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Assignment # 1

NAME Philip C. Paraos COURSE, YEAR & SECTION BSIT 3-2N


STUDENT NUMBER 2012-01758-MN-0 DATE June 16, 2014

Page 1 of 25


1. Define Research (5).

1. According to Yogesh Kumar Singh (2006), Research is simply the process of arriving
as dependable solution to a problem through the planned and systematic collection,
analysis and interpretation of data. Research is the most important process for
advancing knowledge for promoting progress and to enable man to relate more
effectively to his environment to accomplish his purpose and to resolve his conflicts.
Although it is not the only way, it is one of the more effective ways of solving
scientific problems.
The term Research consists of two words:
Research = Re + Search
Re means again and again and Search means to find out something, the following
is the process:

Observes Collection of Data
Person Phenomena Conclusions
Again and again Analysis of Data

Therefore, research means to observe the phenomena again and again from
different dimensions. For example there are many theories of learning due to the
observation from different dimensions.
The research is a process of which a person observes the phenomena again and
again and collects the data and on the basis of data he draws some conclusions.
Research is oriented towards the discovery of relationship that exists among
phenomena of the world in which we live. The fundamental assumption is that
invariant relationship exists between certain antecedents and certain consequents so
that under a specific set of conditions a certain consequents can be expected to
follow the introduction of a given antecedent.

2. According to George J. Mouly (1970), He defines research as, The systematic and
scholarly application of the scientific method interpreted in its broader sense, to the
solution of social studies problems; conversely, any systematic study designed to
promote the development of social studies as a science can be considered
research.


Assignment # 1

NAME Philip C. Paraos COURSE, YEAR & SECTION BSIT 3-2N
STUDENT NUMBER 2012-01758-MN-0 DATE June 16, 2014

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3. According to C.R. Kothari (2004), Research in common parlance refers to a search
for knowledge. Once can also define research as a scientific and systematic search
for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific
investigation.

4. According to Oxford (1952), Research is A careful investigation or inquiry especially
through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.

5. According to D. Slesinger and M. Stephenson (1930), Research is the manipulation
of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or
verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the
practice of an art.

6. According to Redman and Mory (1923), Research is a systematized effort to gain
new knowledge.

2. Different Research Classifications and Types under each Classifications.

1. According to Yogesh Kumar Singh (2006), there are two classifications of research.
These are:
1. Basic Level
Trevers has defined basic level as basic research. It is designed to add an organized
body of scientific knowledge and does not necessarily produce results of immediate
practical value.
2. Applied Level
Applied research is undertaken to solve an immediate practical problem and the goal
of adding to scientific knowledge is secondary.
A common mistake is to assume that levels differ according to complexity and that
basic research tends to be complex and applied research. Some applied research is
quite complex and some basic research is rather simple.
CLASSIFICATIONS OF RESEARCH AND TYPES UNDER EACH
CLASSIFICATIONS
There are various bases to classify the research.
A. On the Basis of Objectives of Research
On the basis of objectives of research they are of two types:
1. Fundamental research and
2. Action/Applied research.

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NAME Philip C. Paraos COURSE, YEAR & SECTION BSIT 3-2N
STUDENT NUMBER 2012-01758-MN-0 DATE June 16, 2014

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B. On the Basis of Approach of Research
On the basis of approach of Research they are of two types:
1. Longitudinal research: Historical research, case study, genetic comes under
longitudinal approach of research.
2. Cross sectional research: Experimental research, survey are the examples of
cross sectional research.
C. On the Basis of Precision in Research Findings
On the basis of precision (accuracy) the researches are:
1. Experimental research and
2. Non-experimental research.
Experimental research is precise while non-experimental is not.
D. On the Basis of Nature of Findings
On the basis of findings Researches are of two types:
1. Explanatory research: Such researches explain more concerned theories. laws
and principles.
2. Descriptive research: These are more concerned with facts.
E. According to National Science Foundation
These National Science Foundation formulated a three-fold classification of
research.
1. Basic research: Those researches which embrace origin or unique
investigation for the advancement of knowledge.
2. Applied research: Which may be characterized as the utilization in practice.
3. Development research: It is the use of scientific knowledge for the production
of useful materials, devices, systems, methods for processes excluding design
and production engineering.
F. Another Classification
1. Adhoc research: Adhoc research is the class of inquiry used for a purpose
alone and special.
2. Empirical research: Empirical research is that which depends upon the
experience or observation of phenomena and events.
3. Explained research: Explained research is that which is based on a theory.
Assignment # 1

NAME Philip C. Paraos COURSE, YEAR & SECTION BSIT 3-2N
STUDENT NUMBER 2012-01758-MN-0 DATE June 16, 2014

