Elect rical Machines 3022006 Chapter 7 (Lect ures 810)
SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE DYNAMICS
Dr. Mohammad A.S. Masoum
Electrical & Computer Engineering Department Curtin University of Technology Perth, West Australia Email: m.masoum@curtin.edu.au
SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE DYNAMICS
7.1. Classification of Stability Problems
7.2. Angle Stability
7.3. Synchronous Machine Dynamics
7.3.1. The Swing Equation [3]
7.3.2. Normalized Swing Equation [12]
7.3.3. The PowerAngle Equation [12]
7.3.4. Synchronous Machine Power Coefficients [12]
7.3.5. Response to a Step Change in Pm [12]
7.4. Linear Analysis of Swing Equation [3]
7.5 EqualArea Criterion of Stability (Nonlinear Analysis of Swing Equation) [13]
7.6. Numerical Integration Methods to Solve Power System Stability problems [12]
[1]. P. Kundur, “Power System Stability and Control”, McGrawHill, 1994. [2]. W.D. Stevenson, “Elements of Power System Analysis”, 1995. [3]. A.E. Fitzgerald &…, “Electric Machinery”, Fifth Edition, McGrawHill, 1990.
7.1. Classificat ion of St ability Problem s
• Power System Stability property of the power system that enables it to remain in a state of operating equilibrium under normal operating conditions and to regain an acceptable state of equilibrium after being subjected to a disturbance. Since power systems rely on synchronous machines (SM) for electrical power generation
a necessary condition for stability is that: all synchronous machines remain in synchronism
•
PS stability can also be defined as: property
enabling synchronous machines to respond to a disturbance and return to their normal operation • Instability loss of synchronism
•
• Hunting periodic variations in applied torque (e.g.,
to steam generators)
periodic speed variations
periodic variations in system voltage (V) & frequency
periodic variations in V & F of motors
(F)
(connected to the system)
loss of synchronism
Classification of Stability problems:
PSS problems may be classified as [1]:
• Angle Stability
• Voltage Stability
• Frequency (Mid and LongTerm) Stability Each category can be divided to [12]:
• SmallSignal (Dynamic) Stability
• Transient Stability
Transient Stability:
• Determines if system remains in synchronism following a major disturbance (e.g., transmission fault, sudden load change, loss of generation, line switching) • Need to model: Generators + their excitation systems + turbine governing control systems • Must solve nonlinear differential equations (by direct or iterative procedures) • Two types:
 FirstSwing Stability: for 1 ^{s}^{t} second after a system fault (simple generator model & no control model)  MultiSwing Stability: system analysis over long period of time (more sophisticated machine model)
SmallSignal (Dynamic) Stability:
• Determines
if
system
remains
in
synchronism
following a small disturbance (e.g., small load and/or generation variations)
Excitation + turbine governing systems are replaced by synchronous machine model analysis of flux linkage variation
•
• Nonlinear differential equations are replaced by a set of linear equations
Usual Assumptions (to facilitate computation):
• Only synchronous F (no dcoff set, no harmonics)
• Use of symmetrical components
• Constant generator voltage
• Use phasor + loadflow + positive sequence network
• Severe upsets, large voltage & frequency
• Fast & slow dynamics
• Study period: to several minutes
• Uniform system frequency
• Slow dynamics
• Study period: to tens of minutes
7.2. Angle Stability
Rotor angle stability is the ability of interconnected synchronous machines of a power system to remain in synchronism & involves
the study of the inherent electromechanical oscillation
need to
know, how the output of synchronous machines vary as their rotors oscillate.
Sync hronous Machine Charact eristics:
• When rotor (containing field windings, excited by dc current) is driven by a prime mover (turbine), the rotating magnetic field (of rotor) induces ac voltages in the stator armature windings. Frequency (F) of resulting V & I is synchronized with rotor mechanical speed. • Resulting stator currents also produce a rotating mmf that, under steadystate operation, rotates at the same speed as rotor with an angular separation (depending on electrical output torque Te (or power P).
Pow erAngle Relat ionship:
• The highly nonlinear (approximately sinusoidal) relation btw interchange power and rotor angular positions of synchronous machines, has a bearing on PSS:
E
G
E
X
T
M
P
sin
,
(X
T
X
G
X
L
X
M
)
The St ability Phenom ena:
• Stability is a condition of equilibrium btw opposing forces.
• Interconnected synchronous machines maintain synchronism with one another through restoring forces, which acts whenever there are forces tending to accelerate or decelerate one or more machine wrt other machines.
• Under steadystate, there is equilibrium btw input mechanical torque & output electrical torque (or power) of each machine speed remains constant.
• If one generator temporary runs faster than another the
resulting angular difference transfers part of the load from the
slow machine to the fast machine
angular position.
reduces speed difference &
• However, the powerangle relation is highly nonlinear
beyond a certain limit, an increase in angle is accompanied by
a decrease in P
further increase in angle
instability
• SM Torque (or Power) , following a perturbation:
e
s
D
T
T
T
Synchronous Torque (
Damping Torque (
T
s
T
D
): in phase with rotor angle perturbation
): in phase with speed deviation
• PSS depends on the existence of both torque components for each machine:
lack of sufficient Tsyn in rotor angle lack of sufficient Tdamp
instability through a periodic drift
oscillatory instability
• Angle stability phenomena is characterized in:
(a) 
smallsignal (or smalldisturbance) stability 
(b) 
transient stability 
Sm allSignal (Dynam ic) Angle Stabilit y:
• 
The ability of the power system to maintain synchronism under small disturbances (e.g., small variations in loads & generation) 

