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MINISTERUL EDUCAIEI NAIONALE

UNIVERSITATEA VASILE ALECSANDRI


din BACU
FACULTATEA de INGINERIE
Calea Mr e ti Nr! "#$ Ba%& '((""#
Tel!)Fa* +,( -., #/("$(
0ROGRAM DE STUDII1 MASTER UNIVERSITAR
2MANAGEMENTUL SISTEMELOR INDUSTRIALE DE
0RODUC IE I SERVICII
Fa3ri% de 0eleti

Ma4terand1
In5! D65ar& E7il
-(".8-(",

Cuprins
Pag.
"! De4%rierea a9a%erii .
-! N6ta te:ni%a ;eleti ,
.! Ale5erea l6%atiei /
,! E%:i;a7ente ne%e4are de49a4&rarii 63ie%t&l&i de a%ti<itate ""
#! Ne%e4ar&l de ;er46nal "'
'! S&r4e de 9inantare "/
$! E4ti7are a4&;ra %a;a%itatii ;r6d&%tiei 4i <an=are ">
/! Cal%&l&l de renta3ilitate -"
>! Anali=a S?OT --
"(! Gra9i%&l GANTT -,
""! C6n%l&=ii -#
"-! Bi3li65ra9ie -'
1. Descrierea afacerii
D67eni& ;rin%i;al de a%ti<itate al 9ir7ei il <a %6n4tit&i ;r6d&%tia 63ie%ti<ele de a%ti<itate
ale 9ir7ei 4&nt re;re=entate de ;r6d&%tia 4i %67er%iali=area de ;eleti ;entr& %entrale ter7i%e!
Ne<6ia 6a7enil6r de a in%al=ii l6%&inta e4te ne<6ie ;ri7ara dea%eea indi9erent de 3&5et&l
9ie%ar&ia 4a& de e<6l&tia e%6n67iei 76ndiale int6tdea&na 6 7i%a ;arte a 3anil6r <a 9i dire%ti6nata
;entr& a%6;erirea %:elt&ielil6r de in%al=ire! Linia de ;r6d&%ere a ;eletil6r e4te &na de &lti7a
5eneratie %67;let a&t67ati=ata 4i ne%e4ita &n n&7ar red&4 de ;er46nal ;entr& de4er<ire! L&%r&l %&
7ar9&ri ne;eri4a3ile a4i5&ra &4&rinta in de;6=itare 7ani;&lare 4i tran4;6rt a4t9el t6ate a%e4te
a%ti<itati 4e ;6t 9a%e %& 7ini7 de %:elt&ieli!
O3ie%ti<ele 9ir7ei ;e ter7en 4%&rt 4&nt le5ate de de7ararea a%ti<itatii in %6nditii 6;ti7e
in%:eierea &n6r %6ntra%te a<anta@6a4e de a;r6<i=i6nare %& 7aterii ;ri7e 4i atra5erea de %lienti
a4t9el in%at a%ti<itatea 9ir7ei 4a n& 9ie intrer&;ta ;re%&7 4i 63tinerea de <enit&ri in &r7a a%ti<itatii
de %67er%iali=are %are 4a ;er7ita ;lata i7;r&7&t&l&i %6ntra%tat 4i a%6;erirea %el6rlalte %:elt&ieli
iar %i9ra de a9a%eri 4a ;re=inte 6 %re4tere an&ala %6n4tanta in ;ri7ii ani de a%ti<itate!
0e ter7en l&n5 63ie%ti<ele 9ir7ei 4&nt %& ;ri<ire la de=<6ltarea a9a%erii 4i an&7e la
a%:i=iti6narea &n&i teren 4i i7;ad&rirea a%e4t&ia %& 6 ;lanta den&7ita 4al%ie ener5eti%a %are
di4;&ne de 6 %a;a%itate de re5enerare de64e3ita 9a;t %are ne ;6ate a4i5&ra inde;endenta 7ateriei
;ri7e!
2. Nota tehnica Peleti
PELETII - UN COMU!TIIL NOU" ECONOMIC !I ECOLO#IC
0eletii %6n4tit&ie &n n6& %673&4ti3il %are ra4;&nde a%t&alel6r %erinte de &tili=are a ener5iei
A%&rateA 4i re5enerati<e 4i re;re=inta alternati<a de in%al=ire d67e4ti%a 4i ind&4triala %ea 7ai %&rata
iar ;entr& R67ania in %6nditiile alinierii ;ret&ril6r %673&4ti3ilil6r %la4i%i la ;ret&rile e&r6;ene in
%&rand <a de<eni alternati<a %ea 7ai e%6n67i%a 4i %ea 7ai %6n96rta3ila!
0rin de9initie ;elet&l e4te 6 7ini3ri%:eta 63tin&ta ;rin ;re4area r&7e5&4&l&i re=&ltat din
te:n6l65iile de de3itare a 3&4tenil6r re4;e%ti< ;rel&%rarea ;ri7ara 4i 4e%&ndara a le7n&l&i ;re%&7
4i din t6%at&ra de le7n ;r6<enita din de4e&rile le7n6a4e 4a& din d636rat&rile %6;a%il6r dar 4i din
alte 7ateriale <e5etale B"C!
Un 4%&rt i4t6ri% al ;r6d&%tiei de ;eleti 4e ;re=inta a4t9el1
8 ">$( 8 e4te %6n4tr&ita ;ri7a &nitate de ;r6d&%tie a ;eletil6r din le7n in 6ra4&l Br6Dn4<ille din
SUAE
8 ">/. 8 e4te <and&ta in SUA ;ri7a %entrala ter7i%a re=identiala %e &tili=ea=a dre;t %673&4ti3ili 8
;eletiE
8 ">>( 8 in S&edia 4e in%e;e ;r6d&%tia ind&4triala a ;eletil6r din le7n %a 4i %673&4ti3iliE
8 ">>' 8 e*i4ta& de@a ;e4te -( de ;r6d&%at6ri de %entrale ter7i%e 4i 7ai 7&lt de /( de ;r6d&%at6ri
de ;eleti! 0e4te &n 7ili6n de t6ne de ;eleti in%al=e4% de@a %a4e din A7eri%a de N6rdE
8 ">>$ 8 e*i4ta& de@a ;e4te #((!((( de %entrale ter7i%e ;e 3a=a de ;eleti in A7eri%a de N6rd!
