associations join in
global networks (Global Network oI Business Incubation
Associations), which bring together the largest and most
successIul business incubation associations to share
knowledge and experience, and also which provide
inIormation on achievements in developing and supporting
entrepreneurship. Development networks also come with
special programs to support the creation oI incubators in
less developed countries. For example, infoDev the
World Banks special programme promoted by ECABit
network contributed to the creation oI over 400 incubators
in 107 countries oI the world 25,000 companies are in
the course oI incubation, over 3,500 companies have
already completed incubation programs and 250,000
working places were created. inIoDev has Iacilitated the
creation oI regional innovation networks in AIrica, Asia,
Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the
Caribbean Basin, the Middle East and North AIrica.
Currently it supports over 40 incubators oI technology and
innovation in Europe with a success rate oI approximately
80 per cent; in Asia, it contributes to the development oI
about 2,980 SMEs incubated, creating over 40,900 new
jobs.
Boxa 2/Box 2. Re(ele de incubatoare / Networks of incubators
Rejeaua EBA (European Business & Innovation Centre Aetwork) este o retea lider european, care aduna mpreuna
160 de centre de aIaceri si inovare (BIC) si organizatii similare, cum ar Ii incubatoare, centre de inovare si centre de
antreprenoriat. EBN a Iost creat aproximativ 20 de ani n urm de ctre Comisia European si liderii europeni n
industrie. Reteua este gestionat de o echipa din 10 persoane, cu sediul la Bruxelles, care coordoneaz activittile
membrilor si Iurnizeaz servicii acestora, inclusiv implementarea proiectelor internationale. / EBA Aetwork is a
leading European network, which brings together 160 business and innovation centers (BIC) and similar organi:ations
such as incubators, innovation centers and entrepreneurship centers. EBN was created about 20 vears ago bv the
European Commission and the European leaders in the industrv. The network is managed bv a team of 10 persons, has
its main office in Brussels, which coordinates the activities of members and provides services to them, including the
implementation of international profects.
Rejeaua ECAbit reuneste aproximativ 49 de asociatii de incubatoare de inovare si de aIaceri si parcuri stiintiIice si
tehnologice din peste 20 de tri din Europa de Est si Asia Central, inclusiv asociatii din Rusia, Uzbechistan si Ukraina
reprezentate de peste 200 de incubatoare (mai, 2010) Membrii acestei retele sunt situati n tri care au Iost supuse
tranzitiei de la economia planiIicat la cea de piat. Reteaua consolideaz competitivitatea economiilor din Europa de
Est si din Asia Central prin promovarea inovrii si a spiritului antreprenorial, prin incubarea aIacerilor eIiciente si
durabile. ECAbit ntelege incubarea ca un instrument-cheie pentru inovare si dezvoltare antreprenorial, si opereaz cu
mare succes n colaborare cu alte instrumente, care abordeaz aceste obiective. Scopul ECAbit este de a dezvolta o
platIorm durabil pentru generarea de cunostinte, contacte si schimburi de experient, precum si colaborarea
proIesionistilor n incubarea aIacerilor n regiunea ECA. / ECABit Aetwork brings together about 49 associations and
business innovation incubators and parks of science and technologv in over 20 countries in Eastern Europe and
Central Asia, including associations from Russia, U:bekistan and Ukraine, represented bv more than 200 incubators
(as in Mav, 2010). Members of this network are located in countries that have undergone the transition from the
planned to market economv. Network strengthens the competitiveness of economies in Eastern Europe and Central
Asia bv promoting innovation and entrepreneurship through efficient and sustainable business incubation. ECABit
understands incubation as a kev tool for innovation and entrepreneurial development, and operates verv successfullv in
confunction with other tools that address these goals. The goal of ECABit is to develop a sustainable platform for the
generating of knowledge, contacts and experience exchange, as well as for professionals work in business incubation
in the ECA region.
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 73
nr. 2 / 2013
Rejeaua WAIAOJA (World Alliance for Innovation) este o aliant mondial, care aduce mpreun 28 de retele si
asociatii de incubatoare de inovare si parcuri stiintiIice si tehnologice, crend o retea de retele, pentru a contribui la
dezvoltarea social-economic a lumii prin promovarea inovrii, transIerului tehnologic si crearea companiilor
inovative. Acestea ntrunesc peste 2000 de platIorme de inovare (parcuri si incubatoare); dispun de aproximativ 2500
centre de cercetare-dezvoltare cu peste 2,5 milioane persoane; aduc mpreun peste 350 000 de companii inovative. /
WAIAOJA Aetwork is a global alliance that brings together 28 networks and associations of innovation incubators
and parks of science and technologv, creating a network of networks, in order to contribute to socio-economic
development of the world bv promoting innovation, technologv transfer and the creation of innovative companies. Thev
foin over 2,000 innovation platforms (parks and incubators), have about 2,500 centers of research and development
with more than 2.5 million people, brings together over 350,000 innovative companies.
Rejeaua de Centre Releu pentru Inovare (Innovation Relay Centres - IRC Network) este o retea creat de
Comisia European pentru a sprijini cresterea competitivittii IMM-urilor europene prin extinderea de parteneriate la
scar european pentru sporirea capacittii lor de a absorbi inovatiile. Cuprinde 71 de centre n trile membre ale UE,
precum si din asa tri ca Elvetia, Islanda, Israel, Chile si Norvegia. Reteaua dispune de serviciu integrat de brokeraj,
care oIer acces pe noi piete si parteneri europeni si de baze de date actualizate sptmnal. / IRC Aetwork is a network
created bv the European Commission to support the competitiveness of European SMEs bv expanding partnerships at
European level to increase their capacitv to absorb innovations. It comprises 71 centers in EU Member States as well
as in such countries as Swit:erland, Iceland, Israel, Chile and Norwav. The network has integrated brokerage service
that provides access to new markets, European partners and the databases updated weeklv.
Rejeaua EEA (Enterprise Europe Network) este la Iel o retea european de relationare si interactionare a
incubatilor, este un instrument cheie n cadrul strategiei Uniunii Europene pentru a stimula cresterea ntreprinderilor
mici si mijlocii. Reteaua reuneste peste 600 de organizatii de sprijin pentru ntreprinderi din 49 de tri si oIer o mare
varietate de servicii de inovare si internationalizare a IMM-urilor, 4000 de proIesionisti din statele UE, statele
candidate, statele membre ale Ariei Economice Europene (EEA) si tri terte, a cror misiune este s sprijine micile
companii pentru a proIita la maxim de oportunittile de aIaceri din Uniunea European. Reteaua Enterprise Europe
Network este gestionat de ctre Agentia Executiv European pentru Competivitate si Inovare (Executive Agency Ior
Competitiveness and Innovation -EACI) si Iace parte din cadrul programului de Competivitate si Inovare. Serviciile se
adreseaz att organizatiilor de sprijin, IMM-urilor, ct si universittilor si centrelor de cercetare si includ inIormatii
privind oportunittile de dezvoltare a aIacerilor, sursele de Iinantare disponibile, servicii de brokeraj pentru transIerul
de tehnologie si cunostinte, Iaciliteaz gsirea de parteneri, etc. ncepnd cu data de 22 septembrie 211, Republica
Moldova a devenit partener al Enterprise Europe Aetwork, prin crearea unui consorjiu ntre Camera de Comerj yi
Industrie, Agenjia pentru Inovare yi 1ransfer 1ehnologic yi Organizajia pentru Dezvoltarea ntreprinderilor Mici yi
Mijlocii. Acesti parteneri si-au propus Iondarea unui centru care s oIere o gam larg de servicii pentru mediul de
aIaceri n vederea accesului la piata european si implementrii unor tehnologii inovatoare n activitatea operational. /
EEA is also a European network of incubators interrelation and interaction, is a kev instrument in the European
Unions strategv for stimulation of small and medium-si:ed enterprises growth. The network brings together over 600
business support organi:ations from 49 countries and offers a wide varietv of services for innovation and
internationali:ation of SMEs, 4,000 professionals from the EU countries, candidate countries, member states of the
European Economic Area (EEA) and third countries whose mission is to assist small companies to take full advantage
of business opportunities in the European Union. The Enterprise Europe Network is managed bv the European
Executive Agencv for Competitiveness and Innovation (EACI) and is part of the Competitiveness and Innovation
Programme. Services are addressed to supporting organi:ations, SMEs, universities and research centers and include
information on business development opportunities, funding sources available, brokerage services for technologv and
knowledge transfer, facilitation in finding partners, etc. Since 22 September 211, Moldova became a partner of the
Enterprise Europe Aetwork, by creating a consortium between the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Agency for
Innovation and 1echnology 1ransfer and Organization for Development of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises.
These partners have proposed to found a center offering a range of services for business in regard to the access to the
European market and the implementation of innovative technologies in operational activitv.
Sursa / Source:
- What is a Business Innovation Centre (BIC), http://www.ebn.be/DisplayPage.aspx?pid17 ;
- ECAbit: incubating innovation. together http://www.idisc.net/en/Region.3.html
- About WAINOVA, http://www.wainova.org/members
- Building Technology Partnership, An averview oI the Innovation Relay Centre (IRC) Network, Bibiana Dantas,
Innovation Relay Centre Network
- About the Enterprise Europe Network, http://een.ec.europa.eu/about/about