• 
Disturbances 
are 
considered 
sufficiently 
small, 
for 
linearization of system equations 

• 
Two types of instability  (i) steady increase in angle (lack of Tsyn), (ii) rotor oscillation of increasing amplitude (lack of Tdamp). 

• 
System response to smallsignal disturbances depend on a number factors (initial operating state, transmission system strength, type of generator excitation control) 

• 
For example, for a generator connected radially to a large power system,instability may be due lack of Ts (with constant field voltage) or Td (with a voltage regulator). 
Nature of sm all disturbanc e response for a single m achine infinite bus system 


T e 

T s 

T D 

Generator with constant field voltage
Generator with automatic voltage regulator (excitation control)
Transient Angle Stability (THIS CHAPTER):
• The
ability of the power system to maintain
synchronism when subjected to a severe transient disturbance (e.g., different types of transmission line short circuits, bus or transformer faults, loss of generation, loss of a large load) .
• The resulting system response involves large excursion rotor angles, power flows, bus voltages and other system variables & is influenced by the nonlinear powerangle relationship
• If resulting angular separation btw machines remains within certain bounds, system maintains synchronism
• Loss
(due
usually be evident within 2 to 3 sec of initial disturbance
of
Synchronism
transient
stability)
will
Transient Angle Stability (Continue):
• The fault is usually assumed to be cleared by opening of appropriate breakers.
• The term dynamic stability has been widely used as a class of rotor angle stability, denoting different aspects by different authors therefore, we will not use it here
• Stability studyperiod is usually limited to 35 seconds
• An example of a synchronous machine behavior to transient disturbance in shown below:
7.3. Synchronous Machine Dynam ics
Of central importance for PSS analysis are rotational
inertia
equation
(describing
effects
of
unbalance
btw
Telectromagnetic &Tmechanical of individual SM).
• Based on elementary principle in dynamics:
Taccelerating=Ta =(moment of inertia)(angular acceleration)
combined (generator + prime mover) moment of inertia (kg.m2)
angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s)
Steadystate condition: Tm=Te Ta=0 no acceleration (or deceleration) constant speed = synchronous = o
7.3.1. The Sw ing Equat ion [3]
7.3.2. Norm alized Sw ing Equat ion [12]
can be normalized in terms of
per unit inertia constant (H), defined as “kinetic energy in wattseconds at rated speed” divided by “based VA”:
•
angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s)
rated angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s)
rearranging
number of
field poles
• since:
angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s)
rated angular velocity of rotor (mech. rad/s)
angular velocity of rotor (ele. rad/s)
rated angular velocity of rotor (ele. rad/s)
• If =rotor angular position (ele. rad) wrt a synchronously rotating reference & o=its value at t=0:
• Substituting
in
gives:
• It is often desirable to include a component for damping
torque, not included in Te by adding a term proportional to speed deviation:
rotor angular position (ele. rad)
unit inertia constant (watt sec/VA at rated speed)
rated angular velocity of rotor (ele. rad/s)
Further Consideration of The Sw ing Equation:
• The swing equation may be written in terms of pu power:
and
s =
o (rated
angular velocity of rotor) should have consistent units (mech. or ele. rad/s)
• For large systems (with many machines), minimize number of swing equations by assuming disturbances affect machines so that their rotors swings together combine machines into one single equivalent machine. Consider a power plant with two generators connected on the same bus:
since rotors swing together
1= 2=
• Machines which swing together are called coherent. When
and s = o are expressed in electrical degrees or radians, the swing equations of coherent machines can be combined together (even when they have different rated speed)
