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Elect rical Machines 302-2006 Chapter 7 (Lect ures 8-10)

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE DYNAMICS

Electrical & Computer Engineering Department Curtin University of Technology Perth, West Australia Email: m.masoum@curtin.edu.au

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE DYNAMICS

7.1. Classification of Stability Problems

7.2. Angle Stability

7.3. Synchronous Machine Dynamics

7.3.1. The Swing Equation [3]

7.3.2. Normalized Swing Equation [1-2]

7.3.3. The Power-Angle Equation [1-2]

7.3.4. Synchronous Machine Power Coefficients [1-2]

7.3.5. Response to a Step Change in Pm [1-2]

7.4. Linear Analysis of Swing Equation [3]

7.5 Equal-Area Criterion of Stability (Nonlinear Analysis of Swing Equation) [1-3]

7.6. Numerical Integration Methods to Solve Power System Stability problems [1-2]

[1]. P. Kundur, “Power System Stability and Control”, McGraw-Hill, 1994. [2]. W.D. Stevenson, “Elements of Power System Analysis”, 1995. [3]. A.E. Fitzgerald &…, “Electric Machinery”, Fifth Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1990.

7.1. Classificat ion of St ability Problem s

Power System Stability- property of the power system that enables it to remain in a state of operating equilibrium under normal operating conditions and to regain an acceptable state of equilibrium after being subjected to a disturbance. Since power systems rely on synchronous machines (SM) for electrical power generation

a necessary condition for stability is that: all synchronous machines remain in synchronism

PS stability can also be defined as: property

enabling synchronous machines to respond to a disturbance and return to their normal operation Instability- loss of synchronism

Hunting- periodic variations in applied torque (e.g.,

to steam generators)

periodic speed variations

periodic variations in system voltage (V) & frequency

periodic variations in V & F of motors

(F)

(connected to the system)

loss of synchronism

Classification of Stability problems:

PSS problems may be classified as [1]:

Angle Stability

Voltage Stability

Frequency (Mid- and Long-Term) Stability Each category can be divided to [1-2]:

Small-Signal (Dynamic) Stability

Transient Stability

Transient Stability:

Determines if system remains in synchronism following a major disturbance (e.g., transmission fault, sudden load change, loss of generation, line switching) Need to model: Generators + their excitation systems + turbine governing control systems Must solve nonlinear differential equations (by direct or iterative procedures) Two types:

-- First-Swing Stability: for 1 st second after a system fault (simple generator model & no control model) -- Multi-Swing Stability: system analysis over long period of time (more sophisticated machine model)

Small-Signal (Dynamic) Stability:

Determines

if

system

remains

in

synchronism

following a small disturbance (e.g., small load and/or generation variations)

Excitation + turbine governing systems are replaced by synchronous machine model analysis of flux linkage variation

Nonlinear differential equations are replaced by a set of linear equations

Usual Assumptions (to facilitate computation):

Only synchronous F (no dc-off set, no harmonics)

Use of symmetrical components

Constant generator voltage

Use phasor + load-flow + positive sequence network

Pow er System St abilit y
• Ability to remain
in operating equilibrium
• Equilibrium btw opposing forces
Angle St abilit y
Frequency St abilit y
Volt age St abilit y
• Ability to maintain synchronism
• Torque balance of Synchronous machines
acceptable voltage
• Reactive power balance
Sm all-Signal
Stability
Transient
Stability
Large-Disturbance
Voltage Stability
Sm all-Disturbance
Voltage Stability
• Large-disturbances
• First-swing aperiodic drift
• Study period: up to 10 s
• Large disturbance
switching events
relations
Non-osc illatory
Osc illatory
• Dynamics of ULTC
• Stability margins,
Q reserve
• Insufficient
• Insufficient
damping torque
synchronous
• Unstable control action
• Coordination of
protections & controls
torque
Mid-term Stability
Long-term St ability

Severe upsets, large voltage & frequency

Fast & slow dynamics

Study period: to several minutes

Uniform system frequency

Slow dynamics

Study period: to tens of minutes

7.2. Angle Stability

Rotor angle stability is the ability of interconnected synchronous machines of a power system to remain in synchronism & involves

the study of the inherent electromechanical oscillation

need to

know, how the output of synchronous machines vary as their rotors oscillate.

Sync hronous Machine Charact eristics:

When rotor (containing field windings, excited by dc current) is driven by a prime mover (turbine), the rotating magnetic field (of rotor) induces ac voltages in the stator armature windings. Frequency (F) of resulting V & I is synchronized with rotor mechanical speed. Resulting stator currents also produce a rotating mmf that, under steady-state operation, rotates at the same speed as rotor with an angular separation (depending on electrical output torque Te (or power P).

