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CHAPTER 1

Powers



You have learnt about a power and have already known its meaning.
1. ...
n
n times
a a a a a

= where a is any number and n is any positive integer,


n
a is called a power of base a and exponent n .
We can call
n
a as a to the n
th
power .
Example

4
7 is a power of base 7 and exponent 4 .

4
7 7 7 7 7 =
2, 401 =

3
) 2 . 0 ( is a power in which 2 . 0 is a base and 3 is an exponential number.

3
( 0.2) ( 0.2) ( 0.2) ( 0.2) =
0.008 =

2.
0
1 a = where a is any nonzero number.
[Any nonzero number to the zero power is 1]
Example

0
9 1 =

0
( 0.16) 1 =
The exponent is the
number of times the
base is used as a
factor.
Expressions written
with exponents are
called powers.
1.1 Properties of Powers

2 CHAPTER 1 Powers
The property of product of power
Let a be any number and m, n be positive integers.
m n m n
a a a
+
=
The property of quotient of power
Let a be any nonzero number and m, n be positive integers.
m n m n
a a a

=
3.
1
n
n
a
a

= where a is any nonzero number and n is any positive number.


Example

3
3
1
5
5

=

5
5
1
( 2)
( 2)



4. Product and quotient of exponents satisfy the Properties of Power as follows:


Example
4 3 4 3
5 5 5
+
=

7
5 =

Example
8 2 8 2
( 3) ( 3) ( 3)

=

6
( 3) =







3 MATH 32201 Advanced Mathematics II

Example 1 Simplify
3 8
7 4 0
3 ) 3 (
3 3 3



.
Solution
7
0 4 7
4
8 3
8
3
1
1 3
3 3 3
3
1
( 3) 3
3
3



=



8 8
3 ) 3 ( =
7 4
8 3
3
3

=
3
5
3
3
=
3 5
3

=
2
3

=
2
1
3
=
1
9
= Ans.

Example 2 Simplify ) 2 2 ( ) 2 2 (
3 0 2 5 n n n
where n is any positive integer.
Solution
5 2
5 2 0 3
0 3
2 2
(2 2 ) (2 2 )
2 2
n n
n n n
n


5 2
3
7
3
7 3
4
2
1 2
2
2
2
2
n n
n
n
n
n n
n
+

=
=
=






n n n ) 2 5 ( 2 5
2 2
+ +
=

n 7
2 =

n n n ) 3 7 ( 3 7
2 2

=

n 4
2 =

Ans.

4 CHAPTER 1 Powers
We have already known that scientific notation is used to represent a very high or very a
low value of positive number in the form of 10
n
A where 10 1 < s A and n is any integer,
for example

13
12, 500, 000, 000, 000 1.25 10 =

9
0.0000000037 3.7 10

=

Example 3 Rewrite
7
7 1
10 6 . 9
) 10 44 . 1 ( ) 10 8 . 4 (



in the form of scientific notation.
Solution
1 7 1 7
7 7
(4.8 10 ) (1.44 10 ) 4.8 1.44 10 10
( ) ( )
9.6 10 9.6 10


=











Example 4 Simplify ) 10 5 ( ) 10 2 (
30 16


and write the result in exponential form.
Solution
16 30 16 30
(2 10 ) (5 10 ) (2 5) (10 10 )

=

16 30
14
15
10 10
10 10
10
+
=
=
=







72 . 0
6 . 9
44 . 1 8 . 4
=




1
1
2
2
0.72 (10 1)
1
(7.2 ) 10
10
1 1
7.2 ( )
10 10
1
7.2
10
7.2 10

=
=
=
=
= Ans.
Ans.

5 MATH 32201 Advanced Mathematics II
Example 5 The area of Thailand is around
5 2
5.18 10 km .
Population and Social Research Institute of Mahidol University reported
that in January 1, 2004, the number of population in Thailand was 63.514
million people. Determine how many people per
2
1 km are there on
average?














Solution The area of Thailand is around
5 2
5.18 10 km .
The number of population is around 63.514 million people that is
6
10 514 . 63 people.
So There are
5
6
10 18 . 5
10 514 . 63

people per km
2
10 26 . 12 ~ people per km
2

123 ~ people per km
2







Ans.