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4. Boarder line research: Boarder line research is that which involves those main
two branches or are as of science. For example study of public school finance.
3. Research Characteristics
Research have the following Characteristics according to Yogesh Kumar Singh
(2006).
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
The following characteristics may be gathered from the definitions of Research
1. It gathers new knowledge or data from primary or first-hand sources.
2. It places emphasis upon the discovery of general principles.
3. It is an exact systematic and accurate investigation.
4. It uses certain valid data gathering devices.
5. It is logical and objective.
6. The researcher resists the temptation to seek only the data that support his
hypotheses.
7. The researcher eliminates personal feelings and preferences.
8. It endeavors to organize data in quantitative terms.
9. Research is patient and unhurried activity.
10. The researcher is willing to follow his procedures to the conclusions that may
be unpopular and bring social disapproval.
11. Research is carefully recorded and reported.
12. Conclusions and generalizations are arrived at carefully and cautiously.
SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
1. A sound philosophy of social studies as the basis of research
2. Research is based on insight and imagination
3. Research requires an inter-disciplinary approach
4. Research usually employs deductive reasoning process
5. Research should come out of a desire to do things better
6. Research is not as exact as research in physical science
7. Research is not the field of the specialist only

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NAME Philip C. Paraos COURSE, YEAR & SECTION BSIT 3-2N
STUDENT NUMBER 2012-01758-MN-0 DATE June 16, 2014

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8. Research generally requires inexpensive material.
9. Research is based on the subjectivity and intangibility of social phenomena.
10. Research is perhaps incapable of being dealt through empirical method.
11. Research is based on inter dependence of causes and effect.
12. Research cannot be a mechanical process.
4. Difficulties encountered in the Conduct of Research

According to C.R. Kothari (2004), the following are the difficulties encountered in the
conduct of research.

1. The lack of a scientific training in the methodology of research is a great
impediment for researchers in our country. There is paucity of competent
researchers. Many researchers take a leap in the dark without knowing research
methods. Most of the work, which goes in the name of research is not
methodologically sound. Research, to many researchers and even to their guides, is
mostly a scissor and paste job without any insight shed on the collated materials. .
The consequence is obvious, viz., the research results, quite often, do not reflect the
reality or realities. Thus, a systematic study of research methodology is an urgent
necessity. Before undertaking research projects, researchers should be well
equipped with all the methodological aspects. As such, efforts should be made to
provide short duration intensive courses for meeting this requirement.

2. There is insufficient interaction between the university research departments on
one side and business establishments, government departments and research
institutions on the other side. A great deal of primary data of non-confidential nature
remain untouched/untreated by the researchers for want of proper contacts. Efforts
should be made to develop satisfactory liaison among all concerned for better and
realistic researches. There is need for developing some mechanisms of a
universityindustry interaction programme so that academics can get ideas from
practitioners on what needs to be researched and practitioners can apply the
research done by the academics.

3. Most of the business units in our country do not have the confidence that the material
supplied by them to researchers will not be misused and as such they are often
reluctant in supplying the needed information to researchers. The concept of secrecy
seems to be sacrosanct to business organizations in the country so much so that it
proves an impermeable barrier to researchers. Thus, there is the need for
generating the confidence that the information/data obtained from a business
unit will not be misused.

Assignment # 1

NAME Philip C. Paraos COURSE, YEAR & SECTION BSIT 3-2N
STUDENT NUMBER 2012-01758-MN-0 DATE June 16, 2014

Page 6 of 25

4. Research studies overlapping one another are undertaken quite often for want
of adequate information. This results in duplication and fritters away resources.
This problem can be solved by proper compilation and revision, at regular intervals,
of a list of subjects on which and the places where the research is going on. Due
attention should be given toward identification of research problems in various
disciplines of applied science which are of immediate concern to the industries.

5. There does not exist a code of conduct for researchers and inter-university and
inter-departmental rivalries are also quite common. Hence, there is need for
developing a code of conduct for researchers which, if adhered sincerely, can win
over this problem.

6. Many researchers in our country also face the difficulty of adequate and timely
secretarial assistance, including computer assistance. This causes unnecessary
delays in the completion of research studies. All possible efforts be made in this
direction so that efficient secretarial assistance is made available to researchers and
that too well in time. University Grants Commission must play a dynamic role in
solving this difficulty.

7. Library management and functioning is not satisfactory at many places and
much of the time and energy of researchers are spent in tracing out the books,
journals, reports, etc. Rather than in tracing out relevant material from them.

8. There is also the problem that many of our libraries are not able to get copies
of old and new Acts/Rules, reports and other government publications in time.
This problem is felt more in libraries which are away in places from Delhi and/or the
state capitals. Thus, efforts should be made for the regular and speedy supply of all
governmental publications to reach our libraries.

9. There is also the difficulty of timely availability of published data from various
government and other agencies doing this job in our country. Researcher also faces
the problem on account of the fact that the published data vary quite significantly
because of differences in coverage by the concerning agencies.

