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Refresher Course 2010

This section reviews basic Physical Education concepts.
Movement concepts an !o"ms
Fundamental movements and movement concepts includin! nonlocomotor and
manipulative movements and concepts of space time effort and "uality in the conte#t of
movement education.
Fitness includin! s$ill% and health%related fitness and conditionin!
&ovement forms includin! !ames in the conte#t of individual dual and team
!ames'sports as well as tumblin! !ymnastics and rhythmic and dance activities.
P#$s%ca& an '%o&o(%ca& Sc%ence Fo)nat%ons
(rowth and development motor learnin! $inesiolo!y and e#ercise physiolo!y
Soc%a& Sc%ence Fo)nat%ons
)ocial and psycholo!ical aspects of physical education
A* 'as%c s,%&&s- s,%&&s %nvo&ve %n movement act%on an moto" patte"ns*
1. Locomotor skills.
a. )$ills used to move the body from one location to another.
b. )$ills include *umpin! hoppin! s$ippin! leapin! slidin! !allopin!
wal$in! etc.
2. Nonlocomotor skills.
a. )$ills in which the individual does not have to chan!e location in order to
practice an activity.
b. )$ills include stretchin! pushin! pullin! twistin! circlin! and most
calisthenics activities +movements toward and away from the center of the
body raisin! and lowerin! body parts,.
3. Manipulative Skills.
a. )$ills used to handle or manipulate play ob*ects such as bats balls
wands hoops.
b. )$ills include movements that increase hand%eye and hand%foot
coordination trac$in! s$ills and de#terity and propulsion s$ills +such as
throwin! $ic$in! and battin!,.
-. Specialized Skills.
a. )$ills related to specific sports !ames and apparatus.
b. )$ills are structured +specific rules !uidelines and techni"ues, rather than
'* 'as%c movements- s,%&&s "e&ate to t#e poss%.%&%t%es o! t#e .o$ an t#e a.%&%t$ to
e/p"ess0 e/p&o"e0 an %nte"p"et t#e p#$s%ca& env%"onment*
1. Program applications.
)t. .ouis Review Center /nc%0avao Tel. no. +012, 22-%2212 or 222%1342 1
AREA: Music, Arts, and Physical Education,
1. Demonstrate understanding of concepts and skills on:
a. Music
b. Arts
c. Physical Education
Prepared by: Prof. Minerva Atanacio
a. )tructure the learnin! environment5 provide a variety of movement
e#pressions5 individuali6e the activities5 build confidence in efficiently
movin! one7s body.
b. Provide both !ross%motor +bi!%muscle, activities and fine%motor
+manipulative, movement possibilities.
c. 0evelop awareness for a variety of concepts includin! space time force
and "ualities of movement and flow.
2. Basic movement processes.
a. Traits considered as a whole +not isolated actions,
b. 0evelopment of body mechanics.
+1, 8road movement competencies.
+2, Freedom to e#plore the physical environment.
+a, )patial factors include both !eneral and personal space in
performin! locomotor activities.
+b, &ovements include direction patterns and si6e and an!le of
movement +such as hori6ontal vertical dia!onal and circular,.
3. Movement considerations.
a. 9ariation in speed acceleration deceleration rhythm etc.
b. :uality of movement
+1, Force and effort; <ow fast can you stop= >hat body mechanics improve
+2, Flow; direction of movement.
+a, )ustained movement +free flow5 continuity of movement,.
+b, /nterrupted movement and interval activities.
+4, 8ody factors; the body and its parts in relation to specific movement
+a, ?nilateral; one%sided activities
+b, 8ilateral; two%sided activities
+c, Cross%lateral; each side wor$in! independently.
+d, 8ody 6ones; anterior posterior etc.
4. Classi!ing movement patterns
a. ?nstructured movement; movement e#ploration that involves choices
related to response e#perimentation e#ploration and balance.
+1, &ovements patterns and se"uences can involve $nowled!e of special
s$ills but do not re"uire them.