0r6d&%tia de ;eleti din le7n 4i de=<6ltarea ra;ida a ;ietei de de49a%ere ;entr& a%e4t ;r6d&4 4e
dat6rea=a in ;rin%i;al &r7at6arel6r 76ti<e1
8 %6n4tit&ie 6 &tili=are e9i%ienta a re4&r4el6r l6%ale ale %67&nitatii ;entr& ;r6d&%erea de ener5ie
ter7i%a la %64t&ri red&4eE
8 ;eletii 4&nt &46r de &tili=at %a atare in in4talatiile %& ali7entare a&t67ata 4;re de64e3ire de
3ri%:etele %la4i%e de di7en4i&ni 7ari %are in 5eneral 4e &tili=ea=a %a inl6%&it6r a le7n&l&i de 96%E
8 ;rin ardere n& eli7ina n6*e 4i n& %6nd&% la 9en67en&l de in%al=ire 5l63ala eli3erand t6t atata
3i6*id de %ar36n %at %6n4&7a 7ateria ;ri7a <e5etala ;entr& a 9i ;r6d&4a!
0r6d&%erea a%e4t6r 7ini3ri%:ete 4e reali=ea=a in in4talatii 4;e%iali=ate in 5eneral ;rin e*tr&dare
4i n& ne%e4ita aditi<i 4i lianti dat6rita ra4inil6r e*i4tente in 7ateria ;ri7a de 3a=a B"C!
In ;rin%i;i& 6 in4talatie te:n6l65i%a ;entr& 9a3ri%area ;eletil6r 4e %67;&ne din &r7at6arele
e%:i;a7ente1
8 de;6=it de 7aterie ;ri7a E
8 t6%at6r le7n E
8 4i4te7e de tran4;6rt 4i ali7entare E
8 &4%at6r de r&7e5&4 E
8 76ara %& %i6%ane ;entr& 7ar&ntire E
8 4i4te7 de %6nditi6nare 9i3ra E
8 e*tr&der de ;eleti=are E
8 &nitate de ra%ire ;eleti E
8 7a4ina de a73alare ;eleti E
8 de;6=it de ;r6d&4 9init!!
Utili=area de ;eleti in E&r6;a in an&l -((, %6n96r7 4tati4ti%il6r ;&3li%ate ;entr& tarile %& &n
%6n4&7 4e7ni9i%ati< de ;eleti e4te ;re=entata in 9i5&ra "! In Ger7ania dina7i%a ;e . ani a
<an=aril6r de 463e 4i %a=ane %are &tili=ea=a dre;t %673&4ti3il le7n&l 4&3 96r7a de ;eleti 4e
;re=inta a4t9el1
8 -((. 8 ""((( 3&%atiE 8 -((, 8 -.((( 3&%ati E 8 -((# 8 ./((( 3&%ati!


Fi5&ra "! C6n4&7&l de ;eleti in di9erite tari ale E&r6;ei B"C!
0rin%i;alele %ara%teri4ti%i ale ;eletil6r din le7n 4&nt &r7at6arele1
Mari7e1dia7etr&l1 ' 8 /77E l&n5i7ea 7a*i7a1 de # 6ri dia7etr&l
0&tere %al6ri%a1 "'> 8"/MF)G5 H ,$ 8 # G?:)G5 I
U7iditate1 / 8 "-J
C6ntin&t %en&4a1 (#J
Materie ;ri7a1 r&7e5&4 le7n 7aterial le7n64 t6%at
Den4itate1 '#( 8 $((G5 ) 7%
V6l&7 de;6=itare1 "#7% ) t6na
E%:i<alenta1 "((( litri %673&4ti3il li%:id K -" t6ne ;eletiE " t6na %673&4ti3il li%:id K -# t6ne
;eleti!
In tarile E&r6;ei de <e4t e*i4ta n6r7ati<e ;entr& ;eleti! A4t9el in Ger7ania ;eletii &tili=ati
tre3&ie 4a %6re4;&nda %& DIN #"$." %are 4;e%i9i%a &r7at6arele %ara%teri4ti%i1
Dia7etre 8 e*i4ta # %la4e de la , la "(77
L&n5i7e 8 7ai 7i%a 4a& e5ala %& #(77
Den4itate 8 " 8 ",5)%7%
U7iditate 8 7ai 7i%a 4a& e5ala %& "-J
C6ntin&t %en&4a 8 7ai 7i%a 4a& e5ala %& "#J
0&tere %al6ri%a "$# 8 ">#MF)G5
C6ntin&t de 4&l9 8 7ai 7i% de ((/J
C6ntin&t de a=6t 8 7ai 7i% de (.J
C6ntin&t de %l6r8 7ai 7i% de ((.J
In ;ri<inta e7i4iei de n6*e 4t&diile arata %a ;elet&l are %ea 7ai red&4a e7i4ie in %67;aratie %&
e7i4iile alt6r %673&4ti3ili %a de e*e7;l& le7n&l de 96% r&7e5&4&l 4a& ;etr6l&l!
Reda7 in %6ntin&are e7i4iile de 76n6*id de %ar36n ;entr& %entralele ter7i%e de ;&teri
%&;rin4e intre "# 4i #(G? d&;a %&7 &r7ea=a1
8 le7n de 96% !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ."(75)N7% E
8 r&7e5&4 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "-(75)N7% E
8 ;elet !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "(.75)N7%!