10. There may, at times, take place the problem of conceptualization and also
problems relating to the process of data collection and related things.









Assignment # 1

NAME Philip C. Paraos COURSE, YEAR & SECTION BSIT 3-2N
STUDENT NUMBER 2012-01758-MN-0 DATE June 16, 2014

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5. Research Process

According to C.R. Kothari (2004), Research Process is represented by the flow chart
below.

A brief description of the above stated steps will be helpful.

1. Formulating the research problem: There are two types of research problems, viz.,
those which relate to states of nature and those which relate to relationships between
variables. At the very outset the researcher must single out the problem he wants to
study, i.e., he must decide the general area of interest or aspect of a subject-matter that
he would like to inquire into. Initially the problem may be stated in a broad general way
and then the ambiguities, if any, relating to the problem be resolved. Then, the feasibility
of a particular solution has to be considered before a working formulation of the problem
can be set up. The formulation of a general topic into a specific research problem, thus,
constitutes the first step in a scientific enquiry. Essentially two steps are involved in
formulating the research problem, viz., understanding the problem thoroughly, and
rephrasing the same into meaningful terms from an analytical point of view.





Assignment # 1

NAME Philip C. Paraos COURSE, YEAR & SECTION BSIT 3-2N
STUDENT NUMBER 2012-01758-MN-0 DATE June 16, 2014

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2. Extensive literature survey: Once the problem is formulated, a brief summary of it
should be written down.
3. Development of working hypotheses: After extensive literature survey, researcher
should state in clear terms the working hypothesis or hypotheses.
4. Preparing the research design: The research problem having been formulated in
clear cut terms, the researcher will be required to prepare a research design, i.e., he will
have to state the conceptual structure within which research would be conducted.
5. Determining sample design: All the items under consideration in any field of inquiry
constitute a universe or population. A complete enumeration of all the items in the
population is known as a census inquiry. It can be presumed that in such an inquiry
when all the items are covered no element of chance is left and highest accuracy is
obtained. But in practice this may not be true. Even the slightest element of bias in such
an inquiry will get larger and larger as the number of observations increases. Moreover,
there is no way of checking the element of bias or its extent except through a resurvey or
use of sample checks. Besides, this type of inquiry involves a great deal of time, money
and energy. Not only this, census inquiry is not possible in practice under many
circumstances. For instance, blood testing is done only on sample basis. Hence, quite
often we select only a few items from the universe for our study purposes. The items so
selected constitute what is technically called a sample.
6. Collecting the data: In dealing with any real life problem it is often found that data at
hand are inadequate, and hence, it becomes necessary to collect data that are
appropriate. There are several ways of collecting the appropriate data which differ
considerably in context of money costs, time and other resources at the disposal of the
researcher.
6. Execution of the project: Execution of the project is a very important step in the
research process. If the execution of the project proceeds on correct lines, the data to be
collected would be adequate and dependable.

8. Analysis of data: After the data have been collected, the researcher turns to the task
of analyzing them. The analysis of data requires a number of closely related operations
such as establishment of categories, the application of these categories to raw data
through coding, tabulation and then drawing statistical inferences

9. Hypothesis-testing: After analyzing the data as stated above, the researcher is in a
position to test the hypotheses, if any, he had formulated earlier. Do the facts support
the hypotheses or they happen to be contrary? This is the usual question which should
be answered while testing hypotheses




Assignment # 1

NAME Philip C. Paraos COURSE, YEAR & SECTION BSIT 3-2N
STUDENT NUMBER 2012-01758-MN-0 DATE June 16, 2014

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10. Generalizations and interpretation: If a hypothesis is tested and upheld several
times, it may be possible for the researcher to arrive at generalization, i.e., to build a
theory.

11. Preparation of the report or the thesis: Finally, the researcher has to prepare the
report of what has been done by him.


6. Ethical Considerations in Research

According to Driscoll (2011), the following provides a brief overview of ethical
considerations:
Voluntary participation
The Belmont Report suggests that, in most cases, you need to get permission
from people before you involve them in any primary research you are conducting. If you
are doing a survey or interview, your participants must first agree to fill out your survey
or to be interviewed.
Confidentiality and anonymity
Your participants may reveal embarrassing or potentially damaging information
such as racist comments or unconventional behavior. In these cases, you should keep
your participants identities anonymous when writing your results. An easy way to do this
is to create a pseudonym (or false name) for them so that their identity is protected.
Researcher bias
There is little point in collecting data and learning about something if you already
think you know the answer! Bias might be present in the way you ask questions, the way
you take notes, or the conclusions you draw from the data you collect.
7. Define Theory, Variable and Hypothesis
According to Burton (2007), the following defines the term Theory:
A theory is a system of concepts that are interrelated in ways that are clearly
described.
A theory suggests the causal mechanisms that lead to specific outcomes.
A theory allows explanation and prediction of phenomena.
According to Burton (2007), the following defines the term Variable:
These are the operational pieces that you believe are a part of the problem or
that contribute to the conceptual framework
It is important to specify all variables that may contribute to the problem
You should be able to measure these variables or note the limits to your study
According to Burton (2007), the following defines the term Hypothesis:
Assignment # 1