Statisticile diIeritor tri arat, c aIacerile, care si ncep


activitatea n incubatoarele de inovare, tehnologice si de
aIaceri au sanse mai mari de supravietuire n primii 5 ani,
dect cele care pornesc n aIara acestora. Administratia
Statistics oI diIIerent countries shows that companies
that start their work in incubators oI innovation,
technology and business have a greater chance oI survival
in the Iirst 5 years than those which start out oI them. The
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 76
nr. 2 / 2013
Intreprinderilor Mici din SUA arta nc de la nceputul
anilor 2000, c de la 50 pn la 80 dintre Iirmele nou
nIiintate dau Ialiment n primii 5 ani, n timp ce 87 dintre
Iirmele incubate au supravietuit anului 5.
Toate aceste ciIre ne conIirm, c la ora actual este
Ioarte important nu att de a cuta noi solutii de sustinere a
IMM-urilor, ci de a perina experienta strin si a urma pasii,
care contribuie eIicient att la dezvoltarea aIacerilor, ct si a
economiei trilor n ansamblu. Cu alte cuvinte incubarea n
aIaceri, inclusiv inovative, din experienta mondial s-a
dovedit a Ii instrument eIicient de sprijin a initiativei private
si a generat ncredere att la nivelul administratiei de stat ct
si n sectorul privat, realizndu-se parteneriate public
private, care au ntrit conceptul si l-au consacrat n lupta
pentru eliminarea srciei.
Incubatoarele - entit(i importante de sus(inere a
IMM-urilor n Republica Moldova. Dac examinm
situatia din Republica Moldova, e de mentionat, c
sustinerea antreprenoriatului n tar prin politici de stat, care
s ncurajeze crearea inIrastructurilor de sustinere a
mediului de aIaceri s-a ncercat nc ncepnd cu anul 1993.
Aceste inIrastructuri, desi tineau cont de implementarea
tehnologiilor moderne si inovationale n activitatea agentilor
economici pentru a spori calitatea si competitivitatea
produselor Iabricate, au avut drept scop principal sustinerea
activittii antreprenoriale n general si atragerea investitiilor
strine n special, precum si dezvoltarea social-economic a
anumitor regiuni ale trii.
Conceptul de incubare a nceput s Iie dezvoltat n
Moldova ncepnd cu a.2000. Primele incubatoare au Iost
create la Chisinau, Blti, Ungheni si Hncesti, initiator Iiind
Ministerul Economiei al RM. Destinatia principal a acestor
structuri era de a oIeri spatii, consultant si inIormatii
frmelor mici si mijlocii nou create. Aceste ncercri, desi
erau binevenite, nu au Iormat ns un trend, nu au creat o
mod n Republica Moldova, structurile respective Iiind
ineIiciente. Pentru a educa spiritul antreprenorial si ncuraja
cettenii si Iirmele a Iost nevoie de crearea unei retele de
incubatoare de aIaceri, inclusiv n regiuni, care a demarat n
a.2009, Iacilitnd dezvoltarea social-economic a acestora.
La momentul actual n tar exist incubatoare de afaceri
traditionale, create cu suportul acordat de Uniunea
European, n care se dezvolt aIacerile aIlate la nceput de
activitate si incubatoare de inovare, care au la baz
dezvoltarea activittilor, bazate pe inovare si transIer de
tehnologie.
Dezvoltarea incubatoarelor de inovare. Tinnd cont
de experienta strin, dar si constientiznd pe deplin rolul
inovrii si a transIerului tehnologic, precum si necesitatea
valoriIicrii economice a productiei academice, n a.2003, la
10 iulie, Guvernul Republicii Moldova aprob Legea
nr.289 privind politica de stat pentru inovare i transfer
tehnologic, care stabileste bazele juridice, organizatorice si
economice de elaborare si promovare a politicii de stat
pentru inovare si transIer tehnologic n Republica Moldova.
Scopul principal al politicii de stat pentru inovare si transIer
tehnologic este 'relansarea economic a Republicii
Moldova prin valorificarea potentialului tiintific, tehnico-
tiintific i tehnologic, crearea i comerciali:area
produselor, serviciilor, proceselor moderne, ecologic pure,
Small Business Administration oI the United States shows
since the early 2000s, that in general Irom 50 per cent to
80 per cent oI start-ups Iail in the Iirst 5 years, while 87
per cent oI incubated companies survived the 5-years
period.
All these Iigures conIirm that at present it is very
important not to seek new solutions to support SMEs, but
to adopt Ioreign experience and Iollow the steps that
contribute eIIectively to the development oI both business
and the economy oI countries as a whole. In other words,
as the world experience proves, the business incubation,
including innovative one, is an eIIective tool to support
private initiative and to generate the conIidence both at the
level oI state administration and that oI private sector,
achieving public-private partnerships that have
strengthened the concept in the struggle Ior the poverty`s
elimination.
Incubators are important entities of SMEs` support
in the Republic of Moldova. II we examine the situation
in the Republic oI Moldova, it should be mentioned that in
the country the entrepreneurship`s support through state
policies, that encourage the creation oI inIrastructure oI
business` support, is being attempted since 1993. These
inIrastructures, although taking into account the
implementation oI modern and innovation technologies in
activity oI economic units in order to enhance the quality
and competitiveness oI manuIactured products, aimed
primarily at supporting entrepreneurship in general and
especially Ioreign investments` attracting, as well as socio-
economic development oI certain regions oI the country.
The concept oI incubation began to be developed in
Moldova since year 2000. The Iirst incubators were
created in Chisinau, Balti, Ungheni and Hincesti by the
initiative oI the Ministry oI Economy oI RM. The main
destination oI these structures was to provide premises,
consulting and inIormation to small and medium-sized
newly created Iirms. These attempting, although being
quite welcome, did not Iorm a trend and have not created a
Iashion in the Republic oI Moldova; the respective
structures were ineIIicient. In order to educate the
entrepreneurial spirit and encourage citizens and
businesses, it was necessary to create a network oI
business incubators, including in regions. This process
started in 2009, Iacilitating social and economic
development oI them. Currently, the country has
traditional business incubators, created with the European
Union`s support and where businesses at the beginning oI
activity are developed, and innovation incubators that
develop activities, based on innovation and technology
transIer.
The innovation incubators` development. Taking into
account the Ioreign experience and also being Iully aware oI
the role oI innovation and technology transIer as well as
necessity oI economic valuing oI an academic production,
in, on July 10, 2003, the Government oI the Republic oI
Moldova approved the Law no.289 on State Policv of
Innovation and Technologv Transfer, which establishes the
legal, organizational and economic basis oI development
and promotion oI state policy Ior innovation and technology
transIer in Moldova. The main aim oI the state policy Ior
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 77
nr. 2 / 2013
competitive. n aceast lege pentru prima oar s-a deIinit
continutul activittii de inovare si transIer tehnologic,
subiectii, mecanismele, directiile prioritare ale acestei
activitti, s-au identiIicat programele si proiectele de inovare
si transIer tehnologic, precum si sursele de Iinantare a
acestora.
Legea respectiv a Iavorizat adoptarea Codului cu
privire la tiint i inovare A 259-XJ din 15.07.2004 si a
Iacilitat procesul de creare a inIrastructurilor de suport si
anume: n cadrul Academiei de Stiinte a Moldovei a Iost
elaborat proiectul de lege privind parcurile tiintifico-
tehnologice i a incubatoarele de inovare, aprobat de
Guvern n anul 2007 (Legea nr.138 din 21.07.2007). Scopul
acestei legi este s stimuleze activittile de inovare si
transIer tehnologic, menite s transIorme rezultatele
cercetrilor stiintiIice si inovatiile n produse, servicii,
procese noi sau perIectionate.
Legea cu privire la parcurile stiintiIico-tehnologice si
incubatoarele de inovare a permis, ca la Iinele anului 2007
n tar s apar primele dou structuri de inovare Parcul
stiintiIico-tehnologic 'Academica si Incubatorul de Inovare
'Inovatorul, create de ctre Agentia pentru Inovare si
TransIer Tehnologic (AITT) a ASM cu contributia
Consiliului Suprem pentru Stiint si Dezvoltare Tehnologic
(CSSDT) al Academiei de Stiinte a Moldovei. Incubatorul
de inovare ,Inovatorul la moment este unicul incubator,
care real activeaz si nregistreaz rezultate palpabile n ceea
ce priveste elaborarea si implementarea inovatiilor n
economie.
Tinndu-se cont de eIicienta activittii Incubatorului de
Inovare ,Inovatorul, precum si de necesitatea valoriIicrii
productiei stiintiIice din universitti, s-a decis crearea
incubatoarelor de inovare si pe lng universitti. La
momentul actual exist deja 7 astIel de incubatoare 5 n
mun.Chisinu si 2 n regiunile trii (Blti si Comrat). n
scopul extinderii concentrrilor economice de tip incubator
de inovare este preconizat pentru nceputul a.2013 crearea
nc a unui incubator de inovare antreprenorial n mun.Blti.
Aceste incubatoare sunt create recent (2011-2012) si se aIl
n proces de elaborare a strategiilor de dezvoltare si de
selectare a rezidentilor, de aceea n continuare ne vom
concentra atentia asupra activittii Incubatorului de Inovare
,Inovatorul.
Incubatoarele de inovare n Republica Moldova se
creeaz pentru o perioad de 15 ani, si pot gzdui pn la 10
ntreprinderi pentru o perioad de 3 ani (ciclul de incubare).
Dup 3 ani ntreprinderile, dac reusesc s-si
mbuntteasc produsele si serviciile, s-si creeze un
segment de consumatori si s-si perIectioneze competentele
manageriale, aspecte care dovedesc c acestea pot Iunctiona
pe cont propriu, urmeaz ca ele s prseasc incubatorul.
Iar n cazul n care acestea nu au atins un nivel suIicient de
dezvoltare, pot continua activitatea n cadrul parcurilor
stiintiIico-tehnologice.
Mentionm, c Iiind creat la Iinele anului 2007,
selectarea rezidentilor n Incubatorul de Inovare
,Inovatorul s-a eIectuat de la nceputul a.2008. Si desi
legislatia n vigoare privind activitatea parcurilor stiintiIico-
tehnologice si a incubatoarelor de inovare este ambigu si
las loc de interpretri, Incubatorul de Inovare ,Inovatorul
innovation and technology transIer is ,the economic
recoverv of the Republic of Moldova bv means of elicitation
of scientific, technical and scientific-technological potential,
creation and marketing of modern, ecologicallv pure and
competitive products, services, processes. This law Ior the
Iirst time deIined the content oI innovation and technology
transIer activities, subjects, mechanisms, priority directions
oI this activity; there were identiIied programs and projects
oI innovation and technology transIer, as well as sources oI
those Iunding.
The law Iavored the adoption oI the Code on Science
and Innovation A 259-XJ from 15.07.2004 and Iacilitated
the creation oI the support inIrastructure, i.e.: within the
Academy oI Sciences, the draIt law On Scientific-
Technological Parks and Innovation Incubators has been
elaborated; it was approved by the Government in 2007
(Law No.138 of 21.07.2007). The purpose oI this law is to
encourage innovation and technology transIer activities
designed to transIorm the results oI scientiIic research and
innovation into products, services, new or improved
processes.
Law On ScientiIic-Technological Parks and Innovation
Incubators allowed, as the Iirst two structures oI innovation
appeared in the country in the end oI 2007: the ScientiIic-
technological park ,Academica and the Innovation
Incubator ,Inovatorul, created by the Agency Ior
Innovation and Technology TransIer (AITT) oI ASM with
the contribution oI the Supreme Council Ior Science and
Technological Development oI the Academy oI Sciences oI
Moldova. ,Inovatorul is currently the only incubator that
really works and registers tangible results regarding the
development and implementation oI innovations in the
economy.
Taking into account the eIIiciency oI the Innovation
Incubator "Inovatorul", as well as the need to develop the
scientiIic production oI universities, it was decided also to
create innovation incubators near universities. Currently
there are already seven such incubators 5 in mun. Chisinau
and 2 in regions oI the country (Balti and Comrat). In order
to extend economic concentrations oI innovation incubator
type, it is expected creating oI one more entrepreneurial
innovation incubator in mun. Balti at the beginning oI 2013.
All these incubators have been created recently (2011-2012)
and are in the process oI elaboration oI development
strategies and selecting residents, so we will Iocus hereaIter
on the work oI the Innovation Incubator ,Inovatorul.
Innovation incubators are being created in Moldova Ior
a period oI 15 years and can accommodate up to 10
enterprises Ior a period oI 3 years (the cycle oI incubation).
AIter 3 years, enterprises, in case they could improve their
products and services, create a segment oI consumers and
improve their management skills aspects, which prove that
they can work on their own leave the incubator. And iI
they have not reached a suIIicient level oI development,
they can continue activity in the scientiIic-technological
parks.
It should be mentioned, that being created at the end
2007, the Innovation Incubator ,Inovatorul began selecting
residents Irom the beginning oI 2008. And although the
current legislation on the activity oI scientiIic-technological
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 78
nr. 2 / 2013
pe lng toate greuttile si barierele ntlnite, nregistreaz
rezultate vizibile, acordnd suportul necesar rezidentilor,
completnd competentele antreprenorilor si determinnd
cresterea sanselor de succes ale ntreprinderilor mici si
mijlocii si contribuind la cresterea competitivittii acestora
pe piat.
n rezultatul studierii experientei strine si analizei
activittii Incubatorului de Inovare ,Inovatorul pentru
perioada 2008-2011 s-a constatat, c pentru a evalua si
aprecia gradul de viabilitate al conceptului respectiv si a
vedea care sunt perIormantele realizate n cadrul acestuia,
este necesar de a identiIica si analiza cteva criterii, si
anume:
Eficienta administrrii incubatorului,
Numrul de re:identi - IMM-uri inovative,
Numrul de IMM-uri lansate pe piat cu suportul
incubatorului,
Numrul de IMM-uri, care au incheiat ciclul de
incubare sau excluse din alte motive,
Numrul locurilor noi de munc create,
Jolumul productiei inovationale obtinute,
Jolumul investitiilor atrase din partea sectorului
privat (agenti economici),
Contributia statului la de:voltarea incubatorului de
inovare,
Numrul de potentiali beneficiari ai tehnologiei
inovationale obtinute,
Serviciile livrate i calitatea lor i gradul de
satisfactie al firmelor incubate,
Gradul de utili:are a suprafetei incubatorului.
ReIeritor la eficienta administrrii incubatorului e de
mentionat, c initial, n calitate de Administrator al
Incubatorului de Inovare ,Inovatorul, n rezultatul
concursului, prin Hotrrea Consiliului Suprem pentru
Stiint si Dezvoltare Tehnologic al Academiei de Stiinte a
Moldovei nr.181 din 27 septembrie 2007 a Iost desemnat
Firma Comercial de Productie ,CERBER-INFO SRL.
ns, n decurs de 4 ani de activitate a inIrastructurii de
inovare (2007-2011) n Republica Moldova s-a dovedit, c
structura existent de administrare a parcurilor si
incubatoarelor nu este rational, deoarece unele
Iunctii de administrare se dubleaz n cadrul Parcului
stiintiIico-tehnologic ,Academica si Incubatorului de
Inovare ,Inovatorul. AstIel n a doua jumtate a a.2011,
pentru optimizarea gestionrii acestor dou structuri, acestea
au Iost reorganizate, si II ,Inovatorul a stat parte
component a PST ,Academica cu acelasi administrator -
ntreprinderea de Stat Uzina Experimental ,Aselteh
(Hotrarea Consiliului Suprem pentru Stiint i
De:voltare Tehnologic al Academiei de Stiinte a Moldovei
nr.2 din 14 ianuarie 2011). Acest model de Iunctionare se
aplic si n alte tri europene - spre exemplu, n Romnia,
Germania, Marea Britanie, unde unele incubatoare de
inovare sunt create n cadrul parcurilor stiintiIice si
tehnologice. Dup ncheierea ciclului de incubare IMM-
urile Iie isi continu activitatea pe cont propriu, Iie n
cadrul parcului, n cazul n care ntreprinderea nu a atins
un nivel suIicient de dezvoltare pentru a supravietui pe
piat.
Ct priveste numrul de re:identi - IMM-uri inovative e
parks and innovation incubators is ambiguous and leaves
room Ior interpretation, the Innovation Incubator
,Inovatorul along with diIIiculties and barriers
encountered, shows visible results, providing the necessary
support to the residents, completing the entrepreneurs` skills
and increasing the chances oI success oI small and medium-
sized enterprises and enhancing their competitiveness on the
market.
As a result oI studying international experience and the
analysis oI activity oI the Innovation Incubator ,Inovatorul
Ior the period 2008-2011 it was Iound that to evaluate and
assess the degree oI viability oI this concept and to see that
the perIormance achieved under it, it is necessary to develop
some criteria, such as:
The efficiencv of the incubators management,
Number of residents innovative SMEs,
The number of SMEs launched in the market with the
support of the incubator,
The number of SMEs, which have completed the cvcle
of incubation or were excluded for other reasons,
The number of new created fobs,
The volume of the generated innovative production,
The volume of investments, attracted from the private
sector (businesses),
The state contribution to the development of
innovation incubator,
The number of potential beneficiaries of the
developed innovation technologv,
Delivered services, their qualitv and satisfaction
degree of incubated companies,
The degree of use of the incubators area.
Regarding the efficiencv of the incubators management
it should be noted, that initially, according to the Decision oI
the Supreme Council Ior Science and Technological
Development oI the Academy oI Sciences oI Moldova No.
181 oI 27 September 2007, the commercial production Iirm
,CERBER-INFO Ltd. was appointed as the Administrator
oI the Innovation Incubator ,Inovatorul in the result oI the
contest. However, aIter 4 years oI the innovation
inIrastructure`s activity (2007-2011) in the Republic oI
Moldova, it was proved that the existing structure oI the
administration oI innovation parks and incubators is not
rational as some management Iunctions are doubled within
the ScientiIic and Technologic Park ,Academica and the
Innovation Incubator ,Inovatorul. Thus in the second halI
oI 2011, in order to optimize the management oI these two
structures, they were reorganized and the Innovation
Incubator ,Inovatorul became the part oI the ScientiIic and
Technologic Park ,Academica with the same administrator
- State Enterprise Experimental Plant ",Aselteh (according
to the Degree of the Supreme Council for Science and
Technological Development of the Academv of Sciences of
Moldova No. 2 of 14 Januarv 2011). This operating model
is also practised in other European countries, Ior instance, in
Romania, Germany, United Kingdom, where some
innovation incubators are created within the science and
technology parks. AIter completion oI the incubation cycle,
SMEs may continue their work on their own or within the
park, in case the enterprise has not reached a suIIicient level
to survive in the market.
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 79
nr. 2 / 2013
de mentionat, c initial Incubatorul de Inovare ,Inovatorul
gzduia 2 ntreprinderi rezidente, nregistrnd 6 ntreprinderi
la Iinele anului 2011 (Figura 1), iar de la nceputul activittii
cu suportul Incubatorului au fost lansate 17 firme noi,
unele dintre care activeaz cu succes pe piata
Republicii Moldova si dup iesirea din Incubator. Doar n
a.2011 n cadrul Incubatorului au Iost nregistrati 3 rezidenti
noi; iar la 4 rezidenti li s-a revocat statutul de rezident (din
motiv de inactivitate/stagnare a proiectului) . IMM-urile
rezidente au specializare universal, proiectele pentru
realizare n cadrul incubatorului sunt selectate prin concurs.
Managerii IMM-urilor rezidente sunt n majoritate
persoane tinere, antreprenori nceptori cu idei inovative
sclipitoare, dar Ir mijloace Iinanciare si o bun parte din ei
Ir experient n domeniul aIacerilor, pentru care
suportul oIerit n cadrul incubatorului de inovare este Ioarte
valoros.
As Ior the number of residents innovative SMEs it
should be mentioned that initially the Innovation Incubator
,Inovatorul housed two resident companies, recording 6
enterprises at the end oI 2011 (Figure 1), also under the
support oI the Incubator there were launched 17 new
companies, some oI which operate successIully on the
market oI the Republic oI Moldova and aIter leaving the
incubator. Only in 2011, three new residents were registered
within the Incubator, but the resident status has been
revoked Ior 4 residents (because oI inactivity/stagnation oI a
project). SMEs residents have universal specialization,
projects to be realized in the incubator are selected by a
contest. Managers oI resident SME are mostly young
persons, novice entrepreneurs with brilliant innovative
ideas, but without Iinancial means; a good portion oI them
have no experience in business, so the support provided in
the innovation incubator is very valuable Ior them.
Fig. 1. Evolu(ia numrului reziden(ilor - IMM-uri inova(ionale n cadrul Incubatorului de inovare ,Inovatorul n 2008-2011/
Fig. 1. Evolution of the number of residents - innovative SMEs in the Innovation Incubator "Innovator" in 2008-2011
Sursa / Source: Elaborat de autor n baza rapoartelor de activitate ale AI11 n anii 28-211 / Elaborated by the author on the
basis of reports on activity of AI11 in 28-211
Din Figura 1 observm, c numrul de rezidenti
nregistreaz o crestere anual, cu exceptia a.2011,
indicatorii respectivi reprezentnd numrul de IMM-uri
active la Iinele Iiecrui an. Aici trebuie s mentionm, c pe
parcursul Iiecrui an analizat numrul de rezidenti a variat
semniIicativ. Aceast variatie este conditionat att de lipsa
resurselor Iinanciare necesare pentru realizarea proiectului,
de imperIectiunea legislatiei n vigoare privind activitatea
inIrastructurilor de inovare din tar, ct si de Iaptul, c n
perioada de activitate s-a acumulat o experient de evaluare
si selectare mai riguroas a proiectelor pentru realizare n
cadrul acestora. Dac initial n cadrul Incubatorului erau
invitate IMM-urile, ale cror proiecte prezentau interes din
punct de vedere al obiectului inovatiei, nelundu-se n
considerare componenta economic, apoi n prezent sunt
selectate doar acele IMM-uri, ale cror proiecte dispun de
un potential mai mare de implementare si au o valoare
economic important. AstIel, unele proiecte Ir
perspective promittoare pe piat si-au sistat activitatea
nainte de ncheierea ciclului de incubare.
O alt cauz, care a provocat sistarea activittii unor
IMM-uri si excluderea acestora din cadrul incubatorului a
Iost lipsa Iondurilor de Iinantare. n primul rnd n
Republica Moldova nu se practic Iinantarea de venture
pentru sustinerea aIacerilor riscante, asa ca n trile
dezvoltate, desi un proiect de lege este elaborat, dar nu este
Figure 1 shows that the number oI residents annually
increased with the exception oI 2011, these indicators
represents the number oI active SMEs at the end oI each
year. Here we must mention that during each examined
year the number oI residents varied signiIicantly. This
variation is conditioned by lack oI Iinancial resources
necessary Ior the project`s realization, the imperIection oI
legislation on the innovation activity in the country and
also by the Iact that during the period oI activity it was
accumulated the experience oI evaluation and more
rigorous selection oI the projects to realize within the
incubator. While initially there were invited in the
Incubator those SMEs whose projects represented an
interest in terms oI the subject innovation, not
taking into account the economic component, then
currently only whose SMEs are selected, whose projects
have greater potential oI realization and signiIicant
economic value. Thus, some projects without promising
market prospects have stopped work beIore the end oI the
incubation cycle.
Another reason, which caused the cessation oI activity
oI some SMEs and their exclusion from the incubator was
lack oI Iinance. First oI all, in the Republic oI Moldova
there is not practiced the venture Iinance Ior the support oI
risky businesses, as in developed countries, although a law
draIt is elaborated but not approved by the decision
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 80
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aprobat de Iactorii de decizie. n al doilea rnd,
ntreprinderile rezidente ntmpin diIicultti la obtinerea
creditelor bancare, deoarece acestea sunt start-up-uri, cu
istorii de credit zero, create pe entuziasmul si ideiile
inovative ale unor antreprenori tineri, care nu dispun de gaj,
iar Incubatorul nu a ajuns la o etap de dezvoltare, n care ar
putea garanta rambursarea creditelor de ctre rezidentii si.
Pe de alt parte bncile nu sunt n msur s aprecieze
valoarea activelor de cunoastere, cum ar Ii proprietatea
intelectual si, prin urmare, sunt adesea reticente la ideea de
a investi n ntreprinderile bazate pe cunoastere.
AstIel, n perioada analizat IMM-urile rezidente au
prsit Incubatorul din dou motive:
1) au ncheiat ciclul de 3 ani de incubare n cadrul
Incubatorului, activnd n prezent pe cont propriu;
2) li s-a revocat statul de rezident, Iiind excluse din
cadrul Incubatorului din alte motive, cum ar Ii lipsa
mijloacelor Iinanciare pentru initierea activittii n cadrul
proiectului.
E de mentionat, c n atragerea noilor rezidenti/IMM-uri
n activitti de inovare, dar si mentinerea activittii celor
existenti n cadrul Incubatorului de Inovare ,Inovatorul, un
rol important, de rnd cu serviciile de incubare, l au
Iacilittile Iiscale si vamale, promise de Legea cu privire la
parcurile stiintiIico-tehnologice si incubatoarele de inovare
IMM-urilor inovative din cadrul acestor structuri. n
rezultatul acestei legi s-au introdus modiIicri si completri
n Codul Iiscal si Codul vamal, prin care rezidentilor
parcurilor stiintiIico-tehnologice si incubatoarele de inovare
li se promiteau importante Iacilitti Iiscale, vamale si
tariIare.
Desi, statul venise cu politici publice orientate
nemijlocit asupra stimulrii activittilor de inovare si
transIer tehnologic, realizate n cadrul parcurilor stiintiIico-
tehnologice si incubatoarelor de inovare, totusi nu s-a mers
prea departe n sustinerea real a acestor activitti. De Iacto,
pe parcursul a 5 ani (2007-2011), nici unul dintre rezidenti
nu a putut beneIicia de nlesnirile prevzute de lege, iar
multiplele ncercri de a le obtine se considerau de ctre
ministerele implicate drept o metod de eschivare de la
achitarea taxelor. Numeroasele ncercri de a argumenta
importanta acordrii acestor Iacilitti s-au conIruntat cu
atitudinea pasiv a Iactorilor de decizie. n aceste conditii,
ideea legii a Iost compromis, iar multi dintre rezidenti si-au
retras statutul su si au ncetat activitatea economic. n
aIar de aceasta, neacordarea Iacilittilor a Iost o
dezamgire pentru investori, Iapt ce s-a reIlectat negativ
asupra dezvoltrii activittii investitionale si inovationale
per ansamblu.
n paralel cu promovarea inovrii, a transIerului
tehnologic si cu dezvoltarea spiritului antreprenorial, IMM-
urile din cadrul Incubatorului contribuie la crearea locurilor
de munc, Iapt care genereaz o crestere economic
sustenabil de rnd cu cresterea standardului de viat al
populatiei. AstIel, la nceputul anului 2011 numrul total de
locuri de munc (ale Administratorului si ale IMM-urilor
rezidente n cadrul incubatorului) era de 57, crescnd cu dor
5 locuri noi pe parcursul anului. Cel mai mare numr de
locuri de munc au Iost create n a.2009 8; cte 7 n
a.2008 si respectiv a.2010. Evolutia numrului locurilor de
makers. Secondly, resident enterprises have diIIiculties in
obtaining bank loans because these enterprises are start-
ups with zero credit histories, created on the basis oI
enthusiasm and innovative ideas oI young entrepreneurs
who lack collateral, but the Incubator has not reached yet
that stage oI development, when it could guarantee the
repayment oI loans by its residents. On the other hand,
banks are not able to value knowledge assets, such as
intellectual property and thereIore are oIten unwilling to
invest in knowledge-based companies.
Thus, in the analysed period SMEs resident leIt the
incubator Ior two reasons:
1) they completed three years cycle oI incubation in
the incubator, currently acting on their own;
2) they revoked the resident status, being excluded
Irom the incubator Ior other reasons, such as lack oI
Iinance to initiate work on the project.
It is worth mentioning that in attracting new
residents/SMEs in innovation activities, and also
maintaining the work oI those existing in the Innovation
Incubator ,Inovatorul, an important role, along with
incubation services, belongs to Iiscal and customs
Iacilities promised by the Law on scientiIic and
technological parks and innovation incubators to
innovative SMEs within such structures. As a result oI this
law, alterations and additions to the Tax Code and
Customs Code were made, which envisage that the
residents oI scientiIic-technological parks and innovation
incubators had been promised signiIicant and tax breaks,
customs and tariIIs advantages.
Although the state came with public policies, directly
aimed at stimulating innovation and technology transIer
activities, conducted under scientiIic-technological parks
and innovation incubators, yet achieved no progress in the
real support oI these activities. In Iact, in the period oI 5
years (2007-2011), none oI the residents could beneIit
Irom the incentives provided by the law, but many
attempts to get them involved ministries to believe that it
was a way oI evading the payment oI taxes. Numerous
attempts to argue the importance oI these Iacilities were
Iaced with the passive attitude oI the decision makers. In
these circumstances, the idea oI the law was compromised,
and many residents withdrew their statutes and ceased
economic activity. In addition, Iailure to grant Iacilities
was a disappointment to investors; being negatively
reIlected on the development oI investment activity and
overall innovation.
Along with the promoting innovation, technology
transIer and entrepreneurial spirit, incubated SMEs
contribute to new fobs creation, which generate
sustainable economic growth along with the increasing oI
the standard oI living oI the population. Thus, in the
beginning oI 2011, the total number oI work places
(those oI the Administrator and oI SMEs residents
within the incubator) was 57, with an increase oI just 5
new places during the year. The largest number
oI new jobs - 8 - were created in 2009, in 2008 and 2010
there were created 7 new jobs respectively. The evolution
oI the number oI work places within the Innovation
Incubator ,Inovatorul in the period oI 2008-2011 is
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 81
nr. 2 / 2013
munc n cadrul Incubatorul de Inovare ,Inovatorul n
perioada 2008-2011 este prezentat n Figura 2.
Reducerea anual a numrului de locuri noi de munc
create n perioada anilor 2009-2011 (de la 8 n 2009 la 5
locuri noi create n 2011) se explic prin Iaptul, c initial n
cadrul incubatorului erau nregistrate Iirme mici si mijlocii,
cu termenul de activitate pe piat de pn la 3 ani, cu
specializare universal, care au initiat realizarea proiectelor
de inovare, dar ncepnd cu a.2009 n calitate de rezidenti au
Iost nregistrati n principal antreprenori individuali, precum
si ntreprinderi, ideile inovative ale crora sunt bazate pe
tehnologii IT, Iiind de obicei ntreprinderi micro.
presented in Figure 2.
Annual reduction in the number oI new work places in
the period oI 2009-2011 (Irom 8 in 2009 to 5 new jobs
created in 2011) is explained by the Iact that there were
registered initially within the incubator small and medium-
sized businesses with the activity experience in the market
oI 3 years, having universal specialization and initiating
innovative projects` realization. But Irom 2009, there were
registered as the incubator`s residents mainly individual
entrepreneurs and enterprises with innovative ideas, based
on IT technologies; most oI them were typically micro
enterprises.
Fig. 2. Evolu(ia numrului de locuri noi de munc create anual n cadrul Incubatorului de Inovare ,Inovatorul n 2008-2011/
Fig. 2. Evolution of the number of new jobs created annually in the Innovation Incubator ,Inovatorul in 2008-2011
Sursa / Source: Elaborat de autor n baza rapoartelor de activitate ale AI11 n anii 28-211 / Elaborated by the author based
on AI11 activity reports of 28-211
Un alt indicator important, care ne atest privitor la
necesitatea sustinerii dezvoltrii incubatoarelor de
inovare este volumul productiei inovationale obtinute n
urma realizrii proiectelor. Acesta nregistreaz o crestere
semniIicativ n a.2011 n comparatie cu anii precedenti.
AstIel, dac n a.2008 volumul productiei inovationale
constituia 1,7 mil lei, atunci n a.2011 acesta constituia
deja 20,12 mil lei, majorndu-se n 4 ani de circa 12 ori
si depsind investitiile atrase de 7 ori (Figura 3).
Another important indicator, which shows the
need oI support oI the innovation incubators` development
is the volume of the generated innovative production
Irom projects` implementation. It registered a signiIicant
growth in 2011 compared to previous years. Thus,
while in 2008 the volume oI the innovative production
amounted 1.7 mln lei, in 2011 it was already 20.12 mln
lei, increasing about 12 times in Iour years and exceeding
7 times the attracted investments (Figure 3).
Fig. 3. Evolu(ia volumului produc(iei inova(ionale realizate n raport cu investi(iile reziden(ilor
Incubatorului de Inovare ,Inovatorul n anii 2008-2011 /
Fig. 3. The dynamics of the volume of innovative production in relation to investments made by residents
of the Innovation Incubator ,Inovatorul in 2008-2011
Sursa / Source: Elaborat de autor n baza rapoartelor de activitate ale AI11 n anii 28-211 / Elaborated by the author based
on AI11 activity reports of 28-211.
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 82
nr. 2 / 2013
Mentionm, c investitiile IMM-urilor re:idente n
realizarea proiectelor de inovare n cadrul Incubatorului au
crescut de asemenea n anii 2008-2011, majorndu-se de
aproximativ 7 ori, de la 0,43 mil lei n a.2008 pn la 2,9 mil
lei n a.2011.
Totodat, tinnd cont de Iaptul, c n Republica
Moldova statului trebuie s-i apartin rolul de catalizator al
dezvoltrii inovationale, este de mentionat contributia
semniIicativ a statului la crearea si dezvoltarea
Incubatorului de Inovare ,Inovatorul, investitiile cruia n
perioada analizat au Iost Ioarte importante. AstIel, n 5 ani
de activitate (2007-2011) din bugetul de stat pentru crearea,
reabilitarea si dezvoltarea incubatorului de inovare si a
inIrastructurii acestuia s-au alocat mijloace n volum de 5,5
mil.lei, sau circa 25,8 din alocatiile totale destinate pentru
dezvoltarea ntregii inIrastructuri de inovare (2 parcuri
stiintiIico-tehnologice si 1 incubator de inovare). Volumul
mijloacelor alocate pentru crearea, reabilitarea si dezvoltarea
inIrastructurii de inovare si transIer tehnologic sunt
prezentate n Tabelul 1.
It should be mentioned that the volume of SMEs
residents investments to innovation projects` realization
within the Incubator also grew during 2008-2011,
increased by about 7 times, Irom 0.43 mln lei in 2008 to
2.9 mln lei in 2011.
However, taking into consideration the Iact that in
Moldova the state should play the role oI the catalyst Ior
the innovational development, it should be noted the
signiIicant contribution oI the state to the creation and
development oI the Innovation Incubator ,Inovatorul; the
state investment were very important in the analysed period.
Thus, in 5 years oI activity (2007-2011), the state allocated
Irom the budget the amount oI 5.5 million lei Ior the
creation, rehabilitation and development oI the innovation
incubator and its inIrastructure, or approximately 25.8 oI
total allocations Ior the development oI the whole
innovation inIrastructure (two scientiIic-technological parks
and 1 innovation incubator). Volume oI Iunds allocated Ior
the creation, rehabilitation and development oI innovation
inIrastructure and technology transIer are in Table 1.
Tabelul 1/Table 1
Aloca(ii bugetare pentru dezvoltarea infrastructurii de inovare /
Budgetary allocations for infrastructure development of innovation
Denumirea / Aame
Anii, mil. Lei / Years, mln. lei
Total
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Incubatorul de Inovare ,INOVATORUL
/ Innovation Incubator ,IAOJA1ORUL"
1,0 1,5 1,5 0,8 0,7 5,5
P$T ,ACADEMICA / Scientific-
1echnological Park ,ACADEMICA"
2,3 1,8 2,3 0,7 0,7 7,8
P$T ,INAGRO / Scientific-1echnological
Park ,IAACRO"
- - 3,0 2,5 2,5 8,0
Total pe an / 1otal per year 3,3 3,3 6,8 4,0 3,9 21,3
Sursa/Source: Elaborat de autor n baza Raportului privind activitatea Consiliului Suprem pentru Stiinj yi
Dezvoltare 1ehnologic yi rezultatele ytiinjifice principale objinute n sfera ytiinjei yi inovrii n anul 211 /
Elaborated by the author based on the Report on the activities of the Supreme Council for Science and 1echnological
Development and the main scientific results obtained in the field of science and innovation in 211.
Indicatorii prezentati denot c, n perioada analizat,
pentru crearea, dezvoltarea si Iunctionarea inIrastructurii
PST ,Academica, PST ,Inagro si a II ,Inovatorul s-au
alocat din bugetul de stat 21,3 mil.lei, respectiv, 7,8 mil. lei,
8,0 mil.lei si 5,5 mil.lei. Parcul stiintiIico-tehnologic
,Micronanoteh, desi era creat, n-a beneIiciat de alocatii
bugetare n aceast perioad.
Cu reIerire la mijloacele Iinanciare alocate din bugetul
de stat Incubatorului de Inovare ,Inovatorul, e de
mentionat, c acestea au avut o evolutie pozitiv n perioada
2007-2009, iar n perioada 2010-2011 aceastea s-au redus
odat cu reducerea mijloacelor de stat alocate sIerei stiintei
si inovrii din Republica Moldova, si care corespunde cu
starea critic a economiei nationale si perioada de criz
Iinaciar-economic mondial.
Vorbind despre serviciile de incubare oferite in cadrul
Incubatorului, despre calitatea lor i gradul de satisfactie
al IMM-urilor incubate este de mentionat, c n procesul
audierii Iiecrui rezident separat, realizate la Iinele a.2008
n cadrul Agentiei de Inovare si TransIer Tehnologic pentru
identiIicarea problemelor cu care se conIrunt acestia la
realizarea proiectelor de inovare, s-a constatat, c dac
The presented indicators show that in the analysed
period, there were allocated Irom the state budget 21.3
million lei Ior the creation, development and operation oI
inIrastructure oI STP ,Academica, STP ,Inagro and II
,Inovatorul, per 7.8 mln lei, 8.0 mln lei and 5.5 mln lei
respectively. ScientiIic-Technological Park ,Micro-
nanoteh, though being created, did not received the
budgetary allocations during this period.
As to the Iunds allocated Irom the state budget to the
Innovation Incubator ,Inovatorul, they had a positive
trend in 2007-2009, but in 2010-2011 they decreased
along with the decreasing oI the Iunds assigned by the
state to science and innovation oI the Republic oI
Moldova, and which correspond to the critical situation in
the national economy and the period oI global crisis oI
Iinancial and economic sphere.
As to incubation services, delivered within the
Incubator, their qualitv and satisfaction degree of
incubated SMEs, aIter the separate hearings oI each
resident, conducted at the end oI 2008 by the Agency Ior
Innovation and Technology TransIer in order to identiIy
problems they Iace in innovation projects, it was Iound
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 83
nr. 2 / 2013
serviciile de incubare propriu-zise sunt importante pentru
IMM-uri, atunci pentru marea majoritate Ioarte importante
se dovedesc a Ii n primul rnd Iacilittile Iiscale si vamale,
promise de legislatia n vigoare, care de Iacto nu au Iost
acordate. Aceast problem a Iost pe ordinea de zi a
majorittii seminarelor si meselor rotunde organizate
pentru rezidenti de ctre administratorii parcurilor
stiintiIico-tehnologice si incubatoarelor de inovare n
comun cu AITT. Pe lng aceasta Irecvent rezidentii
venind n incubator sper s obtin suport Iinanciar,
asistent n eIectuarea studiului de marketing, precum si la
elaborarea planului de aIaceri. Unii rezidenti, n procesul
audierii au mentionat, c activeaz n cadrul incubatorului
doar pentru c statutul de rezident le oIer anumite avantaje
pe pietele strine si sporesc imaginea ntreprinderii. La
momentul actual IMM-urile - rezidente ale incubatorului
(dar si a parcurilor stiintiIico-tehnologice) beneIiciaz de
conditii avantajoase de locatiune, Iolosire a inIrastructurii
si a comunicatiilor, inclusiv prin esalonare a pltilor; scutiri
sau reduceri la tariIe (Pentru incubator, pe o perioad de
trei ani, oficiul, tehnica, mobila, Internetul, telefonul,
serviciile comunale sunt oferite gratuit. Pentru parcul
tiintifico-tehnologic, in primii ani, arenda i serviciile
comunale sunt achitate in mrime de 50 din pretul de
piat.) n plus, specialistii incubatorului oIer consultatii
gratuite pe diverse aspecte ce tin de aIaceri, organizeaz
pentru rezidenti IMM-uri inovative training-uri,
seminare, conIerinte n comun cu alte institutii abilitate
pentru ca acestea s dobndeasc cunostinte, s-si dezvolte
abilittile si s acumuleze experient. Promovarea IMM-
urilor incubate si a produselor lor se realizeaz prin
participarea la expozitii, att nationale (,InIoinvent si
'Fabricat n Moldova"), ct si internationale (Romnia,
Cehia, Italia, Germania, etc.), saloane ale inovrii
(Romnia, Rusia), trguri, etc.
n contextul criteriului examinat mai sus este necesar
de a analiza gradul de utili:are a suprafetei incubatorului.
Incubatorul de Inovare ,Inovatorul este creat n baza
ntreprinderii de Stat Uzina Experimental ,ASELTEH,
amplasat pe adresa: mun.Chisinu, str.Miorita, 5. n
prezent Incubatorul ocup o supraIat de 730 m
2
, dintre
care este valoriIicat doar circa 100 m
2
.
Concluzii yi recomandri. Analiza experientei strine,
dar si a activittii Incubatorului de Inovare ,Inovatorul a
permis de a concluziona, c eIortul de inovare nceput n
tar este ndrepttit, iar entittile de sustinere de
tipul incubatoarelor de inovare au un rol deosebit n
promovarea culturii inovrii si a spiritului antreprenorial
inovativ, pe de o parte, iar pe de alt parte n
sustinerea si stimularea potentialului de creare, dezvoltare
si viabilitate al IMM-urilor competitive din Republica
Moldova. Acestea pot contribui la revitalizarea
comunittilor locale, generarea de locuri de munc,
sprijinirea antreprenorilor locali, ncurajarea inovatiei, a
transIerului rezultatelor cercetrii si a noilor tehnologii din
mediul academic si universitar n mediul economic,
dezvoltarea de noi sectoare industriale sau cresterea
competitivittii celor deja existente.
Facilittile si serviciile de incubare oIerite noilor Iirme
n cadrul incubatorului de inovare sunt Ioarte importante si
that iI proper incubation services are important Ior
SMEs, then it is very important Ior the vast majority oI
them to be granted with tax and customs Iacilities
promised by legislation, but which in Iact were not
granted. This problem was on the agenda oI most
seminars and round tables organized Ior the residents by
administrators oI scientiIic-technological parks and
innovation incubators together with AITT. Besides that,
residents oIten come in incubator hoping to get Iinancial
support, assistance in marketing study conducting and
elaboration oI business plan. Some residents said in the
