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Topic 2.1 CCeellllss TThhee BBuuildildiningg BBlolocckkss ooff LLifeife
Topic 2.1
CCeellllss TThhee BBuuildildiningg BBlolocckkss
ooff LLifeife
Cells Cells Cells can exist: Singly as independent unicellular organisms As part of multicellular organisms
Cells Cells
Cells can exist:
Singly as independent unicellular
organisms
As part of multicellular organisms
• Such cells are modified for specific functions
Cell Structure TThhee ccoonntrtrooll NNuucclleeuuss cceenntrtree
Cell Structure
TThhee ccoonntrtrooll
NNuucclleeuuss
cceenntrtree

Cells Cells Are the basic structural and functional units of life
Cells Cells
Are the basic structural and functional
units of life
Cell Structure PPrroottooppllaassmm TThhee livliviningg mmaattetterr ooff cceellslls ConsistsConsists of:of:
Cell Structure
PPrroottooppllaassmm TThhee livliviningg
mmaattetterr ooff cceellslls
ConsistsConsists of:of:
NNuucclleeuuss
CCyyttooppllaassmm
CCeellll ssuurrffaaccee
mmeemmbbrraannee
Cell Structure TThhee ccoonntrtrooll NNuucclleeuuss cceenntrtree StructureStructure •Chromatin •Nucleolus
Cell Structure
TThhee ccoonntrtrooll
NNuucclleeuuss
cceenntrtree
StructureStructure
•Chromatin
•Nucleolus
•Nuclear envelope
•Nucleoplasm

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Cell Structure WWhhaatt aabboouutt NNuucclleeuuss cchhrroommoossoommeess??
Cell Structure
WWhhaatt aabboouutt
NNuucclleeuuss
cchhrroommoossoommeess??
Cell Structure CCyyttooppllaassmm TThhee lalabboorraatotorryy • Colloidal (glue-like); • Mainly water with salts
Cell Structure
CCyyttooppllaassmm
TThhee lalabboorraatotorryy
• Colloidal (glue-like);
• Mainly water with salts & sugars
• Larger molecules of fats &
proteins
• Endless chemical reactions
taking place
• With many small structures
called organelles
Cell Structure MembranesMembranes - Larger, polar molecules are not able to pass through, and would
Cell Structure
MembranesMembranes
- Larger, polar molecules are not able to pass
through, and would require a “channel” to enter/exit.

Cell Structure TThhee ccoonntrtrooll NNuucclleeuuss cceenntrtree FunctionsFunctions •Control centre for cell’s
Cell Structure
TThhee ccoonntrtrooll
NNuucclleeuuss
cceenntrtree
FunctionsFunctions
•Control centre for cell’s activities
•Control cell division
•Contains genetic material
Cell Structure MembranesMembranes - Partially permeable and made up of lipids & proteins. - Lipid
Cell Structure
MembranesMembranes
- Partially permeable and made up of lipids & proteins.
- Lipid bilayer allows small substances like water,
carbon dioxide and oxygen to pass through.
Cell Structure MembranesMembranes 1. Provides a boundary: a. Constant internal environment b. Allows for
Cell Structure
MembranesMembranes
1. Provides a
boundary:
a. Constant internal
environment
b. Allows for
compartments
2. Presence of proteins
embedded in the
membrane

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Cell Structure OOrrggaanneelllleess TTininyy sstrtruucctuturreess inin ththee ccyytotopplalassmm
Cell Structure
OOrrggaanneelllleess
TTininyy sstrtruucctuturreess inin
ththee ccyytotopplalassmm
mmiittoocchhoonnddrriioonn
cchhlloorrooppllaasstt
• These structures perform specialised functions
essential for the normal cell functioning
The most obvious: Nucleus
vvaaccuuoolleess
nnuucclleeuuss
Cell Structure VVaaccuuoolleess FFluluidid--fillefilledd ssppaacceess eenncclolosseedd bbyy aa mmeemmbbrraannee •
Cell Structure
VVaaccuuoolleess
FFluluidid--fillefilledd ssppaacceess
eenncclolosseedd bbyy aa mmeemmbbrraannee
• Plant cells: Usually contains
a single large central
vacuole enclosed by a
membrane called the
tonoplast
• Cell sap contains water and
dissolved food substances
Cell Structure MMiittoocchhoonnddrriiaa PPoowweerrhhoouusseess ooff ththee cceellll • Involved in the release of
Cell Structure
MMiittoocchhoonnddrriiaa
PPoowweerrhhoouusseess
ooff ththee cceellll
• Involved in the release of energy
from food substances during
respiration
• Energy released temporarily in
small molecules called ATP
• ATP can be transported to parts
of the cell that require energy