Pow er-Angle Relat ionship:

The highly nonlinear (approximately sinusoidal) relation btw interchange power and rotor angular positions of synchronous machines, has a bearing on PSS:

(Motor)
(Generator)

E

G

E

X

T

M

P

sin

,

(X

T

X

G

X

L

X

M

)

The St ability Phenom ena:

Stability is a condition of equilibrium btw opposing forces.

Interconnected synchronous machines maintain synchronism with one another through restoring forces, which acts whenever there are forces tending to accelerate or decelerate one or more machine wrt other machines.

Under steady-state, there is equilibrium btw input mechanical torque & output electrical torque (or power) of each machine speed remains constant.

If one generator temporary runs faster than another the

resulting angular difference transfers part of the load from the

slow machine to the fast machine

angular position.

reduces speed difference &

However, the power-angle relation is highly nonlinear

beyond a certain limit, an increase in angle is accompanied by

a decrease in P

further increase in angle

instability

SM Torque (or Power) , following a perturbation:

e

s

D

T

T

T

-Synchronous Torque (

-Damping Torque (

T

s

T

D

): in phase with rotor angle perturbation

): in phase with speed deviation

PSS depends on the existence of both torque components for each machine:

--lack of sufficient Tsyn in rotor angle --lack of sufficient Tdamp

instability through a periodic drift

oscillatory instability

Angle stability phenomena is characterized in:

 (a) small-signal (or small-disturbance) stability (b) transient stability

Sm all-Signal (Dynam ic) Angle Stabilit y:

 • The ability of the power system to maintain synchronism under small disturbances (e.g., small variations in loads & generation) • Disturbances are considered sufficiently small, for linearization of system equations • Two types of instability - (i) steady increase in angle (lack of Tsyn), -(ii) rotor oscillation of increasing amplitude (lack of Tdamp). • System response to small-signal disturbances depend on a number factors (initial operating state, transmission system strength, type of generator excitation control) • For example, for a generator connected radially to a large power system,instability may be due lack of Ts (with constant field voltage) or Td (with a voltage regulator).
 Nature of sm all- disturbanc e response for a single m achine- infinite bus system T e T s T D

Generator with constant field voltage

Generator with automatic voltage regulator (excitation control)

Transient Angle Stability (THIS CHAPTER):

The

ability of the power system to maintain

synchronism when subjected to a severe transient disturbance (e.g., different types of transmission line short circuits, bus or transformer faults, loss of generation, loss of a large load) .

The resulting system response involves large excursion rotor angles, power flows, bus voltages and other system variables & is influenced by the nonlinear power-angle relationship

If resulting angular separation btw machines remains within certain bounds, system maintains synchronism

Loss

(due

usually be evident within 2 to 3 sec of initial disturbance

of

Synchronism

transient

stability)

will

Transient Angle Stability (Continue):

The fault is usually assumed to be cleared by opening of appropriate breakers.

The term dynamic stability has been widely used as a class of rotor angle stability, denoting different aspects by different authors therefore, we will not use it here

Stability study-period is usually limited to 3-5 seconds

An example of a synchronous machine behavior to transient disturbance in shown below:

First-swing instability: rotor angle steadily increases
until lost of synchronism, caused by insufficient Ts
Stable on first –swing, but becomes
unstable as a result of growing
oscillation as end state is approached
Stable: angle increases to a max, then
deceases & oscillates with decreasing

7.3. Synchronous Machine Dynam ics

Of central importance for PSS analysis are rotational

inertia

equation

(describing

effects

of

unbalance

btw

Telectromagnetic &Tmechanical of individual SM).

Based on elementary principle in dynamics:

Taccelerating=Ta =(moment of inertia)(angular acceleration)

combined (generator + prime mover) moment of inertia (kg.m2)

angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s)

generator
motor

Steady-state condition: Tm=Te Ta=0 no acceleration (or deceleration) constant speed = synchronous = o

7.3.1. The Sw ing Equat ion [3]

7.3.2. Norm alized Sw ing Equat ion [1-2]

can be normalized in terms of

per unit inertia constant (H), defined as kinetic energy in watt-seconds at rated speeddivided by based VA”:

angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s)

rated angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s)

rearranging

number of

field poles

since:

angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s)

rated angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s)

angular velocity of rotor (ele. rad/s)

rated angular velocity of rotor (ele. rad/s)

If =rotor angular position (ele. rad) wrt a synchronously rotating reference & o=its value at t=0:

Substituting

in

gives:

It is often desirable to include a component for damping

torque, not included in Te by adding a term proportional to speed deviation:

Sw ing Equation: represents swings of rotor angle
during disturbances. Graph of solution: Sw ing Curve
angular velocity of
damping factor (pu
torque/pu speed)

unit inertia constant (watt- sec/VA at rated speed)

rated angular velocity of rotor (ele. rad/s)

Further Consideration of The Sw ing Equation:

The swing equation may be written in terms of pu power:

and

s =

o (rated

angular velocity of rotor) should have consistent units (mech. or ele. rad/s)

in ele. deg.