hearing that they work in the incubator just because the
resident status oIIers them certain advantages in Ioreign
markets and enhances company image. Currently SMEs
residents oI the incubator (as well as oI scientiIic-
technological parks) have advantageous conditions oI
placing, use oI inIrastructure and communications,
including payments by installments; exemptions or
reductions in tariIIs (Office, technical, mobile, internet,
telephone, public utilities are free of charge for the
incubator for a period of three vears. As for scientific
and technological park, in the earlv vears, the rent and
public utilities should be paid equal to 50 of the
market price.) In addition, incubator`s specialists oIIer
Iree consultations on various aspects oI business,
organize trainings, seminars, conIerences jointly with
other institutions Ior the residents innovative SMEs -
in order they could acquire knowledge, develop skills
and get experiences. The promoting oI incubated SMEs
and their products is achieved through participation in
exhibitions, both national (,InIoinvent si 'Fabricat n
Moldova) and international (Romania, Czech Republic,
Italy, Germany, etc.), innovation shows (Romania,
Russia), Iairs, etc.
In the context oI the criteria examined above it is
necessary to analyze the degree of use of the incubators
area. The Innovation Incubator ,Inovatorul is created
under the State Enterprise Experimental Plant
,ASELTEH, located at the address: mun. Chisinau,
Miorita Str., 5. The Incubator currently occupies an area
oI 730 m
2
, only about 100 m
2
oI which are renewed.
Conclusions and recommendations. The analysis
oI Ioreign experience, as well as the activity oI the
Innovation Incubator ,Inovatorul allowed to conclude
that innovation eIIort, which has started in the country is
eligible; supporting entities such as innovation
incubators have an important role in promoting the
culture oI innovation and innovative entrepreneurial
spirit on the one hand and on the other hand in
supporting and stimulating potential Ior creation,
development and sustainability oI competitive SMEs in
the Republic oI Moldova. They can help to revitalize
local communities, to generate jobs, to support local
entrepreneurs, to encourage innovations, the transIer oI
research results and new technologies Irom the
academia and universities in the economic environment,
the development oI new industries and increase the
competitiveness oI existing ones.
Incubation Iacilities and services, oIIered to new
Iirms within the innovation incubator are very important
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 84
nr. 2 / 2013
le ajut acestora s depseasc barierele cu care se
conIrunt la demararea si dezvoltarea aIacerilor,
mbunttindu-le sansele de succes. n special acestea sunt
de mare ajutor tinerilor antreprenori, care primesc din start
suport pentru a se dezvolta, precum si persoanelor Ir
experient n domeniul aIacerilor.
Avantajele incubatoarelor sunt multiple, cu impact pe
termen lung asupra dezvoltrii economice a zonelor n care
sunt amplasate acestea. Ele ajut noile aIaceri s se
consolideze si, prin urmare, s creeze noi locuri de munc.
Totodat, crearea incubatoarelor de inovare, de asemenea
reprezint o sans pentru autorittile guvernamentale si
pentru autorittile locale de a-si demonstra dorinta si
capacitatea de a actiona n sensul sustinerii mediului de
aIaceri, inclusiv a inovrii, utiliznd acest tip de asistent,
care poate aduce beneIicii reale economiei nationale si
locale.
Pentru a crea un sistem de inovare puternic si a obtine
perIormant n domeniul inovrii, precum si avantaj
competitiv ntre state este esential de a crea entitti cum
sunt incubatoarele de inovare si parcurile stiintiIico-
tehnologice, si alte retele inovative, eliminnd n acelasi
timp lacunele existente att de organizare, Iunctionare, ct
si cele legislative. Crearea incubatoarelor de inovare n
cadrul sau pe lng universitti va contribui eIicient la
transIerul de cunostinte si tehnologii n mediul economic.
Mai mult, crearea unei retele de incubatoare de inovare n
regiuni va contribui la dezvoltarea economic rapid a
regiunilor trii.
Dezvoltarea unei retele de incubatoare de inovare, n
special n regiuni poate Ii sustinut prin:
- continuarea si extinderea pe o alt treapt a
programelor de sustinere pentru entittile de inovare deja
existente si lansarea de noi initiative, care se vor axa pe
calitatea si pe gradul de specializare al serviciilor suport
oIerite Iirmelor gazduite;
- actiuni pentru dezvoltarea competentelor manageriale
n cadrul incubatoarelor de inovare / parcurilor stiintiIico-
tehnologice (programe partial sau chiar integral
subventionate de ctre stat de pregtire n domeniul
managementului inovarii, etc.), inclusiv prin transIerul
celor mai bune practici din UE;
- Iacilitarea participrii n programe, proiecte si retele
de cooperare la nivel international, inclusiv UE, precum si
prin diseminarea de inIormatii cu privire la retelele
existente si proiectele derulate pe plan international n acest
domeniu, prin disponibilizarea lor n cadrul unei platIorme
electronice dedicate si bine promovate.
Cu toate c crearea si implementarea inovatiilor si
transIerul de tehnologie, n general este un proces
ndelungat, care cere resurse numeroase si, n special, timp,
acestea trebuie privite ca o investitie, deoarece aceast
activitate consum resurse ale prezentului, pentru a da
beneIicii n viitor. Iat de ce activitatea de inovare are
nevoie de o conceptie, de o strategie la nivel national, de
acte normative clare, deci, se cere un management riguros,
se impun activitti clare de coordonare, gestionare,
urmrire si evaluare a acestor activitti, inclusiv din cadrul
incubatoarelor de inovare (parcurilor stiintiIico-
tehnologice).
and help them to overcome the barriers they Iace in
starting and developing enterprises, improving their
chances oI success. In particular, they are oI great help
to young entrepreneurs, who receive support Irom the
start to grow, as well as people with no experience in
business sphere.
Incubators` advantages are multiple, having long-
term impact on the economic development oI areas
where they are placed. They help new businesses to
consolidate and subsequently to create new work places.
Moreover, the creation oI innovation incubators also
represents an opportunity Ior governmental and local
authorities to demonstrate willingness and ability to
support the business, including innovation, using this
type oI assistance that can bring real beneIits to local
and national economy.
In order to create a strong innovation system and
achieve the perIormance in innovation sphere and
competitive advantage between countries, it is essential
to create entities such as innovation incubators and
scientiIic and technological parks, as well as other
innovative networks, at the same time eliminating the
existing gaps in organization, operation and legislation.
The creation oI innovation incubators within or near
universities will eIIectively contribute to the transIer oI
knowledge and technology in the economy. Moreover,
the creation oI a network oI innovation incubators in
regions will contribute to the rapid economic
development oI the country`s regions.
The development oI a network oI innovation
incubators, especially in the regions can be supported
by:
- continuing and expanding to another level oI the
programs oI support Ior innovating entities already
existing and launching oI new initiatives that will Iocus
on quality and on degree oI specialization oI the support
services provided to hosted companies;
- actions Ior development oI managerial skills in
innovation incubators/ scientiIic-technological parks
(programs oI innovation management training, etc.,
partially or Iully subsidized by the state), including by
means oI transIer oI the EU best practice;
- Iacilitating participation in programs, projects and
networks oI international cooperation, including the EU,
and by disseminating inIormation on existing networks
and projects, existing in international area in this
domain, by their availability within an electronic
dedicated and well promoted platIorm.
Although the creation and implementation oI
innovations and technology transIer in general is a
lengthy process that requires many resources, time in
particular, this should be viewed as an investment,
because this activity consumes resources oI the present,
giving beneIits to the Iuture. That is why the innovation
activity needs a conception, a national strategy, clear
legislation and thereIore requires a rigorous
management, clear activities oI coordination,
management, monitoring and evaluation oI these
activities, including within the innovation incubators
(scientiIic-technological parks).
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 83
nr. 2 / 2013
Pentru dezvoltarea cu succes a acestui proces n
Republica Moldova, este Ioarte important investitia n
inovare. Investitiile sectorului privat sunt insuIiciente la
momentul actual, tinnd cont si de criza Iinanciar-
economic, si de Iaptul c bncile sunt reticente n
acordarea creditelor pentru IMM-uri noi n general, dar
pentru cele inovationale n special, astIel crearea
fondurilor cu capital de risc n Republica Moldova ar putea
solutiona o parte din problemele Iinanciare existente.
Fondurile cu capital de risc (,venture capital) reprezint,
n special n statele cu economie dezvoltat, o important
surs de Iinantare pentru cresterea IMM-urilor competitive,
bazate pe tehnologie si inovare. n Republica Moldova,
desi a Iost elaborat un proiect de lege privind Iondurile de
venture, acesta nu este aprobat de ctre Iactorii de decizie.
Aprobarea si promovarea acestei legi ar contribui la crearea
acestor Ionduri, att de necesare la etapa actual IMM-
urilor rezidente ale incubatoarelor de inovare existente n
tar.
Rezidentii incubatoarelor de inovare sunt, n principal,
antreprenorii nceptori, cu idei sclipitoare, start-up-uri, cu
istorii de credit zero, create pe entuziasmul si ideiile
inovative ale unor antreprenori tineri, dar Ir mijloace
Iinanciare si care nc nu dispun de un gaj pentru a primi
credit bancar si nu au o aIacere destul de dezvoltat pentru
a atrage capitalul venture. n acest caz, o metod de
Iinantare a acestora, care este practicat n diIerite tri si
poate Ii aplicat si n conditiile Republicii Moldova sunt
,ingerii afacerilor (business angels) una dintre sursele
reale de Iinantare a IMM-urilor inovative. De obicei,
acestia sunt investitori privati, care investesc n proiecte de
aIaceri riscante la etapa de creare a companiei. n plus,
relatia dintre subiectul si obiectul investitiei nu este una
exclusiv Iinanciar. Adesea antreprenorii nceptori, n
aIar de bani, beneIiciaz de relatii, recomandri si
asistent juridic prin intermediul programelor strine, care
propun credite tehnice sub Iorm de consultatii, cursuri de
instruire, pregtirea documentelor prealabile investitiilor.
,ngerii ajut companiile tinere n gestionarea si stabilirea
relatiilor, acestia pot Ii garanti la banc sau pot atrage
atentia Iondurilor de capital de risc pentru primirea unor
sume mai mari, datorit autorittii pe care o detin.
Promovarea si dezvoltarea acestui instrument n Republica
Moldova ar contribui la realizarea celor mai tentante si mai
rentabile proiecte si idei ale rezidentilor incubatoarelor de
inovare si parcurilor stiintiIico-tehnologice.
De asemenea pentru atenuarea poverii Iinanciare a
IMM-urilor la realizarea proiectelor de inovare si transIer
tehnologic n cadrul incubatoarelor si transIormarea
incubatorului ntr-un loc atractiv pentru investitiile n
inovare este necesar utilizarea inteligent a
parteneriatelor public-privat. Ajutoarele publice n cadrul
parteneriatelor permit mobilizarea Iondurilor private. n
plus, participarea autorittilor publice n cadrul unui
asemenea parteneriat, permite acestora de a orienta atentia
sectorului privat asupra sectoarelor strategice de dezvoltare
si de a determina prioritatea proiectelor, care pot Ii
dezvoltate n cadrul incubatorului.
Pentru crearea unui mediu Iavorabil de Iunctionare cu
succes a inIrastructurilor de suport pentru IMM-uri
For the successIul development oI this process in the
Republic oI Moldova it is very important to invest in
innovation. Private sector investment is insuIIicient at
present, taking into account the economic and Iinancial
crisis and the Iact that banks are reluctant to issue loans
Ior new SMEs in general, and especially Ior innovative
ones; thus, the creation oI venture capital funds in the
Republic oI Moldova could solve some oI existing
Iinancial problems. Venture capital Iunds represent, in
particular in countries with developed economy, an
important source oI Iunding Ior the growth oI
competitive SMEs, based on technology and innovation.
In Moldova, it was elaborated a draIt law on venture
Iunds, but it is not approved by policy makers. The
adoption and promotion oI this law would contribute to
the creation oI such Iunds, so necessary at this stage to
SMEs-residents oI innovation incubators existing in the
country.
Residents oI innovation incubators are primarily
beginner entrepreneurs with brilliant ideas, start-ups
with zero credit histories, created on th ebasis oI the
enthusiasm and innovative ideas oI young entrepreneurs,
but without the Iinancial resources or collateral to get
bank loan, being underdeveloped business to attract
venture capital. In this case, a method oI Iinancing,
which is practiced in diIIerent countries and can be
applied in the Republic oI Moldova, is ,business angels
attraction one oI the real sources oI Iinancing
innovative SMEs. Usually these are private investors,
who invest in risky business projects at the stage oI
creation oI the company. In addition, the relationship
between the subject and the object oI the investment is
not exclusively the Iinancial one. Quite oIten, besides
money, the beginning entrepreneurs obtain relationships,
recommendations and legal assistance through Ioreign
programs, which oIIer technical credits in the Iorm oI
advice, training courses, preparation oI prior investment
documents. ,Angels help young companies in
management and relationships, they can be guarantors to
the bank or may attract the attention oI venture capital
Iunds in order to receive larger amounts, due to the
holding authority. The promotion and development oI
this instrument in the Republic oI Moldova would
contribute to achieve the most tempting and proIitable
projects and ideas oI residents oI innovation incubators
and scientiIic-technological parks.
Also in order to alleviate the Iinancial burden oI
SMEs in realization oI innovation and technology
transIer projects within the incubators and the
incubator`s transIormation into attractive place Ior
investment in innovation, it is necessary to use
intelligently the public-private partnerships. The public
aid within partnerships permits to attract private Iunds.
In addition, the participation oI public authorities in
such a partnership allows them to Iocus attention oI
private sector on the strategic sectors oI development
and to determine the projects` priority that may be
developed within the incubator.
In order to create a Iavourable environment Ior the
successIul operation oI the support inIrastructure Ior
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 86
nr. 2 / 2013
inovative, inclusiv a incubatoarelor de inovare create,
Iacilitarea crerii unor noi asemenea structuri, inclusiv n
regiuni, precum si stimularea participrii antreprenorilor si
Iirmelor noi la procesul inovational prin incubare este
necesar de a asigura perIectionarea cadrului legal de creare
si Iunctionare a acestora, inclusiv de a revi:ui
oportunittile de acordare a facilittilor fiscale i vamale
pentru re:identi. De asemenea stimulente rezidentilor pot Ii
acordate si n alte Iorme: Iinantri directe, crearea unor
Ionduri de implementare a inovatiilor, lansarea de
programe de Iinantare a inovrii, mbunttirea accesului la
Iinantare pentru inovare, consultant si suport n accesarea
tuturor Iondurilor.
Toate acestea ar ncuraja participarea mai activ a
IMM-urilor la procesul inovational nceput n tar,
deoarece interesul n crestere din partea mediului de aIaceri
reIlect receptivitatea acestuia Iat de inovatii, transIer
tehnologic, chiar dac capacitatea de absorbtie a acestora
este limitat. Iar lund ca exemplu Incubatorul de Inovare
,Inovatorul, s-a constatat, c toate tipurile de IMM-uri pot
inova, ns pentru ca acestea s se implice mai activ este
necesar interventia si sustinerea activ a statului. Iar rolul
statului nu const doar n reglementarea Iunctionrii
incubatoarelor de inovare, ci trebuie s se concretizeze n
politici publice eficiente i credibile, care s oIere un cadru
stimulativ pentru derularea activittii de inovare si transIer
tehnologic si pentru integrarea IMM-urilor n incubatoare
de inovare.
innovative SMEs, including innovation incubators, to
Iacilitate the creation oI new such structures, including
in regions, as well as to stimulate participation oI
entrepreneurs and new companies in innovation
processes by incubation, it is necessary to ensure the
improvement oI the legal Iramework Ior their creation
and Iunctioning, including to review opportunities of the
granting of fiscal and customs facilities to the residents.
The residents may be granted by incentives also in other
Iorms: direct Iunding, creation oI Iunds Ior
implementation oI innovations, launching innovation
Iunding programs, improving access to Iinance Ior
innovation, advice and support in accessing to any
Iunds.
All oI this would encourage greater participation oI
SMEs in the innovation process started in the country,
because oI the growing interest oI the business, which
reIlects its receptivity to innovation, technology transIer,
even iI their absorption capacity is limited. And on the
example oI the Innovation Incubator ,Inovatorul, it was
Iound that all types oI SMEs can innovate, but Ior them
to be more actively involved, the intervention and active
support oI the state is needed. But the state`s role is not
only to regulate the Iunctioning oI innovation
incubators, but to concretize the effective and credible
policies that provide a stimulating Iramework Ior
carrying on activities oI innovation and technology
transIer and to integrate SMEs in innovation incubators.
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Republicii Moldova. 2004, nr. 125-129, art. 633.
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OIicial al Republicii Moldova. 2007, nr. 107-111, art. 476.
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10. SAHAY, A. The Role oI Technology Business Incubator, Angel Investor and Venture Capital Fund in Industrial
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Business Incubator.pdI
Recomandat spre publicare. 10.04.2013
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 87
nr. 2 / 2013
ASPECTELE REGIONALE DE DEZVOLTARE
A RELATIILOR DE PROPRIETATE
N AGRICULTUR
REGIONAL ASPECTS
OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROPERTY
RELATIONS IN AGRICULTURE
Calina ZAPSA, dr., conf. univ.,
Universitatea Agrar de Stat din Odessa, Ucraina
Calina ZAPSA, PhD, Associate Professor,
Agrarian State University from Odessa, Ukraine
Acest articol este dedicat aspectelor teoretice i
aplicative de de:voltare a relatiilor de proprietate in
agricultur in contextul caracteristicilor regionale. In ba:a
generali:rilor, abordrile teoretice de interpretare a
termenului ,regiune" sunt dati de definitia sa, ca parte
teritorial i de specialitate a sectorului economic al trii,
care se caracteri:ea: prin pre:enta unui subiect in:estrat
cu puteri adecvate, unitatea interdependent a factorilor
naturali, istorici, geografici, economici i sociali. In ceea
ce privete regiunile, a fost studiat dinamica volumului
productiei agricole brute in expresie valoric, precum i
modificrile numrului de intreprinderi agricole in
perioadele ante- i postreform a relatiilor de proprietate.
Este dovedit faptul, c regionali:area in cadrul granitelor
nationale ale statului reflect totalitatea unittilor
administrativ-teritoriale, care, detinand o anumit
independent economic i competent managerial,
actionea: ca un factor important de influent asupra
de:voltrii proceselor economice, inclusiv a relatiilor de
proprietate in agricultur.
This article is devoted to the theoretical and practical
aspects of development of the propertv relations in rural
household in the context of regional characteristics. Based
on generali:ations, theoretical approaches for the
interpretation of the term "region" are given bv its
definition as territorial and speciali:ed part of the
economic sector of the countrv, which is characteri:ed bv
the presence of a subfect endowed with appropriate
powers, interdependent unitv of the natural, historical,
geographical, economic and social factors. In terms of
regions, there had been studied the dvnamics of gross
agricultural production in terms of value and also changes
in the number of agricultural enterprises during the pre-
and post reform periods of the propertv relations. It turned
out that regionali:ation within the boundaries of the state
reflects all the administrative-territorial units, which,
holding a certain economic independence and managerial
competence, acts as an important factor influencing on the
development of economic processes, including on the
propertv relations in agriculture .
Cuvinte cheie: regiune, dreptul de proprietate,
relatiile de proprietate, agricultur.
Key words: region, propertv right, propertv relations,
agrarian sector.
1EL classification: Q1, O34, R12
CZU: 332.145:33.111.2.9 (477)
Introducere. Dispersarea spatial a productiei agricole
detine o legtur teritorial cu anumite regiuni.
Regionalizarea n interiorul granitelor nationale ale statului
reIlect totalitatea unittilor administrativ-teritoriale, care,
detinnd o anumit independent economic si competent
managerial, actioneaz ca un Iactor important de inIluent
asupra dezvoltrii proceselor economice, inclusiv a
relatiilor de proprietate n agricultur. La nivel regional,
obiectele ce apartin propriettii statului sau cele municipale
sunt distribuite si redistribuite pentru a Ii utilizate n
agricultur. n conIormitate cu legislatia n vigoare si
puterile regionale, are loc vnzarea, nchirierea, transIerul
de utilizare, privatizarea, inclusiv gratuit, a obiectelor
corespunztoare de proprietate. Organele reprezentative
regionale ale gestionrii de stat, precum si structurile
executive ale administratiei publice locale monitorizeaz
respectarea legilor antitrust, desIsurarea politicii de
preturi, dinamica conjuncturii de piat, a indicatorilor
eIicientei economice a activittii ntreprinderilor,
administrarea impozitelor si taxelor. AstIel, la nivel
regional, se Iormeaz si Iunctioneaz mecanismele
organizational-economice, care promoveaz sau stagneaz
dezvoltarea antreprenoriatului, businessului mic si
mijlociu, inclusiv n zonele rurale. Att prevederile
mentionate, ct si altele servesc ca argumente n Iavoarea
Iaptului, c regionalizarea activeaz ca un Iactor important
de inIluent asupra dezvoltrii relatiilor de proprietate n
agricultur, precum si demonstreaz actualitatea acestui
studiu.
Introduction. Spatial dispersion oI agricultural
production has a territorial connection with certain
regions. Regionalization within the borders oI the state
reIlects all administrative-territorial units, which, hold a
certain economic independence and managerial
competence, act as an important Iactor inIluencing on the
development oI economic processes, including the
property relations in agriculture. At regional level, the
objects belonging to the state or municipal property are
distributed and redistributed Ior being used in
agriculture. In accordance with current legislation and
regional powers, the trade, lease, transIer oI use,
privatizations, including Ior Iree oI the appropriate
property objects take place. Regional representative
bodies oI state management and executive bodies oI local
government monitor the compliance with antitrust laws,
conduct price policy, the dynamic oI the market
situation, indicators oI economic eIIiciency oI
enterprises, management oI taxes. Thus, at the regional
level, there is build and operate organizational and
economic mechanisms that promote or slow down the
development oI entrepreneurship, small and medium
enterprises, including in rural areas. As mentioned
provisions and other ones serve as arguments in
Iavor oI the Iact that regionalization acts as an
important Iactor inIluencing the development oI
property relations in agriculture, and this also
demonstrates the actuality oI the study.
The basic content. Theoretical and practical aspects
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 88
nr. 2 / 2013
Con(inutul de baz. Aspectelor teoretice si aplicative
ale evolutiei relatiilor de proprietate n agricultur sunt
destinate numeroase lucrri stiintiIice, n care este
determinat esenta economic a relatiilor de proprietate,
sunt caracterizate schimbrile structurale n Iormele de
proprietate si gospodrire, sunt analizati Iactorii ce
determin vectorul modern de dezvoltare a acestora. O
contributie semniIicativ la studierea aspectelor de
proprietate n perioada transIormrilor economice proIunde
n agricultura Rusiei si Ucrainei au eIectuat: Buzdalov I. N.,
Lukinov I. I., Malik N. I., Mesel-Veselyak V.Y., Sahatki N.P.,
Sabluk P. T., Serkov A. F., Trubilin I. T., Usachiov I. G.,
Yurchisin V. V. si altii. Aspectele regionale de dezvoltare
socio-economice, inclusiv n agricultur, sunt reIlectate n
lucrrile lui Balahonov O. V., Zaharchenko V.I., Kostyaev A.I.,
Kurtev I. V., Persukevichi P. M., Chernyaev A. A., Stroev
E. S., Topchiev A. G. si altii. Cu toate acestea, gestionarea
proceselor de dezvoltare a relatiilor moderne de proprietate
n agricultur trebuie s se realizeze n conIormitate cu
necesitatea consolidrii independentei economice a
regiunilor, cresterea rolului administratiei locale n
solutionarea problemelor socio-economice ale teritoriilor
rurale, intensiIicarea relatiilor de integrare ntre regiuni la
nivel statal si interstatal. Toate acestea conditioneaz
necesitatea continurii studierii problemelor de proprietate
n contextul caracteristicilor regionale ale agriculturii.
Generalizarea cercetrilor teoretice n domeniul
regionalizrii economice denot despre interpretarea
ambigu de ctre specialisti a termenului ,regiune. n
special, n lucrarea stiintiIic a dlui Dibrov A. S., conceptul
,regiune este considerat ca parte teritorial si de
specialitate a complexului economic national, este
caracterizat prin unitatea si integritatea procesului de
reproducere. Totodat, se remarc Iaptul, c regiunea are
autonomie politic, atribute ale organelor de putere si
directionare spre dezvoltare durabil |1, p.5|. Aceast
interpretare, n opinia noastr, este contradictorie
continutului Regiunii de Sud, n componenta creia autorul
lucrrii n cauz include regiunile Nikolaev, Odesa si
Herson din Ucraina, precum si Republica Autonom
Crimeea (RAC). Fiind parte integrant a complexului
economic national, aceast unitate teritorial-specializat a
regiunilor mentionate si RAC nu dispun de autonomie
politic proprie si atribute de putere. De toate acestea
beneIiciaz doar zonele de tip unitate administrativ-
teritorial, care intr n componenta Regiunii de Sud.
Controversat, n opinia noastr, este aIirmatia autorului
cu privire la orientarea regiunii spre dezvoltare durabil,
precum si c Iiecare regiune este ghidat de principiile
economiei, perIormantei, eIicientei utilizrii resurselor,
deservirii cettenilor, unittii si progresului deciziilor sale
organizatorice si bugetare |1, p. 5|. Pozitiile mentionate
sunt necesare pentru Iiecare regiune, dar a aIirma c ele
sunt proprietate inerent a obiectului cercetat, n opinia
noastr, nu este justiIicat, deoarece nu corespund pe deplin
realittilor economiei nationale contemporane.
Totodat, trebuie subliniat Iaptul, c notiunea de ,regiune
este destul de multiaspectual, deoarece permite diIerentierea
unui anumit spatiu dup similitudinea si particularittile
mediului natural, istoric, socio-cultural, industrial si economic.
oI the evolution oI property relations in Iarms are
described in numerous scientiIic papers, where the
economic essence oI the property relations is determined
and there are also characterized the structural
changes in the Iorms oI ownership and management,
there are analyzed Iactors that inIluence the
modern vector oI their development. A signiIicant
contribution to the study oI property issues during the
deep economic transIormations in households Irom
Russia and Ukraine was perIormed by: Buzdalov I.N.,
Lukinov I.I., Malik N.I., Mesel- Veselyak V.Y., Sahatki
N.P., Sabluk P.T., Serkov A.F., Trubilin I.T., Usachiov
I.G., Yurchisin V.V. and others. Regional aspects oI
socio-economic development, including in agriculture,
are reIlected in the works oI Balahonov O.V.,
Zaharchenko V.I., Kostyaev A.I., Kurtev I.V.,
Persukevichi P.M., Chernyaev A.A., Stroev E.S.,
Topchiev A.G. and others. However, management oI the
development processes oI the modern property relations
in rural households must be made in accordance with the
need to strengthen the regional economic independence,
increasing the role oI local government in solving socio-
economic problems oI rural areas, intensiIication oI
integration between regions at state and interstate levels.
All this make the need Ior Iurther study oI the property
issues in the context oI the regional characteristics oI the
Iarm household.
Generalization oI theoretical research in the Iield oI
economic regionalization speaks about the ambiguous
interpretation by specialists oI the term "region". In
particular, in the scientiIic work oI Mr. Dibrov A.S., the
concept oI "region" is considered as a territorial and
specialized part oI the national economic complex and is
also characterized by the unity and integrity oI the process
oI reproduction. However, it is noted that the region has
political autonomy, attributes oI the power bodies and
directed to the sustainable development |1, p 5|. This
interpretation, in my opinion, is contradictory to the content
oI the South Region, where the author includes regions
Nikolaev, Odessa and Kherson Irom Ukraine and the
Autonomous Republic oI Crimea (RAC). Being a part oI the
national economic complex, this specialized territorial unit
oI the mentioned regions and RAC do not have their own
political autonomy and power attributes. From all oI these
beneIiciate only territorial-administrative areas, which are
parts oI the South Region.
Controversial, in our opinion, is the author's statement
about the orientation oI the region towards the sustainable
development and that each region is guided by the
principles oI economy, perIormance, eIIicient use oI
resource, servicing oI citizens, unity and progress oI their
organizational and budgetary decisions |1, p. 5|. The listed
positions are required Ior each region, but to say that they
are an inherent property oI the investigated object, in our
opinion, is not justiIied because they do not Iully correspond
to the realities oI the contemporary economy.
It should also be noted that the concept oI "region" is
quite multidimensional because it allows the diIIerentiation
oI a particular space aIter the similarity and Ieatures oI the
natural, history, socio-cultural, industrial and
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 89
nr. 2 / 2013
Un teritoriu concret istoric si geograIic, n calitate de regiune,
poate Ii evidentiat, de asemenea, prin criteriile: civilizationale,
etnice, conIesionale, lingvistice si alte.
La studierea politicii nationale regionale se presupune
existenta unui subiect legislativ, speciIic, nzestrat cu puteri
adecvate. Deci, este logic de a prezenta regiunea ca o unitate
administrativ-teritorial n componenta statului. Asambleea
Regiunilor Europene deIineste, de asemenea, regiunea ca o
entitate teritorial, care se Iormeaz n drept legal la un nivel
inIerior celui national si este dotat cu autonomie |2|.
Cu toate acestea, considerm, c aceast abordare, ntr-o
anumit msur, limiteaz utilizarea stiintiIic si practic a
termenului ,regiune, ntruct este n mod egal utilizat si n
ceea ce priveste caracteristicile institutiilor supranationale
regionale (asemenea Uniunii Europeane). AstIel, n Iunctie
de obiectivele de cercetare a unei probleme concrete,
caracteristica regiunii se poate reIeri att la componenta
teritorial n cadrul statului, precum si la teritoriul
interstatal. Deci, la utilizarea termenului ,regiune trebuie
de speciIicat esenta sa privind obiectul de apartenent unui
teritoriu intrastatal sau supranational.
Caracteristicile comune ale regiunii n cadrul statului
sunt: teritoriul cu particularitti similare naturale si
climaterice, istorice, geograIice si etno-demograIice; o
anumit specializare concret economic de productie
teritorial; legturile economice strnse ntre subiectii de
gospodrire, cooperarea economic de producere ale crora
se desIsoar n limitele teritoriale, deIinite n baza
diviziunii si cooperrii muncii; integritatea teritorial socio-
economic. Totalitatea caracteristicilor relevante Iormeaz
teritoriul respectiv ca o unitate relativ independent si o
distinge de alte teritorii. n scopul utilizrii eIiciente a
potentialului de resurse al anumitor teritorii, n ordine
legislativ si administrativ, acestea sunt evidentiate si
dotate cu putere adecvat de subiect si organizatoric.
Reiesind din obiectivele cercetrii expuse privind
regionalizarea national ca Iactor de inIluent asupra
relatiilor de proprietate n agricultura Ucrainei, regiunea este
deIinit ca parte teritorial-specializat a complexului
economic al trii, care se caracterizeaz prin existenta puterii
adecvate, deIinit n mod legal, a subiectului administrativ-
teritorial, precum si unitatea Iactorilor interconectati si
interdependenti, istorici, geograIici, economici si sociali, ale
cror integritate de producere si de gospodrire serveste drept
legitate a dezvoltrii teritoriului dat.
Deosebirile regionale, care au loc n agricultura trii n
cadrul acelorasi procese n dezvoltarea relatiilor de
proprietate, sunt reIlectate de datele statistice oIiciale
|3, p. 210| cu privire la productia agricol brut (Tabelul 1).
Analiza datelor numerice din Tabelul 1 denot c, n
anul 2011, conIorm productiei agricole brute la preturi
comparabile din a.2010, primul loc a Iost ocupat de
regiunea Vinita, creia i-a revenit valoarea maxim a
acestui indicator de 15,065 milioane de grivne sau 6,4 din
suma total pe tar, n general. Despre existenta
discrepantelor regionale semniIicative indic Iaptul, c
valoarea generat de productia agricol brut din regiunea
Transcarpatia a constituit doar 4044,8 milioane de grivne
(1,7) si a Iost de 3,7 ori mai mic, comparativ cu aceeasi
perioad din regiunea Vinita.
economic environment. A historically and geographically
speciIic territory, as a region can be highlighted also by
criteria: civilizational, ethnic, religious, linguistic
and other.
To study the regional national policy it is necessary to
exist a legislative issue, speciIically endowed with adequate
powers. So it makes sense to present the region as an
administrative-territorial structure oI the state. Assembly oI
European Regions also deIines the region as a territorial
entity that is legally Iormed at a sub-national level and is
equipped with autonomy |2|.
However, we believe that this approach, to
some extent, limits the scientiIic and practical use
oI the term "region" as it is equally used in terms oI Ieatures
oI regional supranational institutions (like European Union).
Thus, according to the research objectives oI a concrete
problem, the Ieature oI region can reIer both to the territorial
component within the state as well as to the interstate
territory. So, when we use the term "region", we must
speciIy its essence regarding the object oI belonging to an
intra-state or supranational territory.
The common characteristics oI the region in the state
are: territory with similar, natural and climatic, historical,
geographical and ethno-demographic Ieatures; a concrete
economic production territorial specialization; strong
economic links between the management subjects,
economic cooperation oI production which takes place in
the territorial limits deIined on the base oI division and
labour cooperation; socio-economic territorial integrity. All
relevant characteristics Iorm the territory as a relatively
independent unit and distinguish it Irom other territories.
For an eIIective use oI the potential resources oI certain
territories, at legislative and administrative levels, they are
highlighted and provided with adequate power and
organizational subject.
Given the objectives oI the presented research regarding
the national regionalization as a Iactor inIluencing the
ownership relations in the agricultural sector oI Ukraine, the
region is deIined as specialized territorial part oI the country's
economic complex, which is characterized by adequate
power, legally deIined, the administrative-territorial subject
and the unity oI the interconnected and interdependent
historical, geographical, economic and social Iactors, whose
production and management integrity serves as a legitimacy
oI the development oI the given territory.
Regional diIIerences taking place in the agrarian sector oI
country`s economy in the same processes in the development
oI property relations are reIlected in oIIicial statistics |3, p
210| on the gross agricultural production (Table 1).
Analysis oI numerical data in Table 1 shows that, in
2011, according to the gross agricultural output in
comparable prices Irom 2010, the Iirst place was occupied
by the Vinnytsia region, which accounted Ior the
maximum value oI this index oI 15.065 million hryvnia or
6, 4 oI the total amount in the country in general. About
the existence oI signiIicant regional disparities indicates
the Iact that the value generated by the gross agricultural
output Irom the Transcarpathian region was only 4.0448
billion hryvnia (1.7) and was 3.7 times lower compared
to the same period in the Vinita region.
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 90
nr. 2 / 2013
Tabelul 1/Table 1
Dinamica produc(iei agricole brute conform regiunilor din Ucraina`/
Gross agricultural production dynamics according to the regions of Ukraine
Regiunea /
Region
Indicii productiei brute a anului precedent, / Gross
production indices oI the previous year
2011, Iat de /
towards 2011
2005 2008 2009 2010 2011 1990 2000
Productia
brut, mil.
grivne**
Ratingul
regiunilor
Ucraina 100,1 117,1 98,2 98,5 119,9 82,6 154,7 233696,3 X
RA Crimeea 105,6 117,7 104,8 96,1 113,0 73,3 168,4 8314,5 16
Vinita 102,7 125,5 97,0 100,0 119,6 85,0 157,9 15065,0 1
Volyn 100,3 101,1 100,6 101,9 109,6 72,7 132,4 5781,2 22
Dnepropetrovsk 107,1 130,0 95,4 101,3 117,2 99,0 179,9 14475,5 4
Donetsk 102,4 113,3 96,2 102,0 119,7 82,3 144,9 11464,5 7
Jitomir 97,9 106,8 103,1 100,1 113,8 65,1 125,8 7222,6 19
Transcarpatia 99,2 102,6 103,7 97,1 105,4 86,7 123,6 4044,8 25
Zaporizhia 105,9 132,7 88,1 102,1 114,3 67,8 142,4 8737,2 12
Ivano-Frankivsk 99,6 92,7 108,8 100,8 113,3 94,3 128,4 5176,2 23
Kiev 107,1 104,8 98,3 99,4 118,6 96,2 178,3 13627,8 5
Kirovograd 99,6 151,1 89,4 101,9 124,0 85,4 175,8 10542,3 8
Lugansk 120,8 118,0 87,7 91,0 125,3 64,2 155,7 6202,6 20
Lviv 98,5 99,6 101,9 95,7 114,0 81,2 120,5 8400,9 14
Nicholaev 88,6 177,6 100,5 101,3 112,2 78,8 191,8 8374,2 15
Odesa 83,0 159,7 91,2 109,7 106,8 73,7 126,6 10020,3 9
Poltava 104,8 112,4 99,8 89,5 135,7 92,2 212,0 14922,5 2
Rivne 93,7 101,7 100,4 102,3 110,9 77,4 136,5 5993,0 21
Sumy 96,3 106,9 99,7 89,9 136,7 67,0 131,7 7860,1 17
Ternopol 99,0 101,3 102,0 94,9 125,3 76,5 138,3 7295,0 18
Harkov 107,9 107,3 89,0 88,6 148,3 84,9 152,0 13270,6 6
Herson 100,4 141,8 101,2 102,9 122,4 96,3 179,5 9964,3 10
Hmelnitki 87,6 102,6 104,2 99,6 115,5 75,8 131,2 9678,3 11
Cherkask 106,6 129,6 109,0 104,3 117,6 128,5 221,8 14489,1 3
Cernuti 101,5 100,3 103,5 103,0 110,8 89,9 141,9 4318,6 24
Chernigov 90,1 103,6 98,6 86,6 129,9 66,2 135,2 8455,2 13
Sursa / Source: Calculat n baza datelor din sursa [3, p. 21-211j; la prejuri comparabile din a.21. / Calculated
based on data from the source [3, p. 21-211j; at comparable prices from 21
Oscilatiile de amplitudine mare se exprim prin Iaptul c
n 2011, conIorm productiei agricole brute n preturi
comparabile din a.2010, pe locul al doilea a Iost clasat
regiunea Poltava, valoarea indicatorului care a Iost de
14922,5 milioane de grivne (6,3). Acest indicator
depseste de 3,4 ori valoarea costului, generat de productia
brut agricol a regiunii Cernuti, care ocup penultimul loc
la acest indicator n clasamentul de stat si crei i revin
4318,6 milioane de grivne sau doar 1,8 din valoarea total
a trii.
DiIerente semniIicative posed valoarea indicatorilor
regiunilor Cherkask si Ivano-Frankivsk, care sunt plasati n
clasamentul national al valorii productiei agricole brute pe
pozitii opuse.
DiIerentele de natur similar se mentin n regiunile
Dnepropetrovsk, Volyn si alte regiuni ale trii.
Dezvoltarea inegal a productiei agricole n regiuni cu
aceleasi relatii de proprietate este conIirmat de datele
statistice oIiciale |3, p. 211| reIeritor la indicii productiei
agricole brute (Tabelul 1).
Analiza datelor numerice din Tabelul 1 arat, c potrivit
cresterii anuale a productiei agricole brute (2011 Iat de anul
precedent) primul loc l-a ocupat regiunea Harkov 148,3,
n timp ce regiunii Carpatice i revenea o crestere minim a
valorii costului indicatorului dat n total de 105,4.
Similar, discrepante de date nregistreaz regiunile Sumy
(136,7) si Odessa (106,8), Poltava (135,7) si Volyn
Large amplitude oscillations are expressed by the Iact that
in 2011, according to the gross agricultural output in
comparable prices oI 2010, Poltava region was situated on the
second place, the value oI indicator that was 14.9225 billion
hryvnia (6.3). This indicator exceeds 3.4 times the value oI
cost generated by agricultural gross output oI the Chernivtsi
region, that occupy the second lowest place in the national
standings and that accounts Ior 43186 billion hryvnia or only
1.8 oI the total oI the country.
The value oI indicators oI Cherkask and Ivano-
Frankivsk regions have signiIicant diIIerences that are
placed in the national ranking oI the value oI gross
agricultural production on opposite positions.
DiIIerences oI a similar nature shall be maintained in the
Dnepropetrovsk region, Volyn and other regions.
Unequal development oI agricultural production in
regions with the same property relations is conIirmed by
oIIicial statistics |3, p. 211| regarding the indices oI the
gross agricultural production (Table 1).
Analysis oI numerical data Irom Table 1 show that
according to the annual growth oI the gross agricultural
production (2011 related to the previous year) Kharkiv region
occupied the Iirst place - 148.3, while to the Carpathian
region had a minimal increase oI the value oI cost oI the
given indicator - a total oI 105.4. Similarly, discrepancies oI
data are recorded by Sumy region (136.7) and Odessa
(106.8), Poltava (135.7) and Volyn (109.6).
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 91
nr. 2 / 2013
(109,6).
Caracterul destul de evident al diIerentelor regionale
conIorm productiei agricole brute n preturi comparabile din
anul 2010 se maniIest n dinamic pn si dup schimbrile
radicale n relatiile de proprietate n agricultur. Deci,
valoarea maxim a productiei agricole brute, n 2011
comparativ cu anul 1990, o coteaz regiunea Cerkasy
(128,5) singura dintre toate regiunile trii care depseste
nivelul stabilit n perioada de pre-reIorm. Totodat,
productia brut a agriculturii n anul de raportare a
constituit n regiunea Luhansk doar 64,2 din nivelul de
pre-reIorm.
Aproape de atingerea nivelului de peste hotare, obtinut n