E7i4iile de ;arti%&le ;entr& a%elea4i ;&teri ale %entralel6r ter7i%e a& &r7at6arele <al6ri
deter7inate ;rin 4t&dii de 4;e%ialitate 1
8 le7n de 96% !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! -.75)N7% E
8 r&7e5&4 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! .,75)N7% E
8 ;elet !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ">75)N7%!
E*i4ta &n 4t&di& reali=at in an&l -((. 4i ;&3li%at in ian&arie -((, de %atre &n 5r&; de %er%etat6ri
de la 7ai 7&lte in4tit&te de %er%etare ale re4&r4el6r ener5eti%e 4e%&ndare d&;a %&7 &r7ea=a1 ?I0 8
MLn%:enE ETA 8 ReneDa3le Ener5ie4E EUBIAE CARTIFE CRES! St&di&l a 964t reali=at ;e &n 5r&;
de # tari ;r6d&%at6are de ;eleti 4i an&7e A&4tria Franta Ger7ania 06rt&5alia 4i El<etia! Cele #
tari a& ;r6d&4 in an&l -((, 6 %antitate t6tala de %%a "-/ 7ili6ane t6ne de ;eleti! C64t&rile de
;r6d&%tie ;entr& ;r6d&%tia &nei t6ne de ;eleti in a%e4te # tari anali=ate 4e ;re=inta a4t9el1
COSTURI ) COSTS
MINIM
E&r6
MAMIM
E&r6
MEDIU) AVERAGE
E&r6
Materie ;ri7a ) RaD 7aterial -# #( .$!#
0aletare ) 0alletin5 -( .( -#
A76rti=ari 4i di<er4e )
A776rti44e7ent and 6t:er
,> /, ''!#
COSTURI TOTALE ) TOTAL
COSTS
>, "', "->
Ta3el&l "! C64t&rile ;r6d&%tiei de ;eleti B"C!
In ;ri<inta 4&r4ei de 7aterie ;ri7a ;entr& reali=area de ;eleti tre3&ie 4;&4 %a a%ea4ta n& 4e
li7itea=a la 7ateria le7n6a4a iar %er%etarile din tarile de=<6ltate a& %6nd&4 la reali=area ;rin
7&tatii 5eneti%e a &n6r ;lante %& de64e3ite %a;a%itati de re5enerare! A4t9el in S&edia e*i4ta de@a
%&lti<ate %%a! #(!((( :a de teren %& 6 ;lanta den&7ita A4al%ie ener5eti%aA 8 ;lanta %e ;r6d&%e in
;ri7&l an de la in4a7antare %%a! "( t6ne de 7aterial <e5etal la &n :e%tar iar in%e;and din al d6ilea
an ;r6d&%tia a@&n5e la ,( t6ne):a! In Un5aria a& 964t %&lti<ate de@a -((( :e%tare %& a%ea4ta ;lanta
iar ;r6d&%tia dat6rita =6nei %& te7;erat&ri 7ai ridi%ate de%at in S&edia a 964t de '( t6ne):a!
C67&nitatea E&r6;eana a ela36rat de@a 6 le5i4latie iar tarile din %67&nitate ;rintre %are 4i Un5aria
a& ad6;tat de@a a%ea4ta le5i4latie ;rin %are 4e 4&3<enti6nea=a de %atre 4tat a5entii e%6n67i%i %are
d6re4% 4a %&lti<e a%e4te ;lante ener5eti%e! S6l&tia &tili=arii a%e4t6r ;lante ;entr& 63tinerea de
ener5ie are 7arele a<anta@ %a 7ateria ;ri7a e4te re5enera3ila n& li7itata %a a%t&alii %ar3&ranti B"C!
$. %legerea locatiei
Sedi& 4i :ala ind&4triala ;entr& 9a3ri%area ;eletil6r <6r 9i a7;la4ate ;e DN- Nn 4&d&l
6ra &l&i Ba%& la intrarea in C67&na Ni%6lae Bal%e4%& ;e 4en4&l de 7er4 Ba%a& O B&%&re4ti!
D&;a %&7 4e ;6ate 634er<a in 9i5&ra" l6%atia are a%%e4 la Dr&7&l E&r6;ean E/# 4i di4;&ne de
t6ate 9a%ilitatile ;re%&71 a;a 5a= 7etan %anali=are ener5ie ele%tri%a l&%r& %are a@&ta la
de49a4&rarea in %6nditii 6;ti7e a a%ti<itatii de a;r6<i=i6nare ;r6d&%tie 4i %67er%iali=are!
S&;ra9ata de teren ne%e4ara e4te e<identiata ;rin dre;t&n5:i&l de %&l6are r64ie!
Fi5&ra -! Ca;t&ra G665le Ma;4 %& l6%atia 9ir7ei B.C!
Teren&l <a 9i 96l64it ;entr& a 6;ti7i=a 9l&*&rile de intrare 4i ie4ire in 9ir7a a4t9el 1
8 ;entr& a%ti<itatea de a;r6<i=i6nare 9l&*&l <a 9i din;re intrare 4;re 46;r6n&l ;entr& le7ne E
8 ;entr& a%ti<itatea de ;r6d&%tie 9l&*&l <a 9i din;re 46;r6n&l de le7ne %atre 4e%tia de
;r6d&%tie a;6i %atre de;6=it E
8 ;entr& a%ti<itatea de %67er%iali=are 9l&*&l <a 9i din;re de;6=it 4;re %ladirea de 3ir6&ri 4i
a;6i 4;re ie4ire!
S&;ra9ata teren&l&i ne%e4ara e4te de --(( de 7
-
!
S&;ra9ata :alei e4te de ##- de 7
-
iar %ea a 46;r6n&l&i ;entr& le7ne e4te de // de 7
-
!
