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Elect rical Machines 302-2006 Chapter 7 (Lect ures 8-10)

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE DYNAMICS

Dr. Mohammad A.S. Masoum

Electrical & Computer Engineering Department Curtin University of Technology Perth, West Australia Email: m.masoum@curtin.edu.au

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE DYNAMICS

7.1. Classification of Stability Problems

7.2. Angle Stability

7.3. Synchronous Machine Dynamics

7.3.1. The Swing Equation [3]

7.3.2. Normalized Swing Equation [1-2]

7.3.3. The Power-Angle Equation [1-2]

7.3.4. Synchronous Machine Power Coefficients [1-2]

7.3.5. Response to a Step Change in Pm [1-2]

7.4. Linear Analysis of Swing Equation [3]

7.5 Equal-Area Criterion of Stability (Nonlinear Analysis of Swing Equation) [1-3]

7.6. Numerical Integration Methods to Solve Power System Stability problems [1-2]

[1]. P. Kundur, “Power System Stability and Control”, McGraw-Hill, 1994. [2]. W.D. Stevenson, “Elements of Power System Analysis”, 1995. [3]. A.E. Fitzgerald &…, “Electric Machinery”, Fifth Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1990.

7.1. Classificat ion of St ability Problem s

Power System Stability- property of the power system that enables it to remain in a state of operating equilibrium under normal operating conditions and to regain an acceptable state of equilibrium after being subjected to a disturbance. Since power systems rely on synchronous machines (SM) for electrical power generation

a necessary condition for stability is that: all synchronous machines remain in synchronism

is that: all synchronous machines remain in synchronism • PS stability can also be defined as:

PS stability can also be defined as: propertyis that: all synchronous machines remain in synchronism • enabling synchronous machines to respond to a

enabling synchronous machines to respond to a disturbance and return to their normal operation Instability- loss of synchronism

Hunting- periodic variations in applied torque (e.g.,

to steam generators)

variations in applied torque (e.g., to steam generators) periodic speed variations periodic variations in system

periodic speed variations

torque (e.g., to steam generators) periodic speed variations periodic variations in system voltage (V) & frequency

periodic variations in system voltage (V) & frequency

periodic variations in V & F of motors

(F)

frequency periodic variations in V & F of motors (F) (connected to the system) loss of

(connected to the system)

in V & F of motors (F) (connected to the system) loss of synchronism Classification of

loss of synchronism

Classification of Stability problems:

PSS problems may be classified as [1]:

Angle Stability

Voltage Stability

Frequency (Mid- and Long-Term) Stability Each category can be divided to [1-2]:

Small-Signal (Dynamic) Stability

Transient Stability

Transient Stability:

Determines if system remains in synchronism following a major disturbance (e.g., transmission fault, sudden load change, loss of generation, line switching) Need to model: Generators + their excitation systems + turbine governing control systems Must solve nonlinear differential equations (by direct or iterative procedures) Two types:

-- First-Swing Stability: for 1 st second after a system fault (simple generator model & no control model) -- Multi-Swing Stability: system analysis over long period of time (more sophisticated machine model)

Small-Signal (Dynamic) Stability:

Determines

if

system

remains

in

synchronism

following a small disturbance (e.g., small load and/or generation variations)

Excitation + turbine governing systems are replaced by synchronous machine model analysis of flux linkage variation

machine model analysis of flux linkage variation • • Nonlinear differential equations are replaced by a

Nonlinear differential equations are replaced by a set of linear equations

Usual Assumptions (to facilitate computation):

Only synchronous F (no dc-off set, no harmonics)

Use of symmetrical components

Constant generator voltage

Use phasor + load-flow + positive sequence network

Pow er System St abilit y • Ability to remain in operating equilibrium • Equilibrium
Pow er System St abilit y
• Ability to remain
in operating equilibrium
• Equilibrium btw opposing forces
Angle St abilit y
Frequency St abilit y
Volt age St abilit y
• Ability to maintain synchronism
• Torque balance of Synchronous machines
• Ability to maintain steady
acceptable voltage
• Reactive power balance
Sm all-Signal
Stability
Transient
Stability
Large-Disturbance
Voltage Stability
Sm all-Disturbance
Voltage Stability
• Large-disturbances
• First-swing aperiodic drift
• Study period: up to 10 s
• Large disturbance
switching events
• Steady-state P/Q-V
relations
Non-osc illatory
Osc illatory
• Dynamics of ULTC
and Loads
• Stability margins,
Q reserve
• Insufficient
• Insufficient
damping torque
synchronous
• Unstable control action
• Coordination of
protections & controls
torque
Mid-term Stability
Long-term St ability

