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Structural Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering

Course 9

Seismic-resistant design of structures (1)

Seismic action

Methods of elastic analysis

Course notes are available for download at http://www.ct.upt.ro/users/AurelStratan/

Seismic-resistant design of structures

P100-1/2013 "Cod de proiectare seismică P100 – Partea I - Prevederi de proiectare pentru clădiri"

Eurocode 8 "Design of structures for earthquake resistance - Part 1: General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings"

Fundamental requirements:

Life safety: sufficient safety margin over local or global collapse of the structure P100-1/2013: associated earthquake: 225 years return period Eurocode 8: associated earthquake: 475 years return period

Damage limitation. NO occurrence of damage and the associated limitations of use, with disproportionately high cost in comparison with the costs of the structure itself P100-1/2013: associated earthquake: 40 years return period Eurocode 8: associated earthquake: 95 years return period

Ultimate limit states

Fundamental requirements (life safety and damage limitation) are verified by checking the structure for two limit states:

Ultimate Limit State (ULS)

associated to collapse and other forms of structural degradation that may endanger human lives

verification of ULS implies a balance between strength and ductility

Serviceability Limit State (SLS)

associated to degradations, that lead to limitation of use

limitation of structural and non-structural damage

generally, check for SLS involves limitation of interstorey drifts, in order to protect non-structural elements, equipments, etc.

Seismic action: elastic response spectrum

National territory: divided in zones of constant seismic hazard

Seismic hazard for design is expressed by horizontal peak ground acceleration a g (determined for the return period associated to ULS)

design is expressed by horizontal peak ground acceleration a g (determined for the return period associated

Elastic response spectrum

Seismic action on the ground surface expressed by pseudo-acceleration response spectra

2 horizontal components

1 vertical component

Local site conditions affect:

amplification of acceleration

frequency content of the ground motion

Control periods

 

T C , s

0.7

1.0

1.6

T B , s

0.14

0.20

0.32

T D , s

3.0

3.0

2.0

Elastic spectrum: control period T C

P100-1/2006: T C specified at a macroseismic scale

Elastic spectrum: control period T C  P100-1/2006: T C specified at a macroseismic scale

Elastic spectrum: normalized form (T)

Elastic response spectrum:

S (T )

e

a

g

T

Normalized form of the response spectrum:

 (T)  Elastic response spectrum: S (T ) e  a g  T 

Elastic spectrum: normalized form (T)

Elastic spectrum: normalized form  (T)
Elastic spectrum: normalized form  (T)
Elastic spectrum: normalized form  (T)

Local site conditions: Eurocode 8

Local site conditions: Eurocode 8

Behaviour factor q

Most structures are able to survive a major earthquake without collapse, but with important structural degradations due to:

ductility of the structure (capacity to deform in the inelastic range)

overstrength

design of structures for a fraction of the strength necessary for an elastic response (behaviour factor - q)

Design codes: a single force reduction factor depending on material and structural typology

F D Fe F F y Dy De=Dm D
F
D
Fe
F
F y
Dy
De=Dm
D
R R y 1 1  
R
R y
1
1

q R y

Force reduction factors

V

e raspunsul infinit elastic q  raspunsul real q y q R q S 1
e
raspunsul
infinit elastic
q 
raspunsul real
q
y
q
R
q S
1 raspunsul idealizat
q
Sd
d
y
 e
u

V

V

V

V

F i V
F i
V

Force reduction factors

u - ultimate displacement of the system

y - displacement at global yield

V e - base shear force corresponding to an infinitely elastic response

V y - yield base shear force

V 1 – base shear force at first yield in the structure

V d - design base shear force

Global ductility of the structure

yield in the structure  V d - design base shear force  Global ductility of

 

u

y

Force reduction factors  Ductility-related force reduction factor q  V V  e y
Force reduction factors
 Ductility-related force reduction factor
q
V V
 e
y
 Overstrength:
q
V V
q
q
q
S
y
d
S
R
Sd
q
V V
– redundancy
R
y
1
– design governed by non-seismic loads
– limitation of the number of different cross-sections use to
simplify fabrication and erection
– a real strength larger than the nominal one
V V
q Sd
1
d
 Total reduction factor (behaviour factor):
q
q
q
q
q
q
S 
Sd
R

