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New Biology – a modern approach 2

Chapter 14: The human circulatory system


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Structured Questions
Core Section

|!|EQA01400001|!|
Complete the following paragraph with suitable words selected from below:
more less oxygen carbon dioxide oxygenated deoxygenated
aorta vena cava pulmonary artery pulmonary veins left right

In mammals, the blood in the right ventricle contains (i)_________________ bicarbonate ions. It is
pushed through the (ii)_________________to the lungs where gaseous exchange takes place.
(iii)_________________ in the alveoli diffuses into the blood. Then the blood flows back to the left side of
the heart and leaves the heart again through the (iv)_________________ to body organs. Here the blood
becomes (v)_________________ and flow back to the (vi)_________________ side of the heart to complete
a circulation.
(3 marks)
##
(i) more (1/2 mark)
(ii) pulmonary artery (1/2 mark)
(iii) Oxygen (1/2 mark)
(iv) aorta (1/2 mark)
(v) deoxygenated (1/2 mark)
(vi) right (1/2 mark)
_________
(3 marks)##

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|!|EQA01400002|!|
Flora dissected a rabbit’s heart. She found that there were four chambers in the heart. She drew a sketch of the
ventral view of the heart.

A
B

(i) State and explain a difference between the thickness of the walls of chambers A and B. (4 marks)
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(ii) Name TWO major blood vessels that contain deoxygenated blood. (2 marks)
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(iii) State, with reason, the effect of jumping on the heart rate. (3 marks)
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##
(i) The wall of chamber B is thicker than that of chamber A. (1 mark)
The blood in chamber B has to flow to all parts of body. (1 mark)
Chamber B needs to exert a large force to push the blood out. (1 mark)
A thicker muscular wall can do this on contraction. (1 mark)
(ii) vena cava and pulmonary artery (2 marks)
(iii) Jumping increases the heart rate. (1 mark)
It is to pump much more blood to the leg muscles (1 mark)
for providing oxygen in respiration to release a larger amount of energy. (1 mark)
_________
(9 marks)##
|!|EQA01400003|!|
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Chapter 14: The human circulatory system
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STS Connections
Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow:
ENDURANCE
There is one method to increase the endurance of an athlete. One litre of blood is removed
from the athlete and is stored for about six weeks in a freezer. The frozen blood is then thawed
and returned (re-infused) to the athlete’s bloodstream.
After removal of blood, the athlete’s body tends to produce more red blood cells. After
about five weeks, the number of red blood cells in the body will return to normal. Then the
thawed blood is returned to the athlete’s body (re-infusion). Thus the total number of red
blood cells is increased.
(i) State the part which forms red blood cells. (1 mark)
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(ii) State the function of red blood cells and the essential molecule related to this function. (2 marks)
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(iii) State the necessary mineral for forming red blood cells. (1 mark)
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(iv) (1) State the change in the oxygen carrying capacity of the athlete after re-infusion. (1 mark)
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(2) Describe how this change enables the athlete to get good performance. (4 marks)
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##
(i) red bone marrow (1 mark)
(ii) Red blood cells carry oxygen to all part of the body. (1 mark)
There is haemoglobin in each red blood cell for oxygen transport. (1 mark)
(iii) iron (1 mark)
(iv) (1) The oxygen carrying capacity of the athlete increases after re-infusion. (1 mark)
(2) The blood carries much oxygen to the muscles for aerobic respiration. (2 marks)
A larger amount of energy is released. (1 mark)
Muscle contraction is more efficient, resulting in good performance. (1 mark)
_________
(9 marks)##
|!|EQB01400004|!|
* The graph below shows the changes in blood pressure, blood flow rate and permeability in different types of
blood vessels:

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Chapter 14: The human circulatory system
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II

III

arteries A capillaries B veins

Heart chamber X Heart c hamber Y

(i) What do curves I, II and III represent? (11/2 marks)