Fi5&ra .! A7ena@area teren&l&i
S;ati&l ad7ini4trati< e4te 96r7at din 1
8 &n 3ir6& in %are i84i de49a46ara a%ti<itatea ad7ini4trat6r&l i7;re&na %& a5ent&l de <an=ari E
8 6 4ala ;entr& 4er<it 7a4a ;entr& intre5 ;er46nal&l 9ir7ei E
8 6 t6aleta!
Fi5&ra ,! A7ena@area 4;ati&l&i ad7ini4trati<
&. Echipa'ente necesare (esfasurarii o)iectului (e acti*itate
0entr& de49a4&rarea a%ti<itatii de ;r6d&%tie 4e <a a%:i=iti6na 6 linie a&t67ata de ;r6d&%tie a
;eletil6r din le7n d6tata 4i %& 4tatie de a73alat in 4a%i a<and %a;a%itatea (e pro(uctie cuprinsa
intre peleti +,,- -,,.g peleti /h in functie (e u'i(itatea 'ateriei pri'e. Pentru opti'i0area
procesului (e pro(uctie si 'a1i'i0area profitului se *or folosii )ucati (e le'ne (e la
ta'plarii si gatere (ar" si crengi.
Fi5&ra #! Linie de ;r6d&%tie ;eleti din le7n PaBa #((L B-C!
Date tehnice2
M6del 1 #(( L 0r6d&%ti<itate 1 #((8$(( G5 ):
Gre&tate 1 ># t6ne U7iditatea 7ateriei ;ri7e 1 "#8"/J
Di7en4i&ni 1 "#HLIQ,H?IQ.HPI Dia7etr& ;eleti 1 '8/ 77
Garantie 1 # ani L&n5i7e ;eleti 1 a@&4ta3ila
C6n4&7 de ener5ie 1 '"!/ G? H./( VI
0eleti=area e4te ;r6%e4&l ;rin %are 4e ;r6d&%e %673&4ti3il 46lid ) ;elet din 7ateriale 96re4tiere %&7
ar 9i1 %ren5i re4t&ri de 4%and&ra 4a& alte re4t&ri le7n6a4e! 0entr& a%e4t ;r6%e4 te:n6l65i% a<e7
ne<6ie de &r7at6arele e%:i;a7ente %are l&ate i7;re&na 96r7ea=a linia de fabricatie peleti1
T6%at6ar&l 4a& 7ar&ntit6r&l
Mi*er&l
U4%at6r&l de ;eleti
0re4a de ;eleti
Ma4ina a&t67ata de i7;a%:etat
Banda tran4;6rt6are
Tocatoarul B-C ;entr& 3i67a4a ;re%&7 4i 'i1erul 4&nt &tila@e %e 4e 96l64e4%
;entr& a &ni96r7i=a re=id&&rile le7n6a4e! S&nt d6tate %& &n 4i4te7 de ali7entare :idra&li% 96r7at
din di4%&ri %& dinti din 6tel %are a4i5&ra tran4;6rt&l diri@at al le7n&l&i %atre %&titele de taiere!
T6%at6r&l ;er7ite %6ntr6l&l r6lel6r de ali7entare a%e4tea ;&tand 9i ;6rnite 4a& 6;rite in a73ele
4en4&ri 4i ;r6d&%e 9ra57ente de le7n &ni96r7e dat6rita &n5:i&l&i de taiere de >(R!
Uscatorul B-C de ;eleti 4e 96l64e4te ;entr& a &4%a 7aterial&l t6%at %are tre3&ie 4a ai3a 6 &7iditate
de 4&3 .(! In &4%at6r&l %& ta73&r r6tati< %&rent&l ;&terni% de aer %ald tine in 4&4;en4ie 7aterial&l
t6%at d&%and la &4%area a%e4t&ia!
!
Dat6rita <ite=ei 7ari a %&rent&l&i de aer 4i a 9a;t&l&i %a 7aterial&l t6%at 4e a9la in 4&4;en4ie
4&;ra9ata de tran49er intre aer 4i 7aterial&l 46lid e4te 7are de%i re=&lta 4i 6 rata 7are a tran49er&l&i
de %ald&ra! Generat6r&l de aer %ald e4te &n %&;t6r ;e 3a=a de le7ne 4a& %ar3&ne dar la %are ;6ate
9i ada;tat 4i &n ar=at6r ;e 5a=! Material&l t6%at &7ed e4te &4%at in %ate<a 7in&te 4i e4te tran4;6rtat
7ai de;arte ;rin inter7edi&l &n&i <entilat6r %entri9&5al!
Presa (e peleti B-C e4te &n &tila@ %are 96l64e4te 76t6are de ;&tere
%are in<art r6le 7etali%e %e ;re4ea=a 7eterial&l t6%at ;e 6 7atrita %& 5a&ri! In &r7a ;re4arii ;rin
a%e4te 5a&ri 7ateria ;ri7a t6%ata 4e %67;re4ea=a 4i 96r7ea=a 6 7a4a %67;a%ta %e ia 96r7a
dia7etr&l 4i l&n5i7ea 5a&rii din 7atrita! Dat6rita te7;erat&rii de a;r6*i7ati< $(8/(
(
C %e 4e
;r6d&%e ;rin 9re%are 9i3rele din 7ateria ;ri7a 4e &ne4% intre ele 4i 4e ;la4ti9ia=a a4t9el %a ;eletii a&
6 %6n4i4tenta de4t&l de d&ra!
an(a transportoare a@&ta &4&rarea 7&n%ii 6;erat6ril6r ;rin %6nd&%erea 7ateriei le7n6a4e %atre
t6%at6r! Inlinatia )en0i transportoare este (e &+ (e gra(e.