+2, E#plorin! !eneral space movin! in any direction5 free e#pression.
b. )tructured movement; involves a specific s$ill that can be "uantified.
c. Combinations of movement patterns +includes both structured and
unstructured movement,; stretch li$e a rubber band recoil *ump and hop
s"uat twist !allop.
2. Perceptual%motor competencies; used to dia!nose perceptual%motor
a. "eneral coordination; ability to move in rhythm and with muscular control.
b. Balance# control of the center of !ravity and laterality +sideward
+1, )tatic balance.
+2, 0ynamic balance.
+4, Rotational balance
c. Bod! image; $nowled!e of body parts and body in space.
+1, <and%eye and foot%eye coordination; trac$in! ob*ects while throwin!
$ic$in! catchin! etc.
+2, <earin! discrimination; ability to respond to auditory si!nals5 listenin!5
attention to rhythmic movements.
+4, Form perception; reco!ni6in! different spaces shapes and si6es.
@. $%!t%mic activities; basic movements usin! the medium of rhythm5 includes
locomotor nonlocomotor and manipulative s$ills.
a. /nte!ral component of the comprehensive physical education pro!ram.
b. /nvolves !ross body movements while $eepin! time with rhythm of music.
C* P"%nc%p&es o! &ea"n%n( assoc%ate 1%t# movement e)cat%on- to eve&op e!!%c%ent
an e!!ect%ve movement s,%&&s an to )ne"stan movement p"%nc%p&es*
1. $eadiness# the ability to learn and understand movement patterns is
influenced by such thin!s as maturation coordination physi"ue and
2. Motivation# the desire to learn is influenced by intrinsic and e#trinsic rewards.
4. &orm and tec%ni'ue; establish the basis for sound mechanical principles in
learnin! a s$ill.
a. (%ro)ing; principle of opposition.
+1, Arm swin!s bac$ in preparation for throw5 elbow moves forward.
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+2, Trun$ rotates toward throwin! side of the body.
+4, >ei!ht of foot shifted to nonthrowin! side durin! follow%throu!h.
*. Catc%ing.
+1, Eyes follow ball5 elimination of avoidance reaction +fear,.
+2, Arms bend at elbows5 rela#ed5 ob*ect brou!ht toward body.
+4, Bonri!id catchin! style5 hands brou!ht to!ether as catch is made.
c. Batting.
+1, Eyes follow the ball5 elbow coc$ed in a hori6ontal position +somewhat
parallel with upper chest,5 noncross !rip5 bat held above head.
+2, >ei!ht shifted to front foot upon contact with ball.
+4, <it Cthrou!h ballD 5 continuity of movement.
-. Progression; lo!ical pro!ression of motor s$ills based on an increasin! and
decreasin! de!ree of difficulty.
2. &eed*ack and reinorcement; ability to criti"ue an activity and to provide a
sound basis for future activity.
@. (ranser o learning# ability to transfer previous learnin! of a movement
techni"ue to a new s$ill area.
A. E/e"c%se an Hea&t#
1. Conditioning# a purposeful e#ercise pro!ram to counteract heart disease and related
circulatory problems.
a. Factors include sound diet and re!ular e#ercise.
b. 8ody conditionin!; ability of the body to meet the demands put upon it.
c. Poor physical conditionin! contributes to coronary heart disease +about forty
percent of all deaths, and blood circulatory problems +stro$e arteriosclerosis
2. +lements o conditioned itness# blood circulation is the ma*or factor in a well%
conditioned individual.
a. 8loodstream carries nutrients and o#y!en to every cell in the body.
b. Fitness tests include o#y!en inta$e and o#y!en consumption5 air e#chan!e in the
lun!s5 blood pressure.
c. &itness tests measure#
+1, 8ody conformation +appearance of body fitness e#cess fat around waistline.
+2, 8ody balance +how muscles react in a coordinated manner,.
+4, A!ility +controlled motor fitness,.
+-, &uscular power +ability to e#ert force with a sudden motion,.
+2, Endurance +ability to sustain effort,.
+@, Fle#ibility +ability to move the body to handle a wide ran!e of movements,.