6 CHAPTER 1 Powers
Exercise 1.1

1. Simplify the following.

1)
4 0 3
2 2 2 2)
2 3 2
) 5 ( ) 5 ( ) 5 (



3)
1 5 2
) 5 . 0 ( )
2
1
( ) 5 . 0 (

4)
2 0
) 3 ( ) 3 ( 81



5)
3 4
) 2 ( 2 64 6)
0 2 4
)
5
2
( )
5
2
( )
5
2
(



7)
5 2
10 10 ) 001 . 0 (

8)
1 3
192 2 96



9) ) 10 4 ( ) 10 5 . 2 (
3 2


10) ) 10 8 ( ) 10 25 . 1 (
7 4


11)
3 0 5
0 a a a when a

=

12)
n n n
2 2 2
5 3
where n is any positive integer

2. Simplify these following

1)
1 3 0
) 4 ( ] ) 4 ( ) 64 [(



2)
5 0 3 4
) 2 ( ] ) 2 ( ) 2 ( ) 2 [(

3)
4 2 2 5
3 ] 3 3 3 [



4)
5 3
) 7 ( ] ) 7 ( 49 [

5) ) 10 9 ( ) 10 6 (
3 2


6) 9 ) 10 3 . 6 (
3




7) ) 10 8 ( ) 10 4 . 2 (
5 3


8) ) 10 9 ( ) 10 6 . 3 (
4 1


7 MATH 32201 Advanced Mathematics II
9) ) (
5 3 2
a a a where 0 = a

10) ) 2 ( ) 4 (
1 2 0 5
b a b a where 0 0 = = b and a

11) ) 5 5 ( ) 5 5 (
2 4 5 4 n n n n
where n is positive integer

12)
n
n n


2 9
2 2 18
3 3
where n is positive integer

3. Write the following in scientific notation.

1) 290,000,000,000 2) 0.0000000073

3) 0.00000125 4)
3
10 1 . 425

5)
4
10 003 . 0

6)
2
10 2 . 52



7)
5
10 617

8)
8
10 047 . 0

9) 516 millions 10) 78 . 5 billions

11) 9.7 ten thousand millions 12) 25 trillions


4. If the thickness of dictionary which has 1446 pages is 5.4 cm.,
determine the thickness of one page of the dictionary and write it in
the form of scientific notation.

5. The Mars is one of the planets in solar system. Since its
surface consists of rocks and iron-kind metal dust, so we see
that it is red from the Earth. Mass of the Mars is around
0.1074 time of the Earth. If the mass of the Earth is around
24
10 98 . 5 kg, determine the mass of the Mars (write it in
scientific notation).

8 CHAPTER 1 Powers

6. It takes 90,700 days for Pluto to rotate around the Sun.
There are
4
10 07 . 9 days in one year of Pluto. How
many days are there in 10 years on Pluto? Write the
answer in scientific notation.


7. The Earth is about
7
10 296 . 9 miles from the Sun on
average. Venus is about
7
10 723 . 6 miles from the
Sun. On the average, how much further is the Earth
from the Venus?

8. Explain how we know which one is greater if we have 2 values in scientific notation.



For the expression,
3
) 2 (

x
x , what is the value of x that makes
the expression undefined?


SI prefix
An SI ( International System of Units ) prefix is a prefix that can be applied
to an SI unit to form a decimal multiple or submultiple. Many SI prefixes
predate the introduction of the SI in 1960. They can be applied correctly to
many non-SI units. As part of the SI system they are officially determined by
the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures.
SI defines a number of SI prefixes to be used with the units: these combine with
any unit name to give subdivisions and multiples. As an example, the prefix kilo
denotes a multiple of a thousand, so the kilometre is 1000 metres, the kilogram
is 1000 grams, a kilowatt is 1000 watts, and so on. The prefix milli subdivides
by a thousand, so a millimetre is one-thousandth of a metre (1000 millimetres in
a metre), and a millilitre is one-thousandth of a litre.
Does is exist?

9 MATH 32201 Advanced Mathematics II
The prefixes are never combined; a millionth of a kilogram is a milligram, and
not a 'microkilogram'. The ability to apply the same prefixes to any SI unit is
one of the key strengths of the SI, since it considerably simplifies the system's
learning and use.
The following SI prefixes can be used to prefix any of the above units to
produce a multiple or submultiple of the original unit. This includes the degree
Celsius (e.g., 1.2 mC); however, to avoid confusion, prefixes are not used
with the time-related unit symbols min (minute), h (hour), d (day). They are not
recommended for use with the angle-related symbols (degree), (minute of
arc), and (second of arc), but for astronomical usage, they are sometimes used
with seconds of arc.












source : http://en.wikipedia.org

10 CHAPTER 1 Powers


Product of Powers
Let a be any number, m and n be any positive integers.
We have
m n m n
a a a
+
= .
Then we will use this property where mand n are any integer.
Consider
n m
a a where 0 = a and m, n are the following:

1. If 0, 2 m n = =

0 2 m n
a a a a =

0 2 2
1 a a a =

2
a = or
2 0+
a .

2. If 3, 0 m n = =

3 0 m n
a a a a

=

3 0
3
1
1 a a
a

=

3
1
a
=

3
a

= or
0 3+
a .

3. If 4, 7 m n = =

4 7 m n
a a a a

=

4 7 4
7
1
a a a
a

=

4 7
a

=

3
a

= or
) 7 ( 4 +
a .



1.2 Operations with Powers

11 MATH 32201 Advanced Mathematics II
4. If 8, 2 m n = =

8 2

m n
a a a a

=

8 2
8 2
1 1
a a
a a

=

10
1
a
=

10
a

= or
) 2 ( 8 +
a .

From the above it can be noticed that the exponents of the products were formed by
summation of their exponents which is called the property of multiplication of powers.





Example 1 Simplify 125 5
10

and write its product in the power form.


Solution
10 10 3
5 125 5 5

=

10 3
5
+
=

7
5

=
The answer is
7
5

.