Severe upsets, large voltage & frequency

Fast & slow dynamics

Study period: to several minutes

Uniform system frequency

Slow dynamics

Study period: to tens of minutes

7.2. Angle Stability

Rotor angle stability is the ability of interconnected synchronous machines of a power system to remain in synchronism & involves

the study of the inherent electromechanical oscillation

need to

know, how the output of synchronous machines vary as their rotors oscillate.

of synchronous machines vary as their rotors oscillate. Sync hronous Machine Charact eristics: • When rotor

Sync hronous Machine Charact eristics:

When rotor (containing field windings, excited by dc current) is driven by a prime mover (turbine), the rotating magnetic field (of rotor) induces ac voltages in the stator armature windings. Frequency (F) of resulting V & I is synchronized with rotor mechanical speed. Resulting stator currents also produce a rotating mmf that, under steady-state operation, rotates at the same speed as rotor with an angular separation (depending on electrical output torque Te (or power P).

Pow er-Angle Relat ionship:

The highly nonlinear (approximately sinusoidal) relation btw interchange power and rotor angular positions of synchronous machines, has a bearing on PSS:

(Motor) (Generator)
(Motor)
(Generator)
machines, has a bearing on PSS: (Motor) (Generator) E G E X T M P sin

E

G

E

X

T

M

P

sin

,

(X

T

X

G

X

L

X

M

)

on PSS: (Motor) (Generator) E G E X T M P sin , (X T X
on PSS: (Motor) (Generator) E G E X T M P sin , (X T X

The St ability Phenom ena:

Stability is a condition of equilibrium btw opposing forces.

Interconnected synchronous machines maintain synchronism with one another through restoring forces, which acts whenever there are forces tending to accelerate or decelerate one or more machine wrt other machines.

Under steady-state, there is equilibrium btw input mechanical torque & output electrical torque (or power) of each machine speed remains constant.

torque (or power) of each machine speed remains constant. • If one generator temporary runs faster

If one generator temporary runs faster than another the

resulting angular difference transfers part of the load from the

angular difference transfers part of the load from the slow machine to the fast machine angular

slow machine to the fast machine

angular position.

from the slow machine to the fast machine angular position. reduces speed difference & • However,

reduces speed difference &

However, the power-angle relation is highly nonlinear

• However, the power-angle relation is highly nonlinear beyond a certain limit, an increase in angle

beyond a certain limit, an increase in angle is accompanied by

a decrease in P

beyond a certain limit, an increase in angle is accompanied by a decrease in P further

further increase in angle

beyond a certain limit, an increase in angle is accompanied by a decrease in P further

instability

SM Torque (or Power) , following a perturbation:

e

s

D

T

T

T

-Synchronous Torque (

-Damping Torque (

T

s

T

D

): in phase with rotor angle perturbation

): in phase with speed deviation

PSS depends on the existence of both torque components for each machine:

--lack of sufficient Tsyn in rotor angle --lack of sufficient Tdamp

T syn in rotor angle -- lack of sufficient T damp instability through a periodic drift

instability through a periodic drift

of sufficient T damp instability through a periodic drift oscillatory instability • Angle stability phenomena is

oscillatory instability

Angle stability phenomena is characterized in:

(a)

small-signal (or small-disturbance) stability

(b)

transient stability

Sm all-Signal (Dynam ic) Angle Stabilit y:

The ability of the power system to maintain synchronism under small disturbances (e.g., small variations in loads & generation)

Disturbances

are

considered

sufficiently

small,

for

linearization of system equations

 

Two types of instability - (i) steady increase in angle (lack of Tsyn), -(ii) rotor oscillation of increasing amplitude (lack of Tdamp).

System response to small-signal disturbances depend on a number factors (initial operating state, transmission system strength, type of generator excitation control)

For example, for a generator connected radially to a large power system,instability may be due lack of Ts (with constant field voltage) or Td (with a voltage regulator).

Nature of sm all- disturbanc e response for a single m achine- infinite bus system

Nature of sm all- disturbanc e response for a single m achine- infinite bus system

T

e

T

s

T

D

Generator with constant field voltage

T s T D Generator with constant field voltage Generator with automatic voltage regulator (excitation

Generator with automatic voltage regulator (excitation control)

Transient Angle Stability (THIS CHAPTER):

The

ability of the power system to maintain

synchronism when subjected to a severe transient disturbance (e.g., different types of transmission line short circuits, bus or transformer faults, loss of generation, loss of a large load) .

The resulting system response involves large excursion rotor angles, power flows, bus voltages and other system variables & is influenced by the nonlinear power-angle relationship

If resulting angular separation btw machines remains within certain bounds, system maintains synchronism

Loss

(due

usually be evident within 2 to 3 sec of initial disturbance

of

Synchronism

transient

stability)

will

Transient Angle Stability (Continue):

The fault is usually assumed to be cleared by opening of appropriate breakers.