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(ii) Name heart chambers X and Y. (2 marks)
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(iii) Name blood vessels A and B. (1 mark)
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(iv) Describe and explain the change in blood pressure in arteries. (3 marks)
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(v) Compare the permeability of capillaries with those of other types of blood vessels and account for its
significance in the exchange of materials. (3 marks)
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(vi) Describe and explain the rate of blood flow in B. (3 marks)
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(vii) Describe and explain the blood pressure and rate of blood flow in capillaries. (3 marks)
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##
(i) Curve I: blood pressure
Curve II: permeability
Curve III: blood flow rate (1/2 mark each) (11/2marks)
(ii) X: left ventricle
Y: right atrium (1 mark each) (2 marks)
(iii) A: arterioles
B: venules (1/2 mark each) (1 mark)
(iv) The blood pressure drops gradually from the highest level. (1 mark)
The pressure becomes less fluctuated along the arteries. (1 mark)
It is because the blood is gradually getting further and further away from the pumping action of the
heart. (1 mark)
(v) The permeability of the capillaries is the highest among the blood vessels. (1 mark)
The wall of capillaries is only one-cell thick. (1 mark)
This shortens the distance for the diffusion of oxygen and nutrients out of, and carbon dioxide and
waste into the capillaries, facilitating the exchange of materials. (1 mark)
(vi) The rate of blood flow increases from the lowest level due to (1 mark)
the contraction of skeletal muscles surrounding the veins and (1 mark)
the decrease in total cross-sectional area of blood vessels (1 mark)
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Chapter 14: The human circulatory system
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as the capillaries join into fewer venules.
(vii) Both the blood pressure and blood flow rate drop to the lowest level. (1 mark)
It is due to the great friction of blood moving in a narrow vessel and (1 mark)
the great total cross-sectional area. (1 mark)
___________
(161/2 marks)##

|!|EQB01400005|!|
* The figure below shows a cardiac cycle divided into three phases A, B and C:
A B C

atrium
ventricle
0 0.4 0.8

systole diastole

(i) Describe the state of the atria, ventricles and valves as well as the direction of blood flow in phases A,
B and C, respectively. (9 marks)
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(ii) Explain why phase A is much shorter in duration than phase B. (3 marks)
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(iii) When a man is doing exercises, how will the duration of his cardiac cycle change? What is the
significance of such a change? (2 marks)
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##
(i)
phase atria ventricles valves blood flow
A contract relax bicuspid valve from atria to ventricles
and tricuspid valve: open
semi-lunar valves: closed
B relax contract bicuspid valve from ventricles to pulmonary artery
and tricuspid valve: closed and aorta

semi-lunar valves: open


C relax relax semi-lunar valves: closed from vena cava and pulmonary vein
to atria; also from atria to ventricles
(9 marks)
(ii) The contraction of atria forces blood to the two ventricles, while the contraction of ventricles pumps
blood to the pulmonary and systemic circulation. Therefore, more time is required by the muscular wall
of the ventricles to produce a greater force. (3 marks)
(iii) The cardiac cycle will become shorter to increase heart beat and hence deliver oxygen and nutrients to
the skeletal muscles at a higher rate. (2 marks)
__________
(14 marks)##

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Chapter 14: The human circulatory system
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|!|EQA01400006|!|
The diagram below shows the structure of a mammalian heart:

(i) Which organs will the blood in vessels 6 and 7 lead to, respectively? (2 marks)
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(ii) What is the main difference between the blood in vessels 6 and 7? (1 mark)
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(iii) What will happen to a person if structure 10 or 11 is damaged? (1 mark)
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(iv) Account for the unequal thickening in the walls of chambers 5 and 12. (4 marks)
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(v) State the function of structure 4. (1 mark)
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(vi) Answer the following questions with suitable numbers corresponding to the structures.
(1) From which two structures is blood pumped into arteries? (2 marks)
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(2) Which structure will first receive nicotine if a person is smoking cigarette? (1 mark)
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(3) Which structure carries the deoxygenated blood under high pressure? (1 mark)
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(4) Which structure will first receive glucose from liver? (1 mark)
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(vii) What is meant by 'double circulation'? (3 marks)
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(viii) State and explain two ways in which the wall of structure 8 differs from that of structure 7.
(3 marks)
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##
(i) The blood in vessel 6 will lead to the lungs and that in vessel 7 will lead to all parts of the body except
lungs. (2 marks)
(ii) Vessel 6 contains deoxygenated blood while vessel 7 contains oxygenated blood. (1 mark)
(iii) The person will not be able to pump blood to all parts of the body efficiently. (1 mark)
(iv) The wall of chamber 12 is thicker than that of chamber 5 because the former has to pump blood to all
parts of the body (except the lungs) and the resistance is high while the latter has to pump blood to the
lungs only and the resistance is low. (4 marks)
(v) Structure 4 is the heart tendon. It prevents the valves from being turned inside out during ventricular
contraction. (1 mark)
(vi) (1) 5 and 12 (2 marks)
(2) 8 (1 mark)
(3) 6 (1 mark)
(4) 2 (1 mark)
(vii) The blood in a mammal has to pass through the heart twice via two pathways: the pulmonary
circulation (between the heart and the lungs) and the systematic circulation (between the heart and all
other parts of the body except the lungs). This condition is known as 'double circulation'. (3 marks)
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Chapter 14: The human circulatory system
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(viii) The wall of structure 8 is thinner and less elastic than that of structure 7 because structure 8 withstands
a relatively lower pressure/ or vice versa. (3 marks)
___________
(20 marks)##