Force reduction factors

Force reduction factors: period dependent

q q  q S 1 
q
q
q
S
1

To simplify, q can be considered constant

In reality, q depends on:

properties of the ground motion (T C ), in relation with

period of vibration of the structure

Design response spectrum for elastic analysis

0TT B :

T> T B :

S d

   0  1   q )  a  1 
0
 1
q
)
a
1 
T 
g
T
B
 
P100-1/2013, T C =1.6 s, a g =0.30g
(
T
)
0.8
(
T
) 
a
d
g
q
S
e
S
d , q=6
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
1
2
3
4
pseudo-acceleratie, g

( T

S

T, s

Elastic design methods

In design: elastic analysis

Alternatives:

lateral force method (equivalent static force method)

modal response spectrum analysis (spectral analysis)

 

The equivalent static force method

Can be used for structures that:

can be modeled using two planar models for each principal direction and

whose seismic response is not influenced significantly by higher modes of vibration (structures with T 1 ≤1.5 sec, regular in elevation, and with height less than 30 m)

A simplified spectral analysis, that considers the contribution of the fundamental mode only

*

 

V

bn

M A

n

n

F S

b

I ,e

d

T

1

m

(V b1  F b ; A 1  I,e S d (T 1 ); M 1 * m)

 

The equivalent static force method

Base shear force (P100-1/2013):

F S

b

I ,e

d

T

1

m

S d (T 1 ) - ordinate of the design response spectrum corresponding to fundamental period T 1

m - total mass of the structure

 

I,e

– importance factor of the building

- correction factor (contribution of the fundamental

mode of vibration using the concept of effective modal

mass):

= 0.85 if T 1 T C and the structure is higher than two

levels, and

 

= 1.0 in all other cases

 
The equivalent static force method  Equivalent static force at storey i in mode n:
The equivalent static force method
 Equivalent static force at storey i in mode n:
2
N
N
m i 
m
in
i
 in
 
 
2
2
m
m i 
i 
in
in
i  1
i  1
using the expression
*
A V
M
n
bn
n
N
N
2
m
i 
m
in
i
in
m i
i 
1
i
1
 in

m
A
m
V
V
f in
n
i
in
n
N
i
in
bn
2
bn
n
N
2
m
i 
m
in
m i
i
in
 in
i
1
 
 
i
1
i  1

f  mA

in

n

i

in

f  m  A in n i in n where   n i 
f  m  A in n i in n where   n i 
f  m  A in n i in n where   n i 

n

where

 

n

i 1

*

N n

M

f  m  A in n i in n where   n i 
f  m  A in n i in n where   n i 

i 1

N

The equivalent static force method

Equivalent static forces

in

m i

i 1

in

m i

Lateral force at storey i (P100-1/2013):

m s

i 1

m s

i

i

F b - base shear force in the fundamental mode of vibration

s i - displacement of the mass i in the fundamental mode shape

n - number of storeys in the structure

m i - storey mass

f

in

V

bn

N

F

i

F

b

N

i

i

The equivalent static force method  Fundamental mode shape can be approximated by a horizontal
The equivalent static force method
 Fundamental mode shape can be approximated by a
horizontal displacements increasing linearly with height
m z
i
i
F
 F
i
b
N
m z
m i
i
i
F i
i  1
z i
F b
 Preliminary design of
structures with height <40m
3 4
T
 C H
1
t
– C t = 0.085 moment-resisting steel frames,
– C t = 0.075 moment resisting reinforced concrete frames or steel
eccentrically braced frames,
– C t = 0.05 all other structures.

Modal response spectrum analysis

Procedure: see course 8

Spectral analysis is used for structures for which the lateral force method cannot be applied

Number of modes that need to be considered in analysis:

the sum of effective modal masses for the considered modes should amount to at least 90% of the total mass of the structure,

all modes with effective modal mass larger than 5% of the total mass of the structure were considered in analysis

Combination of modal response:

Sum of absolute values (ABS)

Square root of sum of squares (SRSS) response in two modes k and k+1 can be considered independent if T k and T k+1 check the following relationship:

T

k

1

0.9

T

k

Complete quadratic combination (CQC)