The term dynamic stability has been widely used as a class of rotor angle stability, denoting different aspects by different authors therefore, we will not use it here

Stability study-period is usually limited to 3-5 seconds

by different authors therefore, we will not use it here • Stability study-period is usually limited

An example of a synchronous machine behavior to transient disturbance in shown below:

First-swing instability: rotor angle steadily increases until lost of synchronism, caused by insufficient Ts Stable
First-swing instability: rotor angle steadily increases
until lost of synchronism, caused by insufficient Ts
Stable on first –swing, but becomes
unstable as a result of growing
oscillation as end state is approached
Stable: angle increases to a max, then
deceases & oscillates with decreasing
magnitude until reaches a steady-state

7.3. Synchronous Machine Dynam ics

Of central importance for PSS analysis are rotational

inertia

equation

(describing

effects

of

unbalance

btw

Telectromagnetic &Tmechanical of individual SM).

Based on elementary principle in dynamics:

Taccelerating=Ta =(moment of inertia)(angular acceleration)

= T a = ( moment of inertia )( angular acceleration ) combined (generator + prime

combined (generator + prime mover) moment of inertia (kg.m2)

combined (generator + prime mover) moment of inertia (kg.m2) angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s) generator

angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s)

of inertia (kg.m2) angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s) generator motor Steady-state condition : T m
generator
generator
motor
motor

Steady-state condition: Tm=Te Ta=0 no acceleration (or deceleration) constant speed = synchronous = o

motor Steady-state condition : T m =T e T a =0 no acceleration (or deceleration) constant
motor Steady-state condition : T m =T e T a =0 no acceleration (or deceleration) constant
motor Steady-state condition : T m =T e T a =0 no acceleration (or deceleration) constant

7.3.1. The Sw ing Equat ion [3]

7.3.1. The Sw ing Equat ion [3]
7.3.1. The Sw ing Equat ion [3]
7.3.1. The Sw ing Equat ion [3]

7.3.2. Norm alized Sw ing Equat ion [1-2]

7.3.2. Norm alized Sw ing Equat ion [1-2]
can be normalized in terms of per unit inertia constant ( H ), defined as
can be normalized in terms of per unit inertia constant ( H ), defined as
can be normalized in terms of per unit inertia constant ( H ), defined as

can be normalized in terms of

per unit inertia constant (H), defined as kinetic energy in watt-seconds at rated speeddivided by based VA”:

angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s)

based VA ”: • angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s) rated angular velocity of rotor (mech.

rated angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s)

(mech. rad/s) rated angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s) rearranging number of field poles • since
(mech. rad/s) rated angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s) rearranging number of field poles • since
(mech. rad/s) rated angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s) rearranging number of field poles • since
(mech. rad/s) rated angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s) rearranging number of field poles • since

rearranging

rated angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s) rearranging number of field poles • since : angular
rated angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s) rearranging number of field poles • since : angular
rated angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s) rearranging number of field poles • since : angular
rated angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s) rearranging number of field poles • since : angular

number of

field poles

since:

rad/s) rearranging number of field poles • since : angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s) rated

angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s)

rated angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s)

angular velocity of rotor (ele. rad/s)

rated angular velocity of rotor (ele. rad/s)

If =rotor angular position (ele. rad) wrt a synchronously rotating reference & o=its value at t=0:

rotating reference & o =its value at t=0 : • Substituting in gives : • It
rotating reference & o =its value at t=0 : • Substituting in gives : • It
rotating reference & o =its value at t=0 : • Substituting in gives : • It
rotating reference & o =its value at t=0 : • Substituting in gives : • It

Substituting

reference & o =its value at t=0 : • Substituting in gives : • It is

in

& o =its value at t=0 : • Substituting in gives : • It is often

gives:

& o =its value at t=0 : • Substituting in gives : • It is often

It is often desirable to include a component for damping

torque, not included in Te by adding a term proportional to speed deviation:

rotor angular position (ele. rad)

Sw ing Equation: represents swings of rotor angle during disturbances. Graph of solution: Sw ing
Sw ing Equation: represents swings of rotor angle
during disturbances. Graph of solution: Sw ing Curve
angular velocity of
rotor (ele. rad/s)
damping factor (pu
torque/pu speed)
of rotor (ele. rad/s) damping factor (pu torque/pu speed) unit inertia constant (watt- sec/VA at rated

unit inertia constant (watt- sec/VA at rated speed)

rated angular velocity of rotor (ele. rad/s)

(pu torque/pu speed) unit inertia constant (watt- sec/VA at rated speed) rated angular velocity of rotor

Further Consideration of The Sw ing Equation:

The swing equation may be written in terms of pu power:

The swing equation may be written in terms of pu power : and s = o

and

s =

o (rated

angular velocity of rotor) should have consistent units (mech. or ele. rad/s)

rotor) should have consistent units (mech. or ele. rad/s) in ele. rad in ele. deg. •
in ele. rad
in ele. rad
in ele. deg.
in ele. deg.