+3, )tren!th +ability of specific muscle !roups to perform specific functions E bac$
buttoc$s chest etc.,
3. Proper nutrition
a. ,ail! caloric re'uirement# depends on a!e si6e and activity +older people re"uire
fewer calories,.
+1, &aintenance diet +wei!ht balance,
+2, Reducin! diet; physical e#ercise CburnsD e#cess calories5 reduce fat in diet
+concentrated calories,5 total food inta$e must be decreased +all nutrients
produce calories,.
b. Proteins# includes essential amino acids5 sources include lean meat dairy
products fish nuts whole !rains and beans.
c. Carbohydrates; body synthesi6es and brea$s down carbohydrates from sources of
breads cereals rice potatoes and beets.
d. &ats# some fatty acids cannot be synthesi6ed in the body.
+1, )aturated fats; solid at room temperature5 mainly from animal products
lin$ed to elevated cholesterol counts.
+2, ?nsaturated fats; from sources such as corn oil and soybean oil.
+4, 8lood%fat levels; indicate amount of cholesterol in the body.
+a, Cholesterol; natural fatty substance in the body5 found only in animal
+b, E#cess levels +above 200 m!'dl, can indicate symptoms of arteriosclerosis.
+c, Cholesterol reduction pro!rams must limit inta$e of animal products and
products with lar!e amounts of saturated fats +such as avocados and palm
e. -itamins# or!anic substances needed in small amounts to enable the body to
complete chemical reactions.
f. Minerals# inor!anic compounds needed in small amounts5 sources include mil$
+for calcium, red meats +for iron, and leafy ve!etables +for phosphorous,.
!. Sodium; found naturally in many foods5 lin$ed to elevated blood pressure.
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8. Hea&t#2"e&ate !%tness
1. "eneral conditioning; maintainin! proper health by followin! a sensible e#ercise
and diet pro!ram.
a. Consult a physician prior to be!innin! vi!orous e#ercise pro!ram5 determine
ris$ factors.
*. .se a proper e/ercise program.
+1, >arm%up +preparin! for vi!orous e#ercise,.
+2, Pea$ e#ertion +achievin! e#ercise !oals,.
+4, Cool down +returnin! body to normal condition,.
c. Provide *asic itness opportunities in a nonsports atmosp%ere.
+1, &aintain proper body mechanics while sittin! standin! pic$in! up items
+2, Provide opportunities for daily e#ercise such as wal$in! *o!!in!
swimmin! calisthenics aerobic dancin! and bac$pac$in!.
+4, ?se any environment for isometric e#ercise.
2. 0ndividual e/ercise program.
a. 0uration; bris$ wal$in! +three times per wee$ for thirty minutes,5 vi!orous
aerobic e#ercise +three times per wee$ for twenty minutes,.
b. Aerobic capacity; to achieve your tar!et heart.
c. Fitness activities; based on pro!ression and !eneral health fitness.
d. Proper warm%up.
+1, Appro#imately ten to fifteen minutes in duration5 consists of bendin!
stretchin! rotatin! abduction and adduction.
+2, Purpose is to elevate the heart rate.
3. Calist%enics 1anaero*ic2.
a. E#ercise for muscular stren!th fle#ibility +ran!e of motion, endurance
+repetitions, cardiorespiratory fitness.
b. E#amples of muscular and fle#ibility e#ercises include le! raises alternate
$nee bends push%ups and modified push%ups and sit%ups and modified sit%
-. (!pical p%!sical itness testing *atter!# includes measurement of standin! hei!ht
wei!ht restin! heart rate restin! blood pressure s$infold tests and timed sit%
C. S,%&&2"e&ate !%tness*
1. Competencies
a. A!ility; ability to chan!e direction "uic$ly while controllin! body.
b. Reaction time; ability to reco!ni6e a stimulus reacts to it and completes a
c. 8alance; ability to maintain body e"uilibrium.
d. Coordination; ability to complete hand%eye and foot%eye activities.
e. )peed; ability to chan!e direction'location.