For large systems (with many machines), minimize number of swing equations by assuming disturbances affect machines so that their rotors swings together combine machines into one single equivalent machine. Consider a power plant with two generators connected on the same bus:

since rotors swing together

1= 2=

[2]

Machines which swing together are called coherent. When

and s = o are expressed in electrical degrees or radians, the swing equations of coherent machines can be combined together (even when they have different rated speed)

For any pair of non-coherent machines :

where:

An application of these equations is a two-system machine system: a generator (machine 1) and a Synchronous motor (machine 2) connected by a pure reactance line:

&

7.3.3.

The Pow er Angle

Equat ion [1-2]

for generator, Pm will be considered

constant (e.g., electrical conditions are expected to change before turbine reacts) Pe determines whether rotor

accelerates, decelerates, or remains at syn. speed (Pe=Pm)

In

For transient stability each syn. machine is represented by:

transient internal voltage

transient reactance

each machine must be considered relative to the
system of which it is a part
phasor angles are
measured wrt the common system reference

Consider a generator (bus#1) supplying power through a transmission line to a receiving-end system (bus#2):

synchronous

generator

receiving-end

system

infinite-bus or synchronous motor

transient internal generator voltage

Using

with

:

Similar equations apply to bus#2.

Let

and

then:

where

For a zero-resistance network (

and

are zero):

where

The Power-Angle Equation (its graph is called: the power-angle curve)

7.3.4. Sync hronizing Pow er Coeffic ients

The operating point= intersection of P- curve & Pm curve (e.g., =28.44 & =151.6)

However, =151.6 is not valid since: at an acceptable

operating point, generator should not lose synchronism due

to temporary changes in electrical output power:

Let us examine this:

also

Note that and is called:

is the slop of the P- curve at o

Synchronizing Power Coefficient =

Therefore:

swing equation for incremental rotor-angle variations

A linear, second-order differential equation (its solution depends on algebraic sign of Sp)

Solution of

depends on sign of Sp:

--- If

by oscillation of undamped swing pendulum) is solution to

>0:

= simple harmonic motion (represented

which is

sinusoidal

oscillations, undamped angular frequency:

STABLE (e.g., at = 28.44)

= 28.44 is of stable equilibrium in the sense that rotor angle swing is bounded following a small perturbation. In physical situation, damping will restore angle to = 28.44

--- If

<0:

= increases exponentially without limit

UNSTABLE (e.g., at = 151.56)

7.3.5. Response to a Step Change in Pm [1-2]

power-angle variations
rotor angle time response

(4) for > 1 we have Pe>Pm rotor decelerates

(5) at some peak value max speed recovers to

syn (but Pe>Pm1) rotor continues to decelerate (speed dropping below

syn

c b

(1) step change in mechanical input power

(3) Paccelerating

is zero (Pm=Pe)

but r > syn

continues to increase

(2) rotor angle cannot change instantly from

o to 1 (rotor inertia).

Pm>Pe

rotor

accelerates a b

(7) if A2>A1 (that is > L )

lost of stability

(since Pm1>Pe and the net torque is accelerating rather than decelerating

(6) rotor angle oscillates indefinitely about the new equilibrium angle 1 with a constant amplitude (R=0)

7.4. Linear Analysis of Sw ing Equat ion [3]

[3]
[3]

7.5. Equal-Area Criterion of St ability

Swing eq: nonlinear

(even for “single-machine infinite-bus)

solutions can not be explicitly found

require computer

techniques. A direct solution approach (without solving eqs) for stability of two-machine system: equal-area criterion

Consider the system shown:

--- before fault: A (closed) & B (open)

(generator operating with o=Pm=Pe) --- during fault: three-phase fault at P --- after fault: A (open) to clear fault

Example 14.3

fault
operating point
before fault

Fault at to ( o): Pe=0 (a

b) & Pm 0

due to Pm - Pe>0

Ekinetic

rotor speed

until fault clears at tc ( c) (b

c)

During fault (to< t <tc ):

--acceleration is constant:

--while velocity increases above s :

= constant

(e.g., increases linearly with time)

--further integration:
angular position =
(e.g., : o
c
b
fault occurs
fault clears

c)

At the instant of fault clearing (tc ):

--increase in rotor speed:

--separation

angle:

At tc (fault is cleared): Pe

Ppoint-d >Pm

Paccelerating<0

rotor slows down

At e: again m= syn although its angle has advanced to x

( x determined such that A1=A2). Still Paccelerating<0

cannot remain at synchronous speed

d

e

rotor

rotor slows down

x

o

e

a (at which m< s)

from a to f: Pm>Pe

m increases again until reaches

synchronism at f. Point f is such that A3=A4

In absence of damping: rotor continues to oscillate in the sequence f-a-e, e-a-f, etc with syn at e and f