Example 2 Simplify
5 4
3 ) 3 (

and write its product in the power form.
Solution
4 5 5
4
1
( 3) 3 3
( 3)

=



5
4
1
3
3

=

4 5
4 ( 5)
9
3 3
3
3

+

=
=
=

The answer is
9
3

.


Let a be any nonzero number, and m and n be any integers.
m n m n
a a a
+
=

12 CHAPTER 1 Powers
Example 3 Simplify
3 5
3 ) 81 ( ) 3 (

and write its product in the power form.
Solution
5 3 5 3 3
( 3) ( 81) 3 ( 3) ( 3) 3 3

=

4 6
( 3) 3

=

2
3 =
The answer is
2
3 .

Example 4 Simplify
2 5 3 7
3 3

a a and write its product in simplest form. ( 0 = a )
Solution
7 3 5 2 7 5 3 2
3 3 (3 3 ) ( ) a a a a

=

2 5
3 a

=

2 5
3 a

= or
5
9

a
The answer is
5 2
3

a or
5
9

a .

Example 5 Carbon nanotube is an extremely thin hollow cylinder made of carbon atoms.
Nanotube, depending on its structure, can be metal or semiconductor. It is also
an extremely strong material and has good thermal conductivity. Its
characteristics have generated strong interest in nano-electronic and nano-
mechanical devices. For example, it can be used as nano-wires or as active
components in electronic devices such as the field-effect transistor. In 2001,
the Chinese researchers have developed carbon nanotube whose diameter is
7
10 33

times smaller than that of human hair. If diameter of human hair is
6
10 100

meter, what is the diameter of this carbon nanotube?
Solution Hair diameter is around
6
10 100

m.
Diameter of nanotube is around
7
10 33

time of hairs diameter.
Thus, the diameter of nanotube is around

( ) ( )
7 6 7 4
33 10 100 10 33 10 10

= m

11
33 10

= m

9
0.33 10

= m
or 0.33 nm Ans.



13 MATH 32201 Advanced Mathematics II
Exercise 1.2a

1. Simplify and write the products in the power form.
1)
7 0 5
4 5 4 2)
2 4
4 2



3) 81 3 3
8 3


4)
2 3 5
) 2 ( ) 2 ( ) 2 (



5)
4 4 5 5
) 3 ( 3 3 3

6)
4
2
3
2
1
) 5 . 0 (
2
1
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|



7)
3
) 5 . 0 )( 25 . 0 (

8)
3 5
) 4 ( 16 ) 4 (



9)
1 4
) 7 ( 7 ) 343 (



10)
4 3 2
( 3 ) ( 3 ) ( 3 ) a a a

where 0 a >

11)
n n 6
) 2 ( ) 2 ( ) 8 (

where n is an integer.

12)
n n
a a a
4 9 0
where 0 = a and n is any integer.

2. Write the following expressions in terms of scientific notation.

1) ) 10 6 ( ) 10 4 (
5 3
2) ) 10 2 ( ) 10 4 . 2 (
4 4




3) ) 10 4 ( ) 10 5 . 2 (
4 3
4) ) 10 5 ( ) 10 2 . 1 (
2 3


3. Write the following expressions in simplest form.

1)
2 2 1
4 4 , 0 a where a

=

2)
2 4 5
2 , 0 a a where a

=

3)
7 2 8 1
3 3 , 0 y y where y

=


14 CHAPTER 1 Powers
4)
2 3 2
( 3 )(2 )( ), 0 b b b where b

=

5)
3 5 2
( 2 )(5 )( ), 0 c c c where c

=

6)
7 2 8 1
3 3 , 0 a a where a

=

4. Find the value of a which makes the equation true.
1)
15
10
1
2
2
a

= 2)
2
4
1
0.25 10
10
a

| |
=
|
\ .


5. In 2003, the average world price of rice was $250
per a ton. The Rice Export Union reported that
world population needed about 400 million ton of
rice. Find the price of rice in baht? ( $1 for 40 baht )

6. Vega is the brightest star in the
Summer Triangle, a group of stars is
easily visible in summer evenings in the
northern hemisphere. The name Vega
is of Arabic origin meaning "stone
eagle". Vega is the fifth brightest star
in the night sky, and its diameter is
about three times that of the Sun.

If Vega is 236.5 trillion kilometers away from the Earth, how far from the Earth to the
is Vega in light years? (1 light year equal to
12
10 46 . 9 km)









When we are not very ill, we usually self-medicate. Our body system has a process
to excrete the medicine in the processes of burning energy and eliminating waste.
If you take 100 milligrams of medicine, half of is excreted after every 6 hours. If you
took 1000 milligrams of medicine, how much it will remain in your body after 24
hours?
Try

15 MATH 32201 Advanced Mathematics II
Quotient of Powers
Let a be any number, m and n be any positive integers.
We have
m n m n
a a a

= .
We will use this property where m and n are any integers.
Consider
n m
a a where 0 = a and m, n are the following.

1. If 0, 2 m n = =

0 2 m n
a a a a =

0
0 2
2
a
a a
a
=

2
a

= or
2 0
a .