For large systems (with many machines), minimize number of swing equations by assuming disturbances affect machines so that their rotors swings together combine machines into one single equivalent machine. Consider a power plant with two generators connected on the same bus:

machine. Consider a power plant with two generators connected on the same bus : since rotors
machine. Consider a power plant with two generators connected on the same bus : since rotors

since rotors swing together

1= 2=

machine. Consider a power plant with two generators connected on the same bus : since rotors
machine. Consider a power plant with two generators connected on the same bus : since rotors
machine. Consider a power plant with two generators connected on the same bus : since rotors
[2]
[2]

Machines which swing together are called coherent. When

and s = o are expressed in electrical degrees or radians, the swing equations of coherent machines can be combined together (even when they have different rated speed)

For any pair of non-coherent machines :

rated speed) • For any pair of non-coherent machines : where : • An application of

where:

speed) • For any pair of non-coherent machines : where : • An application of these
speed) • For any pair of non-coherent machines : where : • An application of these
speed) • For any pair of non-coherent machines : where : • An application of these
speed) • For any pair of non-coherent machines : where : • An application of these

An application of these equations is a two-system machine system: a generator (machine 1) and a Synchronous motor (machine 2) connected by a pure reactance line:

machine system: a generator (machine 1) and a Synchronous motor (machine 2) connected by a pure

&

machine system: a generator (machine 1) and a Synchronous motor (machine 2) connected by a pure
machine system: a generator (machine 1) and a Synchronous motor (machine 2) connected by a pure

7.3.3.

The Pow er Angle

Equat ion [1-2]

7.3.3. The Pow er Angle Equat ion [1-2] for generator, P m will be considered constant

for generator, Pm will be considered

constant (e.g., electrical conditions are expected to change before turbine reacts) Pe determines whether rotor

accelerates, decelerates, or remains at syn. speed (Pe=Pm)

In

decelerates, or remains at syn. speed (P e =P m ) In • For transient stability

For transient stability each syn. machine is represented by:

transient stability each syn. machine is represented by : transient internal voltage transient reactance each machine
transient stability each syn. machine is represented by : transient internal voltage transient reactance each machine

transient internal voltage

transient reactance

each machine must be considered relative to the system of which it is a part
each machine must be considered relative to the
system of which it is a part
phasor angles are
measured wrt the common system reference

Consider a generator (bus#1) supplying power through a transmission line to a receiving-end system (bus#2):

synchronous

generator

to a receiving-end system (bus#2) : synchronous generator receiving-end system infinite-bus or synchronous motor
to a receiving-end system (bus#2) : synchronous generator receiving-end system infinite-bus or synchronous motor

receiving-end

system

system (bus#2) : synchronous generator receiving-end system infinite-bus or synchronous motor transient internal

infinite-bus or synchronous motor

transient internal generator voltage

Using

or synchronous motor transient internal generator voltage • Using with : • Similar equations apply to

with

:
:
or synchronous motor transient internal generator voltage • Using with : • Similar equations apply to

Similar equations apply to bus#2.

Let

• Let and then : where • For a zero-resistance network ( and are zero) :

and

• Let and then : where • For a zero-resistance network ( and are zero) :

then:

• Let and then : where • For a zero-resistance network ( and are zero) :
• Let and then : where • For a zero-resistance network ( and are zero) :

where

• Let and then : where • For a zero-resistance network ( and are zero) :
• Let and then : where • For a zero-resistance network ( and are zero) :

For a zero-resistance network (

Let and then : where • For a zero-resistance network ( and are zero) : where

and

and then : where • For a zero-resistance network ( and are zero) : where The

are zero):

where The Power-Angle Equation (its graph is called: the power-angle curve)

where

The Power-Angle Equation (its graph is called: the power-angle curve)

The Power-Angle Equation (its graph is called: the power-angle curve)

zero-resistance network ( and are zero) : where The Power-Angle Equation (its graph is called: the

7.3.4. Sync hronizing Pow er Coeffic ients

The operating point= intersection of P- curve & Pm curve (e.g., =28.44 & =151.6)

However, =151.6 is not valid since: at an acceptable

operating point, generator should not lose synchronism due

to temporary changes in electrical output power:

generator should not lose synchronism due to temporary changes in electrical output power : • Let
generator should not lose synchronism due to temporary changes in electrical output power : • Let

