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Logic is not everything. But it is something-something which can be taught, something which can be learned, something which can help us in
some degree to think more sensibly about the dangerous world in which we live.
-David Hackett Fischer-
DEFII!I" "F #$IL"%"#$&
Etymologically, the word philosophy is derived 'rom two (reek words)
#hilos - love
%ophia - wisdom *love o' wisdom+
,I%D"- . re'ers to understanding o' the 'irst truths . the good, the real, the beauti'ul, the /ust, the
truth itsel'. !here'ore, #hilosophers are regarded as lovers o' wisdom.
%tudent) sir, I wonder what philosophy means
!eacher) that0s precisely what it means. #hilosophy is about ,"DE1I(.
%tudent) what do you mean sir, by wondering2
!eacher) when we wonder, we ask 3uestions, 3uestions that are related to our e4istence.
Even pain'ul 3uestions.
%tudent) what makes a 3uestion pain'ul2
!eacher) when it bothers us in our com'ort 5one.
Philosophy is for those who are willing to be disturbed, but with creative disturbance....
!he term Logic, originating 'rom the classical greek word logos . word 7was introduced by 8eno,
the %toic #hilosopher9. Logic is best e4plained by doing it. #racticing the art o' logical thinking and
ac3uiring the skills to do so will enhance our understanding o' logic better than trying to describe it. Let
us consider some 'ormal de'initions o' logic selected at random 'rom representative writers on the
Logic may be said to be concerned with the 3uestion o' ade3uacy or probative value o' di''erent
kinds o' evidence.
Logic deals with arguments and in'erences. "ne o' its main purposes is to provide methods 'or
distinguishing those which are logically correct 'rom those which are not.
Logic is the study o' the methods and principles used to distinguish good 'rom bad reasoning.
Logic as a science
It is a science because it is a systemati5ed body o' knowledge which is considered to be true.
:s a science it 'ollows procedures, structures, principles, and rules that validate a certain statement or
Logic as an art
It is an art since it has an order or rules to be 'ollowed in order to have a good and
comprehensible presentation or organi5ation o' ideas. !his order gives us an easy way to understand
an argument, hence, as an art< it is a skill to be developed.
6orrect reasoning
Logic adheres to what is correct. 6orrectness in logic deals with how we derive our /udgments
and conclusions by 'ollowing the set o' rules and standards using structures and patterns.
!rue 1easoning
Logic must also be true, since it is not only concerned with the presentation or 'orm o'
statements and arguments but also in the thought or material content o' the message about the reality.
!o better understand the de'inition o' logic, it is necessary to clari'y some o' the terms we use
such as !E1-, #1"#"%I!I" :D %&LL"(I%-.