2. If 3, 0 m n = =

3 0 m n
a a a a

=

3
3 0
0
a
a a
a

=

3
1
a

=

3
a

= or
0 3
a .

3. If 4, 7 m n = =

4 7 m n
a a a a

=

4
4 7
7
a
a a
a

=

4
7
4 7
1
a
a
a a
=
=


11
a = or
) 7 ( 4
a .



16 CHAPTER 1 Powers
4. If 8, 2 m n = =

8 2

m n
a a a a

=

8
8 2
2
a
a a
a

=

8
2
8 2
1
a
a
a a

=
=


6
a

= or
) 2 ( 8
a .

From the quotients above it is shown that the exponents of the quotients were formed by
summation of their exponents belong to the property of division of powers.



We have that
1

n
n
a
a

= where a is nonzero number and n is a positive integer.


From the property of division of powers we can show that
1

n
n
a
a

= where n is any
integer.
We have known that
m
m n
n
a
a
a

= where 0 = a , if 0 = m and n is any integer.
Then
0
0 n
n
a
a
a

=

n
a

=
and
0
1
n n
a
a a
= .
Thus
1
n
n
a
a

= .
This implies the following:



and
1
n
n
a
a

= .

Let a be any nonzero number, m and n be any integers.
m n m n
a a a

=
Let a be any nonzero number and n be any integer, then we have
n
n
a
a
1
=



17 MATH 32201 Advanced Mathematics II
Example 6 Simplify
2 8
5
3 3
3 27

and write the answer in power form.


Solution
5 3 5
8 2 8 2
27 3 3 3
3 3 3 3



=



3 ( 5)
8 ( 2)
3
3
+
+
=

2
10
2 ( 10)
2 10
8
3
3
3
3
3


+
=
=
=
=

The answer is
8
3 .

Example 7 Simplify
4 2
2 3

b a
b a
, where 0 = a and 0 = b , and write down the answer in
simplest form.
Solution
3 2
3 ( 2) 2 ( 4)
2 4
a b
a b
a b



=

3 2 2 4
5 2
a b
a b
+ +
=
=

The answer is
2 5
b a .

Example 8 Simplify
n n
n n
7 7
7 7
8
5 3

, where n is an integer, and write the answer in


simplest form.
Solution
3 5 3 ( 5 )
8 8
7 7 7
7 7 7
n n n n
n n n n
+
+



2
7
( 2 ) ( 7 )
5
7
7
7
7
n
n
n n
n


=
=
=

The answer is
5
7
n
.

18 CHAPTER 1 Powers
Example 9 If 1 molecule of water weighs
16
10 0 . 3

kilograms, then how many
molecules are contained in 1 gram of water? Write the answer in scientific
notation.

Solution Since mass of 1 kilogram equals to
3
10 grams,
then
16
10 0 . 3

kilograms of water equal to
3 16
10 10 0 . 3

grams.

13
3 10

= grams.
Since
13
10 3

grams of water contain 1 molecule.
Hence, 1 gram of water contains
13
1 1
3 10

molecules

13
1
10
3
= molecules

13
0.333 10 ~ molecules
or about
12
10 33 . 3 molecules.
Ans.

Exercise 1.2b

1. Simplify and write the result in power form.
1)
4
7 3
5
5 5
2)
3
2 8
3
3 3


3)
32
2 7 2
5 0 3

4)
0
2 7 6
7
) 7 ( 7 ) 7 (



5)
2 4
2
121 ) 11 (
11 121



6)
7 3
2 4
) 13 ( ) 13 (
13 13 13


7)
3 3
3 2
100 10
) 10 ( 10 1000


8)
008 . 0 ) 004 . 0 ( ) 2 . 0 (
) 2 . 0 (
2 3
2




9)
5 3
2 4
) ( ) (



a a
a a a
where 0 = a
10)
3 6
6 2 6
3
5 4

n
n n
where n is an integer

19 MATH 32201 Advanced Mathematics II
2. Write the following in scientific notation.

1) ) 10 3 ( ) 10 6 (
1 7
2) ) 10 4 ( ) 10 84 . 2 (
4 3




3) ) 00025 . 0 ( ) 10 0000000005 . 0 (
3


4)
15
2 32
10 21
) 10 1 . 5 ( ) 10 9 . 4 (




3. Write the following in simplest form.

1)
1
2
10
4
4
64
2
256



2) ) 5 3 ( ) 3 15 (
3 7




3) ) 11 11 ( ) 11 11 (
1 8 2 7

n n n
where n is an integer

4) ) 5 6 ( ) 8 . 1 5 (
1 2


5)
2
8
3
7 7

ab
b a
where 0 = a and 0 = b

6)
1 13 - 3
1 9 7
4b c 2
32c b

a
a
where 0 = a , 0 = b and 0 = c


4. UN approximated in July 2003 that the world
population was around 6,300 million people and
there were about 40 percents of them lived
outside Asia, so how many people lived in
Asia?