perioada de pre-reIorm, au Iost regiunile Dnepropetrovsk
(99), Transcarpatia (96,7) si Herson (96,3). n aceast
privint, cu o pozitie opus, se situeaz regiunile Jitomir
(65,1), Sumy (67) si Zaporozhye (67,8).
Existenta diIerentelor semniIicative n dezvoltarea
relatiilor de proprietate pe regiunile din Ucraina sunt
conIirmate de dinamica din ultimii ani a numrului de
ntreprinderi active agricole, reprezentat prin datele
numerice din tabelul 2 |3, p. 224|.
Deci, n anul 2011, Iat de anul 2005, numrul total al
ntreprinderilor active agricole s-a redus cu 1744 de unitti
sau cu trei procente. n timpul cercetrii, pierderi maxime de
subiecti economici n valoare absolut a suportat Republica
Autonom Crimeea 407 ntreprinderi, ceea ce reprezint
15,4 din valoarea anului de baz.
Reduceri semniIicative au avut loc n regiunile Lviv (310
de ntreprinderi), Odessa (304) si Donetk (290). Reduceri de
la 135 pn la 200 de ntreprinderi au avut loc n regiunile
Volyn, Kiev, Kirovograd, Lugansk, Harkov, Herson,
Hmelnitk si Chernihiv. Mai putin de o sut de gospodrii au
pierdut doar regiunile: Dnepropetrovsk, Jitomir, Zaporizhia,
Ivano-Frankivsk, Sumy, Ternopil si Cherkasy.
Pe parcursul cercetrii, pierderi maxime de ntreprinderi
agricole n valori relative a suportat regiunea Lviv 18.
Reduceri semniIicative au suIerit ntreprinderile din RA
Crimeea (15,4), Volyn (11,6) si Donetk (12,4). n
regiunile Hmelnitk, Dnepropetrovsk, Jitomir, Zaporizhia,
Ivano-Frankivsk, Kiev, Kirovograd, Lugansk, Odesa, Sumy,
Ternopil, Harkov, Herson, Hmelnitki si Cherkasy s-a produs
o reducere mai mic de 10 de ntreprinderi agricole.
A quite obvious character oI regional diIIerences
according to the gross agricultural production in comparable
prices oI 2010 is maniIested in the dynamics beIore and aIter
the radical changes in property relations Irom the agricultural
sector. So, the maximum value oI gross agricultural
production in 2011 compared with 1990, has the Cerkasy
region (128.5) - the only one oI all regions that exceeds the
established level in the pre-reIorm period. However, gross
output oI agriculture in the reporting year in the Luhansk
region amounted to only 64.2 Irom the pre-reIorm level.
Close to reaching the level Irom abroad, obtained in the
pre-reIorm period, were the Dnepropetrovsk region (99),
Transcarpathia (96.7) and Kherson (96.3). In this
respect, on an opposite position lie Zhytomyr (65.1),
Sumy (67) and Zaporozhye (67.8).
The existence oI signiIicant diIIerences in the
development oI property relations in the regions oI Ukraine
are conIirmed by the dynamics oI recent years in the
number oI active agricultural enterprises, represented by the
numerical data in Table 2 |3, p 224|.
So in 2011, compared to 2005, the total number oI
active enterprises in agriculture decreased by 1744 units or
three percent. During the research, the maximum loss oI
economic subjects in absolute value had the Autonomous
Republic oI Crimea - 407 enterprises, representing 15.4 oI
the value oI the base year.
SigniIicant reductions occurred in Lviv region (310
companies), Odessa (304) and Donetsk (290). Reduction
Irom 135 to 200 companies took place in the regions oI
Volyn, Kiev, Kirovograd, Lugansk, Kharkov, Kherson,
Chernihiv Khmelnytskyi. Less than a hundred households
have been lost only by the regions: Dnepropetrovsk,
Zhytomyr, Zaporizhia, Ivano-Frankivsk, Sumy, Ternopil
and Cherkasy.
During the research, the maximum loss oI agricultural
enterprises in relative values suIIered Lviv region - 18.
SigniIicant reductions suIIered companies Irom AR Crimea
(15.4), Volyn (11.6) and Donetsk (12.4). In regions
Khmelnitskiy, Dnepropetrovsk, Zhytomyr, Zaporizhia,
Ivano-Frankivsk, Kiev, Kirovograd, Lugansk, Odessa,
Sumy, Ternopil, Kharkiv, Kherson, Khmelnytsky and
Cherkasy was a reduction in the number oI agricultural
enterprises oI less than 10.
Tabelul 2/Table 2
Numrul de ntreprinderi agricole active`/ Number of active agricultural enterprises
Regiunile /
Regions
2005 2008 2009 2010 2011
2011 Iat de
2005,
Ucraina 57877 59059 57152 56493 56133 97,0
Crimeea 2636 2449 2211 2238 2229 84,6
Vinyta 2260 2308 2323 2317 2354 104,2
Volyn 1215 1340 1124 1095 1074 88,4
Dnepropetrovsk 4048 4148 4052 4015 4014 99,2
Donetsk 2330 2218 2144 2097 2040 87,6
Jitomir 1389 1428 1349 1296 1300 93,6
Transcarpatia 1604 1670 1813 1759 1752 109,2
Zaporizhia 3034 3067 3033 3035 3019 99,5
Ivano-Frankivsk 805 785 775 767 774 96,1
Kiev 2309 2336 2213 2133 2117 91,7
Kirovograd 3305 3239 3224 3206 3145 95,2
Lugansk 2051 2445 1997 1986 1901 92,7
Lviv 1725 1899 1610 1490 1415 82,0
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 92
nr. 2 / 2013
Tabelul 2/Table 2 continuare
Nicholatvsk 5214 5326 5364 6315 5339 102,4
Odesa 7035 6894 6844 6901 6731 95,7
Poltava 2339 2402 2365 2368 2375 101,5
Rivne 892 942 956 940 904 101,3
Sumy 1274 1232 1240 1227 1189 93,3
Ternopil 1248 1246 1254 1250 1215 97,4
Harkov 2083 1994 1999 1943 1946 93,4
Herson 3073 3075 2963 2872 2876 93,6
Hmelnitki 2006 2063 1878 1844 1826 91,0
Cherkasy 1870 1902 1851 1827 1845 98,7
Cernuti 948 1122 1036 1009 1019 107,5
Chernihiv 1184 1089 1058 1030 1019 86,1
Kiev . 440 476 533 715 162,5**
Sursa/Source: Calcualt conform datelor [3, p. 224j; 211 n " faj de 28 / Calculated with the use of data [3, p. 224j;
211 in " in regard 28.
n cazul aceluiasi tip de relatiilor proprietate, spre
deosebire de regiunile n care numrul de ntreprinderi
agricole a sczut, n unele regiuni a existat o crestere a
numrului de subiecti economici. Pe parcursul perioadei
studiate, cresterea maxim a numrului de ntreprinderi
agricole a avut loc n regiunea Kiev 275 de ntreprinderi.
n regiunea Vinita, numrul de gospodrii s-a majorat cu 94
de unitti sau cu 4,2, n regiunile Transcarpatia 148 de
unitti (9,2), Nykolaiv 125 de unitti (2,4), Poltava
36 de unitti (1,5), Rivne 12 unitti (13), precum si n
Cernuti cu 71 de unitti (7,5).
Concluzii. Studiile desIsurate permit Iundamentarea
urmtoarelor concluzii generale:
Nivelul existent al relatiilor de proprietate din sectorul
agrar al economiei Ucrainei este unul dintre Iactorii ce
Iormeaz tendinta constant de reducere a numrului
absolut de ntreprinderi agricole existente.
Dezvoltarea relatiilor de proprietate n agricultur
inIluenteaz rata de crestere a numrului de ntreprinderi
active n diIerite regiuni. n conditiile dominatiei n
majoritarea acestora a miscrii regresive a numrului
subiectilor economici din agricultur, pentru sase regiuni
este caracteristic o crestere general a ntreprinderilor,
care nu au o reIerint clar Iat de localizarea geograIic.
Acest lucru este demonstrat de cresterea numrului de
ntreprinderi agricole att n partea de Vest si Sud, ct si n
cea central a trii.
n ultimii ani, ntreprinderile agricole active, n ciuda
aIirmatiei comune despre amplasarea ntreprinderilor
agricole doar n mediul rural, sunt nregistrate dup locul de
amplasare n capitala Ucrainei si descriu o crestere
constant n termeni absoluti si relativi.
In the case oI the same type oI property relationships
as opposed to regions where the number oI agricultural
entities decreased, in some areas there was an increase in
the number oI economic agents. During the studied period,
the maximum increase in the number oI agricultural
enterprises took place in the Kiev region 275 businesses.
In Vinnytsia region, the number oI households increased
by 94 units, or 4.2, in Transcarpathia 148 units (9.2),
Nykolaiv 125 units (2.4), Poltava 36 U (1.5)
Exactly 12 units (13), and Cernauti by 71 units
(7.5).
Conclusions. The conducted studies allow the
substantiation oI the Iollowing general conclusions:
The existing level oI the property relations in the
agrarian sector oI Ukraine's economy is one oI the Iactors
that Iorm the constant tendency to reduce the absolute
number oI existing agricultural enterprises.
Development oI property relations in agriculture
inIluences the growth rate oI the number oI active Iirms in
diIIerent regions. Given the dominance oI the regressive
movement in major number oI them oI the economic
subjects in agriculture, Ior six regions there is
characteristic a general increase oI companies that do not
have a clear reIerence to the geographic location. This is
demonstrated by the increasing number oI agricultural
enterprises both in the West and South, and in the centre oI
the country.
In recent years, active Iarms, despite the common
claim's location oI agricultural enterprises only in rural
areas, are recorded aIter location in the capital oI Ukraine
and describe a steady increase in absolute and relative
terms.
Referin(e bibliografice / References
1. IFPOB, A.C. Erouo+i:uu poseumor Hieoeuuoeo peeiouv. uae:. nociou. 3a sar. pe. npo]. C.K. Xapiuxona.
Oeca: Tonapncrno '3nannx ra nminnx, 2008. 288 c.
2. Acamnex cnponectxnx perionin. exnapanix moo perionanismy n Cnponi |accesat 20 martie 2013|. Disponibil:
http://www.aer.eu/Iileadmin/userupload/PressComm/Publications/Declaration
Regionalism/.dam/l10n/ua/DRUKRAINE|1|.pdI
3. Ce.icroe xoscmeo Vrpauui. cmamucmu:ecru coopuur 2011. Knen: Iocyapcrnennax cnyxa crarncrnxn
Vxpannt, 2012. 387 c.
Recomandat spre publicare. 14.3.213
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 93
nr. 2 / 2013
ORIENTAREA AGROECOLOGIC
A COMPANIILOR VERTICAL INTEGRATE
N ASIGURAREA DEZVOLTRII STABILE
A TERITORIILOR RURALE
AGROECOLOGICAL DIRECTED OF
VERTICALLY INTEGRATED COMPANIES
IN SUSTAINABILITY RURAL
DEVELOPMENT
Jitalii AIJEAKO, dr., conf. univ.,
Universitatea Agrar de Stat din Odessa, Ucraina
Jitalii AI1EAKO, PhD, Associate Professor,
State Agrarian University of Odessa, Ukraine
Lucrarea de:vluie problemele de ba: ale de:voltrii
stabile a teritoriilor rurale, precum i relatia dintre
componentele sale (economice, sociale i ecologice). Pe
ba:a evalurii riscului de mediu, autorul a format cadrul
conceptual de securitate alimentar i de de:voltare rural
stabil i rolul intreprinderilor agroindustriale, vertical
integrate in cadrul acestuia.
The article reveals the basic problems of sustainable
development of rural areas, and the relationship between
its components (economic, social and environmental). On
the basis of the environmental risk assessment, the author
formed a conceptual framework of food securitv and
sustainable rural development and the role of its verticallv
integrated agro-industrial enterprises.
Cuvinte cheie: mediu rural, ecologie, de:voltare stabil,
securitate alimentar, intreprinderi vertical integrate.
Key words: rural areas, ecologv, sustainable
development, food securitv, verticallv integrated
enterprises.
1EL classification: O18, P25, Q1, Q57
Introducere. Pre:entarea problemei. Teritoriul actualei
Ucraine, potrivit potentialului de resurse naturale si agricole,
se plaseaz pe unul dintre cele mai importante locuri din
lume. Mai mult dect att, agricultura este considerat ca baz
pentru securitatea alimentar a statului, avnd ca scop
satisIacerea nevoilor Iizice, economice si sociale ale populatiei
trii. Cu toate acestea, exist probleme privind utilizarea
eIicient a resurselor naturale disponibile. Din cauza nivelului
sczut al asigurrii materiale si tehnice, culturile agricole,
dobnzile ridicate la credite, lipsa capitalului circulant si a altor
Iactori cu potential de resurse naturale, se utilizeaz ineIicient,
Iind la un nivel necorespunztor (degradarea resurselor
naturale, poluarea etc.). Situatia este agravat si din cauza
procesului de globalizare economic, exploatarea teritoriului
trilor, n curs de dezvoltare, resursele minerale ale corporatiilor
agricole transnationale dezvoltate. Prin urmare, problemele
privind solutionarea conIlictelor pe parcursul exploatrii
mediului nconjurtor sunt destul de relevante.
Introduction. Statement of the problem. The
territory oI modern Ukraine in its natural resource and
agricultural potential is one oI the leading places in the
world. Agriculture is considered as the basis Ior Iood
security oI the state, is designed to meet the physical,
economic and social needs oI the population.
However, there are problems regarding the eIIicient use oI
natural resources. Existing natural-resource potential is
used ineIIicient and it is at the wrong level (degradation oI
natural resources, pollution, etc.) because oI low level oI
logistics, Iarming, high interest rates on loans, lack oI
working capital and other Iactors. The situation is Iurther
aggravated due to economic globalization, exploiting the
territories oI the emerging countries, and the mineral
resources oI developed and agrarian transnational
corporations. ThereIore, the problems related to the
conIlicts resolution during the environment exploitation
are highly relevant.
Analiza cercetrilor yi a publica(iilor recente. Studiile
teoretice ale dezvoltrii stabile se reIlect n lucrrile
oamenilor de stiint din strintate, n special:
A. Leyzerovici, D. Meadows, R. Kates, T. Parris, J. Hulse si
altii; precum si autohtoni: A. Belarus, M. Golubta,
V. Polishchiuk, V. Sevciuk si altii. Problemele dezvoltrii
stabile a complexului agroindustrial si a gospodriilor rurale
din Ucraina sunt studiate de ctre: Y. Bilyk, B. Burkinsky,
P. Gaydutky, Z. Gerasimchiuk, A. Danilenko,
S. Demyanenko, T. Dudary, S. Dusanovsky,
A. Mirosnicenko, L. Novakovsky, P. Sabluk, V. Stepanov,
A. Tretyak, N. Fedorov, S. Harichikov, M. Hvesik,
V. Yurchishin, precum si alti oameni de stiint.
Analysis of recent research and publications.
Theoretical studies oI sustainable development are reIlected
in the writings oI Ioreign scientists, in particular:
A. Leyzerovich, D. Meadows, R. Kates, T. Parris, J. Hulse
and others; and local: A. Belarusians, M. Golubtsa,
V. Polishchuk, V. Shevchuk and others. Problems oI
sustainable development oI agriculture and rural economy
oI Ukraine are studied by Y. Bilyk, B. Burkinskiy,
P. Gaydutskim, Z. Gerasimchuk, A. Danilenko,
S. Demjanenko, T. Doudar, S. Dusanovskim,
A. Miroshnichenko, L. Nowakowski, P. Sablukov,
V. Stepanov, A. Tretiak, N. Fedorov, S. Harichkovim,
M. Hvesikom, V. Yurchishin and other scientists.
Scopul const n deIinirea problemelor si evaluarea
situatiei actuale si a modalittilor de mbunttire a
mediului din zona rural, cu implicarea unei unitti vertical
integrate.
The aim is to deIine the issues and assess the current
state and the ways to improve the environmental situation
in the countryside, with the assistance oI a vertically
integrated unit.
Rezultatele cercetrii. Pe teritoriile rurale din Ucraina,
la 1 ianuarie 2012, locuiau 14328 mii de oameni, ponderea
crora, n 10 ani, a sczut de la 33,1 la 31,5. Direct n
gospodriile rurale sunt ocupati 3410,3 mii de oameni,
salariul crora este, n medie pe regiuni, de 1853 UAH,
The results of research. In rural areas oI Ukraine on
January 1, 2012, 14328 thousand people leaved, the
proportion oI which in 10 years has decreased Irom 33.1
to 31.5. Directly employed in agriculture are 3410.3
thousand people with wage average about 1853 UAH,
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 94
nr. 2 / 2013
reprezentnd unul din cei mai mici indicatori printre
celelalte sectoare ale economiei.
Investitiile primite nu satisIac nevoile sectorului n
reproducerea si intensiIicarea acestuia, desi s-au majorat n
anii 2001-2011 mai mult de 10 de ori si au ajuns la 18.183
milioane UAH (7,7 din totalul investitiilor n economie) n
anul 2011.
Acestea si alti Iactori creeaz imposibil dezvoltarea
stabile a teritoriilor rurale si sunt caracterizati de urmtoarele
probleme:
1. Nivelul redus al eIicientei productiei agricole, nu
asigur reproducere extins. AstIel, productia de cereale si
culturi leguminoase n Ucraina, n anul 2010, a constituit
2,69 t/ha, n timp ce n Austria 5,3, n Marea Britanie
6,78, n Danemarca 5,87, n Germania 6,66, SUA 6,86
t/ha. Productia medie anual de lapte pe cap de vac
constituie 4082 kg, n timp ce n Marea Britanie 7489, n
Danemarca 8640, n Canada 8202 si n SUA 9593 kg.
2. Nivelul sczut de remunerare material.
3. Somajul, srcia si migratia populatiei active n
orase. Salariile mici, lipsa conditiilor de viat decente au
cauzat Iluxul Iortei de munc caliIicat, care a
condus spre deteriorarea utilizrii resurselor disponibile si
reducerea rezultatelor Iinale ale activittii economice a
ntreprinderilor.
4. Distrugerea inIrastructurii sociale si extinc(ia
satelor. nchiderea scolilor, grdinitelor, spitalelor, centrelor
culturale, ntreprinderilor de locuinte si serviciile comunale
Iac imposibil dezvoltarea stabil a societtii rurale.
Agravarea conditiilor sanitare, sociale si de trai pe teritoriile
rurale. De pe harta geograIic, anual, dispar aproximativ 20
de sate, n consecint apar asa-numitele ,puncte albe, adic
abandonate, extinctia satelor, inIrastructura crora este
aproape sau complet distrus.
5. Dezindustrializarea gospodriilor agricole. Timp de
20 de ani (1990-2010) numrul de tractoare disponibile a
sczut pn la 151,3 mii de unitti, reprezentnd 30,4 Iat
de anul 1990, a combinelor agricole la 32,1 mii de unitti
(cu 69,5). n general, gospodriile agricole sunt asigurate
cu echipament tehnic de 50-55, din care 80-90 au servit
pentru dou sau mai multe perioade de amortizare.
n aceste conditii, dezvoltarea n continuare a
gospodriilor rurale este destul de problematic. De aceea,
trecerea la integrarea pe vertical este modul cel mai realist
pentru a rezolva problemele mentionate mai sus.
De ctre guvernul Ucrainei, n 2010, a Iost adoptat
conceptul de dezvoltare a teritoriilor rurale pn n anul
2020. ConIorm programului, una dintre solutiile problemei
este asigurarea protectiei mediului nconjurtor si a
securittii ecologice:
Eliminarea din cultivarea intensiv a terenurilor
agricole degradate cu productivitate sczut si contaminare
antropogene;
Dezvoltarea productiei agricole organice;
Organizarea, elaborarea si realizarea planurilor de a
asigura utilizarea resurselor de sol, pduri si de ap |12|.
n general, Iat de aceste si alte scopuri se preconiza de a
se aloca 148 de miliarde UAH din bugetul de stat si 152 de
miliarde UAH din alte surse.
Diagrama prezentat (Iig. 1) arat clar c dezvoltarea
which is one oI the lowest indicator among the other
sectors oI the economy.
Received investments do not meet the needs oI the
sector in the reproduction and its intensiIication, although
it rose Ior the years 2001-2011 more than 10 times and
reached 18.183 billion UAH (7.7 oI the total investment
in the economy) in 2011.
These and other Iactors make it impossible Ior the
sustainable development oI rural areas and are
characterized by the Iollowing problems:
1. The low level oI agricultural production eIIiciency
does not provide extended reproduction. Thus, the yield oI
grain and leguminous crops in Ukraine in 2010 was 2.69
tons per hectare, and in Austria 5.3, UK 6.78, Denmark
5.87, Germany 6.66, United States 6.86. Average
annual milk yield per cow is 4082 kg, while in the UK
7489, Denmark 8640, Canada 8202, USA 9593.2 kg.
2. The low level oI remuneration.
3. Unemployment, poverty and migration oI the
active working population in the city. Low salaries, lack oI
decent living conditions, have caused an outIlow oI skilled
labor, which led to a deterioration oI the use oI available
resources and reduce the Iinal results oI the economic
activity oI enterprises.
4. The destruction oI social inIrastructure and the
extinction oI the villages. Closure oI schools,
kindergartens, hospitals, cultural centers, enterprises oI
housing and communal services makes it impossible Ior the
sustainable development oI rural society. Deterioration oI
sanitary, social and living conditions in rural areas. From a
geographical map disappears every year about 20 villages.
There are so-called blind spots that is abandoned, the
extinct village inIrastructure are nearly or completely
destroyed.
5. De-industrialization oI agriculture. For 20 years
(1990-2010) the number oI available tractors decreased to
151.3 thousand units, accounting Ior 30.4 oI the 1990,
combine harvesters to 32.1 thousand units (69.5). In
general, agriculture equipment provided by 50-55, 80-
90 oI which worked Ior two or more periods oI
depreciation
Under these conditions, the Iurther development oI
agriculture is rather problematic. That is why the transition
to vertical integration is the most realistic way to solve the
above mentioned problems.
At the level oI the government oI the country in 2010
adopted the concept oI the development oI rural areas by
2020. According to the program, one oI the solutions to the
problem ensuring environmental protection and
ecological security as a result oI:
Elimination oI intensive cultivation oI degraded, low
productivity and anthropogenic contamination oI
agricultural land;
The development oI organic agriculture;
The organization, development and implementation
oI plans to ensure the use oI land, Iorest and water
resources |12|.
In general, these and other objects are supposed to
allocate 148 billion UAH Irom the state budget and 152
billion UAH Irom other sources.
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 93
nr. 2 / 2013
stabil depinde de trei componente principale: economic,
social si ecologic.
Componentul economic trebuie s asigure utilizarea
rational a resurselor naturale limitate disponibile,
implementarea rezultatelor stiintei si tehnologiei, utilizarea
tehnologiilor de energie, materiale si a resurselor de
economisire pentru a asigura primirea venitului total la un
nivel cel putin al capitalului agregat (Iizic, natural sau
uman), cu utilizarea cruia acest venit agregat a Iost generat.
Cercetarea activittilor multor ntreprinderi au artat, c
structura culturilor, de multe ori, este dominat de culturile
nalt proIitabile ale grupurilor de cereale si tehnice. n
schimb, ponderea culturilor Iurajere pentru anii 1990-2011 a
sczut de la 37 la 9, iar a celor tehnice, dimpotriv, a
crescut de la 11,6 la 26,9. ngrijorare prezint cresterea
culturilor de Iloarea-soarelui, a cror pondere n structura
culturilor tehnice, n anul 2011, a Iost de 63,7, ceea ce
depseste rata maxim posibil aproximativ de 6 ori |11|.
ConIorm Deciziei, revenirea la acelasi cmp de Iloarea-
soarelui ar trebui s nu Iie mai devreme de 7 ani, ca rezultat
al declinului catastroIal al Iertilittii solului si al cresterii
eroziunii acestuia.
The above diagram (Fig. 1) clearly shows that
sustainable development depends on three main
components: economic, social and environmental.
The economic component is to ensure the rational use
oI the limited available natural resources, the
implementation oI science and technology, the use oI
energy-, material- and resource-saving technologies to
ensure receipt oI the aggregate income oI not less than the
aggregate capital (physical, natural or human), with which
this aggregate revenue was generated. Research activities oI
many enterprises have shown that the structure oI crops,
oIten dominated by highly proIitable crops oI grain and
industrial groups. But the share oI Iodder crops Ior
1990-2011 decreased Irom 37 to 9, technical, on the
contrary, increased Irom 11.6 to 26.9. Concern is the
growth oI sunIlower, whose share in the structure oI crops
and industrial crops in 2011 was 63.7, which exceeds the
maximum possible rate, almost 7 times |11|. According to
the resolution the returning to the same Iield oI sunIlowers
should be not earlier than 7 years as a result oI the
catastrophic decline in soil Iertility and growth oI their
erosion.
E
c
o
n
o
m
i
c
Ecological
S
o
c
i
a
l
Dezvoltarea
durabil a
gospodriilor
agricole/
Sustainable
development of
agriculture
Fig. 1. Dezvoltarea stabil a gospodriilor agricole yi rela(ia componentelor sale/
Fig. 1. Stable development of agricultural households and the relationship of its components
Sursa/Source: Elaborat de autor / Developed by the author.
Reducerea ratei de rentabilitate n sate a avut un impact
negativ asupra personalului caliIicat de munc, a crescut
migratia ctre orase, s-a majorat ponderea populatiei
srace. Privatizarea si reIormele nu au oIerit rezultate
pozitive si, ca rezultat distrugerea inIrastructurii rurale.
Abordarea social presupune mentinerea capitalului
social, inclusiv cel intelectual din sate, dezvoltarea stabil
a sistemelor sociale si culturale, reducerea numrului de
conIlicte n mediul rural, lupta mpotriva srciei.
ncercrile de a satisIace nevoile vitale, populatia
srac n lupta pentru supravie(uire trece la tierea
excesiv a pdurilor, la cultivarea nesustenabil, care
provoac eroziunea solului, la utilizarea de ruinare a
resurselor piscicole si a rezervatiilor naturale. Aceste
Reducing the rate oI return on the village had a
negative impact on the skilled labor, increased the
migration to the cities and the share oI the poor.
Privatization and reIorms have not yielded positive results
as a consequence the destruction oI the inIrastructure oI
the village.
The social approach involves maintaining social
capital, including intellectual capital Irom the village, the
stable development oI the social and cultural systems,
reducing the number oI conIlicts in the countryside, the
Iight against poverty.
Trying to satisIy their vital needs, the poor in their
struggle Ior survival resorts to immoderate cutting oI
Iorests, unsustainable cultivation, this causes soil erosion,
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 96
nr. 2 / 2013
actiuni conduc la o nruttire a calittii produselor
alimentare si non-conIormitatea cu standardele stabilite de
siguranta alimentar.
Componentul ecologic trebuie s asigure echilibru
sistemelor biologice si Iizice naturale, viabilitatea lor, de
care depinde stabilitatea global a ntregii biosIere. Recent,
a progresat amenintarea ecologic ca urmare a activittilor
umane, n special: eIectul de ser si schimbrile climatice,
reducerea stratului de ozon, ploile acide, pierderea
biodiversittii (n zona de step din Ucraina, n secolul
trecut, terenurile au Iost transIormate n terenuri
agricole, aici nu exist aproape vegetatie primar, iar stepa
virgin este de doar 1 din teritoriu), poluate cu
pesticide (n Ucraina, n prezent, exist mai mult de 22 mii
tone de pesticide inutilizabile si interzise, mai mult de
jumtate din care sunt depozitate n spatii
necorespunztoare, provocnd o poluare semniIicativ a
solului, a apelor subterane, a culturilor agricole), cu
radionuclizi (n Ucraina sunt concentrate 70 de milioane de
m
3
de deseuri radioactive, care sunt stocate n depozite ale
industriei de prelucrare), accesul la ap potabil si sanitrie
(doar 25 din populatia rural din Ucraina are acces la
aprovizionare centralizat cu ap si 18 - la sistemul de
canalizare), deIrisrile (pdurile acoper 14,3 din
supraIata trii, comparativ cu 28 n anul 1850)
|13, p. 20-23|.
Potrivit Centrului Mondial de date, n anul 2011,
conIorm indicelui de dezvoltare stabil, Ucraina s-a clasat
pe locul 73 printre 106 de tri, inclusiv conIorm indicelui
de dimensiune ecologic locul 87, indicele de dimensiune
economic locul 90, indicele de dimensiune socio-
institutional locul 52, pentru echilibrul biologic locul
64, accesul la ap locul 47, emisiile de CO
2
locul 41,
mortalitatea inIantil locul 40.
n studiul ,Living Planet Report 2012, grupul ecologic
al Fondului Mondial pentru Natura Slbatic (WWF) a
analizat ratele consumului uman de resurse ale planetei.
Amprenta ecologic n Ucraina, potrivit raportului,
constituie 3,19 hectare per persoan. Dintre acestea 1,14
hectare de teren arabil, 0,03 hectare de psune, 0,17
hectare de pduri, 0,11 locuri pentru pescuit, 0,07 de
hectare de teren pentru case. AstIel, Ucraina este pe locul
51 din 149 de tri conIorm supraIetei, utilizat pentru
consumul de resurse de ctre o singur persoan |6|.
Z. Gherasimciuk |14| constat, c obiectivele ecologice
sunt menite s asigure protectia mediului si utilizarea
rational a resurselor naturale. Acestea sunt:
Formarea sistemului de securitate ecologic a
statului;
Orientarea ecologic a politicii stiintiIice,
tehnologice, investitionale, inovationale, cu o deIinitie
clar a priorittilor nationale privind dezvoltarea stabil a
economiei;
Reducerea impactului antropic asupra mediului,
trecerea la noile metode de activitti umane, care sunt
bazate pe tehnologii ecologice;
Dezvoltarea metodelor economice de reglementare
a utilizrii mediului si solutionarea problemelor de mediu
prin intermediul unor entitti;
Formarea unei structuri echilibrate eIiciente de
to the predatory use oI Iisheries resources and wildliIe
reserves. These actions lead to a deterioration oI Iood
quality and to a non-compliance with established
standards Ior Iood saIety.
The environmental component should provide a
balance oI natural biological and physical systems, their
viability depends on the global stability oI the entire
biosphere. Recently, increased environmental threat due to
human activities, in particular: the greenhouse eIIect and
climate change, ozone layer depletion, acid rain, loss oI
biodiversity (in landscape steppe zone oI Ukraine in the
last century the land was converted to agricultural land,
there is almost no primary vegetation, and the area oI
virgin steppe is only 1 oI the territory), pollution,
pesticides (in Ukraine today there are more than 22
thousand tons oI obsolete and banned pesticides, more
than halI oI which is stored in unsuitable premises,
causing signiIicant pollution oI soil, ground water, crops),
radionuclide (in Ukraine is concentrated 70 million m
3
oI
radioactive waste that is stored in the warehouses oI the
processing industry), access to drinking water and
sanitation (only 25 oI the rural population in Ukraine
has access to a centralized water supply and 18 to the
sewerage system), deIorestation (Iorests cover 14.3 oI
the country compared to 28 in 1850) |13, p. 20-23|.
According to the World Data Center in 2011, the index
oI sustainable development oI Ukraine ranked 73 among
106 countries, including on the index oI the environmental
dimension 87-th place, the index oI the economic
dimension 90-th, the index oI socio-institutional
dimension 52-nd place, Ior the biological equilibrium
64-th place, access to water 47-th place, CO
2
emissions
41-st seats, inIant mortality 40-th place.
In his study, Living Planet Report 2012, the
environmental group WWF examined rates oI human
consumption oI resources oI the planet. Ecological
Footprint in Ukraine, according to the report, is 3.19
hectares per person. OI them 1.14 hectares oI arable
land, 0.03 hectares oI pasture, woods 0.17, 0.11 places
Ior Iishing, 0.07 hectares oI land Ior houses. Thus,
Ukraine is on the 51-st place among 149 countries on the
area used Ior the consumption oI resources one person |6|.
Z. Gerasimchuk |14| notes that the environmental
objectives are aimed at ensuring the protection oI the
environment and the sustainable use oI natural resources.
They are:
Formation oI system oI ecological security oI the
state;
An environmentally-oriented science and
technology, investment, innovation policy with a clear
deIinition oI national priorities Ior sustainable
development oI the economy;
Reducing the anthropogenic impact on the
environment, the transition to new methods oI human
activities, which are based on environmentally sound
technologies;
The development oI economic methods oI
environmental management and the environmental
challenges through entities;
The Iormation oI a balanced eIIicient patterns oI
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 97
nr. 2 / 2013
consum, care se bazeaz pe principii de rationalitate si
disponibilitate;
ReIormele institutionale n scopul crerii unui nou
mecanism juridic si economic al puterii de stat si a
organelor locale de auto-guvernare si a utilizatorilor de
mediu;
mbunttirea legislatiei n domeniul protectiei,
utilizrii si reproducerii resurselor naturale, ca urmare
a schimbrii conditiilor de viat si a structurii de
productie;
Asigurarea conditiilor pentru Iormarea pietei de
ecotehnologii si ecoservicii;
Crearea unor sisteme Iiabile de monitorizare a
mediului.
Obiectivul strategic al dezvoltrii stabile a trii, n
opinia lui V. Gherasimciuk, este de a realiza o coexistent
echilibrat a mediului natural, a statului si societtii, pe
baza unei politici democratice, pluralistice si orientate
ecologic, sociale si economice, deschis si integrat n
procesele globale ale economiei, asigurarea securittii
nationale, relatiile sociale armonioase si de cooperare
international echitabil |4|.
AstIel, dezvoltarea stabil a teritoriilor rurale prevede o
dezvoltare stabil a comunittii rurale, care asigur:
1. ndeplinirea Iunctiilor sale economice nationale
(produse alimentare, materii prime agricole, precum
si alte bunuri si servicii non-agricole, dar si bunuri
publice, Iurnizarea de servicii de agrement, pstrarea
modului de viat rural si a culturii rurale, controlul
social al teritoriului, pstrarea peisajelor regenerate
istoric);
2. reproducerea extins a populatiei, cresterea
nivelului si mbunttirea calittii vietii;
3. mentinerea echilibrului ecologic n biosIer |8|.
n agricultura Ucrainei Iunctioneaz bine-cunoscutele
companii agricole strine transnationale, cum ar Ii: Cargill,
AlIred C.ToepIer, Bunge, Louis DreyIus si altele. Deci, din
anul 1991, n Ucraina activeaz gigantul alimentar
transnational Cargill. n prezent, compania are producere
de ulei de Iloarea-soarelui, seminte, ngrsminte,
elevatoare de cereale. AlIred C. ToepIer a nceput
activitatea n Ucraina n anul 1993. Bunge a venit pe piata
ucrainean n anul 2002 prin cumprarea companiei
Cereol. Louis DreyIus activeaz n Ucraina din anul
1998 |7|.
ncepnd cu anul 2000, apar primele mari companii
agricole autohtone, dezvoltarea crora se ncadreaz n
perioada anilor 2007-2012. Cu cultivarea cerealelor se
ocup 98 din ntreprinderile de mrIuri mari, culturi de
ulei 29, legume 11. Cu productia animalier se
ocup 54 din ntreprinderile de mrIuri mari agricole
(cresterea bovinelor si porcinelor greutate n viu), psri
12 si lapte 6. Produse de prelucrare (Iaina 4),
servicii (depozitarea produselor din cereale si oleaginoase)
16 si producerea de Iuraje (16), de asemenea, ocup
o mare parte |10, p. 5-6|.
Printre companiile din Ucraina, vertical integrate, cel
mai mare impact asupra dezvoltrii agriculturii l au:
UkrLandFarming, Kernel Group, MHP, Loture-Agro, Agro
Ukrzernoprom etc. (Tabelul 1).
consumption, which is based on the principles oI
rationality and availability;
Institutional reIorms in order to create a new legal
and economic mechanisms oI state power and local selI-
government and natural resources;
Improvement oI legislation in the sphere oI
protection, use and reproduction oI natural resources due
to changes in living conditions and the structure oI
production;
Ensuring the conditions Ior the Iormation oI the
market EcoTechnologies and Services;
The creation oI reliable environmental monitoring
systems.
The strategic goal oI sustainable development in the
country, according to V. Herasymchuk, is to achieve a
balanced coexistence oI the natural environment, the state
and society on the basis oI a democratic, pluralist and
ecologically-oriented social and economic policies, open
integrated into the global processes oI the economy,
national security state, the harmonious social relations and
equitable international cooperation |4|.
Thus, the sustainable development oI rural areas
provides a stable development oI rural communities,
provides:
1. the perIormance oI its national economic Iunctions
(production oI Iood, agricultural raw materials, and other
non-agricultural goods and services, as well as public
goods, the provision oI recreational services, the
preservation oI the rural liIestyle and rural culture, the
social control oI the territory, the preservation oI
historically reclaimed landscapes);
2. the expanded reproduction oI the population, the
level oI growth and improvement in quality oI liIe;
3. maintenance oI the ecological balance in the
biosphere |8|.
Agriculture in Ukraine are Iunctioning well-known
Ioreign multinational agricultural companies such as
Cargill, AlIred C.ToepIer, Bunge, Louis DreyIus and
others. Thus, since 1991, in Ukraine there are
transnational Iood giant Cargill. Today, the company has
the production oI sunIlower oil, seed, Iertilizer, grain
elevators. AlIred C.ToepIer began its activity in Ukraine
in 1993. Bunge came to the Ukrainian market in 2002 by
buying a company Cereol. Louis DreyIus operates in
Ukraine since 1998 |7|.
Since 2000, there are the Iirst major domestic
agricultural companies, the development oI which Ialls in
the period oI 2007-2012. The cultivation oI crops has been
98 oI large commodity Iarms, oil crops 29,
vegetables 11. Livestock production has been 54 oI
large commodity agribusiness (Iarming oI cattle and pigs
in live weight), poultry 12, and milk 6. ReIined
products (Ilour 4), services (product storage oI grains
and oilseeds) 16 and Ieed production (16) also
occupy a large share oI |10, p. 5-6|.
Among the Ukrainian vertically integrated companies
the greatest impact on the development oI agriculture is
carried out: UkrLandFarming, Kernel Group, MHP,
Astarte-Kiev, Loture-Agro, Ukrzernoprom Agro, others
(Table 1).
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 98
nr. 2 / 2013
Tabelul 1/Table 1
Caracteristica celor mai mari companii vertical integrate din Ucraina (date eyantion)/
Characteristics of the largest vertically-integrated companies of Ukraine (sample data)
N
Denumirea
companiei/
Name of the
company
Mrimea bncii de
teren, mii ha/
The size of the land
bank, thousands of
hectares
Activitile principale/The main activities
1 UkrLandFarming 532
Producia culturilor agricole, producia de semine, lapte i carne de vit si bovine,
producia industrial de ou i produse din ou, producia de zahr, prelucrarea, stocarea
i vnzarea de cereale i plante tehnice, distribuia utilajelor agricole, piese de schimb,
produse de protecie a plantelor, ngrminte minerale i de specialitate, seminte, servicii
tehnice/
Crop production, seed production, dairy and beeI cattle, the industrial production oI eggs
and egg products, sugar production, processing, storage and sale oI grain and industrial
crops, distribution oI agricultural machinery, spare parts, plant protection products,
minerals and specialty Iertilizers, seeds, technical service
2 Kernel Group 438
Producia culturilor agricole. Furnizor de ulei de Iloarea-soarelui i mas pe piaa
internaional. Lider n Iurnizarea de ulei mbuteliat pe piaa intern (TM ,Cadou
Generos, ,Stojar, ,Chiumak Home, ,Chiumak de aur, Lyubonyka). Furnizor de
servicii de depozitare a cerealelor n elevatoare, de manipulare i exportul de cereale, ulei
vegetal i de mas la terminalele din porturile de la Marea Neagr, are trei Iabrici de
extracie de ulei. Fabricarea zahrului/
Crop. Supplier oI sunIlower oil and meal on the international market. The leading supplier
oI bottled oil on the domestic market (TM generous giIt, Stozhar, Chumak home,
Chumak gold, Lyubonka). Service provider oI grain storage in silos, handling and
export oI grain, vegetable oil and meal at the terminals in the ports oI the Black Sea, has
three oil extraction Iactories. ManuIacture oI sugar
3 MHP 280 Producia de carne de pui, cereale, Iuraje/Production oI chicken meat, grain, Ieed
4 Astarte-Kiev 245
Producerea produselor de nalt calitate din zahr i a produselor conexe (melas si pulp
granulat uscat), producerea i distribuia de cereale i culturi oleaginoase, precum i
producia de carne i lapte/Production oI high quality sugar and related products (molasses
and dry granulated pulp), production and distribution oI grains and oilseeds, as well as the
production oI meat and milk
5 Loture-Agro 100
Cultivarea culturilor cereale i plantelor tehnice, cresterea porcilor de reproducie,
producia de uleiuri i grsimi brute i raIinate/Engaged in the cultivation oI grain and
industrial crops, breeding pigs, production oI crude and reIined oils and Iats
6 Ukrzernoprom Agro 94
Combin ntreprinderile de pasre, Iin i de copt din diIerite regiuni ale Ucrainei.
Activitatea de holding este axat pe producia de paniIicaie /Combines poultry, Ilour and
baking enterprises in diIIerent regions oI Ukraine. The Holding is Iocused on the
production oI bakery
Sursa/Source: Elaborat de autor/Developed by the author.
Dintre aceste companii, n anul 2012, MHP detine 50
din piata de productie industrial de pui n Ucraina,
UkrLandFarming ocup aproximativ 33 din productia
total de ou de gin din Ucraina (52 din volumul total de
ou, produse pe cale industrial) si 88 din totalul de
produse uscate din ou, 15,7 din productia industrial
total de carne de vit si 24 din productia total de piele,
10,3 din productia total de zahr din sIecl de zahr;
Kernel Group ocup 36 din piat din capacitatea total
de prelucrare a semintelor de Iloarea-soarelui, 35
distribuirea uleiului Ucrainei si 25,4 din totalul
exporturilor de ulei de Iloarea-soarelui etc.
Prin urmare, productia oIerit pe piata agro-industrial
de ctre companiile listate a jucat un rol deosebit n
asigurarea securittii alimentare si dezvoltarea stabil a
teritoriilor rurale (Figura 2).
n cadrul acestor companii sunt ncadrati un numr mare
de angajati. AstIel, la Kernel Group activeaz 16-17 mii de
persoane, UkrLandFarming aproximativ 17 mii de oameni
(n timpul recoltrii pn la 20 mii), Astarte-Kiev 13 mii
de oameni etc.
n anul 2011, Iermierii au trimis, pentru proiectele
sociale din mediul rural, aproximativ 3 miliarde UAH,
contribuind semniIicativ la bunstarea populatiei rurale si
From these companies in 2012 MHP covers 50 oI the
market oI industrial chicken production in Ukraine,
UkrLandFarming-takes about 33 oI the total production
oI eggs in Ukraine (52 oI the total eggs produced
industrially) and 88 oI the total oI dried egg products,
15.7 oI the total industrial production oI beeI and 24
oI the total leather production, 10.3 oI the total
production oI sugar Irom sugar beet Kernel Group
covers 36 market share oI the total processing capacity
oI sunIlower seeds, 35 distribution oI oil and 25.4 oI
Ukraine's total exports oI sunIlower oil, etc.
ThereIore, companies listed on the market oI agro-
industrial production played a special role in ensuring Iood
security and sustainable development oI rural areas
(Fig. 2).
These companies employ a large number oI employees.
Thus, in the Kernel Group operates 16-17 thousand
people, UkrLandFarming about 17 thousand people
(during the harvest oI up to 20 thousand), Astarte-Kiev
13 thousand people, etc.
In 2011, Iarmers were sent to social projects
in the countryside around 3 billion UAH, making a
signiIicant contribution to the welIare oI the rural
population and the development oI social inIrastructure in
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 99
nr. 2 / 2013
dezvoltarea inIrastructurii sociale pe teritoriile rurale.
Independenta energetic si productia ecologic constituie
baza managementului modern. Oamenii de stiint estimeaz,
c n Iiecare an, n Ucraina, agricultura, industria alimentar
si de prelucrare ntrebuinteaz aproximativ 4 miliarde m
3
de
gaze naturale; 4,92 miliarde de kW/or de electricitate; 162
de mii tone de motorin, 605 mii tone de benzin. Prin
urmare, nlocuirea combustibililor traditionali cu biologici ar
putea duce la un moment important reducerea dependentei
trii noastre de importarea gazului si a energiei |3|.
rural areas.
Energy independence and environmentally saIe
production is the basis oI modern management. Scientists
estimate that every year in Ukraine agriculture, Iood and
processing industry consumes about 4 billion m
3
oI natural
gas, 4.92 billion kilowatt-hours oI electricity, 162
thousand tons oI diesel Iuel, 605 thousand tons oI petrol.
ThereIore, the replacement oI traditional Iuels could lead
to biological important reduce the dependence oI our
country on imported gas and energy |3|.
Balance oI
Food
F
O
O
D
S
E
C
U
R
I
T
Y
S
U
S
T
A
I
N
A
B
L
E
A
G
R
I
C
U
L
T
U
R
E
Agricultural producers
Sole
households
Agricultural enterprises
oI diIIerent ownership
Vertically
integrated
companies
The population living in rural areas
The presence
oI work
Honourable material
compensation
Physical availability oI
Iood
Exports oI goods
Imports oI goods
L
e
g
a
l

