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Cursul 11

Aspecte economice
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Given the high land values in central business sections of our
leading cities, the skyscraper is not only the most efficient, but the
only economic utilization of certain strategic plots. An exhaustive
investigation . . . has conclusively demonstrated that the factors
making for diminishing returns in the intensive development of such
plots are more than offset by the factors making for increasing
returns . . . Measured by its contribution to public welfare, [the
Introducere
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returns . . . Measured by its contribution to public welfare, [the
skyscraper] deserves to rank with the telephone and the automobile
as one of the great modern inventions.
(Clark and Kingston, 1930)
Structura costului pentru un imobil de birouri
(Watts e.a, THE ECONOMICS OF SUPER-TALL TOWERS, Struct. Design Tall Spec. Build. 16, 457470 (2007))
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Preturi Londra, trim 1 2007
Cele mai inalte 10 cladiri din Asia de Sud-Est
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Dr Paul H K HO, Hong Kong SAR, Economics Planning of Super Tall Buildings in Asia Pacific Cities, FIG
Working Week 2007, Hong Kong SAR, China, 13-17 May 2007
Caractersitici principale ale celor mai inalte 10 cladiri
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Caractersitici principale ale celor mai inalte 10 cladiri
Toate aceste cladiri au un raport suprafata inchiriabila/ suprafata totala ridicat,
de circa 80%.
Deoarece anvelopa (inchiderile) sunt un element semnificativ al costului, orice
reducere a suprafetei anvelopei va duce la o reducere a costului unitar.
Ponderea anvelopei scade cand suprafata planseului creste.
Sistemul structural al planseului poate avea impact asupra inaltimii toatale de
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Sistemul structural al planseului poate avea impact asupra inaltimii toatale de
etaj. La CITIC Plaza si Central PlazaTraditional a fost adoptat sistemul
traditional cu grinzi si placa de b.a., in timp ce la celelalte cladiri a fost adoptat
sistemul cu grinzi metalice I cu placa compozita. Ar fi fost de asteptat ca
sistemul de planseu de beton armat sa aiba o inaltime mai mare decat celalalt
si asta sa consuca la o inaltime mai mare de etaj. Insa s-a constatat ca nu
exista o relatie directa intre sistemul de planseu si inaltimea de etaj, pentru ca
aceasta din urma depinde si de proiectarea tavanului fals.
.
Deschiderea medie a zonei utile: 12,00 m
Inaltimea libera a etajului: 2,70 m
Inaltimea de etaj: 4,00 m
Parametri medii
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Forma in plan: patrata, 2 axe de simetrie
Nucleu de circulatii: central
Sistemul structural: mega-stalpi compoziti cu nucleu central si
outriggers
tub-in-tub, uneori cu outriggers
Nucleul de circulatii
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Nucleul de circulatii
The structural core material can be built from steel or concrete or both. For a tall
building, if the service core wall is built in concrete, its structural weight can be very
heavy, thus inducing an additional cost for the foundation.
In the United Kingdom and America, steel is commonly used as the structural
element and lightweight fire-rated drywall is used to form the service core walls in
order to reduce its thickness and save the foundation cost and construction time.
In Asia Pacific countries, however, the use of structural steel and drywall construction
is generally less common because their costs are higher than reinforced concrete
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is generally less common because their costs are higher than reinforced concrete
construction. With the advent of concrete technology, high-strength concrete (over
100 MPa) can be used to reduce the thickness of service core walls, thus maximizing
the useable floor space. Fire rating for lift shafts and stairwells can also be easily
achievable by designing the concrete core walls to specified thicknesses.
Service core construction typically lies on the critical path of the programme and thus
affects the project completion date. By using slip-form or jump-form techniques, a 3
to 4-day cycle is achievable for core wall construction. This construction speed is
similar to steel construction. In other word, concrete construction is not slower than
the steel construction.
Forma in plan
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Forma in plan
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Forma in elevatie
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Forma cladirii - comentarii
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Forma partii superioare
Generally the simpler and more regular the floor shape, the more easily it can be
adapted to the users needs in terms of space planning. Square and rectangular floor
plans work more efficiently than curved and irregular shapes. Symmetrical plan
buildings are less susceptible to lateral wind impact than unsymmetrical buildings. This
is particularly important in super tall buildings.
Based on the above building forms, there are three general observations at its lower
(podium) floors, main tower and top floors:
Firstly, there is a large podium floors at lower levels (including basement floors) which
are to accommodate the separate commercial and retail functions.
Secondly, there is a setback in the overall floor plan dimension in the main tower
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Secondly, there is a setback in the overall floor plan dimension in the main tower
which is to accommodate different functions. The setback causes the main tower to be
smaller than the lower floors to meet the structural needs for wind resistance and
functional requirements for different users. It is also observed from the elevation of the
main tower that there is no much variance of window size and proportion due to
different floor-to-floor heights, except at the lobby and mechanical floor. They utilize a
single structural system and a single construction material.
Thirdly, since tapering has a significant improvement in the overall building structural
behaviour to wind force, many buildings have a slightly tapered building shape at its
top floors.
Sistemul structural
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Sistemul structural
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Sistemul de lifturi
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Costul elementelor structurale
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Sung-Woo Shin, Jong-Moon Ahn, Myung-Shin Choi, Dae-Won Seo, Su-Chan Bae, An Evaluation on the
Economics of Structural Floor System of Super Tall Buildings, CTBUH 2004 October 10~13, Seoul, Korea
Componentele costului unei structuri de beton
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Comparatie intre trei sisteme de planseu
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Costuri unitare
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Cantitati de beton
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Cantitati de cofraje
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Cantitati de armatura
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Structura pretului planseului
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Cantitati si costuri varianta (a)
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Cantitati si costuri varianta (b)
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Cantitati si costuri varianta (c)
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Comparatie intre cantitati, costuri si durata
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Cantitati pentru constructii compozite
Han-Wook Cho, Song-Geun Roh, Young-Min Byun, Kyong-Soo Yom, Structural Quantity Analysis of Tall Buildings,
CTBUH 2004 October 10~13, Seoul, Korea
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Costuri unitare pentru constructii compozite
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Comparatie in otel structural echivalent
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Cantitati pentru constructii de beton
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Costuri unitare pentru constructii de beton
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