20 CHAPTER 1 Powers

5. About 70% of the Earths surface is covered by water. If the diameter of the Earth is
about 12,800 kilometers, how wide is the rest of the
surface of the Earth? Write the answer in scientific
notation. ( Hint: the earth surface = 4tr
2
where r is the
radius of the Earth and let t = 3.14 )


6. Rachaprapa Dam is in Surajthanee. Its old name is
Cheiw Lan Dam. It used for irrigation and
electricity generation. Its height is 94 m and its
bridge length is 761 m. When the dam is full the
area and capacity of the reservoir are around 185
km
2
and 5,638.8 cubic millionmeters, respectively.
What is the depth of if the dam is full?

7. Took stood away from the rock cliff. She shouted to
the cliff and reckoned time of her voice moving back
and forth. She found that it took 1 sec to hear her
voice which travels from her position and back. Given
that speed of voice is around
3
10 2 . 1 km/hr, how far
is she from the cliff?

8. Btu (British Thermal Unit) is a unit of heat energy and kwh is a unit of electric energy
used in electric fee.
For baking cake using an electric oven, it requires about 6 kwh. If this electric energy
was completely transferred to the heat energy, how many btu's were needed to bake
the cake? (Let 1 btu of heat energy equal to
4
10 93 . 2

kwh of electric energy.)






21 MATH 32201 Advanced Mathematics II


An exponent of a power
The base of a power,
5
8 , is 8 and its exponent is 5.
Since 8 =
3
2 , so we may denote
5
8 by
5 3
) 2 ( , i.e.
5 3
) 2 ( is a power of base
3
2 and
exponent 5.
Consider a meaning of following powers.
1.
4 2
) 5 ( is a power of base
2
5 and exponent 4 .
4 2
) 5 ( =
2 2 2 2
5 5 5 5
=
2 2 2 2
5
+ + +

=
8
5
Hence,
4 2
) 5 ( =
8
5 or
4 2
5

.
2.
3 2
) ) 3 ((

is a power of base
2
) 3 (

and exponent 3.
3 2
) ) 3 ((

=
2 2 2
) 3 ( ) 3 ( ) 3 (


=
) 2 ( ) 2 ( ) 2 (
) 3 (
+ +

=
6
) 3 (


Hence,
3 2
) ) 3 ((

=
6
) 3 (

or
3 ) 2 (
) 3 (

.
3.
5 3
) 5 (

is a power of base
3
5 and exponent -5.
5 3
) 5 (

=
5 3
) 5 (
1

=
3 3 3 3 3
5 5 5 5 5
1


=
3 3 3 3 3
5
1
+ + + +

=
15
5
1

Hence,
5 3
) 5 (

=
15
5

or
) 5 ( 3
5

.
1.3 Other Properties of Powers

22 CHAPTER 1 Powers
4.
2 3
) 7 (

is a power of base
3
7

and exponent -2.


2 3
) 7 (

=
2 3
) 7 (
1


=
3 3
7 7
1


=
) 3 ( ) 3 (
7
1
+

=
6
7
1


Hence,
2 3
) 7 (

=
6
7 or
) 2 ( ) 3 (
7

.

It is shown that the exponents of the results above are in the from of the products of an
exponent of base and an exponent of the power. It follows the property of power.




Example 1 Find the product of
2 4 3
) 5 ( 625 and write it in a form in which 25 is base.
Solution
3 4 2 2 3 2 2
625 (5 ) (25 ) (25 ) =

6 4
25 25 =

10
25 = Ans.



A power of base is a product of numbers
Since 14 7 2 = , so
3 3
14 (7 2) = .
Consider
3
) 2 7 ( , it is a power of base ) 2 7 ( and exponent 3.
Let consider the meaning of above condition.

Let a be any nonzero number, m and n be any integers.
( )
m n m n
a a

=

23 MATH 32201 Advanced Mathematics II
1.
3
) 5 2 ( is a power of base 5 2 and exponent 3.
3
) 5 2 ( = ) 5 2 ( ) 5 2 ( ) 5 2 (
= ) 5 5 5 ( ) 2 2 2 (
=
3 3
5 2
Hence,
3
) 5 2 ( =
3 3
5 2 .

2.
2
) 5 2 (

is a power of base 5 2 and exponent -2.
2
) 5 2 (

=
2
) 5 2 (
1


=
) 5 2 ( ) 5 2 (
1


=
) 5 5 ( ) 2 2 (
1


=
2 2
5 2
1


=
2 2
5 2


Hence,
2
) 5 2 (

=
2 2
5 2

.

3.
0
) 5 2 ( is a power of base 5 2 and exponent 0.
0
) 5 2 ( =
0
10
= 1 or
0 0
5 2

The results above follow the property of power.




Example 2 Write
3
15 in a form of powers of base which is a multiplication of prime
numbers.
Solution
3 3
15 (3 5) =

3 3
3 5 = Ans.

Let a and b be any nonzero numbers, and n be any integer.
( )
n n n
ab a b =

24 CHAPTER 1 Powers
A power of fraction base
Lets consider the meaning of following powers.

1.
3
7
2
|
.
|

\
|
is a power of base
7
2
and exponent 3.