r
e
g
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

o
I

I
o
o
d

s
e
c
u
r
i
t
y

a
n
d
s
u
s
t
a
i
n
a
b
l
e

r
u
r
a
l

d
e
v
e
l
o
p
m
e
n
t
Fig. 2. Schema conceptual de securitate alimentar yi dezvoltarea stabil a teritoriilor rurale/
Fig. 2. Conceptual scheme of food security and sustainable development of rural territories
Sursa/Source: Elaborat de autor/Developed by the author.
De exemplu, proiectarea si constructia unei instalatii de
biogaz. Centrul stiintiIico-tehnic de Inginerie ,Biomas
oIer dou optiuni baze de tratament pentru Iermele
zootehnice, bazate pe tehnologia de Iermentare anaerob
(optional, clientul aduga substraturi suplimentare pentru a
spori iesirea productiei de biogaz) si a sistemelor mari de
biogaz pentru Iermentatia monosubstraturilor vegetale,
urmat de productia si vnzarea de energie electric conIorm
unui tariI ,verde. Apropo, despre instalatiile de biogaz
trebuie deja s mediteze liderii ntreprinderilor agricole, care
contin de la 4500 de porci sau ncepnd cu 600 de capete de
bovine |9|.
n scopul reducerii impactului negativ asupra mediului,
companiile implementeaz cele mai recente progrese
(inovatoare) n domeniul stiintei si tehnologiei. De ex., Holding
For example, the design and construction oI a biogas
plant. ScientiIic Engineering Centre Biomass oIIers two
options treatment Iacilities Ior livestock Iarms based on
the technology oI anaerobic Iermentation (optional, the
client can add additional substrates to increase the yield oI
biogas) and large systems oI biogas Ior Iermentation oI
monosubstrate plants Iollowed by the production and sale
oI electricity green tariII. Speaking oI the biogas plant
is already possible to think agribusiness leaders, which
contains between 4500 pigs or 600 head oI cattle |9|.
In order to reduce the negative environmental impact,
companies implement the latest (innovative) advances in
science and technology. For example, the agricultural
holding EastUkrAgro in 2013 completed the construction
oI a biogas plant ZORGTM, allowing agroholding to
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 100
nr. 2 / 2013
agricol EastUkrAgro, n anul 2013, a Iinalizat constructia unei
statiuni de biogaz ZORGTM, care permite agroholding-ului
solutionarea problemei de eliminare a deseurilor, cresterea
perIormantei ecologice a ntreprinderii, asigurarea necesittilor
n ngrsminte organice si energia termic |1|.
Agroholding-ul ,Avangard (parte component a
UkrLandFarming), unul dintre cei mai mari productori de
ou si produse din ou din Ucraina, intentioneaz pn n
anul 2015 s construiasc 30 de instalatii de biogaz n 18
regiuni ale Ucrainei. De asemenea, se planiIicat procesarea
aproximativ a 1,3 milioane de tone de deseuri organice pe
an, sub Iorm de gunoi de grajd de pui, gunoi de bovine,
precum si tehnologie siloz. Compania a estimat c,
procesnd 2 milioane de tone de deseuri organice pe an, va
obine biogaz 260 milioane m
3
pe an, Iiind toate acestea
pentru propriile capacitti (603 GVt.or/an de energie
electric si 615 GVt.or/an energie termic) |2|.
Agroholding-ul ,Mriya percepe importanta protejrii
mediului, prin urmare, politica sa se bazeaz pe principiul
managementului eIicient a aspectelor ecologice ale activittii
sale. Compania a stabilit si mentine un sistem de
management ecologic, care include nu numai conIormitatea
cu standardele ecologice de stat, precum si introducerea de
noi idei si solutii n cadrul operatiunilor sale.
Politica ecologic a companiei se bazeaz pe urmtoarele
principii Iundamentale:
respectarea legislatiei privind protectia naturii,
regulamentelor si a altor documente n domeniul protectiei
mediului;
monitorizarea sistematic a aspectelor ecologice si
evaluarea impactului acestora asupra mediului;
elaborarea si implementarea msurilor pentru
utilizarea rational a resurselor naturale si a materiilor
prime, reducerea emisiilor, descrcare de poluanti,
minimizarea si reciclarea deseurilor;
pregtirea sistematic a personalului la toate
nivelurile cu privire la siguranta ecologic a producerii, n
scopul sporirii nivelului de constientizare si ntelegere a
rspunderii personale si evitarea impactului negativ asupra
mediului;
cooperarea n domeniul protectiei mediului cu prtile
interesate si de inIormare a publicului, acces inIormativ
privind activitatea ecologic a companiei;
implicarea n procesul de mbunttire a rezultatelor
activittii, privind protectia mediului a clientilor, Iurnizorilor
si contractorilor nostri;
preocuparea pentru sntatea angajatilor prin
mbunttirea nivelului de sigurant n organizarea
activittilor de prevenire a situatiilor de urgent |5|.
Unele companii trec la agricultura organic, cu scopul de a
exclude utilizarea pesticidelor si ngrsmintelor minerale.
Dar aceast tranzitie dureaz aproximativ trei ani, iar n Iaza
initial este asociat cu recoltele reduse. De asemenea, este
necesar de a se eIectua atestarea si certiIicarea (n Ucraina
doar o companie poate oIeri servicii de certiIicare si atestare).
n general, Iabricarea productiei organice de animale este
o aIacere extrem de costisitoare, care necesit ca agricultorii
s se adapteze la conditiile noi si complexe de organizare si
economice de Iunctionare.
solve the problem oI waste disposal, increase the
environmental perIormance oI the enterprise, cover the
needs oI organic Iertilizer and thermal energy |1|.
Agricultural holding 'AVANGARDCO (part oI the
UkrLandFarming), one oI the largest Ukrainian producers
oI eggs and egg products, intends to 2015 to build 30
biogas plants in 18 regions oI Ukraine. It is planned to
process about 1.3 million tons oI organic waste per year in
the Iorm oI chicken manure, cattle manure and silage
technology. The company estimated that processing two
million tons oI organic waste per year will get biogas
260 million m
3
per year, and all this Ior their own
capacities (603 HVt. Time/year oI electricity and 615
HVt. Time/year heat energy) |2|.
Agricultural holding 'Mriya understands the
importance oI preserving the environment, thereIore at the
heart oI its policy based on the principle oI eIIective and
eIIicient management oI the environmental aspects oI its
activities. The company has established and maintains an
environmental management system that includes not only
compliance with state environmental standards, but also
the introduction oI new ideas and solutions in its
operations.
Environmental policy is based on the Iollowing
principles:
compliance with environmental legislation,
regulations and other documents in the Iield oI
environmental protection;
systematic monitoring oI environmental aspects
and assessment oI their impact on the environment;
development and implementation oI measures Ior
the rational use oI natural resources and raw materials,
reduction oI emissions, discharges oI pollutants, waste
minimization and recycling;
systematic training oI staII at all levels on
environmental saIety in order to increase the level oI
awareness and understanding oI personal responsibility
and avoid negative impacts on the environment;
cooperation in the Iield oI environmental
protection with stakeholders and the public, open
inIormation on the environmental perIormance oI the
company;
involvement in the process oI improving the
environmental perIormance oI our customers, suppliers
and contractors;
concern Ior the health oI employees by improving
saIety in the organization oI the prevention oI emergency
situations prevention activities |5|.
Some companies go into organic Iarming in order to
rule out the use oI pesticides and Iertilizers. But this
transition takes about three years and the initial phase is
associated with reduced yields. It is also necessary to
perIorm the attestation and certiIication (in Ukraine has
only one company that can provide services oI
certiIication and attestation).
In general, the production oI organic livestock
production is a highly costly aIIair, which requires
Iarmers to adapt to the new and complex organizational
and economic conditions.
Concluzii. Studiile eIectuate au demonstrat un nivel Conclusions. Studies have shown a relatively low
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 101
nr. 2 / 2013
relativ sczut de dezvoltare stabil a teritoriilor rurale,
inIluentate de:
standardele destul de reduse ale legislatiei ecologice,
a sistemului de amenzi si sanctiuni;
lipsa doctrinei si conceptelor privind securitatea
alimentar si dezvoltarea stabil rural;
insuIicienta de capital pentru achizitia resurselor
materiale si tehnice;
distrugerea treptat a satului ca un centru de cultur si
traditii;
Iluxul nalt de migrare a populatiei din mediul rural,
inclusiv tineri, care duce la urbanizare n dezvoltarea
societtii;
poluarea mediului cu pesticide, deseuri din Ierme
zootehnice, eroziunea solului etc.
structuri vertical integrate, la rndul su, au
urmtoarele avantaje:
dezvoltarea inIrastructurii si logisticii, care sporeste
atractivitatea pentru investitori;
implementarea tehnologiilor ecologice, non-deseuri;
utilizarea deseurilor de la Iermele de animale,
silozurilor, brichetelor, alte materii prime pentru producerea
de energie electric si termic;
asigurarea cu locuri de munc pentru lucrtorii din
sate;
remunerarea mai mare dect salariul mediu;
dezvoltarea inIrastructurii n teritoriile rurale;
stabilitate Iinanciar mai sigur comparativ cu
productorii agricoli traditionali, datorit diversiIicrii
productiei si diIerentierii riscurilor.
AstIel, putem concluziona, c viitorul agriculturii n
asigurarea dezvoltrii stabile, n special, pentru a atinge
echilibrul ecologic, este al companiilor vertical integrate
(agroholding, transnational agrare).
level oI sustainable development oI rural areas aIIected
by:
Iairly low standards oI environmental legislation
and a system oI Iines, penalties;
the lack oI doctrine and concepts oI Iood security
and sustainable rural development;
lack oI working capital Ior the purchase oI
material and technical resources;
the gradual destruction oI the village as a center oI
culture and traditions;
high rates oI migration oI the rural population,
including young people, leading to urbanization in the
development oI society;
environmental pollution by pesticides, waste oI
livestock Iarms, soil erosion, etc.
vertically integrated structures, in turn, have the
Iollowing advantages:
inIrastructure and logistics, which increases their
attractiveness to investors;
implementation oI environmental non-waste
technologies;
the use oI waste animal Iarms, silos, briquettes,
other raw materials Ior the production oI electricity and
heat;
provide jobs Ior rural workers;
pay above average wages;
develop the inIrastructure oI rural areas;
Iinancial stability saIer than traditional Iarmers
due to production diversiIication and risk
diIIerentiation
Thus, we can conclude that the Iuture oI agriculture in
sustainable development, in particular, to achieve
ecological balance and vertically integrated (agro holding,
agrarian multinational) companies.
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agroholding-bahmatyuka-delaet-stavku-na-biogaz.html
3. Fioras sirpinarnme Vxpany |accesat 18 aprilie 2013|. Disponibil: http://a7d.com.ua/ekologja/4713-bogaz-zgrvatime-
ukrayinu.html
4. IEPACHMuVK, B.I. Crpareriuni opicnrnpn cranoro posnnrxy: Vxpana i cnir. B: Crann posnnrox exonomixn: nponemn ra
nepcnexrnnn: marepiann mixnapono nayxono-npaxrnuno inrepner-xon]epenni, 6-7 nncronaa 2012. Htnin, 2012, cc. 5-10.
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8. Kax nsmennnoct yxpanncxoe centcxoe xosxcrno sa 20 ner nesanncnmocrn. 2011 |accesat 8 iunie 2013|. Disponibil:
http://agroua.net/news/news34469.html
9. Konnennnx ycrounnoro pasnnrnx centcxnx reppnropn Poccncxo ueepannn: npoexr. 2008, 8 anrycra |accesat 18 iunie
2013|. Disponibil: http://www.mcx.ru/documents/document/show/3571.77.html
10. Kpox na sycrpiu antrepnarnnni eneprernni. 2011, 7 nncronaa |accesat 11 aprilie 2013|. Disponibil:
http://a7d.com.ua/ekologja/4869-krok-nazustrch-alternativny-energetic.html
11. HHHEHKO, B. Kpvnuomoeapuoe aeponpouseoocmeo e Vrpauue. cocmouue u meuoeuuu paseumu: monorpa]nx.
Caappmxxen: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 2013. 648 c. ISBN 978-3-659-31795-8.
12. Hocranona Kainery Minicrpin Vxpann npo sarnepxennx nopmarnnin onrnmantnoro cninninomennx xyntryp y cinosminax
n pisnnx npnpono-rocnoapctxnx perionax: N 164 or 11.02.2010 |accesat 11 martie 2013|. Disponibil:
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13. Posnopxxennx KMV npo cxnanennx Konnenni epxanno nintono nporpamn cranoro posnnrxy cintctxnx repnropi na
nepio o 2020 poxy: N 121 or 03.02.2010 |accesat 24 mai 2013|. Disponibil: http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/121-2010-
D180
14. HIHICHRK, B., PVHK, I. ra in. Cma.u poseumor cvcni.icmea. po.i oceimu: nyrinnnx. Knn: Bnannnnrno CH
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966-574-347-3.
Recomandat spre publicare. 28.05.2013
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 102
nr. 2 / 2013
ESENTA ECONOMIC A COMPETITIVITTII
PRODUSELOR AGROALIMENTARE
$I A MANAGEMENTULUI ACESTEIA
ECONOMIC ESSENCE OF COMPETITIVENESS
OF AGRO-FOOD PRODUCTS AND ITS
MANAGEMENT
Cornel COSER, drd.,
asistent universitar, UASM
Cornel COSER, PhD student,
Assistant Lecturer, SAUM
Abordarea competitivittii produselor agroalimentare se
regsete in studiile mai multor cercettori din domeniu. Ele
relev esenta competitivittii agroalimentare, totodat
exprimind instrumentele i modalittile de gestionare ale
acesteia. La nivelul managementului competitivittii
produselor agroalimentare, articolul scoate in evident i
posibilitatea influentrii factorilor care determin
caracteristicile definitorii ale competitivittii respective.
Approach of the competitiveness of food products
can be found in manv research studies in the field. Thev
reveal the essence of agro-food competitiveness, while
expressing management tools and method. At the level of
agro-food competitiveness management, this article
highlights also the possibilitv of influencing factors
determining the defining characteristics of the respective
competitiveness.
Cuvinte cheie. competitivitate, management, produse
agroalimentare, factor, sector, strategie, politici.
Key words. competitiveness, management, agro-food
products, factor, sector, strategv, policies.
1EL classification: O13,Q13, Q18, F12
Introducere. Argumentarea unui management al
competitivittii produselor agroalimentare rezult att din
necesitatea Iormulrii aspectelor speciIice acestei productii,
ct si din exigenta abordrii consecvente si structurale a
studiului respectiv. O astIel de modalitate implic
comparabilitatea unor studii externe, dar si a cercetrilor
nationale din domeniu. AstIel, n literatura Irancez, Jacques
Gallezot si Emmanuelle Chevassus-Lozza |2, pag. 143-154|
prezint competitivitatea agroalimentar bazat pe
conceptele pret/non-pret, dar si din perspectiva comertului
agroalimentar. Autorii enunt propriile reIlectii cu privire la
elementele constitutive ale competitivittii produselor
agroalimentare si concluzioneaz, c aceasta se maniIest, n
special, n cadrul procesului de externalizare (exportul
productiei) si prin diIerentierea produselor de concurent.
Studiile economistilor rusi cu privire la competitivitatea
produselor agroalimentare (ca si n cazul analizei
managementului competitivittii) sunt de o complexitate
aparte. Spre exemplu, Fonoonon A. |4, p.25-28| trateaz
competitivitatea productiei agroalimentare prin prisma
productivittii resurselor interne ale ntreprinderii din
domeniu, dar si al economiei resurselor.
Introduction. Argumentation oI management oI
agro-food competitiveness stems Irom the need oI
Iormulating speciIic aspects oI this production, as well as
the requirement oI consistent and structured approach to
the study. Such a method involves the comparability
oI external studies, but also national research in the
Iield. Thus, in French literature, Jacques Gallezot
and Emmanuelle Chevassus-Lozzi |2, p. 143-154| present
the agro-Iood competitiveness based on price- non-
price concepts, but also in terms oI agro-Iood trade. The
authors lay down their own reIlections on elements oI
agro-Iood competitiveness and conclude that it
maniIests, especially in outsourcing process (production
export) and by product diIIerentiation based on
competition.
Russian economists` studies on agro-Iood products
competitiveness (as in the case oI competitiveness
management analysis) are oI a particular complexity. For
example, Fonoonon A. |4, p.25-28| treats agro-Iood
products competitiveness in terms oI internal resources
productivity oI the enterprise in the Iield, but also in terms
oI resources` economy.
Con(inutul de baz. Evaluarea competitivittii
agroalimentare este realizat prin intermediul unor diverse
metode |6, p.51-56|: metoda indexului (care ne arat raportul
dintre indexul integral al calittii si indexul integral economic),
metoda punctajului etc. Aceste metodologii, utilizate n
anumite conjuncturi, dar si pentru anumite categorii de
produse agroalimentare, se complic, din considerentul
speciIicului unui anumit produs (sau grup), dar ajut la
ntelegerea esentei economice a competitivittii
respective.
Economistii romni expun o abordare Ioarte diversiIicat
a Ienomenului de competitivitate agroalimentar. Raluca
Andreea Ion |3, p.57-88| relev si argumenteaz Iiliera
intern si cea extern, pe care poate Ii evaluat aceast
competitivitate. De vreme ce Iiliera intern se vrea
caracterizat prin Iactori interni (randamentele productiei,
inIrastructur etc.), cea extern tine direct de maniIestarea
comercial a sectorului agroalimentar. n acest mod, se poate
The basic content. Evaluation oI agro-Iood
competitiveness is achieved through diIIerent methods |6,
p.51-56|: index method (which shows the ratio oI Iull index
oI quality and Iull economic index), score method etc.
These methodologies, used in certain circumstances and Ior
certain categories oI agro-Iood products, is complicating,
Irom the reason oI a speciIic product (or group), but it
helps to understand the economic essence oI respective
competitiveness.
Romanian economists exhibit a very diverse approach
to the phenomenon oI agro-Iood competitiveness. Raluca
Andreea Ion |3, p.57-88| reveals and argues the internal
and external branch on which this competitiveness can be
assessed. Since the internal branch wants to be
characterized by internal Iactors (production yields,
inIrastructure, etc.), the external one is directly related to
the agro-Iood sector trade maniIestation. In this way, one
can already request the help Irom respective Iunctional
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 103
nr. 2 / 2013
de apelat deja la instrumentele Iunctionale respective, n
sensul inIluentrii acelor Iactori, care determin o anumit
dezvoltare rezultativ (cu ajutorul lantului logico-economic:
instrumente-Iactori-indicatori-rezultat).
Procesele de inovare, precum si premisele
institutionalizate ale Uniunii Europene de sustinere a acestei
inovri, pot crea, n opinia noastr, cadrul necesar (desi nu
primordial, cel putin Ioarte important) unei realizri
apreciabile a competitivittii agroalimentare.
Totodat, credem, c studiul paralel al impactului
inovrii, ct si al ponderii acesteia la crearea produselor
agroalimentare competitive, va permite:
completarea sistemului de Iactori ce inIluenteaz la
obtinerea competitivittii respective;
lrgirea posibilittii de a actiona asupra variabilei de
inovare si astIel, a cpta eventualitatea unui rezultat mai
perIormant;
crearea unei strategii de competitivitate mult mai
integrale si coerente.
Ansamblul acestor actiuni caracterizeaz, n modul cel
mai elocvent, abordarea corect si obiectiv a structurilor de
impact asupra competitivittii agroalimentare, Iurniznd un
avantaj, dar si o responsabilitate extins.
Necesitatea analizrii acestor elemente vine n legtur
direct cu exigenta cercetrii dezvoltrii potentialului
competitiv al entittilor economice. Important este
elucidarea anume a rezervelor interne ale ntreprinderii,
rezerve asupra crora se poate actiona n directia
eIicientizrii utilizrii lor, dar si implicrii acestora n
procesul de productie, livrare etc. n aceast ordine de idei,
putem constitui dou grupe semniIicative de constituenti, ce
pot Ii modelati n dependent de volumul de productie si
speciIicul operational al acesteia:
- materiile prime, Iinantele si personalul ntreprinderii;
- componenta tehnologic.
Argumentarea separrii componentei tehnologice apare
din necesitatea aspectelor conexe. Se are n vedere, n primul
rnd, procesele tehnologice responsabile de crearea si
asigurarea continu a produselor conIorm normelor si
cerintelor de standardizare si certiIicare. Totodat, se impune
si componenta managerial, care este una mai complex si
complicat la nivelul tratrilor tehnologice, impunndu-se
necesitatea consultrilor specialistilor din domeniu.
Nuantarea componentelor interne, ce pot Ii responsabile de
crearea produselor agroalimentare competitive |1, p. 91-95|
capt conturul unei strategii interne a agentului economic,
care rezult din ntreg procesul de producere, antrenare a
resurselor si prevenire a eventualelor disIunctionalitti.
Totodat, putem observa o mare diversitate n cercetarea
competitivittii produselor agroalimentare, n cadrul studiilor
internationale sau nationale. Aceasta rezult, n opinia noastr,
din natura complex a competitivittii respective, dar si din
multitudinea de aspecte care pot Ii tratate. Rezultativ,
managementul competitivittii produselor agroalimentare
vine s releve aspectele manageriale si s explice mecanismul
coordonrii competitivittii agroalimentare. Credem, c anume
studiile ce tin de Iactorii implicati n gestionarea
competitivittii respective, de instrumentele si mecanismele de
implicare n majorarea competitivittii agroalimentare sunt
cercetrile cele mai obiective si elocvente, ntruct contin,
instruments, Ior the purpose oI inIluencing the Iactors
that determines some resultative development
(using the economic and logic chain: tools- Iactors
indicators - result).
Innovation processes and institutional premises oI the
European Union to support this innovation, may create, in
our opinion, the necessary Iramework (though not
primarily, at least very important) oI considerable
achievements oI agro-Iood competitiveness.
However, we believe that parallel study oI the impact oI
innovation and its share in the creation oI competitive agro-
Iood products will allow:
completion oI the Iactors system inIluencing to
achieve respective competitiveness;
widening the possibility oI acting on innovation
variable and thus get an eventuality oI a more eIIicient
result;
creating a more integrated and coherent
competitiveness strategy.
All these actions characterize, in the most eloquent
way, a Iair and objective approach oI impact structures on
agro-Iood competitiveness, providing an advantage but also
a wider responsibility.
The need to analyze these elements is directly related to
requirement oI research oI development oI competitive
potential oI economic entities. It is important the
elucidation oI the company's internal reserves, reserves on
which one can work towards streamlining their use and
their involvement in the production process, delivery etc. In
this sense, in our opinion, we can provide two signiIicant
groups oI constituents, which can be modeled depending
on production volume and its operational speciIic:
- raw materials, Iinances and company staII;
- technological component.
The argumentation oI separation oI technological
component arises Irom need oI related to it issues. It is
envisaged, Iirst oI all, technological processes, responsible
Ior creating and continuous ensuring oI products under the
rules and standards and certiIication requirements.
However, it is required the management component too,
which is more complex and complicated at technological
treatments level, imposing the need oI specialists
consultation.
ReIinement oI internal components that may be
responsible oI creating competitive agro-Iood products
|1, p. 91-95| takes the Iorm oI an internal strategy in the
respective company, resulting Irom the entire production
process, attracting resources and preventing possible
malIunctions. Also, we can see a great diversity in research
oI agro-Iood competitiveness, in international or national
studies. It Iollows, in our view, Irom the complex nature oI
such competitiveness, but also Irom the multitude oI issues
which can be treated. As result, the management of agro-
food products competitiveness comes to reveal
management aspects and to explain the coordination
mechanism oI agro-Iood competitiveness. We believe that
namely studies related to the Iactors involved in managing
this competitiveness, the tools and the mechanisms
involved in increasing agro-Iood competitiveness are the
most objective and eloquent studies, as they contain,
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 104
nr. 2 / 2013
practic, majoritatea componentelor, care ajut la inIluentarea
nivelului competitivittii n sensul majorrii nivelului acesteia.
O conturare a importantei gestionrii competitivittii
agroalimentare poate Ii realizat doar n cadrul procesului
managerial intern, lund n considerare att abilittile
administratorului/managerului general, ct si a specialistilor,
care gestioneaz procesele de marketing ale ntreprinderii. O
atare reIlectie permite identiIicarea vicisitudinilor la nivelul
comunicrii manageriale si a interventiilor macroeconomice
|5, p.44-45|.
n acelasi timp, majorarea potentialului competitiv al
sectorului agroalimentar nu poate Ii un subiect izolat de
restul sistemului economiei nationale att ca analiz a
ponderii productiei agricole n Produsul Intern Brut (PIB), ct
si ca mediu de reIerint pentru actiunile inovationale si
investitionale. Credem, c anume contextul competitiv al
altor sectoare ale economiei nationale, determin, mai
devreme sau mai trziu, crearea instrumentelor pentru
speciIicarea anume a implementrilor n sectorul
agroalimentar, Iiind o exigent national, ntruct aceasta
tine de securitatea alimentar a ntregii populatii.
AstIel vom putea determina care sunt ntreprinderile lider
(n proIil regional sau national) la producerea diverselor
categorii de produse, ce Iactori le-au determinat nivelul de
competitivitate, care este raportul dintre ponderea
inIluentelor interne si a celor externe n gestionarea
competitivittii agroalimentare etc. Cu att este mai
multilateral aceast conIiguratie, cu ct maniIest implicatii
majore asupra managementului competitivittii ntregului
sector agroalimentar, a proIilului teritorial, sau a economiei
nationale n ntregime. O serie de conditii importante (cum
ar Ii, rentabilitatea productiei, balanta comercial a
produselor agroalimentare etc.) ne demonstreaz complexa
intercorelare ntre toate unittile sectorului agroalimentar |7,
p.36-39|. n opinia noastr, coordonarea actiunilor interne ale
agentului economic, cu o strategie unitar a sectorului
agroalimentar, permite, cel mai probabil, de a obtine un
avantaj competitiv att pe piata intern, ct si pe cea extern,
n raport cu acei indicatori de perIormant, care au Iost
nregistrati de ctre ntreprinderile lider din domeniu.
Componenta managerial, n opinia noastr, trebuie s
tin cont si de directiile de actiune n sensul diIerentierii si
individualizrii propriilor strategii si instrumente n
majorarea competitivittii agroalimentare a unittii aIlate n
gestionare. Credem, c sistemul strategic, n cazul dat, are
nevoie de urmtoarele speciIicri:
depistarea si ntelegerea strategiilor de competitivitate
ale concurentilor semniIicativi;
revelarea mecanismului de preturi ale competitorilor
importanti;
perceperea conceptiilor strategice proprii si elucidarea
punctelor, care l Iac pe agentul economic respectiv s se
diIerentieze de concurenti;
crearea programei proprii cu privire la sistemul de
calitate, care ar trebui s Iie unul individualizat, ct si al celui
de gestionare a proceselor tehnologice.
n aceast ordine de idei, conIruntarea produselor
agroalimentare cu problema eIicientei manageriale interne,
induce ideea perpeturii acesteia pe ntreg lantul comercial.
Concomitent, o analiz a suportului guvernamental si a
practically, most components that help to inIluence the
competitiveness level in sense oI its increasing.
An outline oI the importance oI managing agro-Iood
competitiveness can only be achieved within the internal
management process, taking into account both manager`s
and marketing proIessionals` skills, who manage the
business processes. Such a reIlection allows identiIying the
vicissitudes at the level oI managerial communication and
oI macroeconomic interventions |5, p.44-45|.
At the same time, increase oI the competitive potential
oI the agro-Iood sector can not be an isolated issue Irom
the rest system oI the national economy, so that analysis oI
the share oI agricultural output in Gross Domestic Product
(GDP), and the environment Ior innovation and investment
activities. We believe that namely competitive context oI
other sectors oI the national economy, causes, sooner or
later, the creation oI tools Ior speciIying the
implementations in agro-Iood sector, being a national
requirement, since it is related to the Iood security oI the
entire population.
Thus we can determine the business leaders (at regional
or national proIile) in producing various types oI products,
what Iactors have determined their level oI
competitiveness, which is the ratio between the internal and
external inIluences in managing agro-Iood competitiveness.
The more this conIiguration is comprehensive, the more
maniIests major implications on competitiveness
management oI the entire agro-Iood sector, oI the territorial
proIile or oI the national economy as a whole. A number oI
important conditions (such as production proIitability,
agro-Iood trade balance etc.) demonstrates the complex
correlation between all units oI agro-Iood sector
|7, p.36-39|. In our opinion, coordination oI the economic
entity internal actions with a uniIied strategy oI agro-Iood
sector, allows, most likely, to gain a competitive advantage
both on domestic, Ioreign markets, also in relation to those
perIormance indicators that were recorded by the leading
companies in the Iield.
Management component, in our opinion, must also take
account oI the course oI action Ior the purposes oI
diIIerentiation and individualization oI own strategies and
instruments to increase agro-Iood competitiveness oI the
managed units. We believe that strategic system, in this
case, needs the Iollowing speciIications:
detection and understanding oI competitiveness
strategies oI the signiIicant competitors;
price mechanism revelation oI the leading
competitors;
perception oI own strategic concepts and clariIying
points that make the economic agent to diIIerentiate itselI
Irom competitors;
creation oI own programs on quality system, which
should be individual, as well as management oI
technological processes.
In this context, conIrontation oI Iood products with the
problem oI internal managerial eIIiciency, leads to the idea
oI its perpetuating throughout the entire commercial chain.
Simultaneously, an analysis oI government support and its
objective eIIect under the Iorm oI higher productivity and
quality levels, respectively, under the Iorm oI a strategic
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 103
nr. 2 / 2013
eIectului obiectiv al acestuia, sub Iorma unor nivele de
productivitate si calitate mai nalte, respectiv, sub Iorma unei
competitivitti gestionate strategic, este un constituent
important al rationalittii aportului national la dezvoltarea unui
sau altui agent economic din domeniu, sau a ntregului sector
agroalimentar. Asadar, contributia Iinanciar n sprijinul
perIectionrii gestionrii competitivittii agroalimentare
comport un caracter de ,Ieedback aport-rezultat.
Credem, c realele elemente componente ale procesului
n cauz determin participantii acestuia s Iie inIluentati de
cel putin 2 Iactori subiectivi: perceptia conIorm creia
suportul guvernamental este unul ,gratuit, deci
nerambursabil si conceptia structurilor de administrare a
proceselor ce tin de competitivitate c acest aport Iinanciar
nu ar contribui nemijlocit la majorarea competitivittii
productiei agroalimentare respective. Aceste ,bariere, n
principal de natur psihologic, pot aduce o lips de
Ilexibilitate n tratarea problemei corespunztoare.
Aspectul de corelatie, dintre competitivitatea productiei
sectoriale si cea a situatiei de piat a agentilor economici
importanti din ramur a Iost analizat de ctre economistul rus
P.A. uarxyrnnon |8, pag. 264-266|. Argumentarea cresterii
cotei de piat a unei entitti anumite se prezint ca un rezultat
direct al modului n care acest agent economic si gestioneaz
si si sporeste competitivitatea. O majorare a competitivittii
entittii economice antreneaz o crestere a cotei de piat a
acesteia. Deci, cu att mai mult sunt importante abordrile
structurale, inovative si instrumentale, cu ct acestea
proiecteaz eIecte semniIicative asupra cererii si a pozitionrii
pe piat, aducnd, astIel, un important spor Iinanciar.
Sintetiznd, se percepe multitudinea de inIluente asupra
gestionrii competitivittii agroalimentare, Iapt ce
conditioneaz acest proces s Iie unul multilateral. Se
ntelege c managementul competitivittii produselor
agroalimentare tine, pe de o parte, de ierarhizarea nivelelor
economice si gestionarea acestora (sectorul agroalimentar,
ntreprinderile agricole etc.), iar pe de alt parte, de crearea
unor strategii, care s dea rspunsuri la ntrebrile legate de
crearea si gestionarea competitivittii agroalimentare.
n opinia noastr, o tratare a gestionrii enuntate mai sus
la nivelul sectorului agroalimentar tine de ,nchegarea
mecanismului interior, deci de stabilirea conexiunii
competitive ,sntoase ntre agentii economici din sector,
ct si a conlucrrii n ceea ce priveste procesarea,
prelucrarea, ambalarea si depozitarea productiei respective.
Stiind deja acest cadru operational, putem realiza si aplica o
serie de strategii, Iie ele cu tent Iinanciar, managerial, sau
tehnologic. n Iine, pentru un sistem complet, organizat si
integrat, n ceea ce priveste aplicabilitatea componentelor
manageriale la nivelul competitivittii agroalimentare,
aportul diversilor Iactori - de pret, de cost, inovationali, de
interventie, investitionali etc., rmne a Ii unul important,
att din punct de vedere pur economic, ct si managerial.
n sensul deIinirii managementului competitivittii
produselor agroalimentare, tinem s speciIicm c acesta
determin gestionarea potentialului competitiv prin procesele
interne, de producere si eIicient economic, ct si
coordonarea maniIestrii pe piat a produselor
agroalimentare, proces ce implic politica pretului si costului
competitiv, strategia competitiv, dar si a celei privind
managed competitiveness is an important constituent oI the
rationality oI national contribution to the development oI
one or another economic agent Irom the respective Iield, or
the entire agro-Iood sector. ThereIore, the Iinancial
contribution in support oI management improving oI agro-
Iood competitiveness involves a "Ieedback" character -
contribution -result.
We believe that real component elements oI the process
in question determines its participants to be inIluenced by
at least 2 subjective Iactors: the perception that government
support is "Iree", so non reIundable and the conception oI
the structures managing the processes related to
competitiveness that this Iinancial contribution would not
directly contribute to increase the competitiveness oI
respective agro-Iood production. These "barriers", mainly
psychological, can bring a lack oI Ilexibility in solving the
appropriate problem.
Correlation aspect, between the competitiveness oI the
sector production and the market situation oI the branch
leading operators was analyzed by Russian economist
R.A. Fathutdinov |8, pp. 264-266|. The argumentation oI
market share increase oI a particular entity is presented as a
direct result oI how it manages and increases its
competitiveness. An increase oI the competitiveness oI the
economic entity involves an increase oI its market share.
So, the more important structural, innovative and
instrumental approaches are, the more these project
signiIicant eIIects on demand and market positioning,
bringing, thus, a signiIicant Iinancial gain.
Summing up, it is levied a multitude oI inIluences on the
management oI agro-Iood competitiveness, which makes this
process to be a multilateral one. It is understood that
management oI agro-Iood products competitiveness is related,
on the one hand, to economic levels prioritization and their
management (agro-Iood sector, agricultural enterprises etc.),
and on the other hand, to the creation oI some strategies that
would provide answers to questions about creation and
management oI agro-Iood competitiveness.
In our opinion, a treatment oI above stated management
at the agro-Iood sector level is related to "clotting the inside
mechanism", so the establishing oI a "healthy" competitive
connection between sector operators, as well as cooperation
in terms oI processing, packaging and storage oI the
respective production. Knowing already this operational
Iramework, we can achieve and implement a series oI
strategies, whether Iinancial, managerial or technological.
Finally, Ior a complete, organized and integrated system
regarding the applicability oI managerial components at the
level oI agro-Iood competitiveness oI Iood components, the
contribution oI various Iactors - price, cost, innovation,
intervention, investment etc. remains an important one,
both Irom a purely economic view, as well as managerial
view.
For the purpose oI deIining the management oI agro-
Iood competitiveness, we must speciIy that it determines
the management oI competitive potential through internal
processes, oI production and economic eIIiciency, as well
as coordination oI agro-Iood products maniIestation on the
market, a process that involves price and competitive cost
policy, competitive strategy, but also that on the quality.
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 106
nr. 2 / 2013
calitatea. Asadar, credem, c managementul rezervelor
interne de crestere a capacittilor ntreprinderii (sectorului)
are un eIect direct proportional cu imaginea si cota sa de
piat. Un rezultat perIormant n domeniul gestionrii
competitivittii agroalimentare ar trebui s ntruneasc,
astIel, o serie de procese care s-l asigure.
Acestea s-ar prezenta n Ielul urmtor:
1) Directii de sporire a eficientei interne:
a) crearea si aplicarea metodologiilor si instrumentelor
de diminuare a costului/pretului produselor agroalimentare;
b) alocarea si gestionarea eIicient a resurselor Iinanciare
destinate cadrului inovational si perIectionrii personalului
ce se ocup de managementul marketingului si de procesele
tehnologice;
2) Directii de sporire a eficientei de po:itionare (fat de
consumator, concurent i societate).
a) crearea sistemului de Ilexibilitate si reactie la
conjunctura pietei agroalimentare;
b) proiectarea si realizarea managementului
competitivittii produselor agroalimentare, care ar trebui s
contin componenta de management a calittii acestor
produse (inclusiv sistemul de standardizare), strategia de
Iormare a preturilor si politica de constituire a potentialului
competitiv.
Din alt punct de vedere, inIluenta politicilor nationale asupra
sectorului agroalimentar comport att un caracter direct, ct si
unul indirect. Aceast tendint vine s integreze instrumentele
din ce n ce mai soIisticate cu care se opereaz recent; cu att
mai mult, cu ct analiza competitivittii sectorului agroalimentar
nu ar putea Ii realizat Ir a tine cont de:
baza materiilor prime de care dispune sectorul;
proIilarea pe categorii a ntreprinderilor sectorului
agroalimentar;
aspectul investitional si inovational al entittilor
economice;
capacitatea concurential a ntreprinderilor din
sectorul agroalimentar national.
ntruct ne-am propus studierea managementului
competitivittii din perspectiva stimulrii potentialului de
export al sectorului agroalimentar al RM, vom aborda
accentuarea sectorial a managementului competitivittii
produselor agroalimentare n Iigura de mai jos.
ThereIore, we believe that management oI company
(sector) capacities growth internal reserves has a direct
proportionally eIIect with its image and market share. An
eIIicient result in management oI agro-Iood
competitiveness should meet, so, a series oI processes to
assure it.
They would present as Iollows:
1) Directions of internal efficiencv increase:
a) creating and applying methodologies and
instruments to reduce the cost/price oI agro-Iood products;
b) allocation and eIIicient management oI Iinancial
resources Ior innovation Iramework and staII development
dealing with marketing management and technological
processes;
2) Directions of increase the positioning efficiencv
(towards consumer, competitor and societv):
a) creation oI Ilexibility and reaction system to the
conjuncture oI agro-Iood market;
b) design and implementation oI management oI agro-
Iood competitiveness, which should include the component
oI quality management oI these products (including
standardization system), pricing strategy and policy on
establishing the competitive potential.
From another point oI view, the inIluence oI national
policies on agro-Iood sector involves both direct and
indirect character. This trend comes to integrate more and
more sophisticated instruments with which they recently
operate; especially, the analysis oI agro-Iood sector
competitiveness could not be carried out without taking
into account:
raw materials available to the sector;
proIiling the categories oI enterprises Irom agro-Iood
sector;
investment and innovation aspects oI economic
entities;
competitive ability oI enterprises Irom national agro-
Iood sector.
Since we intend to study management oI competitiveness
Irom the perspective oI stimulating the export potential oI
the Moldovan agro-Iood sector, we will approach the sector
emphasizing oI the management oI agro-Iood products
competitiveness in the Iigure below.
Concluzii. Asadar, ca sistem si structur, managementul
competitivittii produselor agroalimentare combin acele
componente, asupra crora, actionnd, obtinem rezultate de
competitivitate (este vorba de calitate, cost, pret, pozitionare
pe piata intern si cea extern). Totodat, ca tratare strategic,
acest management implic procesualitatea consecutivittii de
eIicient, de gestionare inovativ, de creare si ntrire a
potentialului competitiv, ct si a strategiei de diIerentiere de
competitorii din domeniu. Structura genereaz astIel strategia,
iar aceasta, la rndul ei, are o inIluent covrsitoare asupra
Iaptului dac sectorul agroalimentar va Ii asigurat cu produse
competitive. Dar structura, mai si implic aspectul
microeconomic, care, astIel, Iace legtura cu cel
mezoeconomic. Nu este de neglijat nici aportul Iactorilor si
determinantilor, care actioneaz la nivelul acestor dou trepte
economice. Ei, de Iapt, reprezint cadrul de operationalitate si
pot serios inIluenta att rezultatele ntreprinderii, a grupelor de
agenti economici, ct si a sectorului n ntregime.
Conclusions. ThereIore, as system and structure, the
management oI agro-Iood products competitiveness combines
those components on which, acting, we obtain competitive
results (that is quality, cost, price, positioning on domestic and
Ioreign markets). At the same time, as strategic treatment, this
management involves the processuality oI consecutiveness oI
eIIiciency, oI innovative management, oI creation and
strengthening oI competitive potential, as well as the strategy
oI diIIerentiation Irom the competitors in the industry.
Structure thus generates strategy and this, in turn, has an
overwhelming inIluence about whether the agro-Iood sector
will be provided with competitive products. But the structure
also involves microeconomic aspect, which thus connects to
that meso-economic. Also, should not be overlooked the
contribution oI Iactors and determinants, which act at the level
oI these two economic stages. They, actually, represent the
operational Iramework and can seriously aIIect enterprise,
groups oI companies, as well as the entire sector results.
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 107
nr. 2 / 2013
Fig 1. Managementul competitivit(ii produselor agroalimentare
din perspectiva sectorial, strategic yi componen(ial /
Fig 1. Management of food products in terms of sectoral
competitiveness, strategic and components
Sursa/Source: Elaborat de autor / Prepared by author.
Referin(e bibliografice / References
1. BALTAG, G., GHERMAN, O. Competitivitatea produselor alimentare exportate. In: PerIectionarea contabilittii,
Iiscalittii si auditului n sectorul agroalimentar: viziuni, contributii si recomandri: culegere interuniversitar de lucrri
stiintiIice. Chisinu, 2003, partea 3, pp. 91-95.
2. GALLEZOT, J., CHEVASSUS-LOZZA, E. La competitivite hors-prix dans les echanges de produits agricoles et agro-
alimentaires Iranais sur le marche communautaire. In: Economie & prevision. 1995, vol. 117, nr. 117-118, pp. 143-
154.
3. ION, R.A. Competitivitatea produselor agroalimentare. In: Tribuna Economic. 2006, nr. 11, pp. 57-88.
4. FOHOFOHOB, A. Konxypenrocnoconocrt arpapnoro nponsnocrna. B: Mexynapont centcxoxosxcrnennt
xypnan. 2003, N 3, cc. 25-28.
5. ABIOBA, C.B. Vnpannenne n xonxypenrocnoconocrt npenpnxrn AHK. B: 3xonomnxa
centcxoxosxcrnenntx n nepepaartnammnx npenpnxrn. 2011, N 6, cc. 44-45.
6. KHHMOBA, H. Onenxa xonxypenrocnoconocrn npoonontcrnenno npoyxnnn. B: AHK: +xonomnxa,
ynpannenne. 2005, N 2, cc. 51-56.
7. CEPEIHH, C., MAIOMEOB, A.H., KAMHHOBA, H. Hontmenne xonxypenrocnoconocrn npoyxnnn nnmeno
npomtmnennocrn Poccnn. B: AHK: +xonomnxa, ynpannenne. 2007, N 1, cc. 36-39.
8. uATXVTHHOB, P.A. Cmpameeu:ecra rourvpeumocnocoouocmi: yuennx. Mocxna: 3xonomnxa, 2005. 504 c.
Recomandat spre publicare. 27.12.2012
Sector agroalimentar
cu produse
competitive /Agro-
food sector with
competitive products
Eficien(a
gestionrii
producerii/
Production
management
efficiency
Gestionarea
investi(iilor,
inova(iilor/
Investment,
innovation
management
Gestionarea
poten(ialului
competitiv/
Management of
competitive
potential
Strategia
diferen(ierii/
Differentiati
on strategy
Prin: materie prim calitativ+productivitate+tehnologii inovative/
By: qualitative raw material + productivity + innovative technologies
Determinan(i:/
Determinants:
- sistemul
inIormational/
- inIormation system
- conditiile
climaterice/
- weather conditions
- sistem national
(politic, economic,
social)/
- national system
(political,
economic, social)

Factori:/
Factors:
- grupe de
ntreprinderi/
- groups oI
enterprises
- experienta
mondial/
- world experience
- strategia sectorial
agroalimentar/
- agro-Iood sector
strategy
Calitatea
produselor
agroalimentare:/
Quality oI agro-
Iood products:
Gestionarea
majorrii/
Increase
management
Cost-pret:/
Cost- price:
Gestionarea
flexibilizrii/
Flexibility
management
+
Gestionarea
resurselor/
Resource
Management
Piata:/
Market:
Gestionarea
pozi(ionrii interne/
Management of
internal positioning