Masina auto'ata (e i'pachetat in 4a%i de ;la4ti% are %a;a%itatea de re5la@ intre "( 4i .( S5
;entr& 4a%ii de ;la4ti% 4a& intre #( 4i "((S5 ;entr& 4a%ii de ra9ie B-C!
Utila3e necesare 'anipularii si transportului (e peleti
0entr& tran4;6rtarea %67en=il6r %atre ;er46anele %are a%:i=iti6nea=a ;eleti de la 4edi&l 9ir7ei 4i
n&84i ;6t a4i5&ra 4in5&ri tran4;6rt&l 4e <a a%:i=iti6na 6 a&t6&tilitara V6lG4Da5en Cra9ter .#
TDI Lan5 %a in 9i5&ra #! 0ret&l a%e4teia e4te de '!$"- e&r6 in Ger7ania iar %64t&l t6tal in &r7a
tran4;6rt&l&i %atre R67ania 4i in7atri%&larii <a 9i $$(( de e&r6! A&t6&tilitara are 6 %a;a%itatea
7a*i7a de tran4;6rt de .!# t6ne!

Fi5&ra '! A&t6&tilitara V? Cra9ter .# Lan5 B,C!
0entr& &4&rarea a%ti<itatii de de;6=itare 4i in%ar%are a ;eletil6r 4e <6r a%:i=iti6na 1
8 4i &n 76t64ti<&it6r ele%tri% Still R -(8-(0 DU0LEM .,7 -(t ,/V! M6t64ti<&it6r&l are 6
%a;a%itate 7a*i7a de - t6ne 4i inalti7ea 7a*i7a de ridi%are ., 7!
8 &n tran4;alet %a in 9i5&ra $! Tran4;alet&l are 6 %a;a%itate 7a*i7a de -!# t6ne

Fi5&ra $! M6t64ti<&it6r Still B,C! Fi5&ra /! Tran4;alet B,C!
In ta3el&l - e4te ;re=entat ne%e4ar&l de 9inantare ;entr& de7ararea a%ti<itatii!
Ta3el&l -! Ne%e4ar&l de 9inantare
Nr!
Crt!
Den&7ire Cantitate 0ret
HleiI
T6tal
HleiI
"! Linie ;eleti " -,>-(( -,>-((
-! Pala ind&4triala " ",,>-$ ",,>-$
.! S6;r6n " "..#( "..#(
,! A&t6&tilitara " .,-'# .,-'#
#! M6t64ti<&it6r " "--.$!# "--.$!#
'! Tran4;alet " "(>(!-# "(>(!-#
$! M6t69era4tra& " #/>!>> #/>!>>
/! Si4te7 S&;ra<e5ere <ide6 " ".#, ".#,
>! La;t6; " "(>> "(>>
"(! M&lti9&n%ti6nala " -#>!>( -#>!>(
""! Bir6& ad7ini4trat6r " -.> -.>
"-! Bir6& a5ent " "$. "$.
".! Ma4a %& , 4%a&ne " -'> -'>
",! S%a&ne 3ir6& . #'!>( "$(!$
"#! C&ier " "-# "-#
"'! 0ar%:et 9l66r9i* / 77 "# --!'( ..>
"$! 0linta ;ar%:et '$ '!(" ,(-!'$
"/! C6r; il&7inat N6<elite - '>!>" ".>!/-
">! C6r; il&7inat AT&a " ,>!#> ,>!#>
-(! ?C+re=er<6r+%a;a% " -$>!/> -$>!/>
-"! La<6ar " #> #>
--! Baterie la<6ar " #> #>
-.! O5linda ;t! 3aie " '> '>
-,! Gre4ie de%6r "- ""!> ",-!/
-#! Faianta 0i4a -' ">!>( #"$!,
-'! Mar5ine 9aianta ". /!,> ""(!.$
-$! Ade=i< ;t!5re4ie 4i 9aianta / >!>> $>!>-
-/! V6;4ea la<a3ila - ,'!#( >.
->! A76r4a ;erete " "'!>( "'!>(
.(! Set tra9alet %& ta<a 4i r6le - >!," "/!/-
."! Stin5at6r in%endii - '"!-' "--!#-
.-! Benner ;&3li%itar " ',( ',(
..! C:elt&ieli de ;&3li%itate " -((( -(((
.,! C64t&l ne%e4ar a&t6ri=arii " -((( -(((
.#! 0ri7a a;r6<i=i6nare ""- "#( "'/((
.'! C:elt&ieli %6nta3ile " ,(( ,((
.$! Ne%e4ar 96nd 4alari=are " ""'(( ""'((
T6tal General 1 ,>#-/>!(, lei a;r6*i7ati< """.(( e&r6 B#CB'C!
+. Necesarul (e personal
Ne%e4ar&l de ;er46nal e4te de # an5a@ati! 0er46nal&l e4te re;arti=at a4t9elE
8 " 6;erat6r taie %ren5ile %are 4&nt ;rea l&ni5i %& a@&t6r&l 76t69era4tra&l&i 4i a4ea=a
intr8&n %6ntainer le7nele ;entr& a le li<ra %el&i %are ali7entea=a 3anda de tran4;6rt E
8 " 6;erat6r in%ar%a le7nele din %6ntainer ;e 3anda de tran4;6rt E
8 " 4e9 de ;r6d&%tie 4&;ra<e5ea=a intre5&l ;r6%e4 te:n6l65i% 4i in%ar%a 4a%ii %& ;eleti ;e &n
;alet d&;a %are %& a@&t6r&l 76t64ti<&it6r&l&i d&%e ;aletii in de;6=it E
8 " a5ent de <an=ari %are 4e 6%&;a %& li<rat&l ;eletil6r la d67i%ili&l %lientil6r E
8 " ad7ini4trat6r %are 4e 6%&;a %& a4i5&rarea ne%e4ar&l&i de 7aterie ;ri7a tine le5at&ra %&
:U;er7arGet&l Dede7an 4i 4&;er<i=ea=a intrea5a a%ti<itate a intre;rinderii E
Ser<i%i&l de %6nta3ilitate <a 9i e*ternali=at!