NAME Philip C. Paraos COURSE, YEAR & SECTION BSIT 3-2N
STUDENT NUMBER 2012-01758-MN-0 DATE June 16, 2014

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A formal statement of theory
-It should identify variables that are capable of observation.
-The relationship among the variables must be explained or predicted.
-The theory must be testable.
-Alternative hypotheses should be explored.
According to Yogesh Kumar Singh (2006), Hypothesis is:
Made up of two Greek roots which mean that it is some sort of sub-statements,
for it is the presumptive statement of a proposition, which the investigation seeks to
prove. The scientist observes the man of special class of phenomena and broads over it
until by a flash of insight he perceives an order and intelligent harmony in it. This is often
referred to as an explanation of the facts he has observed. He has a theory about
particular mass of fact. This theory when stated testable proposition formally and clearly
subjected to empirical or experimental verification is known as a hypothesis. The
hypothesis furnishes the germinal basis of the whole investigation and remains to the
end its corner stone, for the whole research is directed to test it out by facts. At the start
of investigation the hypothesis is a stimulus to critical thoughts offers insights into the
confusion of phenomena. At the end it comes to prominence as the proposition to be
accepted or rejected in the light of the findings.
The word hypothesis consists of two words:
Hypo + thesis = Hypothesis
Hypo means tentative or subject to the verification and Thesis means statement about
solution of a problem.
The world meaning of the term hypothesis is a tentative statement about the solution of
the problem. Hypothesis offers a solution of the problem that is to be verified empirically
and based on some rationale.
Another meaning of the word hypothesis which is composed of two words:
Hypo means composition of two or more variables which is to be verified.
Thesis means position of these variables in the specific frame of reference.
This is the operational meaning of the term hypothesis. Hypothesis is the composition of
some variables which have some specific position or role of the variables i.e. to be
verified empirically. It is a proposition about the factual and conceptual elements.
Hypothesis is called a leap into the dark. It is a brilliant guess about the solution of a
problem.
A tentative generalization or theory formulated about the character of phenomena under
observation are called hypothesis. It is a statement temporarily accepted as true in the
Assignment # 1

NAME Philip C. Paraos COURSE, YEAR & SECTION BSIT 3-2N
STUDENT NUMBER 2012-01758-MN-0 DATE June 16, 2014

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light of what is known at the time about the phenomena. It is the basis for planning and
action- in the research for new truth.
8. Define Sample and Population

Population is the collection of all individuals or items under consideration in a statistical
study (Weiss, 1999).

Sample is that part of the population from which information is collected. (Weiss, 1999)

9. Different types of Probability and Non-Probability Sampling Techniques
According to Cohen, Manion and Marrison (2007), the following are the description of
Probability Sample and types under it as well as Non-probability Sample.
Probability samples

A probability sample, because it draws randomly from the wider population, will
be useful if the researcher wishes to be able to make generalizations, because it seek
representativeness of the wider population.

There are several types of probability samples: simple random samples;
systematic samples; stratified samples; cluster samples; stage samples, and multi-phase
samples. They all have a measure of randomness built into them and therefore have a
degree of generalizability.

Simple random sampling
In simple random sampling, each member of the population under study has an
equal chance of being selected and the probability of a member of the population being
selected is unaffected by the selection of other members of the population, i.e. each
selection is entirely independent of the next.

Systematic sampling

This method is a modified form of simple random sampling. It involves selecting
subjects from a population list in a systematic rather than a random fashion.

ways to minimize this problem are to ensure that the initial listing is selected randomly
and that the starting point for systematic sampling is similarly selected randomly.

Stratified sampling

Stratified sampling involves dividing the population into homogenous groups,
each group containing subjects with similar characteristics.




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NAME Philip C. Paraos COURSE, YEAR & SECTION BSIT 3-2N
STUDENT NUMBER 2012-01758-MN-0 DATE June 16, 2014

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Cluster sampling

When the population is large and widely dispersed, gathering a simple random
sample poses administrative problems. Suppose we want to survey students fitness
levels in a particularly large community or across a country. It would be completely
impractical to select students randomly and spend an inordinate amount of time
travelling about in order to test them. By cluster sampling, the researcher can select a
specific number of schools and test all the students in those selected schools.

Stage sampling

Stage sampling is an extension of cluster sampling. It involves selecting the
sample in stages that is, taking samples from samples. Using the large community
example in cluster sampling, one type of stage sampling might be to select a number of
schools at random, and from within each of these schools, select a number of classes at
random, and from within those classes select a number of students.