Let us examine this:

generator should not lose synchronism due to temporary changes in electrical output power : • Let
generator should not lose synchronism due to temporary changes in electrical output power : • Let
generator should not lose synchronism due to temporary changes in electrical output power : • Let
generator should not lose synchronism due to temporary changes in electrical output power : • Let
generator should not lose synchronism due to temporary changes in electrical output power : • Let
generator should not lose synchronism due to temporary changes in electrical output power : • Let
generator should not lose synchronism due to temporary changes in electrical output power : • Let
generator should not lose synchronism due to temporary changes in electrical output power : • Let
generator should not lose synchronism due to temporary changes in electrical output power : • Let
generator should not lose synchronism due to temporary changes in electrical output power : • Let
generator should not lose synchronism due to temporary changes in electrical output power : • Let
also • Note that and is called: is the slop of the P- curve at
also • Note that and is called: is the slop of the P- curve at
also • Note that and is called: is the slop of the P- curve at
also
also
also • Note that and is called: is the slop of the P- curve at o
also • Note that and is called: is the slop of the P- curve at o

Note that and is called:

is the slop of the P- curve at o

Synchronizing Power Coefficient =
Synchronizing Power Coefficient =

Therefore:

swing equation for incremental rotor-angle variations
swing equation for incremental rotor-angle variations
swing equation for incremental rotor-angle variations
swing equation for incremental rotor-angle variations

swing equation for incremental rotor-angle variations

swing equation for incremental rotor-angle variations

A linear, second-order differential equation (its solution depends on algebraic sign of Sp)

Solution of

• Solution of depends on sign of S p :

depends on sign of Sp:

• Solution of depends on sign of S p : --- If by oscillation of undamped
• Solution of depends on sign of S p : --- If by oscillation of undamped

--- If

by oscillation of undamped swing pendulum) is solution to

>0:

= simple harmonic motion (represented

solution to >0: = simple harmonic motion (represented which is sinusoidal oscillations, undamped angular frequency
solution to >0: = simple harmonic motion (represented which is sinusoidal oscillations, undamped angular frequency
solution to >0: = simple harmonic motion (represented which is sinusoidal oscillations, undamped angular frequency
solution to >0: = simple harmonic motion (represented which is sinusoidal oscillations, undamped angular frequency

which is

sinusoidal

oscillations, undamped angular frequency:

is sinusoidal oscillations, undamped angular frequency : STABLE (e.g., at = 28.44 ) = 28.44 is
is sinusoidal oscillations, undamped angular frequency : STABLE (e.g., at = 28.44 ) = 28.44 is

STABLE (e.g., at = 28.44 ) (e.g., at = 28.44)

undamped angular frequency : STABLE (e.g., at = 28.44 ) = 28.44 is of stable equilibrium
undamped angular frequency : STABLE (e.g., at = 28.44 ) = 28.44 is of stable equilibrium

= 28.44 is of stable equilibrium in the sense that rotor angle swing is bounded following a small perturbation. In physical situation, damping will restore angle to = 28.44

--- If

situation, damping will restore angle to = 28.44 --- If <0: = increases exponentially without limit

<0:

damping will restore angle to = 28.44 --- If <0: = increases exponentially without limit UNSTABLE

= increases exponentially without limit

restore angle to = 28.44 --- If <0: = increases exponentially without limit UNSTABLE (e.g., at

UNSTABLE (e.g., at = 151.56)

restore angle to = 28.44 --- If <0: = increases exponentially without limit UNSTABLE (e.g., at

7.3.5. Response to a Step Change in Pm [1-2]

power-angle variations rotor angle time response
power-angle variations
rotor angle time response

(4) for > 1 we have Pe>Pm rotor decelerates

(4) for > 1 we have P e >P m rotor decelerates

(5) at some peak value max speed recovers to

syn (but Pe>Pm1) rotor continues to decelerate (speed dropping below

value max speed recovers to syn ( but P e >P m1 ) rotor continues to

syn

value max speed recovers to syn ( but P e >P m1 ) rotor continues to

c b

to decelerate (speed dropping below syn c b (1) step change in mechanical input power (3)

(1) step change in mechanical input power

syn c b (1) step change in mechanical input power (3) P accelerating is zero (P
syn c b (1) step change in mechanical input power (3) P accelerating is zero (P
syn c b (1) step change in mechanical input power (3) P accelerating is zero (P

(3) Paccelerating

is zero (Pm=Pe)

but r > syn

(3) P accelerating is zero (P m =P e ) but r > syn continues to

continues to increase

(2) rotor angle cannot change instantly from

o to 1 (rotor inertia).