|!|EQA01400007|!|
The following photomicrograph shows the appearance of a human blood smear under the light microscope:

(i) Name cell P and Q. (1 mark)


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(ii) Give THREE differences between P and Q, based on their structures, shapes and functions.
(3 marks)
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(iii) Name the fluid in which P and Q are bathed. Name THREE types of compounds found in this fluid.
(21/2 marks)
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(iv) What will happen to Q when it becomes aged and how can its waste be removed from the body?
(3 marks)
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##
(i) P = white blood cell/ phagocyte
Q = red blood cell (1/2 mark each) (1 mark)
(ii)
P (white blood cell/ phagocyte) Q (red blood cell)
Structure Has nuclei, but no haemoglobin. No nucleus, but contains hameoglobin.
Shape irregular amoeboid shape biconcave disc-shaped
Function Engulfs bacteria. Transports oxygen.
(each point 1 mark) (3 marks)
(iii) plasma (1 mark)
It contains blood proteins, mineral salts, and soluble food substances. ( /2 mark each)
1
(11/2 marks)
(iv) Q (r. b. c) will be destroyed in the spleen and the liver. The pigment (waste) can be removed in the bile.
(3 marks)
_________
(91/2 marks)##

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Chapter 14: The human circulatory system
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|!|EQA01400008|!|
The following diagrams show transverse sections of three types of blood vessels present in man:
valves
elastic
tissue
lumen

lumen

fibrous
Structure A Structure B tissue Structure C

(i) Name structures A, B and C. (11/2 marks)


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(ii) State TWO differences in composition between the blood in structures B and C. (2 marks)
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(iii) State ONE function of the elastic tissue in structure B. (1 mark)
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(iv) State ONE function of the valves in structure C. (1 mark)
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(v) Name the process by which a white blood cell can pass out from the lumen of structure A.(1 mark)
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(vi) From which structure in the above diagram can pulse rates be detected? (1 mark)
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##
(i) A - capillary
B - artery
C - vein (1/2 each) (11/2 marks)
(ii)
Structure B Structure C
Gas content oxygenated blood deoxygenated blood with more carbon dioxide
Amount of nutrients more nutrients less nutrients
(each point 1 mark) (2 marks)

(iii) Elastic wall can expand and contract in accordance with the heart beat, thus transmitting the blood
pressure along the artery. (1 mark)
(iv) to prevent the backflow of blood (1 mark)
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Chapter 14: The human circulatory system
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(v) amoeboid movement (1 mark)
(vi) structure B (1 mark)
___________
(71/2 marks)##

|!|EQA01400009|!|
Study the plan of the mammalian circulatory system below:

(i) Name blood vessels A to G. (31/2 marks)


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(ii) Using letters only, state


(1) the artery which carries deoxygenated blood. (1 mark)
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(2) where digested food is absorbed. (1 mark)
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(3) where urea is formed. (1 mark)
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(iii) Both blood vessels C and D carry blood to organ M. State TWO differences between the blood
content in these blood vessels several hours after a meal. (2 marks)
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(iv) What is the difference between the glucose level of the blood in D and E of a starved mammal?
Explain. (3 marks)
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(v) The kidney is an important organ for some regulatory processes. State TWO differences in the
composition of blood in vessels F and G. (2 marks)
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##
(i) A - pulmonary vein
B - pulmonary artery
C - hepatic artery
D - hepatic portal vein
E - hepatic vein
F - renal artery
G - renal vein (1/2 mark each) (31/2 marks)
(ii) (1) B (1 mark)
(2) N (1 mark)
(3) M (1 mark)
(iii)
C D
oxygenated blood deoxygenated blood
less nutrients more nutrients
(1 mark each) (2 marks)
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(iv)
Blood vessel D E
Difference in blood lower higher
glucose level
Explanation less glucose is absorbed liver can convert
in a starved mammal glycogen to glucose
(1 mark each) (3 marks)
(v)
F G
oxygenated blood deoxygenated blood
more urea less urea
(1 mark each) (2 marks)
__________
(131/2 marks)##