• For any pair of noncoherent machines :
where:
• An application of these equations is a twosystem machine system: a generator (machine 1) and a Synchronous motor (machine 2) connected by a pure reactance line:
&
7.3.3.
The Pow er Angle
Equat ion [12]
for generator, Pm will be considered
constant (e.g., electrical conditions are expected to change before turbine reacts) Pe determines whether rotor
accelerates, decelerates, or remains at syn. speed (Pe=Pm)
In
• For transient stability each syn. machine is represented by:
transient internal voltage
transient reactance
• Consider a generator (bus#1) supplying power through a transmission line to a receivingend system (bus#2):
synchronous
generator
receivingend
system
infinitebus or synchronous motor
transient internal generator voltage
• Using
with
• Similar equations apply to bus#2.
• Let
and
then:
where
• For a zeroresistance network (
and
are zero):
where
The PowerAngle Equation (its graph is called: the powerangle curve)
7.3.4. Sync hronizing Pow er Coeffic ients
• The operating point= intersection of P curve & Pm curve (e.g., =28.44 & =151.6)
• However, =151.6 is not valid since: at an acceptable
operating point, generator should not lose synchronism due
to temporary changes in electrical output power:
•
Let us examine this:
• Note that and is called:
is the slop of the P curve at o
• Therefore:
swing equation for incremental rotorangle variations
• A linear, secondorder differential equation (its solution depends on algebraic sign of Sp)
• Solution of
depends on sign of Sp:
 If
by oscillation of undamped swing pendulum) is solution to
>0:
= simple harmonic motion (represented
which is
sinusoidal
oscillations, undamped angular frequency:
STABLE (e.g., at = 28.44)
= 28.44 is of stable equilibrium in the sense that rotor angle swing is bounded following a small perturbation. In physical situation, damping will restore angle to = 28.44
 If
<0:
= increases exponentially without limit
UNSTABLE (e.g., at = 151.56)
7.3.5. Response to a Step Change in Pm [12]
(4) for > 1 we have Pe>Pm rotor decelerates
(5) at some peak value max speed recovers to
syn (but Pe>Pm1) rotor continues to decelerate (speed dropping below
syn
c b
(1) step change in mechanical input power
(3) Paccelerating
is zero (Pm=Pe)
but r > syn
continues to increase
(2) rotor angle cannot change instantly from
o to 1 (rotor inertia).
Pm>Pe
rotor
accelerates a b
(7) if A2>A1 (that is > L )
lost of stability
(since Pm1>Pe and the net torque is accelerating rather than decelerating
(6) rotor angle oscillates indefinitely about the new equilibrium angle 1 with a constant amplitude (R=0)
7.4. Linear Analysis of Sw ing Equat ion [3]
7.5. EqualArea Criterion of St ability
• Swing eq: nonlinear
(even for “singlemachine infinitebus)
solutions can not be explicitly found
require computer
techniques. A direct solution approach (without solving eqs) for stability of twomachine system: equalarea criterion
• Consider the system shown:
 before fault: A (closed) & B (open)
(generator operating with o=Pm=Pe)  during fault: threephase fault at P  after fault: A (open) to clear fault
Example 14.3
• Fault at to ( o): Pe=0 (a
b) & Pm 0
due to Pm  Pe>0
Ekinetic
rotor speed
until fault clears at tc ( c) (b
c)
• During fault (to< t <tc ):
acceleration is constant:
while velocity increases above s :
= constant
(e.g., increases linearly with time)
c)
• At the instant of fault clearing (tc ):
increase in rotor speed:
separation
angle:
• At tc (fault is cleared): Pe
Ppointd >Pm
Paccelerating<0
rotor slows down
• At e: again m= syn although its angle has advanced to x
( x determined such that A1=A2). Still Paccelerating<0
cannot remain at synchronous speed
d
e
rotor
rotor slows down
x
o
e
a (at which m< s)
• from a to f: Pm>Pe
m increases again until reaches
synchronism at f. Point f is such that A3=A4
• In absence of damping: rotor continues to oscillate in the sequence fae, eaf, etc with syn at e and f
7.5.1. Derivation of EqualArea Criterion (EAC):
• Define relative angular velocity of rotor r= d /dt=  s differentiate it & substitute it into swing equation to get:
multiply by 