3
7
2
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
7
2
7
2
7
2

=
7 7 7
2 2 2



=
3
3
7
2

Hence,
3
7
2
|
.
|

\
|
=
3
3
7
2
.

2.
4
7
2

|
.
|

\
|
is a power of base
7
2
and exponent -4.

4
7
2

|
.
|

\
|
=
4
7
2
1
|
.
|

\
|

=
7
2
7
2
7
2
7
2
1


=
|
|
.
|

\
|
4
4
7
2
1

=
|
|
.
|

\
|

4
4
2
7
1
=
4
4
2
7

=
4
4
7
2


Hence,
4
7
2

|
.
|

\
|
=
4
4
7
2

.

25 MATH 32201 Advanced Mathematics II
3.
0
7
2
|
.
|

\
|
is a power of base
7
2
and exponent 0.

0
7
2
|
.
|

\
|
= 1
=
0
0
7
2


The results above follow the property of power.





Example 3 Write
5
7
3
|
.
|

\
|
in a form of power of base which is a fraction of prime
numbers.
Solution
5
5
5
3 3
7 7
| |
=
|
\ .
Ans.

Example 4 Write
( ) ( )
2
3
2
5
2
7
3
3 7

|
.
|

\
|

in a form of a power of exponent of positive integer.
Solution
( ) ( )
5 3
2 2 2
10 6
2
7 3
3
7 3
7
3
7

| |
=
|
\ .
| |
|
\ .


2
10 6
2
3
7 3
7
=

10
6 2
2
7
3 3
7
=

8 8
7 3 =
( )
8
7 3 =

8
21 = Ans.
Let a and b be any nonzero numbers, and n be any integer.
n
n
n
a a
b b
| |
=
|
\ .


26 CHAPTER 1 Powers
Example 5 Simplify
( )
( )
2
3 3
3
3 2
8
16

b a
b a
where a and b are nonzero numbers.
Solution
( )
( )
3
2 3
6 9
2 6 6
3 3
16
16
8
8
a b
a b
a b
a b



0 15
2 a b =

15
2 1 b =

15
2b = . Ans.

Example 6 Find the volume of the Earth with radius
around 6,380,000 m. and write the answer in
scientific notation.
(Spherical volume
3
3
4
r V t = where t is around 3.14)

Solution The radius of the Earth is around
6
6, 380, 000 6.38 10 = m
From
3
3
4
r V t = ,
where V denotes the volume of Earth, its unit is m
3
,
r denotes the radius of Earth which is around
6
10 38 . 6 m.

Then we get
( )
3
6
4
3.14 6.38 10
3
V ~ m
3

( ) ( )
3
3
6
4 3.14
6.38 10
3

~ m
3


18
4.1866 259.694 10 ~ m
3


18
1087.23 10 ~ m
3


( )
3 18
1.08723 10 10 ~ m
3


21
1.09 10 ~ m
3
.
Hence, the volume of the Earth is around
21
10 09 . 1 m
3
. Ans.

27 MATH 32201 Advanced Mathematics II
Exercise 1.3

1. Write the following in simplest form.
1)
0 0
) 5 ( 2)
0 6 3
) 5 ( b a

where 0 = a and 0 = b

3)
3 3
) 7 (

4)
14 9 5
5 7 5



5)
3 2 1
) 3 2 (

6)
3 3 1
) 2 4 (



7)
2 1 2 1
) 3 9 27 (

8) | |
2
4 2 1 3
5 8 4 ) 2 (




9)
2 2 1
4 4

a where 0 = a 10)
3 2 3 1
) 2 (

a a a where 0 = a

2. Simplify the following.

1) | |
2
2 5 2 1
) 2 ( ) 4 (

2) ( ) ( )
2
7 2
3
4 5
3 2 2 3



3) ( )
7 7 7
3 2 12

4) ( ) ( )
2
1
2
2 3
10 4 2 10



5) ( )
16 17 17
3 2 6

6) ( ) ( )
5 5 5
2 . 0 2 ) 4 . 0 (



7)
1 3 2 4 2 2 5
) (

b a b a b a where 0 = a and 0 = b

8)
1
1
1 1
1
0
7
6 5
10
3 3
2
3

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
| b a b a
where 0 = a and 0 = b

9)
2 3 3
[(4 ) (9 ) ] (2 3 )
m m m m
where m is an integer.

10)
1 6 4
[(7 ) (14 ) ] (128 7 )
n n n
where n is an integer.

28 CHAPTER 1 Powers

Find two numbers which cannot be divided by 10 and their product is equal to a million.
3. Find m, n and p which make the equations true.
1) 49 35 5 7
n m
= 2)
5 5
10 6 2 3 5
m n p
=

4. The distance between the sun and the Earth is around
149,000,000 km. Approximate the time it takes for the light
to travel from the sun to the Earth, if the speed of light is
around 300,000 km/s. Write the answer in scientific
notation.
The formula
d
t
r
=
where t denotes the time in which light travel from the sun to the Earth.
d denotes the distance between the sun and the Earth.
r denotes the speed of light.