Gestionarea
pozi(ionrii externe/
Management of
external positioning
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 108
nr. 2 / 2013
EVOLUTIA $I STRATEGIA
DE DEZVOLTARE A PRODUCTIEI AVICOLE
N REPUBLICA MOLDOVA
EVOLUTION AND STRATEGY
OF POULTRY PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT
IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA
Zinaida BARBACARU (Pistol), lect. sup. univ., UASM Zinaida BARBACARU (Pistol), university lecturer, UASM
Avicultura este o ramur strategic a sectorului :ootehnic
cu mari posibilitti de relansare intr-o perioad scurt de
timp. Actualmente, avicultura in Republica Moldova se
de:volt in trei sisteme de ba:. industrial-intensiv,
gospodresc-intensiv i gospodresc-extensiv, important mai
mare i prioritate avind sistemul industrial-intensiv, ponderea
cruia, la producerea oulor de consum i a crnii, constituie
50-60 din intreg volumul de productie avicol.
Sistemul intensiv-industrial este caracteristic fabricilor
avicole, care folosesc material biologic cu potential productiv
valoros, sunt dotate cu utilaf tehnologic modern, ceea ce
asigur sporirea ritmului de producere i livrare a oulor i a
crnii, obtinerea productiei inalte a psrilor, reducerea
cheltuielilor pentru fiecare unitate de productie. In acest
sistem anual se vor produce 25-30 de mii de tone de carne,
280-350 de milioane de ou pentru consum, inclusiv 100-150
de milioane de ou pentru export.
Sistemul gospodresc-intensiv este caracteristic fermelor
mici i miflocii, ale cror dimensiuni optime se consider de
la 1-10 mii de gini outoare sau pin la 20-40 de mii de pui
crescuti pentru carne.
Sistemul gospodresc-extensiv este specific pentru
cresctorii individuali de psri, productia obtinut fiind
folosit preponderent pentru asigurarea necesittilor
familiale.
Poultrv farming is a strategic branch of the livestock
sector with high potential recoverv in a short period of
time. Todav poultrv farming in our countrv is developed in
three basic svstems. industrial-intensive, household-
intensive and household-extensive, more importance and
prioritv being given to intensive-industrv svstem, the
share of which in the production of eggs and meat
consumption, is 50-60 of the total volume of poultrv
production.
Intensive-industrial svstem is characteristic of poultrv
factories using biological material with valuable productive
potential, are equipped with modern technological
equipment, which ensures increasing the rate of production
and deliverv of eggs and meat, poultrv achieve high
production, reducing costs per unit production. In this
svstem annuallv will produce 25-30 thousand tons of meat,
280-350 million eggs for consumption, including 100-150
million eggs for export.
The household-intensive svstem is specific for small and
medium farms is characteristic of which optimal dimension
is considered of 1-10 thousand laving hens or up to 20-40
thousand chickens bred for meat.
Household-extensive svstem is specific for individual
poultrv farms, the production obtained was mainlv used to
ensure familv needs.
Cuvinte cheie: carne de pasre, productie, pret,
ramur, ou.
Key words: poultrv, output, price, branch, meat,
eggs.
1EL classification: Q1, Q13, Q18, E39, L11
Introducere. Material yi metod. Ca baz
metodologic a cercetrii evolutiei si strategiei de
dezvoltare a productiei avicole este metoda dialectic. Pe
parcursul cercetrilor precum si pentru analiza problemelor
concrete au Iost aplicate urmtoarele metode: analitica,
comparativ, inductia si deductia.
Pentru eIectuarea analizei au servit datele Biroului
National de Statistic.
Introduction. Material yi method. As a
methodological basis Ior research development and
production oI poultry development strategy is the
dialectical method. During the research and analysis oI
concrete problems have been applied the Iollowing
methods: analytical, comparative, induction and
deduction.
For analysis served the National Bureau oI Statistics.
Con(inutul de baz. Rezultate yi discujii. Complexul
agroindustrial al Republicii Moldova constituie baza
economiei nationale. Rolul agriculturii n economia
national rezult din ponderea veniturilor obtinute din
sectorul agroalimentar si din venitul national |1|.
Dezvoltarea n salturi a aviculturii Republicii Moldova se
datoreaz Iaptului, c subcomplexul avicol este orientat n
dou directii diIerite: ca element al pietei postsovietice de
comand si ca verig principal a pietei locale, ce se
constituie treptat.
Sectorul avicol prezint o important strategic n
dezvoltarea economiei nationale, deoarece are o singur
destinatie satisIacerea necesittilor populatiei n produse
alimentare si asigurarea ntreprinderilor industriale cu
materie prim.
Avicultura, datorit particularittilor Iiziologice,
biologice, productive si reproductive ale psrilor, prezint o
The basic content. Results and discussions. Agri-
industrial complex oI the Republic oI Moldova is the basis
oI national economy. The role oI agriculture in the national
economy results Irom the revenue derived Irom national
income and the agri-Iood sector |1|.
Development in jumps oI Moldovan poultry Iarming is
because the sub complex poultry is oriented in two diIIerent
directions: the element oI the post-Soviet market oI control
and as the main link to the local market, which is constituted
gradually.
Poultry sector is oI strategic importance to the
national economy development because it has only one
destination to satisIy population needs with Iood
and to ensure industrial enterprises with raw
materials.
Poultry, given the physiological, biological, production
and birds reproduction peculiarities, is a branch oI the
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 109
nr. 2 / 2013
ramur a sectorului zootehnic cu cel mai nalt randament.
Un produs de avicultur, deosebit de valoros pentru
hrana omului datorit substantelor nutritive indespensabile
organizmului uman sunt oule. Mai des sunt Iolosite n
consum oule de gini. Un ou cu masa de 50 de grame are o
valoare energetic de 90-100 de calorii. Oul este o surs
important de IosIor lecitinic, Iier bine asimilabil, calciu,
precum si de numeroase vitamine. ns, pentru a obtine ou
de calitate superioar este nevoie pentru a crea conditii
optime de crestere si ntretinere a ginilor outoare, lund n
calcul densitatea psrilor, procesele Iiziologce si etologice
ale ginilor si respectarea parametrilor zooigienici.
Tinem s accentum, c valoarea nutritiv,
inoIensivitatea, compozitia chimic si Iizic a continutului
oului (albus, glbenus) pentru consum uman sunt inIluentate
de modul de crestere si ntretinere a ginilor outoare,
conditiile si durata pstrrii oulor inIormatii relevante,
care necesit a Ii aduse la cunostinta consumatorilor.
Fiind supuse inIluentei mediului prin pori, componentii
oului sunt ntr-o continu schimbare, Iapt ce duce la
diminuarea calittii oulor. Totodat, pe parcursul pstrii
oulor, scade activitatea Iactorilor rezistentei nespeciIice,
ceea ce Iace mai usoar ptrunderea agentilor microbieni din
mediul extern n interiorul oului. Acestea, multiplicndu-se
provoac diverse procese distuctive ce le Iace improprii
consumului uman si chiar periculoase. ntru excluderea
pericolelor, ce pot proveni din partea oulor vechi, este
Ioarte important cunoasterea datei depunerii oulor si durata
pstrii acestora, Iapt ce poate Ii realizat numai prin
marcarea oulor.
La nceput de analiz se va studia dinamica productiei de
spor n greutate vie si ou n dinamic pe toate tipurile de
gospodrii (Tabelul 1).
livestock sector with the highest eIIiciency.
Eggs are a product oI poultry, particularly valuable Ior
human Iood because oI the nutrients, that are very necessary
Ior the human organism. There are oIten used in
consumption the chicken eggs. An egg with a mass oI 50 gr
has an energy value oI 90-100 calories. The egg is an
important source oI lecithinic phosphorus, well assimilated
iron, calcium and many vitamins. However, to obtain high
quality eggs, it is needed to create optimal conditions Ior
growth and maintenance oI laying hens, taking into account
the density oI birds, physiological and ethological processes
oI hens and to be respected zoohygienic parameters.
We want to emphasize that nutritional value, harmless,
chemical and physical composition oI the contents oI the egg
(egg white, yolk) Ior human consumption are inIluenced by
the mode oI growing and maintenaning the laying hens,
conditions and duration oI storage oI eggs relevant
inIormation that needs to be brought to consumer`s
knowledge.
Being subject to environmental inIluences through pores,
egg ingredients are constantly changing, which results in
reducing the quality oI eggs. However, during the preservation
oI eggs it decreases the activity oI nonspeciIic resistance
Iactors making it easier to ingress the microbial agents in the
external environment inside the egg. These, by the process oI
multiplying cause various distructive processes make them
unIit Ior human consumption and even dangerous. Order to
exclude the dangers that can arise Irom old eggs is very
important to know the date and time oI preserving the eggs,
which can only be achieved by marking the eggs.
At the beginning oI the analysis it will be studied the
growth dynamics production oI poultry`s egg weight in
dynamicc on all the households (Table 1).
Tabelul 1/Table 1
Dinamica produc(iei avicole pe toate tipurile de gospodrii/
Dinamics of poultry production on all household types
Tipurile de produc(ie/
Types of production
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Ou, mil. buc./ Eggs, million pcs 620 668 762 765 704 563 640 718 705
Carne, mii tone/ Poultry meat,
thousand tons
21,5 24,4 28,0 30,9 31,8 29,6 34,5 40,9 41,4
Sursa/ Source: Elaborat de autor n baza datelor Biroului Aajional de Statistic/Elaborated by author on the basis of
Aational Bureau of Statistics.
ConIorm traditiilor si necesittilor, o bun parte a
populatiei rurale este antrenat n productia avicol pentru
satisIacerea necesittilor proprii n produse alimentare si
pentru valoriIicarea surplusului pe piata intern. AstIel, n
anul 2011, productia de ou, produs de gospodriile
populatiei si cele de Iermieri alctuia 464 de milioane de
bucti, sau cu 21 de milioane de bucti mai mult comparativ
cu anul 2010, acesta alctuind 65,81 din totalul productiei de
ou pe toate tipurile de gospodrii, cel mai putin revenind
ntreprinderilor agricole, care n anul 2011 au produs 241 de
milioane de bucti sau 34,18 din totalul productiei de ou.
Productia de carne, n anul 2011 a constituit 41,4 mii de tone
sau cu 0,5 mii de tone mai mult, comparativ cu anul 2010, cel
mai mare procent (74) din totalul productiei de carne de
pasre revenindu-le gospodriilor populatiei, 24,67
ntreprinderilor agricole si doar 1,33 gospodriilor de
According to the traditions and necessities, a great part
oI the rural population is trained in the poultry production
to satisIy own necessities in Iood products and to
emphasize the surplus on local market. Thus, in 2011, the
egg production, produced in the population`s households
and oI Iarmers constituted 464 thousand pieces, or with
21 thousand pieces more in comparison with 2010 year,
constituting 65,81 Irom the total oI eggs production on
all types oI households, less oI which was Ior Iarm
enterprises that in 2011 had produced 241 thousand pieces
or 34,18 oI egg total production. Poultry meat
production, in 2011 constituted 41,4 thousand tons or with
0,5 thousand tons more in comparison with 2010, the
highest percent (74) Irom the total poultry meat
production which is reIerred to population`s households,
24,67 to Iarm enterprises and only 1,33 to
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 110
nr. 2 / 2013
Iermieri |4|.
n ultimii ani, criza de pe piata crnii nu numai c se
mentine, dar si se va aproIunda, ca urmare a cresterii continue
a preturilor la Iurajele pentru vite, a consumului de carne n
trile suprapopulate, n special China si India si, desigur, a
scumpirii combustibilului. Pe pietele Braziliei, Argentinei si
SUA, principalii Iurnizori de carne pe piata mondial, preturile
galopeaz de mai bine de un an. Mai mult dect att, se
resimte un deIicit acut al unor tipuri de carne, cum ar Ii carnea
de vit.
Cel mai nalt ritm de crestere al preturilor este nregistrat la
carnea de vit, dup care urmeaz carnea de porc. Preturile la
carnea de pasre urmeaz ritmul cresterii pretului la
combustibil. Pe parcursul ultimului an, carnea de vit s-a
scumpit cu 67, iar carnea de porc - cu 35. Scumpirea
crnii pe piata mondial are eIecte si pe piata RM.
La urmtoare etap de analiz se vor prezenta si studia
preturile medii de vnzare Iormate eIectiv la productia avicol
n ntreprinderile agricole si gospodriile de Iermieri (tab. 2).
AstIel, n ntreprinderile agricole si gospodriile trnesti cu
supraIata de 50 ha si peste, n 2013, pentru o ton de psri n
greutate vie se achita un pret de 20953 de lei, sau cu 65,67
mai mult comparativ cu perioada similar a anului 2003 si
pentru o mie de ou alimentare se achita un pret de 827 de lei
sau de 3,2 ori mai putin dect pentru o mie de ou pentru
incubatie, care n 2011 a constituit 2673 de lei. Cele mai nalte
niveluri ale pretului acestor tipuri de productie s-au nregistrat
n 2008, cnd pentru o ton de psri n greutate vie se achita
un pret de 21903 lei, pentru o mie de ou alimentare 952 de
lei, iar pentru o mie de ou pentru incubatie cel mai nalt pret
s-a nregistrat n 2009 de 3216 lei, sau de 2,9 ori mai mare
comparativ cu perioada anului 2003 (tabelul 2). Dintre Iactorii
de natur ereditar (interni), care inIluenteaz productia
avicol att numeric, ct si calitativ, amintim: specia, rasa,
individualitatea, vrsta, precocitatea, conditiile de adpostire,
starea de sntate, densitatea, comportamentul, microclimatul.
households oI Iarmers |4|.
In recent years, meat market crisis not only continues,
but will deepen as a result oI the continuous increase in
prices oI Ieed Ior cattle, meat consumption in
overpopulated countries, especially China and India and,
oI course, oI Iuel price rises. On the markets oI Brazil,
Argentina and the U.S.A, the main meat suppliers in the
world market, prices gallop Ior more than a year.
Moreover, there is an acute shortage oI certain types oI
meat, such as beeI.
The highest rate oI price increase is registered
with beeI, Iollowed by pork. Poultry prices Iollowing
the rise in Iuel rate. Over the last year, beeI prices go up
67 and pork - 35. Meat price rises on the
world market has an eIIect on the Moldovan
market.
At the next stage oI analysis it will be presented
the study oI average sale prices Iormed eIIectively in
poultry production Iarms and Iarm households
(Table 2). Thus, agricultural enterprises and Iarms with
an area oI 50 hectares and more, in 2013, Ior a ton oI
weight alive birds pays a price oI 20,953 lei, or 65.67
compared with the same period oI 2003 thousand eggs
and Iood to pay a price oI 827 lei or 3.2 times less than a
thousand eggs Ior hatching, which in 2011 was 2673 lei.
The highest price levels oI these kinds oI production
was in 2008, when per a ton oI weight alive bird pays a
price oI 21,903 lei Ior a 952 thousand lei and a
thousand eggs Ior hatching the highest price was
recorded in 2009 oI 3216 lei, or 2.9 times higher
compared to the same period oI 2003 (Table 2). OI the
nature hereditary (internal) Iactors that are aIIecting the
poultry production both numerically and qualitative
include: species, breed, individuality and age, precocity,
housing conditions, health, density, behavior and
microclimate.
Tabelul 2/Table 2
Pre(urile medii de vnzare formate efectiv la produc(ia avicol n ntreprinderile agricole yi gospodriile (rneyti
(de fermieri), cu suprafa(a de 50 ha yi peste, lei pentru o ton/
Selling average prices formed efectivelly from formed sellings at the poultry production in farm enterprises and
houshold (of farming), with an area of 50 ha and more, lei per a ton
Anii/
Years
Psri (n greutate
vie)/ Poultry (in
alive weight)
Ritmurile de
creytere, /
Rythm of
growth,
Ou (pentru o mie buc(i):/ Eggs (for 1 thousand pieces):
Alimentare/
Alimenta-
tion
Ritmurile de
creytere, /
Rythm of growth,

Pentru
incuba(ie/
For
incubation
Ritmurile de
creytere, /
Rythm of
growth,
2003 12647 X 539 X 1105 X
2004 14686 1,161 673 1,248 1689 1,528
2005 16854 1,333 617 1,144 2418 2,188
2006 14231 1,125 627 1,163 1689 1,528
2007 17944 1,419 628 1,165 2737 2,477
2008 21903 1,732 952 1,766 3151 2,852
2009 18532 1,465 673 1,245 3098 2,804
2010 20088 1,588 717 1,330 3216 2,910
2011 20359 1,610 827 1,534 2673 2,419
Sursa/ Source: Elaborat de autor n baza datelor BAS/Elaborated by author on the basis of ABS.
n anul 2011 preturile medii de vnzare Iormate eIectiv la
productia avicol n ntreprinderile agricole si gospodriile
de Iermieri pe trimestre pentru o ton Iat de perioadele
In 2011, average selling prices were actually
made in poultry production Iarms and Iarm
households on trimester per ton compared to previous
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 111
nr. 2 / 2013
precedente au o evolutie stabil. AstIel, pretul mediu pentru
o ton de carne de psri s-a micsorat n ultima decad a
anului 2011, Iat de perioada respectiv a anului 2010, cu
2598 de lei pentru o ton, sau, n mrime relativ, cu
11,42. De asemenea, pretul mediu eIectiv de Iormare
pentru o mie de bucti de ou alimentare, a evoluat de la 693
de lei n prima decad a anului 2009 la 1028 de lei pentru
ultima decad a anului 2011, sau n mrimi absolute cu 665
de lei. Dac analizm preturile doar pentru decadele anului
2001, de asemenea, observm, c la nceput de an pentru o
mie de ou alimentare se achitau n mediu 814 lei, iar la
sIrsit de an deja aceast ciIr urca la 1028 de lei, deci, care
creste cu 214 lei n mrime absolut, sau cu 22,23 n
mrime absolut. Este de remarcat Iaptul, c oule
alimentare, n a doua decad a oricrui an, cost mai ieItin si
aceasta se datoreaz Iaptului, c acesta perioad o bun parte
din productie vine de la populatia rural.
Dac analizm preturile medii pentru o mie de bucti de
ou pentru incubatie, atunci putem conchide, c n anul 2011
Iat de anul 2009 pretul lor s-a micsorat de la 3451 de lei n
2009 la 2177 de lei n 2011, sau cu 1274 de lei n mrime
absolut, sau cu 36,92 n mrime relativ (Tabelul 3) |4|.
periods, when there was a stable evolution. Thus, the
average price per ton oI poultry meat has decreased
in the last decade oI 2011, versus the same period oI 2010,
with 2598 lei per ton, or with a relative size oI 11.42.
Also, the average eIIective price oI Iormation
Ior a thousand pieces oI eggs Ior consumption rose Irom
693 lei in the Iirst decade oI 2009 to 1028 lei Ior
the last decade oI 2011, or the absolute size oI 665 lei. II we
look only Ior the prices oI decades oI 2001, it
was also noted that early this year one thousand eggs Ior
Iood are paid on average 814 lei and at the end oI
the same year already that Iigure up to 1028 lei, so that
increases with 214 lei or 22.23, in absolute size value. It
is worth noting that supplying with eggs in the second
decade oI any year it costs less and this is because this
period a good part oI the production comes Irom the rural
population.
II we look at the average prices Ior a thousand pieces oI
hatching eggs then we can conclude that in 2011 compared
to 2009 their price Iell Irom 3451 in 2009 to 2177 lei in
2011, or 1274 lei in absolute value or with 36.92 in
relative value (Table 3) |4|.
Tabelul 3/Table 3
Pre(urile medii de vnzare formate efectiv la produc(ia avicol n ntreprinderile agricole
yi gospodriile (rneyti (de fermieri), pe trimestre, lei/ton/
Selling average prices formed efectivelly from formed sellings at the poultry production in farm enterprises and
houshold (of farming), on trimesters, lei/ton
Sursa/ Source: Elaborat de autor n baza datelor BAS/Elaborated by author on the basis of ABS.
Tipurile de
produc(ie/ Types
of production
2009 2010 2011
I II III IV I II III IV I II III IV
Carne de psri/
Poultry meat
18763 15597 20663 19841 19438 19826 17457 22745 19307 19752 21972 20147
Ou (pentru o mie
buc. alimentar)/
Eggs (Ior a
thousand pieces Ior
consumption)
693 672 634 694 786 475 660 888 814 585 799 1028
- pentru
incubatie/ Ior
incubation
3038 3010 3359 3451 3217 3205 3327 - 2884 3085 1940 2177
Dac analizm n medie pe ani, evolutia preturilor
medii de vnzare, Iormate eIectiv la productia avicol n
ntreprinderile agricole si gospodriile de Iermieri, atunci
observm situatia din Iigura 1.
Cum se explic aceast crestere? Specialistii din industria
alimentar dau vina pe specul, dar si pe Iaptul c, n lipsa
productiei interne, s-a ajuns s se importe majoritatea
produselor. De asemenea, cauzele majorrii preturilor la
majoritatea tipurilor de produse alimentare si nu numai, se
datoreaz Iaptului, c au crescut considerabil, n ultimul
timp, preturile la combustibili, energie si gaze naturale.
Un indice este o msur a variatiei unei variabile Iat de
alt variabil. Indicii au aparut n cadrul studiului variatiei
Ienomenelor n general, si a variatiei lor n timp. n cadrul
statisticii, indicii ajut la obtinerea de inIormatii
suplimentare reIeritoare la dinamica activittii economice,
precum si identiIicarea inIluentei altor Iactori economici
asupra acestor indicatori.
II to analyze on average per years the evolution oI
average sale prices that are Iormed eIIectively Irom poultry
production oI Iarms and households oI Iarmers, then we see
the situation in the Iigure 1.
What is it explained this growth? Experts oI the
Iood industry blame on speculation, and the Iact that
in the absence oI domestic production, it was to
import most products. It also causes higher prices Ior most
types oI Iood, and not only because it increased
considerably in recent years, prices oI Iuel, electricity
and gas.
An index is a measure oI the variation in one variable
to another variable. Indices appeared in the study
variation phenomena in general, and their changes
over time. In the statistics, indices help Iurther
inIormation on the dynamics oI economic activity and to
identiIy other economic Iactors inIluence on these
indicators.
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 112
nr. 2 / 2013
0
3000
10000
13000
20000
23000
2004 2003 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
14686
16834
14231
17944
21903
18332
20088
20339
673 617 627 628
932
673 717 827
1689
2418
1689
2737
3131 3098 3216
2673
psri(n greutate vie)/Poultry (in
alive weight)
ou pentru alimentaie/Eggs for
alimentation
ou pentru alimentaie/Eggs for
incubation
Fig. 1. Pre(urile medii de vnzare formate efectiv la produc(ia avicol n ntreprinderile agricole
yi gospodriile (rneyti (de fermier), lei pentru o ton (anuale)/
Fig. 1. Selling average prices formed efectivelly from formed sellings at the poultry production in
farm enterprises and houshold (of farming), lei per a ton (annual)
Sursa/ Source: Elaborat de autor n baza datelor Biroului Aajional de Statistic/ Elaborated by author on the basis
of Aational Bureau of Statistics
Ei pot Ii clasiIicati n Iunctie de destinatie (indici
cronologici, teritoriali, de plan), n Iunctie de sIera de
cuprindere (indici individuali, indici de grup sau sintetici),
sau n Iunctie de sistemul de ponderare (indici cu pondere
Iix sau de tip Laspeyres si indici cu pondere variabil - de
tip Paasche). Din punct de vedere al bazei de raportare avem
indici cu baza Iix (nivelul Iiecrei perioade se raporteaz la
nivelul unei perioade de baz) si indici cu baza mobil
(raportarea nivelului Iiecrei perioade se Iace la nivelul
perioadei anterioare).
n general, calculul unui indice se Iace raportnd nivelul
analizat, notat cu indicativul "1" la nivelul de baz sau de
comparatie, notat cu indicativul "0".
Teoretic, indicii sunt msurtori statistici ai dinamicii n
economie sau ntr-o piat, cazul nostru pe piata productiei
avicole. Indicii preturilor de vnzare a productiei avicole
ctre ntreprinderile agricole si gospodriile de Iermieri
(trnesti), calculat n baza preturilor medii anuale, n perioada
anilor 2009 si 2011 pe decade, prezentat n Tabelul 4 |4|.
They can be sorted by destination (chronological
indicators, planning, plan), depending on the scope (individual
indices, indices or synthetic group) or according to the
weighted (weighted indices and Laspeyres Iixed and variable
weighted index, Paasche type. Regarding the reporting
database there was Iixed the base indices (each period is
related to the level oI the base period) and mobile-based
indices (each level reporting period is the previous period).
In general, the calculation oI the index is reviewed on
report, noted the sign "1" at the base or comparison, note
the sign "0".
Theoretically speaking, the indices are measurements or
statistics oI growth in a market economy, as in our case,
market poultry production.
Indices oI selling prices oI poultry production by the
Iarm enterprises and household Iarm (peasant Iarms),
calculated on the basis oI annual average prices, in the
period oI 2009 and 2011 on decades is represented in
Table 4 |4|.
Tabelul 4/Table 4
Indicii pre(urilor de vnzare a produc(iei de carne yi ou de psri de ctre ntreprinderile agricole
yi gospodriile (rneyti (de fermier)/Price indices of selling the production of poultry meat and
eggs by farm enterprises and houshold (of farming)
Tipurile de produc(ie/
Types of production
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Psri/ Poultry 95,2 98,7 116,1 114,8 84,4 126,1 122,1 84,6 108,4 101,3
Ou (mie buc.)/ Eggs
(thsnd pcs)
77,2 132,4 125,3 92,6 100,5 101,0 147,5 72,7 106,3 114,3
Sursa/Source: Elaborat de autor n baza datelor BAS/Elaborated by author on the basis of ABS.
AstIel, n anul 2011, n ultima decad (ianuarie-
decembrie), indicele oulor a constituit 114,3 sau cu 11,3
p.p. mai mult Iat de prima decad a aceluiasi an (ianuarue
martie), si, respectiv, cu 41 p.p. mai mare Iat de prima
Thus, in 2011, in the last decade oI the year
(January-December), the index oI eggs constituted 114,3
or with 11,3 p.p. more than on the Iirst decade oI
the same year (January-March), and, respectively,
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 113
nr. 2 / 2013
decad a anului 2009. Deci, n anul 2011, n ultima decad
de analiz, comparnd cu celelalte perioade, observm c
indicile preturilor de vnzare pentru ou a nregistrat cele
mai nalte cote. Indicele preturilor de vnzare pentru
sporul n greutate vie al psrilor n anul 2011, n ultima
decad, a costituit 101,3, sau cu 8 p.p. mai mult Iat de
prima decad a aceluiasi an. Cel mai mare indice de
crestere a pretului sporului n greutate vie, din perioada
analizat, a Iost nregistrat n anul 2010, n decada a doua
(ianuarie-iunie) de 117,2, ceea ce ne vorbeste de Iaptul,
c comparativ cu aceiasi perioad a anului 2006 preturile
sporului n greutate vie al psarilor au crescut cu 17,2 |4|.
with 41 p.p. greater than the Iirst decade oI 2009 year. So in
2011, the last decade oI analysis, comparing with other
periods, it appears that selling price indexes Ior eggs
showed the highest levels. Sale price index Ior the increase
in weight oI the birds in 2011, the last decade has created
and 101.3, or 8 pp more than in the Iirst decade oI the
same year. The largest increase in the price index in weight
gain in the period under review was recorded in 2010, in
the second decade oI the year (January-June) oI 117.2,
which talks about the Iact that, compared with same period
oI 2006, prices oI poultry live weight gain increased by
17.2 |4|.
Tabelul 5/ Table 5
Indicii pre(urilor de vnzare a produc(iei de carne yi ou de psri, pe decade,
de ctre ntreprinderile agricole yi gospodriile de fermieri/ Price indices of selling the production
of poultry meat and eggs on decades by farm
Tipurile de
produc(ie/ Types
of production
2009 2010 2011
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a
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i
e
-
m
a
r
t
i
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J
a
n
u
a
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M
a
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h
i
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a
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-
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J
a
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u
a
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-
J
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-
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J
a
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a
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-
S
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m
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-
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/

J
a
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-
D
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b
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r
Psri/ Poultry 95,6 86,9 90,1 84,6 103,6 117,2 104,5 108,4 93,3 99,6 108,7 101,3
Ou (mie buc.)/
Eggs (thsnd pcs)
73,0 74,6 73,8 72,7 112,5 95,2 97,8 106,3 103,0 110,5 113,2 114,3
Sursa/Source: Elaborat de autor n baza datelor BAS/Elaborated by author on the basis of ABS.
Dac Iacem o medie a acestor indici pe o perioad mai
mare, atunci obtinem urmtoarele date statistice (Tabelul 5)
si, de asemenea, reprezentarea graIic (Figura 2).
II we average these indices over a longer period, then we
obtain the Iollowing statistics (Table 5) and also a graphical
representation (Figure 2).
0 30 100 130
2002
2003
2004
2003
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
ou/ eggs
psri/ poultry
Fig. 2. Pre(urile medii de vnzare formate efectiv la produc(ia avicol n ntreprinderile agricole yi gospodriile (rneyti (de
fermier), lei pentru o ton (anuale)/
Fig. 2. Selling average prices formed efectivelly from formed sellings at the poultry production in farm enterprises and
houshold (of farming), lei per a ton (annual)
Sursa/Source: Elaborat de autor n baza datelor BAS/Elaborated by author on the basis of ABS.
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 114
nr. 2 / 2013
Pentru dezvoltarea celor trei sisteme de baz: intensiv-
industrial, gospodresc-intensiv, gospodresc-extensiv, strategia
de dezvoltare a sectorului avicol, cresterea eIicientei ramurii
prin sporirea volumului de productie calitativ si competitiv la
preturi convenabile consumatorilor sunt necesare:
Iolosirea eIicient a Iondului genetic existent al
psrilor, importarea si utilizarea materialului biologic
valoros la nivel de printi;
dotarea Iabricilor avicole din sistemul intensiv-
industrial cu miniIabrici automatizate pentru producerea si
asigurarea necesittilor tuturor categoriilor de psri cu
Iuraje concentrate, premixe si aditivi Iurajeri;
asigurarea stiintiIic a sectorului avicol prin sporirea
volumului de Iinantare a cercetrilor stiintiIice, n scopul
crerii unor noi crosuri de psri, perIectionrii tehnologiilor
de producere a oulor de consum si crnii de pasre pentru
toate categoriile de agenti economici.
To develop the three basic systems that are intensive-
industrial, household-intensive and household-extensive,
the strategy oI poultry sector development, the sector
growth`s eIIiciency by increasing production volume and
competitive quality at aIIordable prices to consumers are
required:
eIIicient use oI existing gene Iond oI birds, import and
use oI valuable biological material at parents level;
provide the poultry Iactories production oI intensive-
industrial with automated mini Iactories and ensure the
needs oI all categories oI poultry with Ieed concentrates,
premixes and Ieed additives;
providing scientiIic aid to poultry sector by
increasing the amount oI Iunding the scientiIic researches
made in order to create new crosses oI birds, to improve
the technologies oI producing eggs and poultry meat Ior
consumption Ior all categories oI economic agents.
Concluzii. Avicultura este o ramur strategic a
sectorului zootehnic cu mari posibilitti de relansare ntr-o
perioad scurt de timp. Actualmente, avicultura n Moldova
se dezvolt n trei sisteme de baz: industrial-intensiv,
gospodresc-intensiv si gospodresc-extensiv.
n anul 2011, productia de ou, produs de gospodriile
populatiei si cele de Iermieri alctuia 464 de milioane de
bucti, sau cu 21 de milioane de bucti mai mult comparativ
cu anul 2010, acesta alctuind 65,81 din totalul productiei
de ou pe toate tipurile de gospodrii, cel mai putin revenind
ntreprinderilor agricole, care, n anul 2011, au produs 241
de milioane de bucti sau 34,18 din totalul productiei de
ou. Productia de carne, n anul 2011 a constituit 41,4 mii
tone sau cu 0,5 mii tone mai mult comparativ cu anul 2010.
n ntreprinderile agricole si gospodriile trnesti cu
supraIata de 50 ha si peste, n anul 2013, pentru o ton de
psri n greutate vie se achita un pret de 20953 de lei, sau cu
65,67 mai mult comparativ cu perioada similar a anului
2003 si pentru o mie de ou alimentare se achita un pret de
827 de lei sau de 3,2 ori mai putin dect pentru o mie de ou
pentru incubatie, care n 2011 a constituit 2673 de lei. Cele
mai nalte niveluri a pretului acestor tipuri de productie s-au
nregistrat n 2008, cnd pentru o ton de psri n greutate
vie se achita un pret de 21903 lei, pentru o mie de ou
alimentare 952 de lei, iar pentru o mie de ou pentru
incubatie cel mai nalt pret s-a nregistrat n 2009 de 3216
lei, sau de 2,9 ori mai mare comparativ cu 2003.
Pentru o eIicient sporit a ramurii avicole este necesar
Iolosirea eIicient a Iondului genetic existent al psrilor,
asigurarea stiintiIic a sectorului avicol prin sporirea
volumului de Iinantare a cercetrilor stiintiIice, dotarea
Iabricilor avicole din sistemul intensiv-industrial cu
miniIabrici automatizate pentru producerea si asigurarea
necesittilor tuturor categoriilor de psri cu Iuraje
concentrate, premixe si aditivi Iurajeri etc.
Conclusions. Poultry is a strategic branch oI
the livestock sector with great opportunities to be
started again in a short period oI time. Today poultry Iarming
in our country develops three basic systems: industrial-
intensive, intensive-household and household-extensive.
In 2011, production oI eggs produced by households and
Iarmers made up 464 million pcs. or 21 million
pieces, which was more than in 2010, it was accounted
Ior 65.81 oI the total egg production in all
types oI households, the least being Ior agricultural
enterprises in 2011 which produced 241 million pieces or
34.18 oI the total egg production . Meat production in
2011 was amounted to 41,4 tons or 0,5 tons more than
in 2010.
In agricultural enterprises and househod Iarms
with an area oI 50 hectares and more, in 2013 Ior a ton oI
weight oI alive birds paid a price oI 20,953 lei,
or 65.67 compared with the same period oI 2003; a
thousand eggs Ior consumption are paid a price oI 827 lei or
3.2 times less than a thousand eggs Ior hatching,
which in 2011 was 2673 lei. The highest price levels oI these
kinds oI production was in 2008, when Ior the weight oI a
ton oI alive poultry was paid a price oI 21,903 lei, and Ior
one thousand oI eggs Ior consumption was paid Ior 952 lei
and Ior a thousand eggs Ior hatching was recorded the price
in 2009 oI 3216 lei, or 2.9 times higher i Iit was compared to
the 2003 year.
For high eIIiciency oI poultry industry it is required to
eIIectively use the existing genetic Iond oI the birds, provide
scientiIic aid Ior poultry sector by increasing the amount oI
Iunding the scientiIic research, to provide the poultry
Iactories with intensive-industrial system with automated
mini Iactories industrial to produce and ensure the needs oI
all categories oI birds with Ieed concentrates, premixes and
Ieed additives, etc.
Referin(e bibliografice / References
1. GHERASIM, Toader, CARAUS, Mihail. Preturi i tarife. Chisinu: TipograIia Central, 1998. 314 p. ISBN 5-362-01135-9.
2. ANDRONIC, Bogdan-Constantin. Performanta firmei. abordare transdisciplinara in anali:a microeconomica. Iasi: Polirom,
2000. ISBN 9736835227.
3. BEJU, Viorel. Preturi. Bucuresti: Ed. economic, 2000. 608 p. ISBN 9735903636.
4. Not inIormativ la proiectul hotrrii Guvernului ,Cu privire la aprobarea Normei sanitar veterinar de stabilire a standardelor de
comercializare a crnii de pasre. 2011, martie |accesat 20 martie 2013|. Disponibil: www.maia.gov.md
5. Biroul National de Statistic al Republicii Moldova |accesat 20 martie 2013|. Disponibil: www.statistica.md
Recomandat spre publicare.15.05.2013
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 113
nr. 2 / 2013
ANALIZA ECONOMIC A ACTIVITTII
NTREPRINDERILOR MICI $I MI1LOCII
DIN 1UDETUL VASLUI, ROMANIA
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SMALL
AND MEDIUM BUSINESS FROM
VASLUI, ROMANIA
Sergiu DUJA, drd.,
Jaslui, Romnia
Sergiu DU1A, PhD student,
Jaslui, Romania
De:voltarea economiei de piat impune probleme in
vederea imbunttirii mediului de afaceri i stimulrii
intreprinderii mici i miflocii (IMM-urilor) in contextul cri:ei
i necesittii relansrii procesului investitional din fudetul
Jaslui, Romania.
Development of market economv requires
issues to improve the business environment and
stimulate small and medium enterprise (SME) in crisis
and need recoverv of investment in Jaslui,
Romania.
Cuvinte cheie: intreprinderi mici i miflocii (IMM-uri),
reglementri, anticoncurentiale, societate pe actiuni,
competitivitate, proces inovational.
Key words. small and medium enterprises (SMEs),
regulations, anticompetitive, foint-stock companv,
competitiveness, innovation process.
1EL classification: D4, E22, L2, L32, L44
Introducere. Analiza economic a activittii MM-urilor
serveste ca baz primar pentru evaluarea mediului de
aIaceri si a tendintelor tipice economiei de piat. De regul,
analiza se eIectueaz dup indicatorii alesi pe anumite
criterii n Iunctie de obiectivele si ipotezele cercetrii
respective. Cei mai importanti indicatori propusi pentru
analiza economic a mediului de aIaceri pot Ii:
numrul mediu de salariati, ciIra de aIaceri din vnzri,
proIit/pierderi pn la impozitare, gruparea ntreprinderilor
studiate dup domeniul de activitate. De rnd cu acestea, se
accentueaz pe conIruntrile concurentiale de natur
economic, social, psihologic si spiritual n domeniul
aIacerilor.
Con(inut de baz. Abordarea sistemic n studierea
activittii ntreprinderilor mici si mijlocii se bazeaz pe
unitatea combinrii Iactorilor de productie (capital, munc,
resurse naturale, inIormatie) pentru producerea de bunuri si
servicii care vor Ii vndute pe piat. Rezultatele
ntreprinderilor depind de mentinerea situatiei economice si
politice, precum si a climatului de aIaceri din judet.
Totodat, problemele abordate n lucrrile economistilor din
Romnia nc nu dezvluie pe deplin vnzarea complex a
dezvoltrii managementului aIacerilor din ntreprinderile
mici si mijlocii, accentele Iiind puse pe dezvoltarea
doar a unor elemente ale managementului, evidentiate
separat, astIel ignorndu-se caracteristica de sistem
deschis al ntreprinderilor si a rolului managementului n
contextul activittii ntreprinderilor mici si mijlocii. n
contextul globalizrii, integrrii si regionalizrii, constatm,
c mecanismul activittii ntreprinderilor mici si
mijlocii, aIlate ntr-o dezvoltare dinamic, sunt sub inIluenta
mediului concurential al pietei Uniunii Europene.
Prin urmare, apare necesitatea analizei economice,
determinat de cercetarea complex a Ienomenelor si
proceselor economice ale Iactorilor de inIluent asupra
acestora.
Prin obiectul de studiu, analiza economic vizeaz
activittile cu caracter economic, consumatoare de
resurse si generatoare de rezultate. Totodat, de rnd cu
aceasta, analiza evidentiaz modul n care Iunctioneaz
ntreprinderile ca sisteme, iar rezultatele acesteia
conduc la stabilirea directiilor de actiunea n vederea
reglementrii activittii n concordant cu obiectivele
prestabilite.
Introduction. Economic analysis oI SME activity
serves as the primary basis Ior evaluating the business
environment and trends typical Ior market economy.
Typically, the analysis is perIormed on certain criteria
as indicators chosen by the respective research,
objectives and hypotheses. The most important
indicators proposed Ior the economic analysis oI the
business environment can be the average number oI
employees, sales turnover, proIit / loss beIore tax,
grouping oI companies studied by Iield oI activity.
Along with these stresses on competitive
conIrontations economic, social, psychological and
spiritual in the business Iield.
Base content. Systemic approach in the study oI
small and medium business is based on combining
unit production Iactors (capital, labor, natural
resources, inIormation) Ior the production oI goods
and services which will be sold on the market. The
results oI businesses depend on maintaining economic
and political situation, oI the business climate in the
county. However, the issues addressed in the work oI
economists in the Iield Irom Romania has not yet
Iully reveals complex sales management development
in small and medium enterprises, emphasis being
placed on developing only the elements oI
management are shown separately, thus ignoring the
system Ieature open oI business and management
role in the context oI small and medium enterprises.
In the context oI globalization. Integration and
regionalization conclude that the mechanism oI
small and medium enterprises activity located in a
dynamically developing under the inIluence oI the
competitive environment oI the European Union
market. ThereIore, there is need Ior economic
analysis oI complex research driven economic
phenomena and processes oI the Iactors oI inIluence
on them.
Through the study object, the economic analysis
concerns the subject oI economic activities,
consuming resources and generating results. Along
with this, the analysis highlights how businesses
operate as systems and the results lead to the
establishment oI courses oI action to regulate activity
in line with objectives.
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 116
nr. 2 / 2013
Tabelul 1/ Table 1
Caracteristica pe clase de ntreprinderi n UE 27, anul 2012`/
Enterprise-class feature in the EU-27 in 2012`
ntreprinderi/
Enterprises
Micro/ micro Mici/ small
Medii/
average
IMM-URI/
SMES
ntreprinderi
mari/ large
enterprises
Total/ total
Numrul/ number,

19143521
92,2
1357533
6,5
226573
1,1
207276279
9,8
43654
0,2
20771281
100
Angajati/ staII,

38395819
29,6
26771287
20,6
22310205
17,2
87477311
67,4
42318854
32,6
129796465
100
Valoarea adugat
VAB (eur.)/ Value
Added GVA (eur.)