Multi-phase sampling

In a multi-phase sample the purposes change at each phase, for example, at
phase one the selection of the sample might be based on the criterion of geography (e.g.
students living in a particular region);

Non-probability samples

The selectivity which is built into a nonprobability sample derives from the
researcher targeting a particular group, in the full knowledge that it does not represent
the wider population; it simply represents itself. Just as there are several types of
probability sample, so there are several types of non-probability sample: convenience
sampling, quota sampling, dimensional sampling, purposive sampling and snowball
sampling. Each type of sample seeks only to represent itself or instances of itself in a
similar population, rather than attempting to represent the whole, undifferentiated
population.

Convenience sampling

Convenience sampling or, as it is sometimes called, accidental or opportunity
sampling involves choosing the nearest individuals to serve as respondents and
continuing that process until the required sample size has been obtained or those who
happen to be available and accessible at the time.

Quota sampling

Quota sampling has been described as the non-probability equivalent of stratified
sampling (Bailey 1978). Like a stratified sample, a quota sample strives to represent
significant characteristics (strata) of the wider population; unlike stratified sampling it
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NAME Philip C. Paraos COURSE, YEAR & SECTION BSIT 3-2N
STUDENT NUMBER 2012-01758-MN-0 DATE June 16, 2014

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sets out to represent these in the proportions in which they can be found in the wider
population

Purposive sampling

In purposive sampling, often (but by no means exclusively) a feature of
qualitative research, researchers handpick the cases to be included in the sample on the
basis of their judgment of their typicality or possession of the particular characteristics
being sought.
and richness to the data, their applicability and their interpretation. In this latter
case, it is almost inevitable that the sample size will increase or be large.


Dimensional sampling

. Dimensional sampling is a further refinement of quota sampling. It involves
identifying various factors of interest in a population and obtaining at least one
respondent of every combination of those factors.

Snowball sampling

In snowball sampling researchers identify a small number of individuals who
have the characteristics in which they are interested. These people are then used as
informants to identify, or put the researchers in touch with, others who qualify for
inclusion and these, in turn, identify yet others hence the term snowball sampling.


Volunteer sampling

In cases where access is difficult, the researcher may have to rely on volunteers,
for example, personal friends, or friends of friends, or participants who reply to a
newspaper advertisement, or those who happen to be interested from a particular
school, or those attending courses. Sometimes this is inevitable (Morrison 2006), as it is
the only kind of sampling that is possible, and it may be better to have this kind of
sampling than no research at all.

Theoretical sampling

. Theoretical sampling requires the researcher to have sufficient data to be able
to generate and ground the theory in the research context, however defined, i.e. to
create a theoretical explanation of what is happening in the situation, without having any
data that do not fit the theory.






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10. APA Reference Citation Format

Based on the information stated by the Cornell University Library,

APA citation style refers to the rules and conventions established by the American
Psychological Association for documenting sources used in a research paper. APA style
requires both in-text citations and a reference list. For every in-text citation there should
be a full citation in the reference list and vice versa.
The examples of APA styles and formats listed on this page include many of the most
common types of sources used in academic research. For additional examples and
more detailed information about APA citation style, refer to the Publication Manual of the
American Psychological Association and the APA Style Guide to Electronic References.
Also, for automatic generation of citations in appropriate citation style, use a
bibliographic citation management program such as Refworks or EndNote. You can find
more information on this in our Citation Management page.
Reference Citations in Text
In APA style, in-text citations are placed within sentences and paragraphs so that it is
clear what information is being quoted or paraphrased and whose information is being
cited.
Examples:
Works by a single author
The last name of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the
appropriate point.
from theory on bounded rationality (Simon, 1945)
If the name of the author or the date appear as part of the narrative, cite only missing
information in parentheses.
Simon (1945) posited that

Works by multiple authors
When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs
in the text. In parenthetical material join the names with an ampersand (&).
as has been shown (Leiter & Maslach, 1998)
In the narrative text, join the names with the word "and."
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as Leiter and Maslach (1998) demonstrated
When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference
occurs.
Kahneman, Knetsch, and Thaler (1991) found
In all subsequent citations per paragraph, include only the surname of the first author
followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the year of publication.
Kahneman et al. (1991) found
Works by associations, corporations, government agencies, etc.
The names of groups that serve as authors (corporate authors) are usually written out
each time they appear in a text reference.
(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2007)
When appropriate, the names of some corporate authors are spelled out in the first
reference and abbreviated in all subsequent citations. The general rule for abbreviating
in this manner is to supply enough information in the text citation for a reader to locate its
source in the Reference List without difficulty.
(NIMH, 2007)
Works with no author
When a work has no author, use the first two or three words of the work's title (omitting
any initial articles) as your text reference, capitalizing each word. Place the title in
quotation marks if it refers to an article, chapter of a book, or Web page. Italicize the title
if it refers to a book, periodical, brochure, or report.
on climate change ("Climate and Weather," 1997)
Guide to Agricultural Meteorological Practices (1981)
Anonymous authors should be listed as such followed by a comma and the date.
on climate change (Anonymous, 2008)