|!|EQB01400010|!|
* The following diagram shows part of the circulatory system in the abdominal cavity in man. The blood
vessels shown are veins. The arrows indicate the direction of blood flow.

(i) Name veins A and B. (1 mark)


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(ii) State TWO ways in which the compositions of the plasma in veins A and B will differ from each other
after a meal. (2 marks)
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(iii) (1) Name the fluid which is secreted by the liver but not carried in the blood stream. (1 mark)
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(2) State the functions of this secretion. (3 marks)
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(iv) Give the names of TWO types of food substances which can be directly absorbed by the stomach.
(2 marks)
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##
(i) A - hepatic portal vein (1/2 mark)
B - hepatic vein (1/2 mark)
(ii)
Vein A Vein B
Amount of glucose: more less (some glucose is converted into glycogen)
Amount of amino acids: more less (some amino acids are deaminated in liver)
(1 mark each) (2 marks)
(iii) (1) bile (1 mark)
(2) to neutralize the acidic chyme (1 mark)
to emulsify fats into small oil droplets (1 mark)
to carry the waste product (pigment) of the breakdown of old red blood cells (1 mark)
(iv) water, alcohol and glucose (any two) (2 marks)
__________
(9 marks)##
|!|EQB01400011|!|
STS Connections
* The following diagrams illustrate an experiment performed by William Harvey, a physician of the seventeenth
century, showing the direction of blood flow in veins:

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Chapter 14: The human circulatory system
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Step A: A cutaneous vein became conspicuous when


the upper arm was tied by a handkerchief.
Step B: Applied pressure with one finger at site a and
squeezed blood along the vein from site a to
site b with another finger. Vein between sites
a and b became inconspicuous.
Step C: Removed finger from site b, blood failed to
flow back from sites b to a.

(i) What did the swellings shown in the above diagrams represent? (1 mark)
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(ii) Why should the upper arm be tied by a handkerchief before performing the experiment? (1 mark)
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(iii) Why did the vein between site a and site b become inconspicuous in step B? (1 mark)
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(iv) Why did the blood fail to flow back from site b to site a in step C? (2 marks)
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(v) Would the results be different if you removed the finger from site a instead of site b in step C?
(1 mark)
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(vi) Why was it necessary to remove the handkerchief as soon as the experiment was completed?
(1 mark)
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##
(i) The swellings represent the position of the valves in veins. (1 mark)
(ii) to slow down the blood from flowing back to the heart, making the cutaneous vein more conspicuous
(1 mark)
(iii) The blood was pushed forward from site a to site b thus making the blood vessel between site a and site
b inconspicuous. (1 mark)
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(iv) The valve in site b prevented blood from flowing backward. (2 marks)
(v) Blood would flow from site a to site b. The cutaneous vein between site a and site b region thus became
conspicuous. (1 mark)
(vi) To allow normal blood flow in the arm again. (1 mark)
__________
(7 marks)##

|!|EQB01400012|!|
* The table below shows the rate of blood flow (cm3/min) to various regions of the body of a mammal at rest
and during exercise:

The rate of blood flow (cm3/min)