2. Skill3related itness activities include the shuttle run fifty%yard dash softball throw
and standin! lon! *ump.
0. Movement !o"ms*
1. "ames# inte!rate fundamental motor s$ills as in bowlin! dod!in! $ic$in! runnin!
stri$in! throwin! and catchin!.
2. (eam Sports#
9olleyball E @ players three out of five !ames. >inner scores 22 points with a
mar!in of two.
8as$etball E 2 players. &ost points at the end of the wins.
)oftball E F to 10 players. &ost runs at the end of seven innin!s wins.
)occer E 11 players. &ost !oals win.
3. ,ual Sports
Tennis E Either doubles or sin!les. Four points%fifteen thirty forty and !ame. Tie
at forty%deuce. >inner must win by a mar!in of two. Remember love
means nothin! in tennis.
8adminton E Either doubles or sin!les. 21 points by a mar!in of two.
Table Tennis E Either doubles or sin!les. 11 points by a mar!in of two.
4. 0ndividual Sports
)wimmin! E very !ood for cardiovascular conditionin! and can be done almost
anywhere there is water.
Trac$ and Field E scorin! varies with event.
(ymnastics E /ncludes tumblin!. E#cellent activity for developin! coordination and
!race. Also re"uires stren!th which is developed by the activities
done. This trainin! can be!in at a very early a!e with tumblin!
activities and pro!ress to !ymnastics.
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2. $%!t%mics E /ncludes ball !ymnastics and other activities that may re"uire
music. Rhythmics can be tau!ht in early elementary physical education
enablin! students to develop music appreciation as well as spatial awareness.
@. ,ance E Can either be individually or with a partner. 0ance is especially !ood
at developin! spatial awareness and the ability to follow instructions. 0ance
instruction should be!in in elementary school. 8asic steps are wal$ and'or s$ip
and are suitable to teach to first and second !raders. )$ip slide and run
and'or s$ip are suitable for second and third !raders and more difficult step%
hop can be tau!ht to !rades three throu!h si#. The ability to dance can also
aid in the development of social s$ills and teamwor$. 0ance also provides an
e#cellent framewor$ for multicultural education. &any dances are indi!enous
to certain cultures and students can learn about different races and cultures
while learnin! dances. <avin! the class wal$ throu!h the dances without music
and then addin! the music is effective. The instructor must be careful not to
teach too many steps before the dance is tried with the music. &ost students
en*oy dance in spite of themselves.
A. E/e"c%se p#$s%o&o($- c#an(es %n .o$ c#em%st"$ "e&ate to e/e"c%se*
1. 4eart circulation +cardiorespiratory,.
a. G#y!en upta$e.
+1, Respiratory system; o#y!en transported throu!h circulatory system.
+2, Cardiovascular system; distributes o#y!en throu!hout the body.
+4, &usculos$eletal system; uses o#y!en and converts to ener!y.
b. Blood pressure +8P, +force of blood pushin! a!ainst walls of the arteries under
pumpin! action of the heart,.
+1, Restin! 8P; normal diastolic under 12 normal systolic under 1-0.
+2, Restin! heart rate; normal ran!e forty to ninety beats per minute +trainin! will
decrease this rate,.
+4, &a#imum desirable heart rate; formula 220 minus your a!e e"uals ma#imum
desirable heart rate durin! e#ercise.
+-, 0esirable heart rate durin! e#ercise; si#ty percent of ma#imum desirable rate.
c. $ecover!# indicates efficiency of circulatory system.
d. )tren!th%buildin! e#ercises +isometric or static,; not desi!nated for heart%related
e. $isk actors o %eart3disease; ci!arette smo$in! hi!h cholesterol family history of
heart disease obesity.
2. Breat%ing and lungs.
a. Aerobics; o#y!en%based e#ercises that stimulate the heart and lun!s such as
runnin! wal$in! and swimmin!.
b. Aerobic efficiency; involves the lun!s durin! performance.
+1, E#ercise intensity increases body7s demand for o#y!en.