5. In 1887, Hertz observed the light phenomenon. Short
wave length had affected metal surface, electrical
particles from the metal surface were released. This
short wave length will leave energy particles, called
photons, to the metal surface. If we use green light of
wave length 550 nm, how much the energy from
photon do we get?

Let
hc
E

= where E denotes energy of photon, joule,


(lambda) denotes wave length, nanometer(nm),
c denotes the speed of light which is equal to
8
10 3 m/s,
h denotes the constant,
34
10 63 . 6

.

TRY !


:I mages obtained by Andy Hargreaves.

29 MATH 32201 Advanced Mathematics II


Which one is true?
1. ( )
( )
2
0
1
0.0000000007 1

| |
=
|
\ .


2.
0
1 a = where a is any number.

3.
10
10 0

<

4.
4 4
5 ( 5) =

5.
2 2
(0.5) 2

=

6.
10 100
100 10 =

7.
4 4
3 7
7 3

| | | |
<
| |
\ . \ .


8.
10 2
2 10
2 10
10 2
>

9. 10 10 20
n n n
+ = where n is any integer.

10. 10 10 10
m n m n +
+ = where m and n are any integers.

11. 10 10 1
m n
< where m and n are integers such 0 < + n m .

12. 10 10 1
m n
= for the case of m = 0 and n = 0.

13.
10 10 20
( ) a b a b = where a and b are arbitrary numbers.
Is it true?

30 CHAPTER 1 Powers



Copyright 1999, Jim Loy
Here is the table of the names of large numbers. The system used in the U.S. is not logical
as that used in other countries (like Great Britain, France, and Germany). In other
countries, a billion (bi meaning two) has twice as many zeros as a million, and a trillion
(tri meaning three) has three times as many zeros as a million, etc. But the scientific
community seems to use the American system.

Number of zeros U.S. & scientific community Other countries
3 thousand thousand
6 million million
9 billion 1000 million (1 milliard)
12 trillion billion
15 quadrillion 1000 billion
18 quintillion trillion
21 sextillion 1000 trillion
24 septillion quadrillion
27 octillion 1000 quadrillion
30 nonillion quintillion
33 decillion 1000 quintillion
36 undecillion sextillion
39 duodecillion 1000 sextillion
42 tredecillion septillion
45 quattuordecillion 1000 septillion
48 quindecillion octillion
51 sexdecillion 1000 octillion
54 septendecillion nonillion
57 octodecillion 1000 nonillion
60 novemdecillion decillion
63 vigintillion 1000 decillion


Million, Billion, Trillion...


31 MATH 32201 Advanced Mathematics II

Example 1 What is the sum of 123.5 billion baht and 800 million baht?
Solution 123.5 billion is equal to
6 3
10 10 5 . 123 baht
800 million is equal to
2 6 3 6
8 10 10 0.8 10 10 = baht
Then
( ) ( )
3 6 3 6
123.5 10 10 0.8 10 10 +
( )
3 6
123.5 0.8 10 10 = + baht

3 6
124.3 10 10 = baht
So the answer is 3 . 124 billion baht.

Example 2 Three state agencies got budgets for their operations as follows.
12.5 billion baht 3.125 billion baht and 975 million baht
1) Find the total of the three state agencies in billion baht.
2) What is the difference between the highest budget and the lowest
budget? (in million baht)
Solution 1) The first state agency got a budget of 12.5 billion baht
or
6 3
10 10 5 . 12 baht
or
6 2
10 10 125 baht
The second state agency got a budget of 3.125 billion baht
or
6 3
10 10 125 . 3 baht
or
6 2
10 10 25 . 31 baht
The third state agency got a budget of 975 million baht
or
6
10 975 baht
or
6 2
10 10 75 . 9 baht
Hence, the total of the budgets of three state agencies is
( )+
6 2
10 10 125 ( )+
6 2
10 10 25 . 31 ( )
6 2
10 10 75 . 9

( )( )
2 6
125 31.25 9.75 10 10 = + +

2 6
166 10 10 = baht

3 6
16.6 10 10 = baht
16.6 = billion baht Ans.

32 CHAPTER 1 Powers

2) The highest budget is 12.5 billion baht
or
6
10 500 , 12 baht
The lowest budget is 975 million baht
or
6
10 975 baht
Hence, the difference is
( )
6
12, 500 10 ( )
6
10 975
= ( )
6
10 975 500 , 12
=
6
10 525 , 11 baht
= 11,525 million baht. Ans.

Check Understanding
Simplify the following:

1) What is the sum of 2.5 billion baht and 420 million baht (in million baht)?

2) What is the difference of 12.2 billion baht from 1,320 million baht (in million baht)?

3) What is the sum of 10 trillion baht and 10 billion baht (in billion baht)?

4) What is the difference of 17 trillion baht from 20 billion baht (in trillion baht)?

5) How much larger is 47,800 million baht than 7.5 billion baht?









33 MATH 32201 Advanced Mathematics II
I = p x r x t
I = $1 000 x 0.06 x 1
I = $60
Each quarter is of a year.



Where you borrow money from a bank, you must pay an interest. Interest is a fee for
borrowing the money, it is a percentage charged on the principal for a period of a year -
usually. The amount of money borrowed is called the principal.