1307360,7
21,2
1143935,7
18,5
1136243,6
18,4
3587540
58,1
2591731,5
41,9
6179271,4
100
VAB/salariat
euro/an
GVA / employee
Euro / year
34049,6 42729,9 50929,3 41011,1 61242,9 47607,5
Sursa/Source: Economistul nr. 1 (11), 213, pag. 2-21
n SUA si trile membre UE, prin antreprenor se
ntelege persoana care si ncepe propria aIacere. Henry
Fayoll sublinia, c antreprenoriatul este un Ienomen
multidimensional, complex, cu multiple Iatete: coordonator,
creator, inovator, pentru gestiunea resurselor etc. n trile
membre ale UE, principalele consecinte ale
antreprenoriatului, n ultimii 10 ani, sunt: a) 1,3 milioane
MM-uri nou nIiintate anual; b) asigurarea a 36 milioane de
noi locuri de munc; c) realizarea unei rate medii de crestere
anual de 17,7; d) obtinerea a 80 din produsele sau
serviciile inovative; e) asigurarea unei contributii de cca
65 din PIB-ul european.
ntreprinderile mici si mijlocii au reprezentat, n anul
2012, coloana vertebral a economiei UE, cu 99,8 din
numrul ntreprinderilor non-Iinanciare sau 20,7 milioane la
numr. Majoritatea covrsitoare (92,2) sunt micro-
ntreprinderi care au mai putin de 10 angajati. Cca 6,5
dintre ele sunt clasiIicate drept mici aIaceri (10-49 angajati)
si doar 1,1 se ncadreaz la categoria mijlocie (50-249
angajati).
n 2012 ct si n anul 2011 s-a pstrat aproape
neschimbat numrul mediu de angajati (4,22 angajati la o
ntreprindere).
Ca productivitate, msurat prin raportarea valorii
adugate pe salariat, microntreprinderile mici se situeaz
sub media pe economie, n timp ce ntreprinderile medii si
mari se aIl peste aceast medie.
Analiza evolutiei de exploatare a ntreprinderilor mici si
mijlocii din judetul Vaslui, caracterizat prin numrul
mediu de salariati, ciIra de aIaceri, proIitul net al
exercitiului si rezultatele activittii desIsurate, ne
demonstreaz unele tendinte pozitive n activitatea lor.
Cercetarea eIectuat se bazeaz pe inIormatii Iolosite din
bilantul contabil al 305 ntreprinderi mici si mijlocii din
judetul Vaslui, Romnia. Pentru eIectuarea acestui studiu, au
Iost grupate toate ntreprinderile dup numrul de angajati n
perioada anilor 2007-2011 (Tabelul 2). Cercetarea a scos n
evident o diversitate de dimensiuni ale ntreprinderilor mici
si mijlocii din judetul Vaslui, cu o tendint spre o pondere
mai ridicat a celor cu dimensiuni mici si mijlocii. n anul
2007 s-au constatat 30 la sut de ntreprinderi din grupa 1-9
In the U.S. and EU countries, the entrepreneur is a
person who starts his own business. Henry Fayoll
emphasize that entrepreneurship is a multidimensional
phenomenon, complex, multiIaceted: coordinator,
creative, innovative, resource planning etc. In EU
countries, the major consequences oI entrepreneurship in
the past 10 years are: a) 1.3 million annually newly
established SMEs, b) providing the 36 million new jobs,
c) achieving average annual growth rate 17.7
d) obtaining 80 oI innovative products or services
e) providing a contribution oI about 65 oI European
GDP.
Small and medium enterprises have represented a
backbone oI the EU economy in 2012, with 99.8 oI
non-Iinancial enterprises 20.7 million in number. The
overwhelming majority (92.2) are micro-enterprises
with Iewer than 10 employees. Approximately 6.5 oI
them are classiIied as small businesses (10-49
employees) and only 1.1 Ialls in the middle category
(50-249 employees).
In 2012 and in 2011 has remained almost unchanged
average number oI employees (4.22 employees oI an
enterprise).
Productivity as measured by value added per
employee reporting, small micro economy is below
average, while medium and large enterprises is above
average.
The analysis oI the operation oI small and medium
enterprises in Vaslui County, characterized by the
number oI employees, the turnover, net proIit Ior the
year and the results oI work undertaken, demonstrates
some positive trends in their work.
Research perIormed is based on inIormation
used in the balance sheet oI 305 SMEs in Vaslui,
Romania. For this study all Iirms were grouped by
number oI employees in the period 2007-2011
(Table 2). The research revealed a variety oI small and
medium sized enterprises in Vaslui County, with a trend
towards a higher share oI the small and medium size. In
2007, it was Iound that 30 percent oI businesses Irom the
group 1-9 employees and in 2011 to 31.7 in this group,
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 117
nr. 2 / 2013
salariati, iar n 2011 31,7 pe aceast grup, avnd media
de 4,3 persoane, obtinnd o ciIr de aIaceri la ntreprindere
cu 28 mai mare n 2011 n comparatie cu 2007. De
mentionat, c proIitul net al exercitiului la un salariat a
crescut cu 4,6 ori n anul 2011 comparativ cu 2007.
with an average oI 4.3 people, earning the company a
turnover up 28 higher in 2011 compared to 2007.
Should be mentioned that net proIit Ior the year per
employee increased by 4.6 times in 2011 compared to
2007.
Tabelul 2/ Table 2
Evolu(ia indicatorilor economici a activit(ii ntreprinderilor mici yi mijlocii din jude(ul Vaslui, Romnia/
Economic indices of Small and medium enterprises business in Vaslui County, Romania
Anii/
Years
Gruparea ntreprinderilor mici yi mijlocii (IMM-urilor) dup mrimea mediu de salaria(i (persoane)/
Grouping small and medium enterprises (SMEs) by size of employees (persons)
1-9 10-49 50-250 Peste 250
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Sursa/ Source: Elaborat yi modelat de autor n baza bilanjului contabil al IMM-urilor./ Calculated by the author
based on the balance sheets of SMEs.
Totodat, ntreprinderile mari (peste 250 de angajati) au
obtinut ciIra de aIaceri la o ntreprindere n medie pe anii
2007-2011 de 57367 mii lei comparativ cu 588,2 mii lei din
grupa 1-9 angajati (Tabelul 2). Prin urmare prioritatea
ntreprinderilor mari este indiscutabil.
Cercetarea eIectuat a scos n evident Iaptul, c odat cu
cresterea dimensiunii ntreprinderilor, sporeste si interesul
managerilor pentru dezvoltarea si implementarea unei anumite
politici n relatiile cu Iurnizorii.
Activitatea ntreprinderilor mici si mijlocii si cele mari n
contextul integrrii cu Uniunea European este o conditie
absolut necesar pentru supravietuirea lor n noul sistem al
unei economii concurentiale.
Desigur, n perioada anilor 2007-2011 au Iost analizate un
numr mare de ntreprinderi (305) din judetul Vaslui, care
dispun de un potential de a Iace unele schimbri radicale n
activitatea local. Este necesar de a concorda mediul extern
cu mediul de aIaceri local, care este caracterizat de schimbri
continue.
Cercetrile demonstreaz c sunt ntreprinderi care
reactioneaz doar atunci cnd schimbrile din mediu ncep s
However, large companies (over 250 employees)
achieved turnover oI an undertaking on average Ior
2007-2011 oI MDL 57.367 million compared with
MDL 588 200 1-9 employees Irom the group (Table 2).
ThereIore priority oI large enterprises is indisputable.
Research perIormed highlighted the Iact that with
increasing size enterprises, increases the interest oI
managers to develop and implement a speciIic policy
in relations with suppliers.
Activity oI small and medium enterprises and large
in the context oI EU integration is a necessary
condition Ior their survival in the new environment oI a
competitive economy.
OI course, during the years 2007-2011 were
analyzed a large number oI companies (305) Irom
Vaslui County, which have the potential to make some
radical changes in the local activity. It is necessary to
agree the external environment oI the local business
environment, which is characterized by constant change.
Research shows that businesses are reacting only
when environmental changes start to produce negative
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 118
nr. 2 / 2013
produc consecinte negative asupra activittilor acestora.
ntreprinderile, care nu reusesc s se adapteze, n timp
util, schimbrilor din mediul care Iunctioneaz sunt pe
cale de disparitie n procesul de evolutie a economiei
romnesti.
Prezint interes stiintiIic gruparea ntreprinderilor mici si
mijlocii dup mrimea ciIrei de aIaceri (de la un milion pn
la ciIra de peste 30 milioane la o ntreprindere), plasate n
Tabelul 3. Apreciem ns, c prin mrimea sa si, bun msur,
chiar si prin structura sa, rezultatele cercetrilor prezentate ne-
a asigurat o baz proprie de analiz a modului n care
ntreprinderile romnesti abordeaz piata de amonte de
productie si a Ielului n care managerii ntreprinderilor mici si
mijlocii au nteles cum s-si dezvolte relatiile de aIaceri cu
proprii Iurnizori si aprecierea modului n care ei sunt pregtiti
s Iunctioneze ntr-o economie de piat concurential.
Numrul ntreprinderilor mici si mijlocii dup ciIra de
aIaceri, ncepnd cu anul 2007 pn n anul 2011 se gseste n
discretie de la 19 pn la 10 ntreprinderi, apoi n grupa pn
la un milion de lei ciIra de aIaceri constituie 374,875 mii lei,
iar n acelasi an (2011) n grupa de peste 30 milioane ciIra de
aIaceri 107613,2 mii lei la o ntreprindere (Tabelul 3).
consequences oI their activities. Businesses that Iail to
adapt in a timely manner, changes in the operating
environment are endangered in the evolution oI the
Romanian economy.
ScientiIic interest grouping oI small and medium
enterprises by size oI turnover (Irom one million to 30
million the number oI a company) placed in Table 3.
We appreciate, however, that by its size and, to a
large extent, even its structure presented research
results provided a baseline we own analysis oI how the
Romanian enterprises addressing upstream market Ior
the production and the way in which managers oI small
and medium enterprises understand how to develop
their business relationships with suppliers and
assessing how they are prepared to operate in a
competitive market economy.
The number oI oI small and medium enterprises by
turnover, Irom 2007 until 2011 is in the discretion oI
the 19 to 10 enterprises, then the group up to a million
MDL turnover is 374 875 thousand, and the same year
(2011) with a group turnover oI over 30 million MDL
in a company 107.613,2 million MDL (Table 3).
Tabelul 3/ Table 3
Gruparea ntreprinderilor mici yi mijlocii (IMM-urilor) dup mrimea cifrei de afaceri din jude(ul Vaslui, Romnia /
Grouping small and medium enterprises (SMEs) by size of turnover of Vaslui County, Romania
Numarul de
grupe/
Number oI
groups
Gruparea
dup ciIra de
aIaceri, mil.
lei/ Group by
turnover, mln.
MDL
Anii/
Years
Numarul de
ntreprinderi,
unitti/ Number
oI undertakings,
businesses
Revine la o ntreprindere/ Returns an
undertaking
Revine la un salariat n
mediu, lei/ Returns per
employee on average, MDL
Numarul
mediu de
salariati,
persoane/
Average
number oI
employees,
people
CiIra de
aIaceri, lei/
Turnover
MDL
ProIitul net al
exercitiului,
lei/ Net proIit
Ior the year,
MDL
CiIra de
aIaceri/
Turnover
ProIitul net al
exercitiului/
Net proIit Ior
the year
I Pn la 1,0
2007 18 6,3 366260 50177 57830 7923
2011 19 6,3 374875 42472 614022 6957
II 1,1-5,0
2007 12 30,7 2400028 165335 78457 5391
2011 16 29,0 2281502 67386 78503 2318
III 5,1-10
2007 9 95,3 7541759 400602 79109 4202
2011 6 107,7 6518024 567469 60445 5262
IV 10,1-20
2007 7 556,3 14363826 275770 25820 496
2011 5 213,2 12728348 796273 59256 3707
V 20,1-30,0
2007 5 408,2 25098711 1310667 61486 3210
2011 7 311,3 24890745 1191682 79961 3828
VI Peste 30,0
2007 6 761,7 85969913 3841275 112870 5043
2011 10 482,4 107613211 4426868 223078 9177
Total
2007 57 207,8 14828082 667088 71335 3210
2011 63 147,7 22170537 982251 150090 6650
Sursa/ Source: Elaborat yi modelat de autor n baza bilanjului contabil al IMM-urilor./ Calculated by the author
based on the balance sheet of SMEs.
Administrarea aIacerilor ntreprinderilor mici si mijlocii
este nsotit de relatia comunicare-negociere care apartine
comportamentului constructiv de sedint, ce are la baz
deschiderea Iat de opiniile partenerilor, ascultarea lor cu
atentie, luarea lor n considerare si integrarea lor n Iormularea
propriilor opinii. Orientarea spre relatie se poate observa prin
tendinta persoanei de a sugera proceduri, de a stimula
participarea celorlalti la discutii, de a analiza n mod serios
prerile partenerilor.
Small and medium enterprises business
administration is accompanied by communication
relationship-negotiation session belonging to
constructive behavior that is based on openness to the
views oI the partners, their listening careIully, and taking
into account their integration in Iormulating their
opinions. The orientation towards relationship can be
seen by the person's tendency to suggest procedures to
stimulate the participation oI others in the discussion, to
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 119
nr. 2 / 2013
Dintre toate Iormele de comunicare, negocierea este
asadar, singura care recunoaste urmrirea unui interes.
Actiunile care tin de negociere trebuie s admit c
nu este nimic mai normal pentru partener sau parteneri s
urmreasc acelasi lucru, dar Iiecare apreciaz din punctul su
de vedere.
consider seriously the opinions oI the partners.
Among all the Iorms oI communication, negotiation
is thereIore the only one that recognizes the pursuit oI
interest. Actions related to the negotiation must admit
that there is nothing normal partner or partners to
pursue the same, but each appreciates his view.
Tabelul 4/ Table 4
Analiza ntreprinderilor (IMM-urilor) studiate dup domeniu de activitate din jude(ul Vaslui, Romnia/
Analysis enterprises (SMEs) studied by field of activity in Vaslui County, Romania
Anii/
Years
Activitatea-productie/
Activity-production
Activitatea-servicii/
Activity-service
Activitatea-comert/
Activity-commerce
Total/
Total
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Sursa/ Source: Elaborat yi modelat de autor n baza bilanjului contabil al IMM-urilor./ Calculated by the author
based on the balance sheet of SMEs.
Negocierea este o comunicare specializat, care necesit
nvtare, experient, talent si principialitate. Negocierea este
Iorma de comunicare n procesul aIacerilor, n relatiile de
munc, ce presupune un proces comunicativ, dinamic, de
ajustare, de stabilire a acordului n cazul aparitiei unor
conIlicte de interes.
Pe msura acumulrii de experient ntr-o economie de
piat, managerii, cu o mentalitate contemporan, nteleg, c
pentru a reusi n conjunctura actual, trebuie s adopte o
abordare disciplinat si sistematic a pietei, att n amonte, ct
si n aval de productie, s stabileasc prioritti atent alese, s
aloce resursele cu mult chibzuial si s Iac compromisuri
utile ntreprinderii.
Analiza ntreprinderilor studiate dup domenii de activitate
n productie demonstreaz o crestere pozitiv n anul 2011 n
comparatie cu 2007 a indicatorilor economici: ciIra de aIaceri
la o ntreprindere si la un salariat (Tabelul 4).
La capitolul activitatea de servicii a ntreprinderilor mici si
mijlocii se observ aceeasi tendint de crestere a indicatorilor
economici n anul 2011 n comparatie cu 2007 (Tabelul 4).
Rezultatele cercetrii n domeniul de activitate comert
denot c cumprtorii trebuie s nteleag Iaptul c Iurnizorii
sunt o extensie a propriilor lor capacitti de productie.
Aceasta este reactia normal a cumprtorilor la presiunea
unei economii dinamice.
Studiul eIectuat n activitatea de comert demonstreaz
(Tabelul 4) o sporire la indicatorul ciIrei de aIaceri la o
ntreprindere si la un salariat n anul 2011 comparativ
cu 2007. AstIel, cumprtorii pot depsi diIiculttile de
acomodare la economia de piat, care este una puternic
concurential, numai prin cooperare cu Iurnizorii lor, din
Negotiation is a communication specialist, which
requires learning, experience, talent and principled.
Negotiation is a Iorm oI communication in the
business, labor relations, which involves a
communicative process, dynamically adjusting the
agreement establishing the occurrence oI conIlicts oI
interest.
As the accumulation oI experience in one oI the
market economy, managers with a contemporary
mindset understand that to succeed in the current
circumstances, we must adopt a disciplined and
systematic approach to the market, both upstream and
downstream oI production, to careIully chosen set
priorities, allocate resources with great deliberation and
compromise useIul enterprise.
Analysis oI the surveyed enterprises in production
Ior industries demonstrates positive growth in 2011
compared with 2007, economic indicators: turnover oI
an undertaking and an employee (Table 4).
Regarding business services small and medium
enterprises observed the same trend oI increasing economic
indicators in 2011 compared to 2007 (Table 4).
The results oI research activity - trade reveals that
buyers need to understand that suppliers are an
extension oI their own production capacity. This is the
normal reaction oI buyers to a pressure dynamic.
The study demonstrates the trade activity (Table 4)
an increase in turnover to a company and an employee
in 2011 compared to 2007. So buyers can overcome the
diIIiculties oI adjustment to a market economy, which
is highly competitive one, only through cooperation
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 120
nr. 2 / 2013
analiza eIectuat evit Iaptul c este nevoie, n acest context,
de o schimbare radical a relatiilor dintre cumprtori si
Iurnizori, la una care trebuie s Iie bazat mai mult pe
aranjamente de parteneriat.
with their suppliers oI analysis that avoids the need, in
this context, a radical change in the relationships
between buyers and suppliers, one that must be based
more on partnership arrangements.
Tabelul 5/ Table 5
Distribu(ia ntreprinderilor mici yi mijlocii dup domeniul de activitate pe grupe de salaria(i n medie
pe anii 2007-2011din jude(ul Vaslui/ Small and medium enterprises distribution by field of activity
by groups of employees averaged over the years 2007-2011din Vaslui
Grupele dup
numarul de
salariati/
Groups by
number oI
employees
Productie/ output Servicii/ Services Comert/ trade
Numrul/ number
CiIra de aIaceri, lei/
Turnover
Numrul/ number
CiIra de aIaceri, lei/
Turnover
Numrul/ number
CiIra de aIaceri, lei/
Turnover