Region At rest Light exercise Vigorous exercise
Heart muscle 200 300 800
Skeletal muscle 1000 4000 18000
Kidneys 900 700 200
Gut 1100 900 250
Skin 400 1200 500
Brain 600 600 600
All other regions 500 350 90
Total 4700 8050 20440
(i) Explain why the rate of blood flow to the heart muscle and skeletal muscle increased during exercise.
(2 marks)
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(ii) What would happen to the amount of urine formed during exercise? Explain. (4 marks)
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(iii) Why is it not suitable to do vigorous exercise after eating? (2 marks)
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(iv) In which region of the body is the blood supply not affected by any degree of exercise? Explain your
answer. (2 marks)
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##
(i) During exercise, the heart muscle and skeletal muscle contracted more rapidly. The blood flowing to
those regions increased in order to supply more oxygen and nutrients/ food. (2 marks)
(ii) The amount of urine formed during exercise decreased, because water was lost by sweating to lower
the body temperature. A large proportion of water was reabsorbed by the body. (4 marks)
(iii) During vigorous exercise, the amount of blood flowing to the gut decreases. (1 mark)
This hinders the digestive function of the gut. (1 mark)
(iv) Brain. (1 mark)
The brain requires a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients all the time. (1 mark)
___________
(10 marks)##

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Chapter 14: The human circulatory system
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|!|EQA01400013|!|
The diagram below shows a cross section of the human abdomen just beneath the thoracic basket:

(i) (1) Where will C lead to? (1 mark)


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(2) State ONE structural difference between C and D. What is the significance of such difference?
(2 marks)
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(ii) Using the letters in the diagram, state which structure(s) belong(s) to
(1) the nervous system.
(2) the excretory system.
(3) the digestive system.
(4) the endocrine system. (7 marks)
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##
(i) (1) to the heart (1 mark)
(2) C has valves to prevent the backflow of blood./ D has a thicker wall to withstand a higher blood
pressure. (2 marks)
(ii) (1) A (1 mark)
(2) E (1 mark)
(3) H, I, G, F (1 mark each) (4 mark)
(4) F (1 mark)
___________
(10 marks)##
|!|EQA01400014|!|
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A student constructed a model to represent a 'heart-lung' machine, which was sometimes used when a patient
underwent heart surgery. The model is shown in the following diagram:

(i) Name the structures in the human body represented respectively by


(1) pump X and pump Y. (2 marks)
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(2) chambers A, B, C and D. (4 marks)
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(3) tubes R and S. (2 marks)
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(ii) In constructing this model, the student neglected one important function of the 'heart-lung' machine
compared with the actual system. State what the student neglected. (1 mark)
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(iii) Compare this model with the actual system again. Can chamber K represent the rest of the body? Why?
(2 marks)
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##
(i) (1) pump X - right ventricle (1 mark)
pump Y - left ventricle (1 mark)
(2) Chamber A - gut/small intestine/liver (1 mark)
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Chamber B - right auricle (1 mark)
Chamber C - lung (1 mark)
Chamber D - left auricle (1 mark)
(3) tube R - vena cava (1 mark)
tube S - aorta (1 mark)
(ii) He should set a chamber to remove the carbon dioxide and wastes in blood. (1 mark)
(iii) No, chamber K cannot represent the rest of the body. (1 mark)
After reaching the digestive system the blood should flow back to the heart instead of circulating to the
rest of the body. (1 mark)
___________
(11 marks)##

|!|EQA01400015|!|
A freshly dissected pig heart was connected to a water tap as shown in the diagram below:

(i) (1) From which labeled blood vessel(s) would water come out if the water tap was opened?
(1 mark)
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(2) Account for your answer in (1). (1 mark)
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(ii) Name blood vessels A, B and C. (3 marks)
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(iii) (1) The heart was then disconnected from the water tap and squeezed. The water in the heart could not
flow back to the vena cava. Why? (2 marks)
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(2) Complete the diagram below to show the condition of the internal structures of the right side of the
heart at that stage. (2 marks)

(iv) (1) How does a clot in the coronary artery affect the heart as a whole? (1 mark)
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(2) State TWO human activities which might cause a clot to form in the coronary artery. (2 marks)
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##
(i) (1) B (1 mark)
(2) Vessel A and vessel C were connected to the left chambers of the heart. They were separated from
the right by a septum. (1 mark)
(ii) A: aorta (1 mark)
B: pulmonary artery (1 mark)
C: pulmonary vein (1 mark)
(iii) (1) There were tricuspid valves to stop the backflow of water. (2 marks)
(2)

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Chapter 14: The human circulatory system
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(2 marks)
(iv) (1) The clot will reduce the supply of blood to the heart tissue through the coronary artery.
(1 mark)
(2) Eating too much food with a high level of cholesterol. (1 mark)
Not doing sufficient exercise. (1 mark)
___________
(12 marks)##