r=d /dt 

multiply by dt 

& integrate 

r1=0
r2=0
when = 1
when = 2
r1= r2=0
• Apply last equation to points a & e ( 1= o & 2= x):
• Equation
applies to any two points 1
and 2 at which rotor speed is synchronous • Since rotor speed is synchronous at x and y
A3=A4
directly proportional to increase in kinetic energy of rotor while it is accelerating
directly proportional to decrease in kinetic energy of rotor while it is decelerating
EqualArea Criterion states: whatever kinetic energy is
added to rotor following a fault must be removed after the fault to restore rotor to synchronous speed
•
7.5.2. Critical Clearing Time:
• A1 depends on time taken to clear the fault
• If “long delay in clearing fault”
• For long delay in clearing fault such that swing beyond
A1
A2
x
max (e.g., x> max)
INSTABILITY (due to Paccelerating >0)
•
There is a “Critical Clearing Angle ( cr)” for clearing the
fault in order to satisfy EqualArea Criterion for stability • The required time is called: “Critical Clearing Time (tcr)”
Computing cr and t cr:
•
(since Pe=0)
•
Set A1 =A2 and transpose terms:
•
•
Substituting
and
gives:
critical clearing angle
Substituting cr into
gives:
critical
clearing
_{t}_{i}_{m}_{e}
7.5.3.Further Application EqualArea Criterion:
• So far, we have assumed Pe=0 during the fault.
• When power is transmitted during a fault (e.g., when the fault effects only one line of a parallel transmission system):
• By evaluating areas A1 and A2, we would find:
A literal form solution for tcr is not possible in this case. • When: r1=0 & r2=1
•
7.5.4. Response to a ShortCircuit Fault:
• Threephase fault at F(cleared by opening circuit breakers)
equivalent
circuit
7.5.5. Factors Influencing Transient Stability:
Transient stability of generator depends on:
• How heavily the generator is loaded.
• Generator output during fault (which depends on fault location & type).
• The fault clearing time.
• The postfault transmission system reactance.
• Generator reactance (lower X
• Generator inertia (higher inertia
higher Pmax lower initial )
lower d /dt
reduces
kinetic energy gain during fault (e.g., A1 is reduced)
• Generator internal voltage magnitude (E’) which depends on field excitation. • The infinite bus voltage magnitude.
7.6. Numerical Integration Methods to Solve Pow er System Stability problems
• For stability analysis, nonlinear ordinary differential equations (with known initial values) are to be solved:
where X = state vector t = independent variable
e.g.,
is of
form:
• There
are
many
numerical
integration
techniques
applicable to the solution of this equation including [1]:
 Euler Method  Modified Euler Method  RungeKutta (RK) Methods
For further information see reference [1]
7.7. MultiMachine Classical Stability Studies
• When a multimachine system operates under electro mechanical transient conditions, intermachine oscillations occur btw machines through transmission system. Each machine acts as a single oscillating source (foscillation=12Hz) superimposed upon nominal frequency swing equation will reflect the combined presence of many such oscillations System frequency: not unduly perturbed from its nominal value The 60Hz network parameters are still applicable. • Additional assumptions for Classical stability Models):
Pm= constant (for each machine) negligible damping power each machine presented by constant transient reactance in series with a constant transient internal voltage mechanical rotor angle coincides with (ele. rotor angle) loads are presented as shunt impedances; determined by conditions immediately prior to transient conditions
• For transient stability study; system conditions before fault & network configuration during and after its occurrence must be known Steps for multimachine stability studies:
Step1: steadystate prefault conditions (loadflow)
Step2: prefault network representation is determined and modified to account for fault & postfault conditions. Only generator internal buses have injections other buses can be eliminated
• During&after the fault, power flow into network from each
generator is calculated by the corresponding P _{} equations
• For example, for the network shown:
• Similar equations for Pe2 & Pe3 with Yij values from the 3 3 busadmittance matrices (fault or postfault conditions) • The P equations form part of the swing equations:
• Solution depends on
location& duration of fault, & YBUS which results when
the faulted line is removed • The basic procedures used in digital computers are revealed by following examples
• Each of the P equations obtained in the previous two examples are of the form:
where the bracketed righthand side term represents the accelerating power on the rotor. • Accordingly, we may write them in the form:
where
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