7.5.1. Derivation of Equal-Area Criterion (EAC):

Define relative angular velocity of rotor r= d /dt= - s differentiate it & substitute it into swing equation to get:

 multiply by r=d /dt
 multiply by dt & integrate

r1=0

r2=0

when = 1

when = 2

r1= r2=0

Apply last equation to points a & e ( 1= o & 2= x):

Equation

applies to any two points 1

and 2 at which rotor speed is synchronous Since rotor speed is synchronous at x and y

A3=A4

directly proportional to increase in kinetic energy of rotor while it is accelerating

directly proportional to decrease in kinetic energy of rotor while it is decelerating

Equal-Area Criterion states: whatever kinetic energy is

added to rotor following a fault must be removed after the fault to restore rotor to synchronous speed

7.5.2. Critical Clearing Time:

A1 depends on time taken to clear the fault

If “long delay in clearing fault”

For long delay in clearing fault such that swing beyond

A1

A2

x

max (e.g., x> max)

INSTABILITY (due to Paccelerating >0)

There is a Critical Clearing Angle ( cr)” for clearing the

fault in order to satisfy Equal-Area Criterion for stability The required time is called: Critical Clearing Time (tcr)

critical clearing
angle

Computing cr and t cr:

(since Pe=0)

Set A1 =A2 and transpose terms:

Substituting

and

gives:

critical clearing angle

Substituting cr into

gives:

critical

clearing

time

critical clearing
angle

7.5.3.Further Application Equal-Area Criterion:

So far, we have assumed Pe=0 during the fault.

When power is transmitted during a fault (e.g., when the fault effects only one line of a parallel transmission system):

(before fault)
(after fault)
(during fault)

By evaluating areas A1 and A2, we would find:

A literal form solution for tcr is not possible in this case. When: r1=0 & r2=1

7.5.4. Response to a Short-Circuit Fault:

Three-phase fault at F(cleared by opening circuit breakers)

equivalent

circuit

response to a fault cleared
response to a fault cleared
at tc1 sec Stable
at tc2 sec Unstable
[3]
[3]

7.5.5. Factors Influencing Transient Stability:

Transient stability of generator depends on:

How heavily the generator is loaded.

Generator output during fault (which depends on fault location & type).

The fault clearing time.

The post-fault transmission system reactance.

Generator reactance (lower X

Generator inertia (higher inertia

higher Pmax lower initial )

lower d /dt

reduces

kinetic energy gain during fault (e.g., A1 is reduced)

Generator internal voltage magnitude (E’) which depends on field excitation. The infinite bus voltage magnitude.

7.6. Numerical Integration Methods to Solve Pow er System Stability problems

For stability analysis, nonlinear ordinary differential equations (with known initial values) are to be solved:

where X = state vector t = independent variable

e.g.,

is of

form:

There

are

many

numerical

integration

techniques

applicable to the solution of this equation including [1]:

-- Euler Method -- Modified Euler Method -- Runge-Kutta (R-K) Methods

For further information see reference [1]

7.7. Multi-Machine Classical Stability Studies

When a multi-machine system operates under electro- mechanical transient conditions, inter-machine oscillations occur btw machines through transmission system. Each machine acts as a single oscillating source (foscillation=1-2Hz) superimposed upon nominal frequency swing equation will reflect the combined presence of many such oscillations System frequency: not unduly perturbed from its nominal value The 60-Hz network parameters are still applicable. Additional assumptions for Classical stability Models):

--Pm= constant (for each machine) --negligible damping power --each machine presented by constant transient reactance in series with a constant transient internal voltage --mechanical rotor angle coincides with (ele. rotor angle) --loads are presented as shunt impedances; determined by conditions immediately prior to transient conditions

For transient stability study; system conditions before fault & network configuration during and after its occurrence must be known Steps for multi-machine stability studies:

P
jQ
P, Q & V
are known
L
L
t
Y
where
L
2
E
V
jX
I
V
t
d
L
(P
jQ
)
L
L
V
bus voltage
L
includes transient
reactance of generators

--Step2: pre-fault network representation is determined and modified to account for fault & post-fault conditions. Only generator internal buses have injections other buses can be eliminated

During&after the fault, power flow into network from each

generator is calculated by the corresponding P- equations

For example, for the network shown:

Similar equations for Pe2 & Pe3 with Yij values from the 3 3 bus-admittance matrices (fault or post-fault conditions) The P- equations form part of the swing equations:

Solution depends on

location& duration of fault, & YBUS which results when

the faulted line is removed The basic procedures used in digital computers are revealed by following examples

[2]
[2]

Each of the P- equations obtained in the previous two examples are of the form:

where the bracketed right-hand side term represents the accelerating power on the rotor. Accordingly, we may write them in the form:

where