Specific parts of a source
To cite a specific part of a source (always necessary for quotations), include the page,
chapter, etc. (with appropriate abbreviations) in the in-text citation.
(Stigter & Das, 1981, p. 96)
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De Waal (1996) overstated the case when he asserted that "we seem to be reaching ...
from the hands of philosophers" (p. 218).
If page numbers are not included in electronic sources (such as Web-based journals),
provide the paragraph number preceded by the abbreviation "para." or the heading and
following paragraph.
(Mnnich & Spiering, 2008, para. 9)

Reference List
References cited in the text of a research paper must appear in a Reference List or
bibliography. This list provides the information necessary to identify and retrieve each
source.
Order: Entries should be arranged in alphabetical order by authors' last names.
Sources without authors are arranged alphabetically by title within the same list.
Authors: Write out the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work. Use
an ampersand (&) instead of the word "and" when listing multiple authors of a single
work. e.g. Smith, J. D., & Jones, M.
Titles: Capitalize only the first word of a title or subtitle, and any proper names that
are part of a title.
Pagination: Use the abbreviation p. or pp. to designate page numbers of articles
from periodicals that do not use volume numbers, especially newspapers. These
abbreviations are also used to designate pages in encyclopedia articles and chapters
from edited books.
Indentation*: The first line of the entry is flush with the left margin, and all
subsequent lines are indented (5 to 7 spaces) to form a "hanging indent".
Underlining vs. Italics*: It is appropriate to use italics instead of underlining for titles
of books and journals.
Two additional pieces of information should be included for works accessed online.
Internet Address**: A stable Internet address should be included and should direct
the reader as close as possible to the actual work. If the work has a digital object
identifier (DOI), use this. If there is no DOI or similar handle, use a stable URL. If the
URL is not stable, as is often the case with online newspapers and some
subscription-based databases, use the home page of the site you retrieved the work
from.
Date: If the work is a finalized version published and dated, as in the case of a
journal article, the date within the main body of the citation is enough. However, if the
work is not dated and/or is subject to change, as in the case of an online
encyclopedia article, include the date that you retrieved the information.
* The APA has special formatting standards for the use of indentation and italics in
manuscripts or papers that will be typeset or submitted for official publication. For more
detailed information on these publication standards, refer to the Publication Manual of
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STUDENT NUMBER 2012-01758-MN-0 DATE June 16, 2014

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the American Psychological Association, or consult with your instructors or editors to
determine their style preferences.
** See the APA Style Guide to Electronic References for information on how to format
URLs that take up more than one line.
Examples:
Articles in journals, magazines, and newspapers
References to periodical articles must include the following elements: author(s), date of
publication, article title, journal title, volume number, issue number (if applicable), and
page numbers.
Journal article, one author, accessed online
Ku, G. (2008). Learning to de-escalate: The effects of regret in escalation of
commitment.Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 105(2), 221-232.
doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2007.08.002

Journal article, two authors, accessed online
Sanchez, D., & King-Toler, E. (2007). Addressing disparities consultation and outreach
strategies for university settings. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and
Research, 59(4), 286-295. doi:10.1037/1065- 9293.59.4.286

Journal article, more than two authors, accessed online
Van Vugt, M., Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R. B. (2008). Leadership, followership, and evolution:
Some lessons from the past. American Psychologist, 63(3), 182-196. doi:10.1037/0003-
066X.63.3.182

Article from an Internet-only journal
Hirtle, P. B. (2008, July-August). Copyright renewal, copyright restoration, and the difficulty of
determining copyright status. D-Lib Magazine, 14(7/8). doi:10.1045/july2008-hirtle

Journal article from a subscription database (no DOI)
Colvin, G. (2008, July 21). Information worth billions. Fortune, 158(2), 73-79. Retrieved from
Business Source Complete, EBSCO. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com

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Magazine article, in print
Kluger, J. (2008, January 28). Why we love. Time, 171(4), 54-60.

Newspaper article, no author, in print
As prices surge, Thailand pitches OPEC-style rice cartel. (2008, May 5). The Wall Street
Journal, p. A9.

Newspaper article, multiple authors, discontinuous pages, in print
Delaney, K. J., Karnitschnig, M., & Guth, R. A. (2008, May 5). Microsoft ends pursuit of
Yahoo, reassesses its online options. The Wall Street Journal, pp. A1, A12.

Books
References to an entire book must include the following elements: author(s) or editor(s),
date of publication, title, place of publication, and the name of the publisher.
No Author or editor, in print
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2003). Springfield, MA: Merriam-
Webster.