Cell Structure VVaaccuuoolleess FFluluidid--fillefilledd ssppaacceess eenncclolosseedd bbyy aa mmeemmbbrraannee •
Cell Structure
VVaaccuuoolleess
FFluluidid--fillefilledd ssppaacceess
eenncclolosseedd bbyy aa mmeemmbbrraannee
• Fluid is watery and non-
protoplasmic
• Animal cells: Many small
vacuoles, usually temporary
• May contain water and food
substances
Cell Structure VVaaccuuoolleess FFluluidid--fillefilledd ssppaacceess eenncclolosseedd bbyy aa mmeemmbbrraannee
Cell Structure
VVaaccuuoolleess
FFluluidid--fillefilledd ssppaacceess
eenncclolosseedd bbyy aa mmeemmbbrraannee
FFuunnccttiioonnss::
• Keep the cytoplasm
concentration constant
• Collect & remove waste products
• Act as food reserves
• Give turgidity & support to cells
Mitochondrion Mitochondrion
Mitochondrion Mitochondrion

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What is… AATTPP AAddeennoossininee TTrripiphhoosspphhaatete • The batteries of the cell • When required, they
What is…
AATTPP
AAddeennoossininee TTrripiphhoosspphhaatete
• The batteries of the cell
• When required, they can
be broken down to
release energy
• Energy may be used to
perform activities
essential to life
Energy
Cell Structure Rough PPrrootteeiinn ssyynntthheessiiss endoplasmic reticulum •Joining amino acids together
Cell Structure
Rough
PPrrootteeiinn ssyynntthheessiiss
endoplasmic
reticulum
•Joining amino acids
together
•Occurs at the
ribosomes
•These are found in
the cytoplasm or
attached to the
endoplasmic
reticulum
Ribosome
Fig Fig 2.2 2.2 Structure Structure of of a a generalized generalized plant plant cell
Fig Fig 2.2 2.2 Structure Structure of of a a generalized generalized plant plant cell cell

Nucleus Cell Structure Nuclear Pore NucleusNucleus • Nucleolus: Involved in the synthesis of material for
Nucleus
Cell Structure
Nuclear Pore
NucleusNucleus
• Nucleolus: Involved in the
synthesis of material for the
ribosomes.
• Information in DNA contains
instructions for making
proteins.
• This information must be
“copied” and the copies are
moved out of the nucleus
through the nuclear pores.
are moved out of the nucleus through the nuclear pores. For plants only… OOrrggaanneelllleess
For plants only… OOrrggaanneelllleess CChhlolorroopplalasststs • Chloroplasts: 2 membranes Stores starch Where
For plants only…
OOrrggaanneelllleess CChhlolorroopplalasststs
• Chloroplasts:
2 membranes
Stores starch
Where
photosynthesis
occurs

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For plants only… CCeellll WWaallll && MMiiddddllee LLaammeellllaa Cell Wall: • Non-living • Fully
For plants only…
CCeellll WWaallll && MMiiddddllee LLaammeellllaa
Cell Wall:
• Non-living
• Fully permeable
• Rigid: Gives shape and
support to the cells
• Mainly made up of cellulose
Middle Lamella:
• Thin cementing material
between adjacent cells
• Fully permeable

Some Some differences…… differences PPllaanntt cceellll AAnniimmaall cceellll HHaavvee cceellll wwaallll
Some Some differences…… differences
PPllaanntt cceellll
AAnniimmaall cceellll
HHaavvee cceellll wwaallll eenncclloossiinngg
tthhee pprroottooppllaassmm
HHaavvee cchhlloorrooppllaassttss ffoorr
pphhoottoossyynntthheessiiss
HHaavvee llaarrggee ssiinnggllee
vvaaccuuoollee
NNoo cceellll wwaallll
NNoo cchhlloorrooppllaassttss
SSttoorree eexxcceessss ffoooodd aass
ssttaarrcchh ggrraaiinnss
OOnnllyy hhaavvee nnuummeerroouuss
ssmmaallll tteemmppoorraarryy
vvaaccuuoolleess
SSttoorree aass ggllyyccooggeenn

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