+2, Fitness tests +step%test er!onometer treadmill, measure lun! capacity.
c. Anaerobics; e#ercises for short periods of time at hi!h power levels +football
bas$etball sprints,.
3. Bod! composition.
a. <ei!ht and wei!ht tables; dependent on frame si6e.
b. )$infold measurement +chest abdomen thi!h triceps,.
c. Percenta!e of body fat; lean +less than ei!ht percent in males less than thirteen
percent in females, fat +!reater than twenty Eone to twenty%four percent in
males !reater than twenty%si# to thirty%two percent in females,.
-. Musculoskeletal itness; focuses on abdominal stren!th lower bac$ and hamstrin!
fle#ibility and endurance.
2. P%!sical itness conditioning
@. based on;
a. 0uration repetition and intensity of e#ercise.
b. Butrition and diet.
8. Moto" &ea"n%n(- met#oo&o(%es an %nst")ct%ona& es%(n*
1. Motor skills# !ross% and fine%motor s$ills and locomotor and non%locomotor s$ils.
2. Movement 'ualities; body movement and ad*ustment to various elements of
3. Learning concepts.
a. Perceptual ad*ustments; for e#ample a child ma$es a bas$et completin! a lay%
b. Hinesthetic awareness; for e#ample a child controls movements while completin!
a tumblin! routine.
c. ?nderstandin! movement "ualities; force time space flow.
d. 0evelopment of s$ills; for e#ample a child pro!ressively increases distance while
throwin! a football throu!h a hoop.
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e. Transfer and feedbac$; for e#ample a child transfers s$ills learned in catchin! a
bas$etball to catchin! a football.
C. 4%nes%o&o($- e!!ects o! %nte"na& an e/te"na& !o"ces t#at act on t#e .o$*
1. 4%nes%o&o($*
a. 5inesiolog! is concerned with understandin! how the *oints and muscles cause
movement of the s$eletal structure of the body.
b. Biomec%anics is considered mechanical $inesiolo!y and is concerned with the
human body as a mechanical system5 it is concerned with the physics of motion.
c. P%!sical principles can *e applied to *iomec%anics.
+1, &otion; linear displacement velocity and acceleration.
+2, Force; Bewton7s law of motion.
+4, Ener!y; potential and $inetic.
+-, Aerodynamics; pro*ection an!les and fli!ht velocity.
+2, .andin! and stri$in!; elasticity and dissipation of force.
2. 6pplications o kinesiolog! and *iomec%anics.
a. 8alance; ability to maintain body position and e"uilibrium in stationary and
movement activities.
+1, )tatic balance; center of !ravity is directly over base of support.
+2, 0ynamic balance; center of !ravity is raised and base of support is narrowed E
for e#ample in the movements pro!ressin! from wal$in! to runnin!.
b. Friction; effects of traction on an activity.
c. Force; application to pushin! pullin! or stri$in! on ob*ect.
3. Principles o p%!sics applied to sports.
a. Prediction of the movement of a ball in fli!ht; prediction of various an!les.
b. &echanics of e#tendin! the arms while hittin! a baseball +concept of levers,
c. &echanics of throwin! a ball with velocity involves wrist movement and ran!e of
d. 8loc$in! position in football involves stability.
-. Comp)te"2en#ance pe"!o"mance %ma(es an #%(#2spee p#oto("ap#$- )se
to ana&$5e .as%c movement.
This section reviews basic concepts of music and art.
The music and art content areas focus on the followin! instructional components;
6* Aest#et%c pe"cept%on7c"eat%ve e/p"ess%on
Hnow the basic vocabulary of music and art.
?nderstand elements principles and fundamentals of music and art.
8* C)&t)"a& #e"%ta(e
&a$e *ud!ments based on reco!ni6in! the !eo!raphical ori!in of music and art wor$s.
0ifferentiate amon! a variety of musical and art styles.
0raw comparisons between and amon! music and artwor$s based on their historical
social emotional and artistic conte#ts.
9* Aest#et%c va&)%n(
?nderstandin! the meanin! of music and artwor$s.
Evaluate aesthetic criteria inherent in a wor$ of art.