Pm>Pe

rotor

(2) rotor angle cannot change instantly from o to 1 (rotor inertia). P m >P e

accelerates a b

(2) rotor angle cannot change instantly from o to 1 (rotor inertia). P m >P e

(7) if A2>A1 (that is > L )

(7) if A2>A1 (that is > L ) lost of stability (since P m1 >P e

lost of stability

(since Pm1>Pe and the net torque is accelerating rather than decelerating

(6) rotor angle oscillates indefinitely about the new equilibrium angle 1 with a constant amplitude (R=0)

7.4. Linear Analysis of Sw ing Equat ion [3]

7.4. Linear Analysis of Sw ing Equat ion [3]
7.4. Linear Analysis of Sw ing Equat ion [3]
7.4. Linear Analysis of Sw ing Equat ion [3]
[3]
[3]
[3]
[3]

7.5. Equal-Area Criterion of St ability

Swing eq: nonlinear

(even for “single-machine infinite-bus)

eq: nonlinear (even for “single-machine infinite-bus) solutions can not be explicitly found require computer

solutions can not be explicitly found

require computerinfinite-bus) solutions can not be explicitly found techniques. A direct solution approach (without solving eqs)

techniques. A direct solution approach (without solving eqs) for stability of two-machine system: equal-area criterion

Consider the system shown:

--- before fault: A (closed) & B (open)

(generator operating with o=Pm=Pe) --- during fault: three-phase fault at P --- after fault: A (open) to clear fault

Example 14.3operating with o=Pm=Pe) --- during fault: three-phase fault at P --- after fault: A (open) to

fault
fault
operating point before fault
operating point
before fault

Fault at to ( o): Pe=0 (a

• Fault at t o ( o ): P e =0 (a b) & P m

b) & Pm 0

• Fault at t o ( o ): P e =0 (a b) & P m

due to Pm - Pe>0

Ekinetic

e =0 (a b) & P m 0 due to P m - P e >0

rotor speed

P m 0 due to P m - P e >0 E kinetic rotor speed until

until fault clears at tc ( c) (b

E kinetic rotor speed until fault clears at t c ( c ) (b c) •
E kinetic rotor speed until fault clears at t c ( c ) (b c) •

c)

rotor speed until fault clears at t c ( c ) (b c) • During fault

During fault (to< t <tc ):

t c ( c ) (b c) • During fault (to< t <tc ): -- acceleration

--acceleration is constant:

--while velocity increases above s :

= constant

-- while velocity increases above s : = constant (e.g., increases linearly with time) --further integration:

(e.g., increases linearly with time)

--further integration: angular position = (e.g., : o c b fault occurs fault clears
--further integration:
angular position =
(e.g., : o
c
b
fault occurs
fault clears
linearly with time) --further integration: angular position = (e.g., : o c b fault occurs fault

c)

At the instant of fault clearing (tc ):

--increase in rotor speed:

of fault clearing (t c ): -- increase in rotor speed: -- separation angle: • At

--separation

angle:

(t c ): -- increase in rotor speed: -- separation angle: • At t c (fault

At tc (fault is cleared): Pe

-- separation angle: • At t c (fault is cleared): Pe P point-d >P m P

Ppoint-d >Pm

• At t c (fault is cleared): Pe P point-d >P m P accelerating <0 rotor

Paccelerating<0

is cleared): Pe P point-d >P m P accelerating <0 rotor slows down • At e:

rotor slows down

At e: again m= syn although its angle has advanced to x

( x determined such that A1=A2). Still Paccelerating<0

cannot remain at synchronous speed

P accelerating <0 cannot remain at synchronous speed d e rotor rotor slows down x o

d

P accelerating <0 cannot remain at synchronous speed d e rotor rotor slows down x o

e

P accelerating <0 cannot remain at synchronous speed d e rotor rotor slows down x o

rotor

P accelerating <0 cannot remain at synchronous speed d e rotor rotor slows down x o
P accelerating <0 cannot remain at synchronous speed d e rotor rotor slows down x o

rotor slows down

x

P accelerating <0 cannot remain at synchronous speed d e rotor rotor slows down x o

o

P accelerating <0 cannot remain at synchronous speed d e rotor rotor slows down x o

e

P accelerating <0 cannot remain at synchronous speed d e rotor rotor slows down x o

a (at which m< s)

P accelerating <0 cannot remain at synchronous speed d e rotor rotor slows down x o
P accelerating <0 cannot remain at synchronous speed d e rotor rotor slows down x o

from a to f: Pm>Pe

• from a to f: P m >P e m increases again until reaches synchronism at

m increases again until reaches

synchronism at f. Point f is such that A3=A4

In absence of damping: rotor continues to oscillate in the sequence f-a-e, e-a-f, etc with syn at e and f

=A 4 • In absence of damping: rotor continues to oscillate in the sequence f-a-e, e-a-f,