F6nd&l de 4alarii e4te %al%&lat %6n96r7 ta3el&l&i .!
Ta3el&l .! C:elt&ieli 4alariale
Nr!
Crt!
F&n%tia Nr! 0er46ane Salari&l
net
Salari&l
3r&t
T6tal
"! Ad7ini4trat6r " "#(( .((( .(((
-! Se9 ;r6d&%tie " ".(( -'(( -'((
.! O;erat6r linie - "((( -((( ,(((
,! A5ent <an=ari " "((( -((( -(((
T6tal General ""'(( lei!
Fi5&ra >! Or5ani5ra7a 9ir7ei
Ad7ini4trat6r
Se9 ;r6d&%tie
A5ent Van=ari
O;erat6r linie ;r6d&%tie
- an5a@ati
4. !urse (e finantare
0entr& 9inantarea in<e4titiei 4e <a %6ntra%ta &n %redit de la Ban%a Tran4il<ania %& &r7at6arele
%ara%teri4ti%i 1
Val6are %redit 1 """.(( E&r6
Ter7en ra73&r4are 1 "-( l&ni
D63anda1 #>( BJC
C67i4i6n de anali=a1 "(( E&r6
C67i4i6n an&al de 5e4ti&ne1 "#( lei
DAE1 '-, BJC
Rata l&nara1 "!-,//' E&r6 e%:i<alent&l a ###$!,-$ lei!
T6tal de ;lata1 "#(!>/" E&r6
Credit&l e4te 5arantat %&1
Ipoteca i'o)iliara a4&;ra i763il&l&i %e 9a%e 63ie%t&l in<e4titiei i763iliareE
%sigurarea I'o)ilului ad&4 in 5arantieE
#arantie 'o)iliara a4&;ra 3&n&ril6r 763ile ale I7;r&7&tat&l&i %& 6 <al6are de ;e4te #(( lei
a4&;ra t&t&r6r %reantel6r Hdre;t&ril6r de in%a4areI de%&r5and din a%ti<itatea 4a ;r69e4i6nala in
lei 4i in <al&ta 4i a4&;ra %6nt&ril6r 3an%are ale I7;r&7&tat&l&i de4%:i4e 4i ;e %are le <a
de4%:ide 4i la 6ri%e alta in4tit&tie de %redit B$C!
-. Esti'are asupra capacitatii pro(uctiei si *an0are
C64t&l a9erent %6n4&7&l de ener5ie ele%tri%a 1
'"!/ * / * -- * (!-/"( K.(#/ lei)l&na
C64t&l a9erent %6n4&7&l&i de 7aterii ;ri7e 1
(!'' * / * -- * "#( K "$,-, lei)l&na
In &r7a ;r6%e4&l&i te:n6l65i% de 9a3ri%are a ;eletil6r 4e ;irde "( J din %antitatea de 7aterii
;ri7e 9a;t dat6rat ;r6%e4&l&i de &4%are a4t9el ;entr& a ;r6de%e '(( G5 de ;eleti 4&nt ne%e4are
''( G5 de de4e&ri de le7n!
C64t&l a9erent 4alari=arii 1
.((( + -'(( +,((( + -((( K ""'(( lei)l&na
C64t a9erent ra73&r4arii %redit&l&i 1
###/ lei)l&na
T6tal %64t 6;erati6nal 1 .(#/ + "$,-, + "-((( + ###/ K .--"' lei)l&na!
Cal%&l&l %a;a%itatii 7a*i7e de ;r6d&%tie1
'(( * / * -- K "(#'(( G5 ;eleti)l&na!
%nali0a 'e(iului concurential
La ni<el&l @&det&l&i Ba%a& n& e*i4ta alta 9ir7a ;r6d&%at6are de ;eleti a4t9el ;rin%i;alii
%6n%&renti 4&nt re;re=entati de de;6=itele i7;6rtat6ril6r de ;eleti 3ri%:eti 4i le7ne de 96%!
PU;er7arGet&rile 4&nt 4i ele l&ate in %al%&l dre;t %6n%&renti in4a ;&te7 a@&4ta a4t9el ;ret&l
in%at 4a 69eri7 a%elea4i ;r6d&4e la &n ;ret 7&lt 7ai 7i% 4i 4a de<eni7 ;rin%i;al&l <an=at6r de
;eleti %el ;&tin la ni<el&l @&det&l&i Ba%a&!
Procurarea 'ateriei pri'e
Materia ;ri7a ne%e4ara ;r6d&%erii de ;eleti e4te le7n&l in a%e4t 4en4 4e <6r in%:eia %6ntra%te de
9&rni=are %& di9erite 5atere ta7;larii 4i alte &nitati de ;rel&%rare a le7n&l&i %are di4;&n de
3&%ati de le7ne r&7e5&4 4i %ren5i %are <6r 9i li<rate 9ir7ei n6a4tre la ;ret&l de "#( lei)t6na!
5alorificarea pro(uctiei
0entr& <al6ri9i%area ;r6d&%tie 4i ;entr& a a4i5&ra &n 9l&* %6ntin&& ;entr& ;r6d&%tie 4e <6r
ale5e &r7at6arele %anale 1
"! Van=area ;r6d&%tiei la 4edi&l 9ir7ei %& &n ;ret de "# lei ;entr& 4a%&l de "#G5!
-! Van=area %atre retea&a de retail Dede7an %& &n ;ret de > lei ;entr& 4a%&l de "#G5!
Cal%&l&l a9erent in%a4aril6r in &r7a <al6ri9i%arii ;r6d&%tiei la 4edi&l 9ir7ei 1
"# * H "(#'(( 1 "# I K "(#'(( lei)l&na!