One author, in print
Kidder, T. (1981). The soul of a new machine. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Company.

Two authors, in print
Frank, R. H., & Bernanke, B. (2007). Principles of macro-economics (3rd ed.). Boston, MA:
McGraw-Hill/Irwin.



Corporate author, author as publisher, accessed online
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Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2000). Tasmanian year book 2000 (No. 1301.6). Canberra,
Australian Capital Territory: Author. Retrieved
fromhttp://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/CA2568710006989...$File
/13016_2000.pdf

Edited book
Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (2001). Children of color: Psychological interventions with
culturally diverse youth. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Dissertations
References for dissertations should include the following elements: author, date of
publication, title, and institution (if you accessed the manuscript copy from the university
collections). If there is a UMI number or a database accession number, include it at the
end of the citation.

Dissertation, accessed online
Young, R. F. (2007). Crossing boundaries in urban ecology: Pathways to sustainable
cities(Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database.
(UMI No. 327681)

Essays or chapters in edited books
References to an essay or chapter in an edited book must include the following
elements: essay or chapter authors, date of publication, essay or chapter title, book
editor(s), book title, essay or chapter page numbers, place of publication, and the name
of the publisher.
One author
Labajo, J. (2003). Body and voice: The construction of gender in flamenco. In T. Magrini
(Ed.), Music and gender: perspectives from the Mediterranean (pp. 67-86). Chicago, IL:
University of Chicago Press.

Two editors
Hammond, K. R., & Adelman, L. (1986). Science, values, and human judgment. In H. R.
Arkes & K. R. Hammond (Eds.), Judgement and decision making: An interdisciplinary
reader (pp. 127-143). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
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Encyclopedias or dictionaries and entries in an encyclopedia
References for encyclopedias must include the following elements: author(s) or editor(s),
date of publication, title, place of publication, and the name of the publisher. For sources
accessed online, include the retrieval date as the entry may be edited over time.

Encyclopedia set or dictionary
Sadie, S., & Tyrrell, J. (Eds.). (2002). The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians(2nd
ed., Vols. 1-29). New York, NY: Grove.

Article from an online encyclopedia
Containerization. (2008). In Encyclopdia Britannica. Retrieved May 6, 2008, from
http://search.eb.com

Encyclopedia article
Kinni, T. B. (2004). Disney, Walt (1901-1966): Founder of the Walt Disney Company.
InEncyclopedia of Leadership (Vol. 1, pp. 345-349). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Publications.

Research reports and papers
References to a report must include the following elements: author(s), date of
publication, title, place of publication, and name of publisher. If the issuing organization
assigned a number (e.g., report number, contract number, or monograph number) to the
report, give that number in parentheses immediately after the title. If it was accessed
online, include the URL.

Government report, accessed online
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2005). Medicaid drug price comparisons:
Average manufacturer price to published prices (OIG publication No. OEI-05-05- 00240).
Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.oig.hhs.gov/oei/reports/oei-05-05-
00240.pdf


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Government reports, GPO publisher, accessed online
Congressional Budget Office. (2008). Effects of gasoline prices on driving behavior and
vehicle markets: A CBO study (CBO Publication No. 2883). Washington, DC: U.S.
Government Printing Office. Retrieved from
http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/88xx/doc8893/01-14-GasolinePrices.pdf

Technical and/or research reports, accessed online
Deming, D., & Dynarski, S. (2008). The lengthening of childhood (NBER Working Paper
14124). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved July 21,
2008, from http://www.nber.org/papers/w14124

Document available on university program or department site
Victor, N. M. (2008). Gazprom: Gas giant under strain. Retrieved from Stanford University,
Program on Energy and Sustainable Development Web site:
http://pesd.stanford.edu/publications/gazprom_gas_giant_under_strain/

Audio-visual media
References to audio-visual media must include the following elements: name and
function of the primary contributors (e.g., producer, director), date, title, the medium in
brackets, location or place of production, and name of the distributor. If the medium is
indicated as part of the retrieval ID, brackets are not needed.
Videocassette/DVD
Achbar, M. (Director/Producer), Abbott, J. (Director), Bakan, J. (Writer), & Simpson, B.
(Producer) (2004). The corporation [DVD]. Canada: Big Picture Media Corporation.

Audio recording
Nhat Hanh, T. (Speaker). (1998). Mindful living: a collection of teachings on love,
mindfulness, and meditation [Cassette Recording]. Boulder, CO: Sounds True Audio.

Motion picture
Gilbert, B. (Producer), & Higgins, C. (Screenwriter/Director). (1980). Nine to five [Motion
Picture]. United States: Twentieth Century Fox.

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Television broadcast
Anderson, R., & Morgan, C. (Producers). (2008, June 20). 60 Minutes [Television broadcast].
Washington, DC: CBS News.