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Chapter 14: The human circulatory system
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Extension Section

|!|EQA01400016|!|
Paul examined a diagram of some body cells and capillaries:

body cell

B
A

: direction of blood flow

(i) Name TWO wastes, produced by the body cells, that enter the bloodstream. (2 marks)
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(ii) State and explain a difference between the blood at point A and point B in terms of oxygen content. (3
marks)
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(iii) (1) Name the fluid surrounding the body cells. (1 mark)
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(2) State and explain TWO differences between the blood and the fluid named in (1). (3 marks)
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##
(i) Carbon dioxide and urea. (2 marks)
(ii) The oxygen content in the blood at A is higher than that at B (1 mark)
because oxygen diffuses out of the capillary to the body cells (1 mark)
for respiration to release energy. (1 mark)
(iii) (1) Tissue fluid. (1 mark)
(2) The blood contains red blood cells and plasma proteins while the tissue fluid does not.
(2 marks)
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Chapter 14: The human circulatory system
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It is because the red blood cells and the proteins are too large to pass through the capillary walls. (1
mark)
_________
(9 marks)##

|!|EQB01400017|!|
* The diagram below shows a number of body cells and their neighbouring capillaries in a mammal:

(i) Name cells X and Y. (1 mark)


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(ii) What are the differences in composition between fluid A and fluid C? (2 marks)
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(iii) What are the differences in composition between fluid A and fluid B? (3 marks)
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(iv) Describe briefly how fluid A can pass out through the capillary wall. (1 mark)
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(v) Describe briefly how fluid B can pass into the capillary through the capillary wall. (2 marks)
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(vi) Give TWO substances which pass from fluid A into the body cells. (2 marks)
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Chapter 14: The human circulatory system
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(vii) Name the process which enables (vi) to occur. (1 mark)
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(viii) Name one substance which passes from the body cells into body fluid B. (1 mark)
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(ix) Name the process which enables cell X to pass through the capillary wall. (1 mark)
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(x) State the structural feature of the capillary wall which facilitates cell X to pass through. (1 mark)
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(xi) Name vessel W and the fluid inside it. (1 mark)
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##
(i) Cell X - white blood cell (1/2 mark)
Cell Y - red blood cell (1/2 mark)
(ii) Red blood cells and blood proteins are present in fluid C but absent in fluid A. (2 marks)
(iii)
Fluid A Fluid B
Dissolved gas content: more oxygen (less less oxygen (more
carbon dioxide) carbon dioxide)
Amount of nutrients: more less
Amount of wastes: less more
(1 mark each) (3 marks)
(iv) High blood pressure forces fluid A to pass out through the capillary wall. (1 mark)
(v) As fluid C flows along the capillary network, it becomes more and more concentrated because water is
forced out by hydrostatic pressure. The concentration of blood at the venous end is higher than that of
fluid B, so fluid B passes into the capillary by osmosis. (2 marks)
(vi) oxygen and glucose (2 marks)
(vii) diffusion (1 mark)
(viii) carbon dioxide (1 mark)
(ix) amoeboid movement (1 mark)
(x) The capillary wall is only one cell thick. (1 mark)
(xi) lymph capillary/ lymph vessel, lymph (1 mark)
___________
(16 marks)##

|!|EQA01400018|!|
(i) State TWO similarities between veins and lymph vessels. (2 marks)
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Chapter 14: The human circulatory system
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(ii) State THREE functions of the lymphatic system. (3 marks)
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(iii) Give TWO ways by which lymph can be returned to the heart in the right direction. (2 marks)
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(iv) Red blood cells are biconcave rather than spherical in shape. State ONE reason for this structure.
(2 marks)
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##
(i) Valves are present in veins and lymph vessels. (1 mark)
They both carry fluids towards the heart. (1 mark)
(ii) - acts as a bridge for the exchange of materials between capillaries and tissue cells. (1 mark)
- transports digested fats from lacteals to the bloodstream (1 mark)
- produces lymphocytes to defend against pathogens (1 mark)
(iii) The valves in the lymph vessels prevent the backflow of lymph. (1 mark)
Contraction of skeletal muscles presses the lymph vessels and causes the lymph to flow forward.
(1 mark)
(iv) A biconcave shape can increase the ratio of surface area to volume, thus the large surface area of
blood cells can allow oxygen to diffuse quickly. (2 marks)
__________
(9 marks)##

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