7.5.1. Derivation of Equal-Area Criterion (EAC):

Define relative angular velocity of rotor r= d /dt= - s differentiate it & substitute it into swing equation to get:

it & substitute it into swing equation to get : multiply by r=d /dt multiply by

multiply byr=d /dt

multiply by

r=d /dt r=d /dt

r=d /dt
into swing equation to get : multiply by r=d /dt multiply by dt & integrate r1
into swing equation to get : multiply by r=d /dt multiply by dt & integrate r1

multiply by dt& integrate

multiply by dt

& integratemultiply by dt

& integrate

r1 =0 r1=0

r2 =0 r2=0

when = 1

when = 2

& integrate r1 =0 r2 =0 when = 1 when = 2 r1 = r2 =0

r1= r2=0

r1 =0 r2 =0 when = 1 when = 2 r1 = r2 =0 • Apply

Apply last equation to points a & e ( 1= o & 2= x):

when = 1 when = 2 r1 = r2 =0 • Apply last equation to points
when = 1 when = 2 r1 = r2 =0 • Apply last equation to points

Equation

• Equation applies to any two points 1 and 2 at which rotor speed is synchronous

applies to any two points 1

and 2 at which rotor speed is synchronous Since rotor speed is synchronous at x and y

• Since rotor speed is synchronous at x and y A3=A4 directly proportional to increase in

A3=A4

directly proportional to increase in kinetic energy of rotor while it is accelerating

directly proportional to decrease in kinetic energy of rotor while it is decelerating

in kinetic energy of rotor while it is decelerating Equal-Area Criterion states : whatever kinetic energy
in kinetic energy of rotor while it is decelerating Equal-Area Criterion states : whatever kinetic energy
in kinetic energy of rotor while it is decelerating Equal-Area Criterion states : whatever kinetic energy
in kinetic energy of rotor while it is decelerating Equal-Area Criterion states : whatever kinetic energy

Equal-Area Criterion states: whatever kinetic energy is

added to rotor following a fault must be removed after the fault to restore rotor to synchronous speed

energy is added to rotor following a fault must be removed after the fault to restore

7.5.2. Critical Clearing Time:

A1 depends on time taken to clear the fault

If “long delay in clearing fault”

For long delay in clearing fault such that swing beyond

A1

long delay in clearing fault such that swing beyond A1 A2 x max (e.g., x >

A2

long delay in clearing fault such that swing beyond A1 A2 x max (e.g., x >

x

delay in clearing fault such that swing beyond A1 A2 x max (e.g., x > max
delay in clearing fault such that swing beyond A1 A2 x max (e.g., x > max

max (e.g., x> max)

INSTABILITY (due to Paccelerating >0)

max ) INSTABILITY (due to P accelerating >0) • There is a “ Critical Clearing Angle

There is a Critical Clearing Angle ( cr)” for clearing the

fault in order to satisfy Equal-Area Criterion for stability The required time is called: Critical Clearing Time (tcr)

for stability • The required time is called: “ Critical Clearing Time ( t cr )
critical clearing angle
critical clearing
angle

Computing cr and t cr:

Computing cr and t cr : • (since P e =0) • Set A 1 =A

(since Pe=0)

Computing cr and t cr : • (since P e =0) • Set A 1 =A

Set A1 =A2 and transpose terms:

• (since P e =0) • Set A 1 =A 2 and transpose terms : •

Substituting

Set A 1 =A 2 and transpose terms : • • Substituting and gives : critical

and

A 1 =A 2 and transpose terms : • • Substituting and gives : critical clearing

gives:

critical clearing angle

: • • Substituting and gives : critical clearing angle Substituting cr into gives : critical
: • • Substituting and gives : critical clearing angle Substituting cr into gives : critical

Substituting cr into

and gives : critical clearing angle Substituting cr into gives : critical clearing t i m

gives:

gives : critical clearing angle Substituting cr into gives : critical clearing t i m e
gives : critical clearing angle Substituting cr into gives : critical clearing t i m e

critical

clearing

time

gives : critical clearing angle Substituting cr into gives : critical clearing t i m e
critical clearing angle
critical clearing
angle

7.5.3.Further Application Equal-Area Criterion:

So far, we have assumed Pe=0 during the fault.

When power is transmitted during a fault (e.g., when the fault effects only one line of a parallel transmission system):

(before fault) (after fault) (during fault)
(before fault)
(after fault)
(during fault)

By evaluating areas A1 and A2, we would find:

fault) • By evaluating areas A1 and A2, we would find : A literal form solution

A literal form solution for tcr is not possible in this case. When: r1=0 & r2=1

and A2, we would find : A literal form solution for t cr is not possible
and A2, we would find : A literal form solution for t cr is not possible

7.5.4. Response to a Short-Circuit Fault:

Three-phase fault at F(cleared by opening circuit breakers)

Three-phase fault at F(cleared by opening circuit breakers) equivalent circuit response to a fault cleared response

equivalent

circuit

at F(cleared by opening circuit breakers) equivalent circuit response to a fault cleared response to a
at F(cleared by opening circuit breakers) equivalent circuit response to a fault cleared response to a
response to a fault cleared response to a fault cleared at tc1 sec Stable at
response to a fault cleared
response to a fault cleared
at tc1 sec Stable
at tc2 sec Unstable
[3]
[3]
[3]
[3]
[3]
[3]

7.5.5. Factors Influencing Transient Stability:

Transient stability of generator depends on:

How heavily the generator is loaded.