The interest you must pay, depends on how much money you borrow, the yearly interest
rate, and how long you borrow the money.
Interest = principle x rate x time
I = p x r x t

Most savings accounts pay compound interest. Compound interest is computed at stated
period. For each period the interest earned is added to the account. At the end of each
period, interest is paid on the balance which includes the previous interest. Interest may
be added annually, semiannually (2 times a year), quarterly (4 times a year), monthly, or
daily.

If $1,000 is deposited into a savings account at 6% simplest interest, the interest earned in
one year is $60. The savings total at the end of
the first year would be $1,060.


Example 1 Find the savings total at the end of the first year if $1,000 is deposited in
savings account at 6% annual interest compounded quarterly.
Solution
First quarter: I p r t =

1
$1000 0.06
4
I =
The new balance is
1 0.06
$1000 $1000 0.06 $1000 1
4 4
| | | |
+ = +
| |
\ . \ .
after one
quarter.
After each of next three quarters, interest is computed and added to the account.

Compound Interest

34 CHAPTER 1 Powers

Second quarter:
0.06 1
$1000 1 0.06
4 4
I
| |
= +
|
\ .

new balance:
(


|
.
|

\
|
+ +
(

|
.
|

\
|
+
4
1
06 . 0
4
06 . 0
1 1000 $
4
06 . 0
1 1000 $

2
0.06 0.06
$1000 1 1
4 4
0.06
$1000 1
4
| | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .
| |
= +
|
\ .

Third quarter:
2
0.06 1
$1000 1 0.06
4 4
I
| |
= +
|
\ .

new balance:
(
(


|
.
|

\
|
+ +
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+
4
1
06 . 0
4
06 . 0
1 1000 $
4
06 . 0
1 1000 $
2 2


2
3
0.06 0.06
$1000 1 1
4 4
0.06
$1000 1
4
| | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .
| |
= +
|
\ .

Fourth quarter:
3
0.06 1
$1000 1 0.06
4 4
I
| |
= +
|
\ .

new balance:
(
(


|
.
|

\
|
+ +
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+
4
1
06 . 0
4
06 . 0
1 1000 $
4
06 . 0
1 1000 $
3 3


3
4
0.06 0.06
$1000 1 1
4 4
0.06
$1000 1
4
| | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .
| |
= +
|
\ .

The balance at the end of one year is
4
4
0.06
$1000 1 $1000 (1.015)
4
| |
+ =
|
\ .

$1, 061.36 ~ . Ans.



35 MATH 32201 Advanced Mathematics II

Below is a formula that can be used to find the total savings, S for given principal P,
annual interest rate r, and time t years.
1
n t
r
S P
n

| |
= +
|
\ .

where n is the number of times interest is compounded in one year.

Example 2 Find the total savings for 1,200 baht deposited in an account that pays 9%
annual interest compounded monthly for 3 years.
Solution
12 3
0.09
1200 1
12
S

| |
= +
|
\ .

( )
36
1200 0.0075 =
The total savings is 1,570.37 baht. Ans.

From the formula, where n is equal to 1, we have
( ) 1
t
S P r = + .
Notice that ( )
t
r + 1 is a power of base ( ) r + 1 and exponent t . Since 0 > r , then 1 1 > + r .
If we let t be a horizontal axis and S be a vertical axis, the relation
( )
t
r P S + = 1 can be represented by a graph below.
We can see from the graph that where we deposit money
without withdrawing or borrow money without paying back,
at the beginning the balance increases slowly and later on it
increases rapidly.
What do you think if n is not equal to 1 ????

Check Understanding
1. Find the total savings for 5,000 baht deposited in an account that pays 5% annual
interest.
2. Find the total savings for 8,000 baht deposited in an account that pays 2% semiannual
interest.
t
0
S
P

36 CHAPTER 1 Powers




A power is composed of base and exponent such as
2
5 .

2
5 is a power of base 5 and exponent 2.
2
5 25 =

3
2
5 is a power of base 5 and exponent
3
2 .
3
2 8
5 5 =

It is always mistaken that
3
2
5 is a power of base
2
5 and exponent 3. This
is not correct!!!
If we would like to express a power of its base to be a power, we should
put its base inside parentheses, so a power of base
2
5 and exponent 3
should be ( )
3
2
5 or
2 3
(5 ) .
( )
3
2
5 is a power of base
2
5 and exponent 3.
( )
3
2 2 3 6
5 5 5

= = .

And we will see that
3
2 8
5 5 = but
( )
3
2 6
5 5 = .
Since
6 8
5 5 = , so
3
2
5 is not equal to ( )
3
2
5 .

By above information can you find the difference between
2
2
2
3 and ( ) ( )
2
2
2
3 ?







Unequal

37 MATH 32201 Advanced Mathematics II





Mike finds a number of people in his previous nine generation as follows:
First generation 2 people which are parents
Second generations 6 people which are parents and grand parents
Third generations 14 people which are parents, grand parents, and
great grand parents.
Just to here, he confused himself. Can you help him to find that how many
people of his nine generations?
















Mikes Family