Television show from a series
Whedon, J. (Director/Writer). (1999, December 14). Hush [Television series episode]. In
Whedon, J., Berman, G., Gallin, S., Kuzui, F., & Kuzui, K. (Executive Producers), Buffy
the Vampire Slayer. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros..

Music recording
Jackson, M. (1982). Beat it. On Thriller [CD]. New York, NY: Sony Music.

Undated Web site content, blogs, and data
For content that does not easily fit into categories such as journal papers, books, and
reports, keep in mind the goal of a citation is to give the reader a clear path to the source
material. For electronic and online materials, include stable URL or database name.
Include the author, title, and date published when available. For undated materials,
include the date the resource was accessed.
Blog entry
Arrington, M. (2008, August 5). The viral video guy gets $1 million in funding. Message
posted to http://www.techcrunch.com

Professional Web site
National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (2008). Biofuels. Retrieved May 6, 2008, from
http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_biofuels.html

Data set from a database
Bloomberg L.P. (2008). Return on capital for Hewitt Packard 12/31/90 to 09/30/08. Retrieved
Dec. 3, 2008, from Bloomberg database.
Central Statistics Office of the Republic of Botswana. (2008). Gross domestic product per
capita 06/01/1994 to 06/01/2008 [statistics]. Available from CEIC Data database.

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Entire Web site
When citing an entire Web site (and not a specific document on that site), no Reference
List entry is required if the address for the site is cited in the text of your paper.
Witchcraft In Europe and America is a site that presents the full text of many essential works
in the literature of witchcraft and demonology (http://www.witchcraft.psmedia.com/).

MLA Citation Format

In MLA style, writers place references to sources in the paper to briefly identify them and
enable readers to find them in the Works Cited list. These parenthetical references
should be kept as brief and as clear as possible.
Give only the information needed to identify a source. Usually the author's last name and
a page reference suffice.
Place the parenthetical reference as close as possible to its source. Insert the
parenthetical reference where a pause would naturally occur, preferably at the end of a
sentence.
Information in the parenthesis should complement, not repeat, information given in the
text. If you include an author's name in a sentence, you do not need to repeat it in your
parenthetical statement.
The parenthetical reference should precede the punctuation mark that concludes the
sentence, clause, or phrase that contains the cited material.
Electronic and online sources are cited just like print resources in parenthetical
references. If an online source lacks page numbers, omit numbers from the parenthetical
references. If an online source includes fixed page numbers or section numbering, such
as numbering of paragraphs, cite the relevant numbers.
Examples:
Author's name in text Dover has expressed this concern (118-21).
Author's name in reference This concern has been expressed (Dover 118-
21).
Multiple authors of a work This hypothesis (Bradley and Rogers 7)
suggested this theory (Sumner, Reichl, and
Waugh 23).
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Two locations Williams alludes to this premise (136-39, 145).
Two works cited (Burns 54; Thomas 327)
Multivolume works
References to volumes and pages (Wilson 2:1-18)
References to an entire volume (Henderson, vol. 3)
In text reference to an entire volume In volume 3, Henderson suggests
Corporate authors (United Nations, Economic Commission for
Africa 51-63)
Works with no author
When a work has no author, use the work's title
or a shortened version of the title when citing it
in text. (If abbreviating a title, omit initial
articles and begin with the word by which it is
alphabetized in the Works Cited list.):
as stated by the presidential
commission (Report 4).
Online source with numbered paragraphs (Fox, pars. 4-5)














BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Best, John W., and Kahn, James V. (1986). Research in Education (5
th
Ed.).
New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.

Burton, L. Sc.D. (2007). How to Approach a Study: Concept, Hypotheses, and
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Blaxter, L., Hughes, C., & Tight, Malcolm. (2001). How to Research (2
nd
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325 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA: Open University Press.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research Methods in Education (6
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270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016: Routledge.

Cornell University Library PSEC Documentation Committee. (2011, April). APA Citation Style.
Retrieved from: http://www.library.cornell.edu/resrch/citmanage/apa

Daniel, B. K. (2011). Handbook of Research on Methods and Techniques for Studying Virtual
Communities: Paradigms and Phenomena. 701 E. Chocolate Avenue, Hershey PA
17033: Information Science Reference.

Driscoll, D. L. (2011). Introduction to Primary Research: Observations, Surveys and Interviews.

Kothari, C.R. (2004). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques (2
nd
Revised Ed.).
4835124, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi- 110002: New Age International (P) Ltd.
Publishers.

Mouly, George J. (1970).The Science of Educational Research Methods, University of
London Press Ltd., 192 pp.

Singh Y.K. (2006). Fundamentals of Research Methodology and Statistics.
4835/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi 110002: New Age International (P)
Limited, Publishers.

Weiss, N.A. (1999). Introductory Statistics. Addison Wesley.