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I-1-9 32 4,53 742072 163767 48 2,7 431769 159422 13 6,9 752956 109982
II-10-49 40 19,4 6607971 341056 15 12,3 730434 594399 20 37,8 10897006 288280
III-50-250 52 160,4 30391350 189536 15 77,1 14522342 188276 20 63,0 15863943 252008
IV-peste 250 40 800,4
57486025
32015
57486025 5 454,2 18304886 40301 5 436,6 153309782 351144
Media pe
grupe/
Media group
41 252 23806854 191545 21 44,6 8497357 245599 14,5 76,6 45205922 250353
Sursa/ Source: Elaborat yi modelat de autor n baza bilanjului contabil al IMM-urilor./ Calculated by the author
based on the balance sheet of SMEs.
mbunttirea reglementrilor legislative reIeritoare la
economia de piat inIluenteaz pozitiv climatul de aIaceri. Se
nregistreaz schimbri pozitive esentiale reIeritoare la accesul
cettenilor la legislatia privind antreprenoriatul si ameliorarea
respectrii legilor n societate si mediul de aIaceri. De rnd cu
aceasta, perIectionarea inIluentelor regulatorii ale statului
inIluenteaz pozitiv mediul de aIaceri. Totodat,
mbunttirile nregistrrii Iirmelor moderne si a rezultatelor
economice obtinute de acestea au o inIluent pozitiv asupra
climatului de aIaceri.
Cercetarea a scos n evident Iaptul, c odat cu cresterea
dimensiunii ntreprinderilor mici si mijlocii dup numrul de
angajati n activitatea de productie, servii si comert (Tabelul
5), sporeste si interesul managerilor pentru dezvoltarea si
implementarea unei anumite politici n relatiile cu Iurnizorii.
Ceea ce surprinde Iaptul este c ciIra de aIaceri la o
ntreprindere dup domeniul de activitate se evidentiaz n
grupa IV cu numrul de salariati peste 250 (Tabelul 5).
Asadar, n domeniul de comert, ciIra de aIaceri la o
ntreprindere constituie 153309782 lei, apoi urmeaz
domeniul de productie 57486025 si serviciile cu 18304886
lei. Concomitent, ciIra de aIaceri la un salariat este la comert
351144 lei, productie 71824 si servicii 40301 lei
(Tabelul 5).
De mentionat, c productivitatea la un salariat si volumul
ciIrei de aIaceri la o ntreprindere ca indicatori economici
sunt n grupele III (50-250 salariati) si IV (peste 250
salariati), care au o pondere dup numrul de ntreprinderi de
Improving the legal regulations concerning market
economy positively aIIects the business climate. Record
essential positive changes relating to public access to
legislation on entrepreneurship and improving
compliance with the laws in society and business. Along
with this, the improvement oI the state regulatory
inIluences positively inIluences business. However,
improvements oI modern Iirms registration and
economic results achieved by them has a positive
inIluence on the climate.
Research has pointed out, that with increasing size oI
small and medium enterprises by number oI employees
in production, servants and trade (Table 5) increases the
interest oI managers to develop and implement a speciIic
policy in relations with suppliers. What is surprising is
the Iact that a Iirm turnover by job outlined in Group IV
the number oI employees - 250 (Table 5). So, in trade, to
an enterprise turnover is 153309782 MDL, Iollowed by
the production - 57486025 and services - 18304886
MDL. Concomitantly the turnover per employee is the
trade - 351 144 MDL production - 71 824 MDL and
services - 40 301 MDL (Table 5).
Be mentioned that the productivity per employee and
turnover volume in an enterprise that economic
indicators are in Group III (50-250 employees) and IV
(over 250 employees), which account Ior 44.9 oI the
number oI enterprises oI all enterprises by Iield oI
activity in the period 2007-2011. However, positive
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 121
nr. 2 / 2013
44,9 din totalul de ntreprinderi dup domeniul de
activitate n perioada anilor 2007-2011. Totodat, s-au
obtinut rezultate pozitive si n grupele 1-9 salariati si 10-49
salariati, crora le revine 55,1 din totalul ntreprinderilor
(Tabelul 5).
Prin urmare, este necesar o preocupare continu pentru
cultivarea si mentinerea unor proportii rezonabile n
domeniile de activitate a ntreprinderilor mici si mijlocii.
n prezent, ntreprinderile din comert au obtinut o
productivitate la un salariat si ciIra de aIaceri la o
ntreprindere mai mare dect n domeniile de productie si
servicii. Cu alte cuvinte, trebuie mentinute relatiile pozitive
cu toti antreprenorii.
O nsemntate primordial are procurarea pentru nnoirea
capacittilor de productie, acolo unde acestea s-au uzat, spre
achizitia de masini si utilaje si tehnologii progresive.
Concluzii. n baza sintezei teoretice si analizei practice a
activittii ntreprinderilor mici si mijlocii s-au evidentiat
motivarea si controlul insuIicient al personalului, care
genereaz multiple probleme, erori de activitate si rezultate
obtinute n domeniile de productie, comert si servicii. Ca
urmare, problema competitivittii economice, n care
avantajul const n nzestrarea cu Iactori tehnici, de progresul
economic, la competitivitatea spiritual ai crui Iactori
motori sunt psihicul si spiritul elementului socio-uman,
marcate de un management modern. Cercetrile angajatilor
din ntreprinderile mici si mijlocii demonstreaz c n
momentul de Iat creste responsabilitatea uman.
Evaluarea nivelului tehnic al masinilor si utilajelor
existente n dotarea ntreprinderilor mici si mijlocii arat c
doar jumtate dintre acestea au un nivel adecvat sau chiar
perIormant.
Studiul eIectuat arat c parteneriatul industrial este o
IilozoIie de aIaceri care contribuie la implementarea clientilor
si Iurnizorilor, indiIerent de dimensiunile lor n vederea
obtinerii unei competente si competitivitti superioare.
De rnd cu acestea, n judetul Vaslui trebuie dezvoltat
politica de schimbare a mentalittii privind aIacerile,
implementnd una care s conduc la cunoasterea, ntelegerea
si implementarea pe scar larg a principiilor economiei de
piat si a unui management speciIic.
Este necesar de a obtine o proportie rational dintre
domeniul de activitate, precum ntreprinderile din comert
obtin o productivitate si eIect nalt dect domeniul de
producere si servicii.
results were obtained in groups 1-9 and 10-49
employees, which account Ior 55.1 oI all enterprises
(Table 5).
ThereIore, it is necessary a continuous concern Ior
cultivating and maintaining a reasonable amount oI
activity in the areas oI small and medium enterprises.
Currently, trade companies have achieved
productivity per employee and turnover oI an
undertaking higher than in the areas oI production and
services. In other words, to maintain positive
relationships with all the contractors.
Procurement oI essential importance Ior renewal has
production capacities, where they have spent Ior the
purchase oI machinery and equipment and progressive
technologies.
Conclusions. In the synthesis oI theoretical and
practical analysis oI the activity oI small and medium
enterprises have highlighted insuIIicient staII motivation
and control that generates multiple problems, errors oI
activity and results in the areas oI production, trade and
services. As a result, the issue oI economic
competitiveness, in which advantage lies in the
provision oI technical Iactors, economic progress and
spiritual competitiveness - whose motor Iactors are the
psyche and the spirit socio-human element, marked by a
modern management. Research employees in small and
medium enterprises shows that currently grow human
responsibility.
Technical evaluation oI existing tools and machinery
equipment in small and medium enterprises showed that
only halI oI them have adequate or eIIicient.
The study shows that industrial partnership is a
business philosophy that contributes to the
implementation oI customers and suppliers, regardless oI
their sizes to achieve superior competence and
competitiveness.
Along with this, in Vaslui there was developed the
policy on change on business mentality, implementing
one leading to knowledge, understanding and
implementing large-scale market economy principles
and speciIic management.
It is necessary to get a reasonable proportion oI the
activity, as well as commercial enterprises get higher
productivity and higher than the eIIect oI production and
services.
Referin(e bibliografice / References
1. FAYOL, H. Administration industierlle et generale. Paris: Ed. Dunond, 1964 |accesat 21 iunie 2013|. Disponibil:
http://www.cnam.Ir/servlet/com.univ.collaboratiI.utils.LectureFichiergw?IDFICHIER 1295877017978
2. PALANGEAN, D. Romnia - statul cu cea mai grea situatie a IMM-urilor. In: Economistul. 2013, nr. 10 (110), pp. 20-21.
3. Conventia National a Consiliului National al ntreprinderilor private mici si mijlocii din Romnia. Bucuresti, 2012, 21 aprilie
|accesat 8 aprilie 2013|. Disponibil: http://www.machiavelli.ro/ stiri.php?art39351
4. CIUCHEA, A., BADEA, D. et al. Rmnia n ciIre 2012. Bucuresti: INS, 2012. 87 p. ISSN 1222-8818.
5. SRBU, I., DUTA, S. Evolutia managementului stiintiIic si implementarea lui n dezvoltarea ntreprinderilor. In: Economie si
sociologie. 2012, nr. 3, pp. 49-58.
6. Raportul de bilant contabil al IMM-urilor din judetul Vaslui |accesat 14 iunie 2013|. Disponibil:
http://www.primariavaslui.ro/documente-publice/bilant-contabil.html
Recomandat spre publicare. 16.05.2013
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 122
nr. 2 / 2013
DINAMICA DATORIEI DE STAT:
ASPECTUL METODOLOGIC
STATE DEBT DYNAMICS:
THE METHODOLOGICAL ASPECT
Stela CRI1AAOJSCHI, lector superior, U1M Stela CRI1AAOJSCHI, Superior Lecturer, U1M
In acest articol este pre:entat aspectul metodologic al
datoriei de stat. Emiterea suplimentara de bani pentru
acoperirea datoriei de stat este unul din factorii care
generea:a inflatia, care la randul su are un impact
negativ asupra de:voltarii economiei.
In this article, its presented the methodological
aspect of the state debt. The issue of supplementarv
monev in order to cover the state debt is one of the factors
that generate inflation, which respectivelv has a negative
impact on the economic development.
Cuvinte cheie: deficitul bugetar, datoria de stat,
inflatia, senioraful, achi:itii bugetare, impo:ite, pretul
mediu, rata procentual, masa monetar .
Key words. budgetarv deficit, state debt, inflation,
seigniorage, budgetarv assets, taxes, average price,
percentage rate, monetarv mass.
1EL classification: H2, H2, H3, P24
Introducere. n perioadele de lung durat inIlatia are
un impact distructiv asupra dezvoltrii economiei
nationale. InIlatia este generat de mai multi Iactori, unul
din ei este datoria de stat sau, mai exact spus, emiterea
suplimentar de bani (seniorajul) pentru acoperirea datoriei
de stat |2|. Pentru o analiz mai complex a datoriei de
stat, n continuare vom Iolosi cteva tratri analitice legate
de modelarea proceselor economice |3|.
Introduction. For the long time periods inIlation has
a destructive impact on the national economic
development. InIlation is generated by various Iactors,
one oI them is the national debt, or to be more precise the
issue oI supplementary money (seigniorage) in order to
cover the state`s debt |2|. For a more complex analysis oI
the government debt we will use various analytical
methods in relation to economic processes modeling |3|.
Con(inutul de baz. Se stie din |1|, c deIicitul
bugetar este (G T)*P, iar restituirea datoriilor de stat dint
trecut este B*R, unde, G achizitii bugetare; T volumul
impozitelor (venitul n buget); P pretul mediu; R rata
procentual (costul datoriei de stat), trebuie s Iie acoperite
de seniorajul M`(t), de mprumuturile suplimentare B(t),
unde M(t) - masa monetar, iar B(t) datoria de stat n
anul t. Sau,
The basic content. It`s known Irom |1|, that the
budgetary loss is (G T)*P and the repayment oI past
national debts is B*R, where G- budgetary assets, T-tax
volume (budgeted income); P- the average price; R-
percentage rate (loan interest), they must be covered by
the seigniorage M`(t), by supplementary loans B(t),
where M(t)-monetary mass and B(t) state debt in the
year t. Or,
(1)
mprtim ambele prti ale ecuatiei (1) la pretul P = 0 si
obtinem:
We then divide both sides oI the equation (1) by the
price P = 0 and we get:
(2)
unde:
mrimi reale ale datoriei de stat.
Considerm cresterea seniorajului
este determinat exogen;
notm ; .
n aceste conditii ecuatia (2) va avea Iorma:
where:
- are real measurements oI the state`s
debt.
We consider the seigniorage
growth is determined externally;
we note ; .
In these conditions equation (2) will look like this:
(3)
Solutionm ecuatia diIerential (3):
notm
We then solve the diIIerentiation equation (3):
we note
(4)
pentru care: Ior which:
(5)
Relatiile (4) si (5), Iiind substituite n ecuatia (3) obtinem: By substituting (4) and (5) in equation (3) we get:
(6)
sau (7)
Si, Iiindc a Iost exprimat prin produsul a dou
Iunctii , atunci una dintre acestea poate Ii
aleas arbitrar, iar alta va trebui s satisIac ecuatia
And because b(t) was written through the product oI two
Iunctions , one oI them can be chosen
arbitrarily and the other must satisIy the condition: the
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 123
nr. 2 / 2013
diIerential (7) s Iie egal cu zero, adic: diIIerentiation equation (7) must be equal to zero:
(8)
n ecuatia (8) variabilele sunt separabile: In the equation (8) the variables are separable:
; ;
i, Iiindc avem nevoie de o solutie particular, pentru
care , constanta C este considerat
C0, deci , de unde
and because we need a certain solution Ior
which , the constant C is considered
C0, so where:
(9)
Valoarea , Iiind substituit n ecuatia
diIerential (7) obtinem:
By substituting the value in equation (7) we
get:
,
Sau/ or,
; (10)
Din relatia (4) determinm: From the relation (4) we can determine:
(10)
n anul initial datoria de stat a constituit
. n aceste conditii relatia (10) poate Ii scris:
In the Iirst year t0 and the national debt was .
With these conditions equation (10) can be rewritten:
sau
de unde poate Ii calculat valoarea constantei C : Irom which we can calculate the value oI constant C:
(11)
Valoarea constantei C din (11), Iiind substituit n (10)
obtinem:
And by substituting the value oI C Irom (11) to (10) we
obtain:
sau, or,
Deci, datoria de stat creste exponential. ThereIore the state debt b(t) increases exponentially:
Fig.1. Creyterea exponen(ial a datoriei de stat/
Fig.1 The government debt exponential growth
Sursa/Source: Elaborat de autor/ Created by the author.
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal 124
nr. 2 / 2013
Cresterea n timp a datoriei de stat, n mare msur,
depinde de valorile parametrilor G, T, S, R, b
0
. Dac, de
exemplu , atunci datoria de stat creste
considerabil. Datoria de stat poate Ii redus doar n
perioade de timp mari si numai n conditiile, cnd rata
cresterii PIB depseste rata procentual de achitare a
datoriilor. Datoria de stat se poate reduce pe parcurs n
cazul, cnd , adic, cnd deIicitul bugetar
este acoperit nu din contul noilor mprumuturi ci din contul
seniorajului. Cuantumul seniorajului n diIerite perioade
este diIerit i depinde de situatii economice concrete.
AltIel spus, seniorajul S este o Iunctie de timp ,
exogen n raport cu ecuatia diIerential (2). Una din
modalittile de determinare a Iunctiei pot servi datele
statistice: cresterea seniorajului ntr-o unitate de timp
este n dependent invers cu cuantumul
seniorajului, adic de unde .
n perioada initial seniorajul a constituit .
Deci, .
The government debt increasing over time
mainly depends on the values oI the parameters: G, T, S,
R, and b
0.
II Ior example ,
then the national debt increases considerably. The debt
can be reduced only over long periods oI time and
only iI the GDP rate is bigger than the percentage
rate oI debt payment. It can also be reduced over time
when , i.e. when the budgetary
loss is not covered by new loans, but instead by
seigniorage. The seigniorage quantum in diIIerent in each
period and it depends on speciIic economic situations. In
other words seigniorage S is a exogenous time
Iunction in ratio with the equation (2). Statistic
data is one way oI determining the Iunction
the increase oI seigniorage over a period oI time
is inversely proportional to its quantum, in other
words where In the initial
stage t0 and the seigniorage was . So,
.
Concluzii. Resursele Iinanciare, luate de la generatiile
viitoare si consumate neproductiv genereaz pierderi
evidente: reduc disponibilul de resurse Iinanciare n
bugetul de stat necesare pentru achizitii guvernamentale,
Iinantarea sectoarelor publice; reduc puterea de cumprare
a societtii (cererea) si deci indirect reduc cresterea
economiei, ca rezultat creste somajul etc. ns, mai este un
aspect negativ generat de datoriile de stat. Resursele
Iinanciare, consumate neproductiv n perioada curent,
lipsesc societatea viitoare de un anumit potential de
produse i servicii. Aceste pierderi, generate de
mprumuturile de stat, n concluzie semniIic succesul
social ratat.
Conclusions. The Iinancial resources taken Irom
Iuture generations and spent unproductively generate
obvious losses: it reduces the available Iinancial
resources in the national budget in order to purchase state
assets, Iund the public sector; reduces the purchasing
power oI society (demand) and thus indirectly reduces
economic growth, and subsequently unemployment
grows. But there`s also another negative aspect generated
by national debts. The Iinancial resources spent
unproductively in present spares the Iuture society Irom a
certain potential oI goods and services. These losses,
generated by government loans, are a sign oI a missed
social success.
Referin(e bibliografice / References
1. SERGENT, T., WALLACE, N. Some Unpleasant Monetarist Arithmetic. In: Quarterly Review. 1981, vol. 5, no. 3,
pp. 2-17.
2. CMHPHOB, A.. Onrnmantnax crannnsannx rocyapcrnennoro onra. B: 3xonomnuecxn Xypnan Btcme
Bxont 3xonomnxn. 1998, rom 2, N 1, cc. 3-30.
3. MAXIMILIAN, S. Modelarea proceselor economice. Chisinu: ULIM, 2009.
4. DIDIER, M., HUIDUMAC, C. Economia. regulile focului. Bucuresti: Ed. Humanitas, 1994. 320 p. ISBN
9732804513.
5. HEYNE, Paul. Modul economic de gandire - mersul economiei de piat. Bucuresti: Ed. Didactica si Pedagogica,
1991. 476 p. ISBN 9733015784.
6. KOPITS, G., SYMANSKY, S.A. Fiscal Policv Rules. Washington: IMF, 1998. 45 p. ISBN 9781557757043.
7. MUSETESCU, R. Criza datoriei statului grec: cauze nationale sau europene? In: Economistul. 2012, nr. 25-26, p. 7.
8. DHARMAKIRTI, J. Dynamics oI State Debs: a tough balancing act ahead. In: Economic and Political Weekly.
2005, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 603-605.
Recomandat spre publicare.20.03.2013
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 123
nr. 2 / 2013
CILE DE PERFECTIONARE A ASPECTELOR
CONCEPTUALE PRIVIND ECHILIBRAREA
BUGETAR
WAYS TO IMPROVE CONCEPTUAL
ASPECTS OF BALANCING
THE BUDGET
Svetlana DODOA, drd., IEFS Svetlana DODOA, PhD student, IEFS
Obiectivul articolului dat este anali:a diferitor conceptii,
tehnici i procedee aplicate in diferite perioade de timp de
diferite tri cu scopul echilibrrii bugetului de stat. Sunt
anali:ate prtile po:itive i deficientele la nivel legislativ a
diferitor conceptii privind echilibru bugetar i in re:ultat sunt
elaborate o serie de msuri care au scopul de a echilibra
bugetul Republicii Moldova.
The aim of the present article is to analv:e the various
concepts, techniques and procedures applied in different
periods bv different countries in order to balance state
budget. There are analv:ed positive parts and deficiencies
at legislative level of different concepts concerning
budgetarv balance and as a result are developed a series
of measures that aim to balance the budget of Moldova.
Cuvinte cheie: echilibru bugetar, alegerea public,
facilitti fiscale, cheltuielile bugetare, veniturile bugetare.
Key words: balanced budget, public choice, fiscal
facilities, budget expenditures, budgetarv revenues.
1EL classification: D59, H3, H41, H, H3
Con(inutul de baz. Legile bugetare privind echilibru pot
Ii privite ca un nou Iront ntr-o lupt continu a modurilor de
guvernare, n special drept provocare a servit conceptia
neoliberal privind bunstarea statului, ideile creia au
dobndit popularitate n perioada postbelic si au luat loc
conceptiei liberale.
Neoliberalismul Iiind asociat cu o oscilitate puternic Iat
de limitarea subventiilor, cu utilizarea reIormelor Iiscale
pentru lrgirea bazei de impozitare, cu o mai mare deschidere
a pietelor pentru comert international prin limitarea
protectionismului, toate acestea Iiind eIectuate n conditiile
lurii msurilor privind reducerea deIicitului bugetar. Allan
M. Maslove si Kevin Moore, adepti ai neoliberalismului,
consider c eliminarea deIicitului este, n multe cazuri, pur si
simplu, "un cuvnt de prescurtare sau cod pentru reducerea
inIluentei guvernamentale... si este cheia unei mai mici
interventii n pietele private" |5|.
O mare parte din sugestii neoliberalismului pentru atacul
activittilor Iiscale ale guvernului au Iost Iurnizate de ctre
teoria alegerii publice. Teoria alegerii publice este n esent un
exercitiu de modelare a comportamentului agentilor politici cu
interesele proprii, ntr-un cadru institutional existent si, ca
atare, oIer un set bogat de ipoteze testabile despre motivele
care inIluenteaz politicienii n nclinatia lor spre admiterea
existentei deIicitelor bugetare, o prejudecat ntrit de
orizonturile de timp electoral scurt al politicienilor si de
"iluzia Iiscal" a alegtorilor, care subestimeaz obligatii sale
Iiscale viitoare.
Teoria alegerii publice arat c indivizii actioneaz ntr-un
mod rational, Iiind concentrati asupra propriul su interes,
conducnd n asa Iel, la nregistrarea unui rezultat redus
pentru ntreag natiune.
Punctul de plecare pentru teoreticienii alegerii publice este
acela c oIicialii nu sunt motivati de o dorint altruist si
detasat de a servi interesului publicului larg, ci mai degrab
caut s maximizeze propriul lor interes. n sIera public,
interesul propriu este deIinit diIerit n termeni de ctig
material, succesul electoral, construirea imperiu birocratic,
renume, sau chiar auto-satisIacere moral pe baza
credintei servirii publicului. Din aceste considerente, analistii
The basic content. The balance budget laws can be
seen as a new Iront in an ongoing battle between modes
oI governance, particularly served as a challenge the
neoliberal concept oI state's welIare, which ideas have
gained popularity in the postwar period and took place to
liberal concept.
Neoliberalism is associated with a strong oscillation
to limitation oI subsidies, with the use oI tax reIorms in
order to broaden the tax base, with a greater opening to
international trade markets by limiting oI protectionism,
all oI them made in terms oI taking measures to reduce
the budget deIicit. Allan M. Maslov and Kevin Moore,
Iollowers oI neoliberalism, believe that eliminating oI
the deIicit is, in many cases simply "a word oI shorthand
or code oI reducing government inIluence... and is the
key oI a lowest interventions in private markets" |5|.
Much oI neoliberalism suggestions in order to attack
the government's Iiscal activities were provided by
public choice theory. Public choice theory essentially is
an exercise in modeling the behavior oI political agents
with their own interests in existing institutional
Iramework and, as such, provides a rich set oI testable
hypotheses about the reasons that inIluence politicians in
their inclination towards acknowledging the existence oI
budget deIicits, a prejudice reinIorced by short electoral
time horizons oI politicians and the "Iiscal illusion" oI
voters who underestimate their Iuture tax obligations.
Public choice theory shows that individuals act in a
rational way, being Iocused on selI-interest, leading in
such a way to recording oI a low result Ior the whole
nation.
The starting point Ior public choice theorists is that
oIIicials are not motivated by an altruistic and detached
desire to serve to the general public interest, but rather
seek to maximize their own interest. In the public sphere,
selI-interest is deIined diIIerently in terms oI material
gain, electoral success, bureaucratic empire building,
reputation, or even moral selI-satisIaction based on Iaith
oI serving the public. For these reasons, analysts claim
that governors suIIer Irom an inherent tendency toward
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sustin c guvernatorii suIer de o tendint inerent spre
extinderea a birocratiei, a cheltuielilor si drept consecint
a deIicitului.
Dup cum sustine Roger D.Congleton (1992), unul din
Iondatorii teoriei alegerii publice, concurenta dintre grupurile
de interese determin politica guvernului, de asemenea
grupurile de interese pot inIluenta, si asupra adoptrii tendintei
spre Iinantarea cheltuielilor prin cresterea datoriei publice n
loc de majorarea impozitelor.
O alt motivare care explic tendinta politicienilor de a
urma politica care permite nregistrarea deIicitelor bugetare, a
Iost Iormulat de Torsten Persson si Lars E. Svensson (1989),
Alberto Alesina si Guido Tabellini (1990), care sustin c
problemele dinamicii coerentei politice si durabilittii
cheltuielilor publice, n calitate de aspecte a comportamentului
politic, pot exercita un impact decisiv asupra alegerii
optiunii n Iavoarea nregistrrii unui deIicit bugetar
semniIicativ. De exemplu, o administrare Iiscal
conservatoare poate alege admiterea existentei deIicitelor
pentru legare minilor administrrii liberale succesoare.
AstIel, regimul succesor este pus n situatia necesittii Iolosirii
a unei mari prti a veniturilor Iiscale viitoare pentru deservirea
datoriei publice.
Teoreticienii alegerii publice sunt printre cei mai puternici
aprtori ai legilor de limitare a Iiscalittii. Prin urmare, este
necesar s se "schimbe aranjamente institutionale, astIel nct
acestea s Iac s devin n interesul legislatorilor"
6
limitarea bugetelor adoptate. O cerint legal sau
constitutional de a plaIona cheltuielile sau echilibrarea
bugetului leag minile oIicialilor guvernamentali si le oIer
un mijloc pentru rezistarea cererilor de noi programe
guvernamentale.
n privinta ntrebrii date si-a exprimat prerea un alt
teoretician al teoriei alegerii publice James Porterba (1997),
care sustinea c analiza alegerii publice a optiunilor Iiscale a
artat c limitele constitutionale a impozitelor si cheltuielilor
pot constrnge n mod eIicient att cile de Iinantare a
deIicitului ct si cresterea inIluentei guvernamentale.
La adoptarea legilor privind bugete echilibrate, guvernele a
mai multor tri au mbrtisat ideea c Iactorii de decizie Iiscali
ar trebui s Iie constrni de reglementrile exterioare.
Aceast tendint legislativ, Ir ndoial atrage o parte din
inspiratie sale din ideile teoreticienilor alegerii publice si a
curentilor mai generale ale gndirii neoliberale.
Legile privind echilibru bugetar reprezint o excelent
ilustrare a modului n care ordinea veche si nou coexist si
sunt adesea subsumate n hibrizi complexe, care contin o parte
din ambele.
Analiznd practica international n domeniu legislativ a
echilibrrii bugetare este necesar de mentionat evolutia
acesteia, evidentiind totodat abordrile aplicate.
Atunci cnd Legile privind limitarea Iiscal doar au aprut,
cea mai popular abordare a Iost de a nu tinti deIicitul n sine,
dar doar de a limita latura cheltuielilor bugetare. ns unele
state au mers mai departe, si au stabilit prin lege o absolut
reducere a cheltuielilor n Iiecare an.
La adoptarea initial (de prima oar) n unele tri a Legii
privind echilibrarea bugetar, aceasta, n esent sa, au
utilizat abordarea ce prevedea interzicea guvernului cresterile
expanding bureaucracy, oI expenses and as a result oI
the deIicit.
According to the assertion oI Roger D.Congleton
(1992), one oI the Iounders oI public choice theory,
competition among interest groups determines
government policy, also interest groups can inIluence the
adoption oI the trend at the Iinancing oI expenditures by
increasing the public debt instead oI raising taxes.
Another motivation that explains the tendency oI
politicians to pursue policies that allows the registration
oI budget deIicits, was Iormulated by Torsten Persson
and Lars E. Svensson (1989), Alberto Alesina and Guido
Tabellini (1990), who argue that the dynamics oI policy
coherence and sustainability issues in public spending, as
aspects oI political behavior, can have a decisive impact
on choice option Ior registration oI a signiIicant budget
deIicit. For example, conservative Iiscal management
could choose admission existence oI deIicits Ior binding
oI the hands to liberal successor administration. Thus,
successor regime is placed in the situation oI necessity oI
using oI a great portion oI Iuture tax revenues Ior
Iinancing the public debt.
Public choice theorists are among the strongest
advocates oI limiting the tax laws. ThereIore, it is
necessary to "change the institutional arrangements so
that they to become in the interest oI legislators
6
limit
adopted budget. A legal or constitutional requirement to
cap spending and balance the budget binds hands oI
government oIIicials and provides a tool Ior the resisting
oI requests Ior new government programs.
On the question oI data and opinions expressed by an
another theoretician oI public choice theory James
Porterba (1997), who argued that public choice analysis
oI tax options showed that constitutional limits oI taxes
and expenditures can eIIectively constrain both ways oI
Iinancing the deIicit as well as growth oI government
inIluence.
When adopting laws on balanced budgets,
governments oI many countries have embraced the idea
that Iiscal policymakers should be constrained by
external regulations. These legislative trends
undoubtedly attract some oI its inspiration Irom the ideas
oI public choice theorists and currents oI wider
neoliberal thinking.
Laws on balanced budget represents an excellent
illustration oI how the old and new order coexist and are
oIten subsumed in complex hybrids containing some oI
both.
Analyzing legal practices in the Iield oI balancing the
budget is necessary to note its evolution, while pointing
applied approaches.
When tax limitation laws just appeared, the most
popular approach has been not to target the deIicit itselI,
but only to limit the spending side. However, some states
have gone Iurther, and established by law an absolute cut
oI the spending in every year.
On the initial adoption (Ior the Iirst time) in some
countries oI the Law oI balancing the budget, in its
essence, it applied the approach that provided Iorbidding
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ratelor de impozitare si prevedea ca veniturile totale s Iie
egale sau s depseasc cheltuielile totale calculate. Au mai
urmat si alte experimente n acelasi sens, adoptnd n cadrul
diIeritor tri a multiplelor tehnici si procedee printre
care sunt:
- adoptarea Actului de Control a Cheltuielilor care plasa
limite asupra cheltuielilor pe program iar n unele tri, acesta
chiar cerea ca guvernul s echilibreze veniturile cu
cheltuielile, totodat limitnd cheltuielile sau cresterea
acestora;
- adoptarea legilor care prevd n totalitate a lor
interzicerea Iinantrii deIicitului budgetar.
Procesul bugetar traditional a Iost criticat pe bun
dreptate, pentru lipsa de transparent, precum si pentru
accesul inegal a diIeritor grupuri (reprezentantilor sectorului
de aIaceri, inclusiv avocati, contabili s.a.), a Iactorilor de
decizie.
Adeptii legilor anti-deIicitare inspirati de teoria alegerilor
publice sustin c constrngerile juridice sunt necesare pentru
mpiedicarea predilectiei politicienilor privind impozitarea si
cheltuieli excesive.
Lacunele legisla(iei privind limitarea mrimii
cheltuielilor bugetare
Legile ce prevd echilibrarea bugetar mprts un
concept comun de restrictionare a optiunilor Iiscale, ns n
sens Ioarte vag, n ceea ce priveste materia si gravitatea
limitelor ce le impun guvernelor. Aspectul cel mai uimitor a
utilizrii Actului de Control a Cheltuielilor, este c el n nici o
msur nu interzice existenta deIicitului. Desigur aceste
msuri restrng o parte a bugetului ns nu prevd necesitate
ca bugetul s Iie echilibrat. Att timp ct cheltuielile se gsesc
n limite stabilite conducerea (guvernul) este n drept s-l
Iinanteze din orice surse convenabile. Acesta poate nregistra
un ctig prin taxe sau n caz de deIicit poate recurge la
mprumut.
De asemenea, este necesar de mentionat c nu toate Iorme
a cheltuielilor sunt ntotdeauna acoperite de legislatie. Spre
exemplu n unele state nu s-a ncercat limitarea sumei
cheltuielilor privind plata dobnzilor a datoriei acumulate.
Sunt de asemenea si alte exceptii. Au Iost deIinite cheltuielile
privind programe guvernamentale ntr-asa Iel nct sa Iie
excluse pltile privind garantiile de stat precum si cheltuielile
autorizate de statut special. S-au omis cheltuielile electorale si
costurile de restructurare ale guvernului.
O alt cale de a ocoli legislatia privind limitarea
cheltuielilor este pur si simplu de a aduce beneIicii sau
subventii prin intermediu sistemului Iiscal, prin acordare de
deduceri, credite noi, sau alte Iorme de scutiri Iiscale. Costul
astIel de cheltuieli Iiscale este reIlectat ntr-o valoare mai
mic n partea veniturilor bugetare si nu este contabilizat ca
cheltuieli directe ale programelor.
Acestea sunt Irecvent criticate ca Iiind o Iorm de
cheltuieli invizibile distribuite sectoarelor mai bogate a cror
cereri de subventii publice pot s nu atrag mult simpatie n
rndul alegtorilor. Nu poate Ii usor de prezis sau controlat
costul total al concesiilor Iiscale, acestea sunt programe de
subsidii nerestrictionate, Ir o limit bugetar predeterminat.
ProliIerarea cheltuielilor Iiscale, multe directionat spre
sectorul de aIaceri, a Iost identiIicat ca Iiind un Iactor
the government oI increases oI the tax rates and require
that total revenue to be equal or exceed the total
calculated expenditure. Other similar experiments have
Iollowed, various countries adopted multiple techniques
and processes among which are:
- adoption oI Expenditure Control Act that placed
limits on expenditures per program and in some countries,
it even required the government to balance revenues with
expenses while limiting spending or their growth;
- adopting laws that provide entirely prohibition oI
Iinancing the budgetary deIicit.
The budget process has traditionally been rightly
criticized Ior lack oI transparency and its unequal access
oI diIIerent groups (representatives oI the business
sector, including lawyers, accountants, etc.), the decision
makers.
Followers oI anti-deIicit lows, inspired by the theory
oI public choice claim that legal constraints are
necessary Ior prevention the propensity oI politicians on
taxation and excessive spending.
Gaps in legislation of limitation of the size of
budgetary expenditures
Laws that provide balancing oI the budget share a
common concept oI restriction oI Iiscal options, but in
very vague sense, as regards the matter and gravity oI
boundaries that they impose to governments. The most
amazing aspect oI the use oI Expenditure Control Act is
that it does not prohibit the existence oI deIicit. OI
course, these are restricting measures Ior a part oI the
budget but it does not provide that the budget must be
balanced. As long as the expenditures are within limits
established by government, has the right to Iinance it
Irom any convenient sources. It can record a gain
through taxes or in case oI deIicit may use the loan.
It is also necessary to note that not all Iorms oI
expenses are always covered by the legislation. For
example, in some states there were no attempts to limit
the amount oI interest payments Ior the accumulated
debt. There are also other exceptions. Were deIined
expenditure on government programs in a way that
excluded payments on government guarantees as well as
expenses authorized by special statute. Were omitted
election expenses and restructuring costs oI government.
Another way to avoid laws oI limitation expenditures
is simply to bring beneIits or subsidies through tax
system by granting oI deductions, oI new loans or other
Iorms oI tax exemptions. The cost oI such Iiscal
expenditures is reIlected in a lower value oI the revenues
and is not accounted as direct costs oI the programs.
They are oIten criticized as a Iorm oI invisible
expenses distributed to richer sectors whose requests Ior
subsidies may not attract much sympathy among voters.
It cannot be easy to predict or control the total cost oI
Iiscal concessions, they are unrestricted subsidy
programs without a predetermined budgetary limit. The
proliIeration oI tax expenditures, more directed towards
the business sector has been identiIied as an important
Iactor that contributes to the sharp rise oI deIicits and
debt in the last decades.
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important ce contribuie la cresterea brusc a deIicitelor si a
datoriei n ultimele decenii.
Unii cercettori Americani, adepti ai limitrii Iiscalittii,
aIirm c controlul just a cheltuielilor este un instrument
superior n caz dac se urmreste obiectivul de a reduce
dimensiunea total a sectorului public
4
. Cerinta echilibrrii
bugetare, n contrast permite cheltuielilor s creasc la inIinit
att timp ct acestea sunt acoperite de venituri.
ncercrile initiale de a regula partea cheltuielilor a
conturilor guvernamentale au deschis noi ci spre o nou
generatie de legi care vizeaz direct obiectivul stabilirii unui
buget echilibrat.
n timp ce unele tri au rmas la nivelul stabilirii limitelor
cheltuielilor, altele n schimb au nceput s utilizeze abordrile
care prevd limitarea sau eliminarea n totalmente a deIicitelor
bugetare.
Legile anti-deIicitare contemporane ncerca s limiteze
capacitatea guvernului de a Iinanta cheltuielile prin
contractarea mprumutului. AstIel mrimea cheltuielilor pe o
anumit perioad se Iace n dependent de mrimea sumei ce
se poate ridica prin impozite, taxe, privatizri, sau alte msuri
generatoare de venituri.
Tema anti-deIicitului este una acut n legislatia privind
echilibrarea bugetar si desigur este o Iigur central n
economia oricrei tri.
Determinarea n termenii legali a veniturilor si
cheltuielilor care stabilesc dac a Iost atins echilibrul sau nu,
este Ioarte important. Anumite Iorme de cheltuieli pot Ii n
mod explicit exceptate de legislatie, sau pot Ii mnuite n aIara
bugetului regulat prin conventie. Un domeniu important de
dezacord este dac legea ar trebui s acopere cheltuielile de
capital, sau doar cheltuielile conturilor curente. Spre deosebire
de organizatiile private, guvernele n mod traditional, nu au
separat aceste dou elemente ale bugetului. Analistii Iinantelor
publice au criticat aceast practic, subliniind Iaptul c
cheltuielile de capital reprezint investitii pe termen lung, care
n mod normal trebuie s Iie Iinantate prin mprumuturi, si ar
trebui s Iie amortizate n timp, n scopuri contabile.
Comasarea ntregului cost al unei investitii de capital nou, cu
bugetul curent, operational, oIer o imagine Ials, umIlat, a
cheltuielilor anuale si a deIicitelor. Analogie la nivel de
gospodrie, ar Ii existenta cerintei la care masinile, casele,
studiile universitare s Iie pltite integral n numerar, n anul
n care sunt achizitionate. Analiznd un alt punct de vedere,
exist o diIerent ntre cheltuielile pentru Iinantarea
consumului curent de bunuri si servicii, si mprumuturi pentru
a Iinanta investitiile de capital, cele din urm avnd
proprietatea de a aduce beneIicii economiei pe o perioad
lung de timp.
Un eIect secundar, ne dorit, al acestui esec de a distinge
bugetele capitale si curente este acela c permite (si, probabil,
ncurajeaz) guvernele de a vinde active capitale, pe termen
lung pentru a realiza mbunttirile nseltoare n imaginea
bugetar pe termen scurt. Deoarece nu exist nici o
contabilitate separat pentru reIlectarea valorii nete a activelor
de capital, veniturile provenite din privatizare unui bun public
pot Ii reIlectate doar ca o crestere n timp a unui din veniturile
anuale, totodat are loc declinul permanent n valoarea
activelor capitale ce nu se reIlect nicieri.
Some American researchers, Iollowers oI tax
limitation, states, that just control oI expenses is a
superior tool in case iI it pursues the objective oI
reducing the overall size oI the public sector
4
. The
requirement oI budgetary balance in contrast allows
expenditures to grow indeIinitely as long as they are
covered by income.
Initial attempts to regulate the expenditures side oI
government accounts opened new ways to a new
generation oI laws that directly aims to achieve a
balanced budget.
While some countries have remained at setting limits
on expenditures side, others instead began using
approaches that provide limitation or completely
elimination oI budget deIicits.
Contemporary anti-deIicit laws attempt to limit
government's ability to Iinance expenditure by
contracting oI the loan. Thus, amount oI expenditures Ior
a certain period it is made depending on the size oI the
amount what can be raised through taxes, privatizations,
and other revenue generating measures.
Anti-deIicit theme is acute one in the legislation oI
balancing the budget and oI course is a central Iigure in
the economy oI any country.
Determining in legal terms oI revenues and
expenditures that evaluate iI the balance has been
reached or not, it is very important. Some Iorms oI
expenditure may be explicitly exempted by law, or may
be handled outside the regular budget through
Convention. An important area oI disagreement is
whether the law should cover capital expenditures, or
just expenditures oI current accounts. In contrast to
private organizations, governments traditionally have not
separated these two items oI the budget. Public Iinance
analysts have criticized this practice, pointing out that
capital expenditures are long-term investments, which
normally must be Iinanced by borrowing, and should be
amortized over time Ior accounting purposes. Merging
the entire cost oI a new capital investment, with the
current budget, operational oIIers a Ialse, swollen picture
oI annual expenditure and deIicits. Analogy at the
household level, could be the existence oI the
requirement that cars, homes, university should be
entirely paid in cash in the year they are purchased.
Analyzing another point oI view, there is a diIIerence
between expenditures Ior Iinancing consumption oI
goods, services, and loans Ior Iinancing capital
investments, last oneness are having the property oI
economic beneIits over a long period oI time.
An unwanted side eIIect oI this Iailure to distinguish
between capital and current budgets is that it allows (and
perhaps encourage) government to sell long-term capital
assets, to achieve misleading improvements in short-term
budget picture. Since there is no separate accounts to
reIlect the net asset value oI capital, revenues Irom
privatization oI a public good can be reIlected only as an
over time growth in annual revenue, while takes place a
permanent decline in the value oI long term capital assets
that is not reIlected anywhere.
ECOAOMIE SI SOCIOLOCIE / ECOAOMY AAD SOCIOLOCY 129
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Pentru o ntelegere mai bun drept exemplu poate Ii: o
Iamilie, nu-si echilibreaz bugetul prin vnzarea
automobilului sau vnzarea casei. Acesta nu echilibreaz
bugetul n nici un sens semniIicativ al cuvntului. Orice
Iamilie care a procedat astIel, ntelege n mod clar Iaptul c a
vndut un activ, care nu a echilibrat bugetul lor. Acestia poate
c au satisIcut nevoile sale de zi cu zi pentru mncare s.a.,
ns Icnd Iaptul dat au mrit riscul de a srci capacitatea sa
de viitor, pentru satisIacere acestor nevoi.
Unele tri se pare c au recunoscut aceast distinctie
sensibil n realizarea a unui buget echilibrat. n legile lor se
vorbeste doar de "cheltuieli ordinare" si "veniturile obisnuite",
lsnd loc existentei mprumutului ca drept sursa pentru
Iinantarea cheltuielilor de capital investite n inIrastructur.
Lucru dat, este similar practicii mai multor guverne
a statelor americane, n care se aplic cerinta, c echilibrare
bugetului trebuie sa se reIere doar la portiunile operationale a
bugetelor.
n privin(a datoriei guvernamentale
Legislatia unor tri nu doar interzice existenta deIicitelor
prospective, dar, de asemenea, prevede ntoarcerea datoriilor
vechi acumulate a deIicitul bugetar ai ultimilor ani. Adoptnd,
totodat, calendare detaliate pentru rambursarea datoriei
restante . Poate c este si mai relevant Iaptul impunerii
restrictiilor privind deIicitul, si adoptarea instructiunilor
explicite privind utilizarea excedentelor bugetare viitoare. n
unele state legea prevede ca excedentele s Iie utilizate cu
prioritate pentru a completarea Fondului de stabilizare, ns
surplusul apoi poate Ii pstrat n bugetul operational sau
utilizat pentru a reducerea datoriei, Iiind deja la decizia
Ministerului de Iinante . Fr mentionare n mod explicit,
prevederile date, consIintesc eliminarea datoriei ca directie
prioritar pentru mai multi ani.
Sunt si asa state care se disting vizibil, prin aceea c au
adoptat o limitare a Iiscalittii alturi de o lege anti-deIicit.
Aceasta este o combinatie de semniIicatie enorm. n asa Iel,
restrictionnd capacitatea guvernului de a genera venituri noi
prin cresterea impozitelor are loc ngustarea continu a gamei
de optiuni Iiscale deschise guvernului, mrindu-se n asa Iel
presiunea privind gsirea cilor eIiciente de reducere a
cheltuielilor pentru echilibrarea bugetului. Totodat ele au
stabilit ca n cazul aparitiei necesittii introducerii cresteri sau
msuri Iiscale noi, acestea trebuie s Iie aprobate de
reIerendum.
Exist un dezacord n rndul economistilor, politicienilor
si a altor analisti privind cauzele reale ale deIicitelor,
natura si gravitatea eIectelor lor asupra economiei, si a
msurilor Iiscale sau monetare care ar trebui s Iie luate
pentru a le reduce.
ntr-o comunicare, guvernatorul Manitobei (provincie a
Canadei) a subliniat c "un buget echilibrat este... esential
pentru o crestere economic durabil ".
O interzicere total a mprumuturilor din sectorul public
este un nonsens economic pentru c ignor rolul crucial pe
care l joac cheltuielile guvernamentale n stabilizarea
economiei pe timpul recesiunilor din sectorul privat.
Dup cum un grup de cercettori s-a exprimat, "problema
Iundamental cu care se conIrunt un buget anual echilibrat,
este Iaptul c problema veniturilor ciclic volatile nu este
For a better understanding oI as an example could be
given: a Iamily does not balance its budget by selling the
car or house. This does not balance its budget in any
meaningIul sense oI the word. Any Iamily that has done
so, clearly understand that they sold an asset that has not
balanced their budget. They may have satisIied their
daily needs Ior Iood, etc., but doing that they increased
risk Ior theirs Iuture impoverish the ability to meet these
needs.
Some countries seem to have recognized this huge
distinction in achieving oI a balanced budget. Theirs law
speaks only about "ordinary expenses" and "ordinary
income", leaving room Ior the existence oI the loan as a
source Ior Iinancing oI the capital expenditures invested
in inIrastructure. This thing is similar to practice oI
several governments oI the American states, where is
applicable the requirement, that balancing oI the budget
should only cover portions oI operational budgets.
Concerning to public debt
The legislation oI some countries not only prohibits
prospective deIicits, but also provides terms Ior returning
oI old debts accumulated in Iorm oI deIicit oI last years.
Adopted, also detailed timetables Ior the reimbursement
oI outstanding debt. Perhaps more relevant is the Iact oI
imposition oI restrictions on the deIicit, and adoption oI
explicit instructions regarding the use oI Iuture budget
surpluses. In some states the law requires that surpluses
should be used Iirst to complete the stabilization Iund,
but then the excess can be stored in the operational
budget or used Ior debt reduction, this is on decision oI
the Ministry oI Finance. Without expressly mentioning,
these provisions enshrined elimination oI debts as a
priority Ior many years.
There are such states that are clearly distinguished, by
having adopted a limitation oI taxation along with an
anti-deIicit law. Such combination has an enormous
signiIicance. In such a way they restrict government's
ability to generate new revenue by increasing taxes,
takes place continuously narrowing oI the range oI tax
options opened to government, this increase the
pressure seeking oI eIIicient ways to reduce expenses to
balance the budget. Moreover, they have established that
in case oI arising oI the need to introduce new increasing
oI tax, it should be approved by reIerendum.
Exists a disagreement among economists, politicians
and other analysts about the real causes oI the deIicit,
about nature and seriousness oI his eIIects on the
economy and Iiscal or monetary measures that should be
taken to reduce them.
In a communication, Governor oI Manitoba (province
oI Canada) pointed out that "...a balanced budget is
essential Ior sustainable economic growth" .
A total ban on loans in public sector is economic
nonsense that ignores the crucial role that they play in
the stabilization oI the economy government spending
during recessions in the private sector.
As a group oI researchers expressed that "The
Iundamental problem Iacing balanced budget is that the
problem oI cyclically volatile income is not resolved. "
2
Revist teoretico-stiin(iIic / Theoretical and scientiIical journal
130
nr. 2 / 2013
rezolvat"|5|.
n perioadele de activitate economic sczut si rata
ridicat a somajului, n mod normal, guvernele suport asa-
numite crize ciclice, ca rezultat al declinului veniturilor Iiscale
si a cresterii cheltuielilor pe asigurarea de somaj, subventiile
agricole, de asistent social si alte programe. n aceste
conditii, cheltuielile deIicitul ndeplineste Iunctia de ajutor de
a oIeri un anumit grad de securitate economic a persoanelor,
precum si stimularea economiei prin sustinerea nivelurilor de
cererea de bunuri si servicii.
SemniIicativ este Iaptul, c chiar si 1ames Buchanan
3
, un
economist Iondator al teoriei alegerii publice si unul dintre cei
mai mari suporteri ai legilor bugetare echilibrate, a admis
existenta unui risc a tendintei agravante n cazul n care
deIicitele de recesiune sunt interzise sub toate circumstante.
Ca rspuns la aceast preocupare, Buchanan recomand, ca
numai planul bugetar elaborat, Iolosind estimri corecte a
veniturilor si cheltuielilor, ar trebui s Iie supuse echilibrrii
anuale. Legea, n opinia sa, nu ar trebui s interzic deIicitele
eIective care decurg din schimbri neprevzute ale conditiilor
economice, dup ce bugetul este adoptat.
O alt msur posibil, este de a relaxa regulile anti-deIicit
prin solicitarea de echilibru bugetar doar pe o perioad a mai
multor ani.
SemniIicativ este Iaptul, c legislatorii a unor state au cerut
ca guvernele nu doar s planiIice bugete echilibrate
(propunerea lui Buchanan, practica celor mai multe state
americane), ci si ca s ating eIectiv echilibrul bugetar la
sIritul anului.
Buchanan ns se pronunt mpotriva combinrii regulii de
deIicit zero, cu o clauza limitrii Iiscale. Desi guvernele ar
trebui s Iie obligate s prezinte un plan realist a unui buget
echilibrat n Iiecare an. Buchanan sustine, c modul n care
deIicitul este Iinantat reprezint o chestiune politic, care ar
trebui s Iie lsat la dispozitia guvernelor alese.
Msuri de pedeaps pentru ne respectarea normelor
anti-deficitare
Legislatia unor tri, prevede c, pentru ne respectarea
normelor anti-deIicit, guvernatorii, pot deveni drept subiecti
ai sanctiunilor extraordinare. Ca exemplu, de msuri n acest
sens pot servi:
- reducerea automat cu 20 la suta din salariul pentru toti
membrii guvernului, dac se nregistreaz deIicit, ridicndu-se
la 40 la suta n cazul n care se are loc un al doilea deIicit
consecutiv.
- deciderea de ctre Adunarea legislativ, dac este
necesar recomandarea demiterii Consiliului Executiv, lund
n considerare, existenta circumstantelor "n aIara controlului
su rezonabil."
Aceste sanctiuni potentiale servesc drept stimulente
puternice legislatorilor pentru impunerea unor msuri bugetare
stricte, nu doar din motivul evitrii umilirii publice sau
pierderii puterii n calitatea sa de Iunctionar de stat, dar, de
asemenea, pentru protejarea intereselor personale.
De asemenea, este important de mentionat c toate
dispozitiile anti-deIicitare Iac trimitere la pozitia
bugetar real a guvernului, mai degrab dect doar la bugetul
aprobat de ctre legiuitori n avans a Iiecrui an Iiscal.
Documentul bugetar aprobat si stipulat n lege este doar o
In periods oI low economic activity and high
unemployment, normally governments bear so-called
cyclical crises, as a result oI declining oI tax revenues
and increase oI spending on unemployment insurance,
Iarm subsidies, social assistance and other programs. In
these circumstances, expenditures oI deIicit serves as
help to provide a degree oI economic security to people,
as well as stimulate the economy by supporting levels oI
demand Ior goods and services.
It is signiIicant that even 1ames Buchanan
3
, an
economist Iounder oI the theory oI public choice and one
oI the biggest supporters oI balanced budget laws,
admitt