Cal%&l&l a9erent in%a4aril6r in &r7a <al6ri9i%arii ;r6d&%tiei %atre retea&a de retail Dede7an1
> * H "(#'(( 1 "# I K '..'( lei)l&na!
0entr& %al%&le <iit6are <67 %6n4idera %a 7area ;arte a ;r6d&%tiei <a 9i <and&ta %atre retea&a de
retail Dede7an iar %ei %are a%:i=iti6nea=a de la 4edi&l 9ir7ei <6r <enii 7ai 7&lt in an6ti7;&l de
iarna! V6l&7&l <an=aril6r <a 9i 4tr&%t&rat a4t9el 1
8 '$J din ;r6d&%tie <a 9i <and&ta %atre Dede7an E
8 ..J din ;r6d&%tie <a 9i <and&ta la 4edi&l 9ir7ei!
Media in%a4aril6r K H, * "(#'(( + / * '..'( I 1 "- K $$,,( lei)l&na!
Cifra (e afaceri
Ci9ra de a9a%eri %&;rinde 4&7a t6tal a <enit&ril6r din 6;era i&nile %67er%iale e9e%t&ate de 9ir7
re4;e%ti< <Vn=area de 7r9&ri i ;r6d&4e Nntr86 ;eri6ad de ti7; deter7inat!Wn %&ant&7&l %i9rei de
a9a%eri n& 4e in%l&d <enit&rile 9inan%iare i <enit&rile e*%e;ti6nale! Wn ter7eni %6re% i %i9ra de
a9a%eri re;re=int 4&7a <enit&ril6r a9erente 3&n&ril6r li<rate l&%rril6r e*e%&tate 4er<i%iil6r
;re4tate ;re%&7 i a alt6r <enit&ri din e*;l6atare7ai ;& in ra3at&rilere7i=ele i alte red&%eri
a%6rdate %lien il6r B/C!
CA K "- * $$,,( K >->-/( lei)an!
6. Calculul (e renta)ilitate
Se e4ti7ea=a %a ;e ;ar%&4&l &n&i an ;r6d&%tia <a 9i <al6ri9i%ata ;rin a73ele 76d&ri!
In a%e4t %a= <al6area in%a4aril6r ;e &n an <a 9i de "(".$'( lei!
Total incasari: 12 x 77440 = 929280 lei/an.
Din t6tal in%a4ari 4e 4%ad %:elt&ielile 4i re=&lta 6 <al6are a ;r69it&l&i 3r&t de 1
Profit brut: 929280 12 x 32216 = 42688 lei/an
In &r7a a;li%arii i7;6=it&l&i ;e ;r69it din ;r69it&l 3r&t 7ai ra7an ,##/,$!>- lei
re;re=entand <al6area ;r69it&l&i net ;e 6 ;eri6ada de "- l&ni!
Profit net: 42688 16 ! x 42688 = 4847.92 lei/an
La 49ar4it&l an&l&i da%a 4e d6re4te 4e ;6t 4%6ate di<idende in <al6are de ./->"-!-' r6n d&;a
%e din ;r69it&l ra7a4 4e 7ai 4%ad "'J <al6area i7;6=it&l&i!
"aloare #i$i#en#e: 4847.92 16! x 4847.92 = 382912.26 lei/an.
7. %nali0a !8OT
Anali=a S?OT ;re4&;&ne l&area in %al%&l a &r7at6arel6r ele7ente1 0&n%tele tari
H Stren5t:4 I 0&n%te 4la3e H ?eaGne44e4 I O;6rt&nitati H O;;6rt&nitie4 I A7enintari H T:reat4I! In
%a=&l 4t&diat <6i ;re=enta 9ie%are dintre a4;e%tele en&ntate d6rind 4a ;&n in e<identa ele7entele
rele<ante ;entr& anali=a 7edi&l&i de 7arGetin5!
Puncte tari
0&n%tele tari 4&nt deter7inate de %atre 9a%t6rii interni! Dintre %ele 7ai i7;6rtante a7inti7
&r7at6arele 1
8 Te:n6l65ia 76derna 4i a&t67ati=ata %& &n %6n4&7 red&4 de ener5ie ele%tri%a E
8 Mani;&larea &46ara a 7ar9ii E
8 C6nditii de de;6=itare &46r de inde;linit E
8 Se l&%rea=a 9ara 7ar9&ri ;eri4a3ile E
8 N&7ar red&4 de ;er46nal ;entr& de4er<ire E
8 C64t red&4 al 7ateriei ;ri7e E
8 A7;la4area 9ir7ei in a;r6;ierea %el&i 7ai %ir%&lat dr&7 din Ba%a& E
8 Val6ri9i%area ;r6d&%tiei in d6&a 76d&ri E
8 Cea 7ai ie9tina 76dalitate de in%al=ire e %ea %& ;eleti E
8 Centralele ;e ;eleti ne%e4ita de4er<ire 7ini7a!
8 Inna4;rirea le5i4latiei de 7edi&!
Puncte sla)e
0&n%tele 4la3e 4&nt deter7inate t6t de 9a%t6rii interni! Ele re=&lta din
nea@&n4&rile 6r5ani=at6ri%e 4i 4e 7ateriali=ea=a in :