Generator output during fault (which depends on fault location & type).

The fault clearing time.

The post-fault transmission system reactance.

Generator reactance (lower X

Generator inertia (higher inertia

reactance (lower X • Generator inertia (higher inertia higher P max lower initial ) lower d

higher Pmax lower initial )

inertia (higher inertia higher P max lower initial ) lower d / dt reduces kinetic energy
inertia (higher inertia higher P max lower initial ) lower d / dt reduces kinetic energy

lower d /dt

inertia higher P max lower initial ) lower d / dt reduces kinetic energy gain during

reduces

kinetic energy gain during fault (e.g., A1 is reduced)

Generator internal voltage magnitude (E’) which depends on field excitation. The infinite bus voltage magnitude.

7.6. Numerical Integration Methods to Solve Pow er System Stability problems

For stability analysis, nonlinear ordinary differential equations (with known initial values) are to be solved:

equations (with known initial values) are to be solved: where X = state vector t =

where X = state vector t = independent variable

e.g.,

where X = state vector t = independent variable e.g., is of form: • There are

is of

form:

X = state vector t = independent variable e.g., is of form: • There are many

There

are

many

numerical

integration

techniques

applicable to the solution of this equation including [1]:

-- Euler Method -- Modified Euler Method -- Runge-Kutta (R-K) Methods

For further information see reference [1]

7.7. Multi-Machine Classical Stability Studies

When a multi-machine system operates under electro- mechanical transient conditions, inter-machine oscillations occur btw machines through transmission system. Each machine acts as a single oscillating source (foscillation=1-2Hz) superimposed upon nominal frequency swing equation will reflect the combined presence of many such oscillations System frequency: not unduly perturbed from its nominal value The 60-Hz network parameters are still applicable. Additional assumptions for Classical stability Models):

--Pm= constant (for each machine) --negligible damping power --each machine presented by constant transient reactance in series with a constant transient internal voltage --mechanical rotor angle coincides with (ele. rotor angle) --loads are presented as shunt impedances; determined by conditions immediately prior to transient conditions

rotor angle) --loads are presented as shunt impedances; determined by conditions immediately prior to transient conditions
rotor angle) --loads are presented as shunt impedances; determined by conditions immediately prior to transient conditions
rotor angle) --loads are presented as shunt impedances; determined by conditions immediately prior to transient conditions

For transient stability study; system conditions before fault & network configuration during and after its occurrence must be known Steps for multi-machine stability studies:

must be known Steps for multi-machine stability studies : --Step1: steady-state pre-fault conditions (load-flow) P

--Step1: steady-state pre-fault conditions (load-flow)

P jQ P, Q & V are known L L t Y where L 2
P
jQ
P, Q & V
are known
L
L
t
Y
where
L
2
E
V
jX
I
V
t
d
L
(P
jQ
)
the load
L
L
V
bus voltage
L
bus-admittance matrix
includes transient
reactance of generators
&shunt load admittances

--Step2: pre-fault network representation is determined and modified to account for fault & post-fault conditions. Only generator internal buses have injections other buses can be eliminated

account for fault & post-fault conditions. Only generator internal buses have injections other buses can be

During&after the fault, power flow into network from each

generator is calculated by the corresponding P- equations

For example, for the network shown:

P- equations • For example, for the network shown : • Similar equations for P e2

Similar equations for Pe2 & Pe3 with Yij values from the 3 3 bus-admittance matrices (fault or post-fault conditions) The P- equations form part of the swing equations:

• The P- equations form part of the swing equations : • Solution depends on location&

Solution depends on

location& duration of fault, & YBUS which results when

the faulted line is removed The basic procedures used in digital computers are revealed by following examples

when the faulted line is removed • The basic procedures used in digital computers are revealed
[2]
[2]
[2]
[2]
[2]
[2]

Each of the P- equations obtained in the previous two examples are of the form:

obtained in the previous two examples are of the form : where the bracketed right-hand side

where the bracketed right-hand side term represents the accelerating power on the rotor. Accordingly, we may write them in the form:

side term represents the accelerating power on the rotor. • Accordingly, we may write them in

where

side term represents the accelerating power on the rotor. • Accordingly, we may write them in