8 Ca;a%itate de ;r6d&%tie li7itataE
8 Cre4terea ;ret&l&i ener5iei ele%tri%eE
8 C64t&l ridi%at al &nei %entrale ;e ;eleti!
Oportunitati
O;6rt&nitatile 4&nt deter7inate de e<6l&tia 9a%t6ril6r e*terni 6r5ani=atiei in4a
%are in9l&entea=a 9a<6ra3il ;rin %adr&l 5eneral ;6=iti<! Din rand&l a%e4t6ra 4e ;6t
en&7era1
8 Inna4;rirea le5i4latiei de 7edi& E
8 Tendinta 5l63ala de red&%ere a e7i4iil6r ;6l&ante E
8 De=<6ltarea &nei a9a%eri &ni%e la ni<el l6%al E
8 A%:i=itia 4i i7;ad&rirea &nei 4&;ra9ete de teren %& 6 ;lanta den&7ita 4al%ie ener5eti%a E
%'enintari
A7enintarile 4&nt deter7inate de 9a%t6rii e*terni %e 4e ;6t %6n4tit&i intr86 9rana intr8&n
%adr& 5eneral de9a<6ra3il1
8 Di9i%&ltati %& a;r6<i=i6narea ;e ti7; de iarna E
8 S%:i73area ;ret&l&i ener5iei ele%tri%e 4i a %673&4ti3ilil6r E
8 In%ertit&dinea ;6liti%ii 9i4%ale E
8 Cre4tere ;ret&l&i 7ateriei ;ri7e!
1,. #raficul #antt
Gra9i%&l GANTT ;re=int 76d&l de reali=are a 4ar%inil6r Nn 9&n%Xie de data de
Nn%e;ere Yi d&rata a%e4t6ra ;re%&7 Yi i7a5inea 5ra9i% a 76d&l&i de 4&;ra;&nere Yi
%6relare a di<er4el6r a%ti<itXi!
Activitate Ian Feb Mar Apr Mai Iun Iul Aug Sep
Constructie
Achizitie
echipamente
Utilare
Promovare
Inaugurare
11. Conclu0ii
De=<6ltarea &nei a9a%eri %are tine 4ea7a de ne<6ile ;ri7are ale 9ie%ar&i indi<id are
%:iar de la in%e;&t 4an4e 7ai 7are de 4&%%e4 de%at a%ele a9a%eri %are 4&nt 6rientate
4;re <ar9&l ;ira7idei de6are%e adre4area e4te 4;re t6ata ;6;&latia in%l&4i< %atre %ei
%are d6re4% 6 an&7ita e*%l&4i<itate! 0r6d&%erea de ;eleti a 964t 4i <a 9i 6 76dalitate
de a <al6ri9i%a 4&;eri6r an&7ite re4&r4e 4a& %:iar &nele ra7a4ite %are 4e ;6t d6<edi la
9el de 96l64it6are %a 7ateria din %are 9a% ;arte!
Marea ;r63le7a %are 4e ;&ne e4te a%eea a <al6ri9i%arii ;r6d&%tiei 63tin&te ;entr& a
;&ne in 7i4%are t6t6data ;r6%e4&l de 9a3ri%atie in 9el&l a%e4ta a4i5&rand&84e 9l&*
%6ntin&& de 7&n%a 4i %a;ital ;entr& a ;latii %:elt&ielile de %reditare %ele 4alariale 4i
;entr& a ne ;&tea rea;r6<i=i6na in ;er7anenta! C&n64%and 4e=6nalitatea <an=aril6r
;r6d&4el6r de4tinate in%al=irii l6%&intel6r 4e <a 6;ta ;entr& in%:eierea &n&i %6ntra%t
de <an=are %& &n&l dintre %ele 7ai 7ari lant&ri de retail din tara n6a4tra O Dede7an
%are ;6ate <inde ;r6d&%tia de ;eleti ;rin %ele .( de 7a5a=ine la ni<el nati6nal!
S6l&tia alea4a ;entr& 7a*i7i=area ;r69it&l&i e4te a%eea de a <inde t6t6data 6 ;arte a
;r6d&%tiei la 4edi&l 9ir7ei %& &n ;ret 7ai 7i% de%at %el ;ra%ti%at de :U;er7arGet&rile
e*i4tente la ni<el l6%al 4i 69erirea 9a%ilitatii de tran4;6rt a 7ar9ii %atre %lientii %are n&8
4i ;6t a4i5&ra 4in5&ri tran4;6rt&l!
0r69it&l e4ti7at a 9i reali=at d&;a ;ri7&l an de a%ti<itate e4te de /'!(,$ e&r6 4i
;&te7 4;&ne %a e4te 7&lt 7ai renta3il a in<e4tii intr86 a4t9el de a9a%ere de%at ar 9i in
%6ntit&irea &n&i de;6=it 3an%ar %& 4&7a in<e4tita ;entr& a 63tine 6 d63anda de
,,#- de e&r6 B>C!
In 9inal ;&te7 a;re%ia %a in<e4tirea intr86 9a3ri%a de ;eleti e4te de "> 6ri 7ai
;r69ita3ila de%at %6n4tit&irea &n&i de;6=it 3an%ar %& a%eea4i 4&7a iar 6 a4t9el de
a9a%ere ar 9i 3ene9i%a la 767ent&l a%t&al ;entr& %a n& 4e re5a4e4te ;e ;lan l6%al &n
;6tential %6n%&rent!
12. i)liografie
1. Rad& Se3a4tian 0r6Li5n6 -(($ N&7ar&l , ) Arti%6l Stiinti9i% Edit&ra
Uni<er4itXii T%&'()*"&')& din BraY6< -(($ E
2. QQQ :tt;1)):a3a;ellet!de!tl)Linii8;r6d&%tie8;eleti!:t7E
$. QQQ :tt;1))DDD! 7a;4!5665le!%67E
&. QQQ :tt;1))4&%:en!763ile!deE
+. QQQ :tt;1))DDD!dede7an!r6E
4. QQQ :tt;1))DDD!alte*!r6E
-. QQQ :tt;1))DDD!3an%atran4il<ania!r6)3t)4i7&lat6r8%redite)E
6. QQQ :tt;1))DDD!DiGi;edia!6r5E
7. QQQ :tt;1))DDD!de;6=ite83an%are!r6)%al%&lat6rZdae!;:;!