Apply appropriate criteria in evaluatin! wor$s of art.
A* T#e e)cat%ona& (oa&s o! aest#et%c pe"cept%on a"e-
1. To develop sensitivity to music7s e#pressive "ualities.
2. To increase aural awareness.
4. To encoura!e musical responsiveness.
-. To encoura!e musical responsiveness involvement and discrimination.
'* E&ements o! M)s%c
1. Pitc%
a. &ay be hi!h or low and may repeat.
b. Creates melody.
c. Pro!ression of pitches creates melodic contour.
d. Pro!ressive pitches create scales.
e. &elodic meanin! is affected by ran!e re!ister len!th of !roupin!s and si6e of
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2. $%!t%m
a. &easured by units of time.
b. These pulses or CbeatsD can be or!ani6ed in sets +meters,.
c. Patterns can be repeated.
3. 4armon!
a. Consists of two or more simultaneous tones.
b. Three or more simultaneous tones ma$e a chord.
c. Chords can be modified.
4. &orm
a. The Cdesi!nD of music is created b the interaction of its elements.
b. )ections of music +CphraseD, can be similar or different dependin! upon amount of
repetition of elements.
c. Repetition of elements creates unity.
d. Contrastin! elements create variety.
7. (e/ture
a. Total sound may have differin! Cte#turesD such as thic$ thin opa"ue and
b. &otifs may have te#tures such as le!ato +smooth soundin!, and staccato +clipped
8. (empo
a. The speed of a section or composition.
b. Affects the music7s character.
c. Provides contrast when tempos differ.
d. Adds to e#pressiveness.
e. /s referred to by specific terms for e#ample lento +slow, and presto +"uic$,.
9. ,!namics
a. The comparative loudness and softness of music.
b. Chan!es the e#pressive effect.
c. /s referred to by specific terms for e#ample piano +soft, pianissimo +very soft,
forte +loud, and fortissimo +very loud,.
:. (im*re
a. The uni"ue tonal "uality produced by an instrument or voice.
b. Each instrument family +such as woodwinds percussion strin!s and brass, has
its characteristics sound +timbre,.
c. /nstruments of different cultures produce different timbres.
;. Notation
a. The written form of music.
b. Composed of a variety of symbols for notes rests pitch etc.
A. Deve&opment o! m)s%ca& s,%&&s
1. A basis for complete musical understandin!.
2. )$ill development leads to;
a. )ensitivity to music7s e#pressive "ualities.
b. 0evelopment of musical responsiveness involvement and discrimination.
8. T$pes o! m)s%ca& s,%&&s
1. Auditory s$ills E hearin! music.
a. Attentive listenin! is the basic activity of music education.
b. Aural acuity is a re"uirement of musical !rowth.
c. )tudents must be able to hear tones in the mind when no sound is actually bein!
2. Translative s$ills E readin! and writin!.
a. For notation to have meanin! e#perience with sounds must precede contact with
visual symbols.
b. 0rill on $ey si!natures meter si!natures names of isolated notes and intervals is
unli$ely to promote !rowth unless tau!ht in con*unction with sin!in! and playin!.
4. Creative s$ills E creatin! music.
a. Creatin! music should parallel other musical activities.
b. Performin! both improvised and written music should be encoura!ed.
-. Pe"!o"mance s,%&&s.
a. Singing.
+1, &usical selections should be chosen based on the physical development of
student7s voices.
+2, .istenin! while sin!in! should be encoura!ed to develop interpretive s$ills and
understandin! of the structure and elements of music.
*. Pla!ing 0nstruments.
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+1, /nstrument playin! aids in understandin! the concepts of sound pitch
rhythm etc.
+2, Can be used to accompany sin!in! to produce harmony.
+4, )tudents should have access to class instruction and at a certain level to
playin! in orchestras and band ensembles.
c. Bod! movement.
+1, &ovin! to music is a learned s$ill which promotes acuity of perception.
+2, A wide ran!e of music and modes should be used.
d. Conducting.
+1, Even youn! children can e#perience elements of music throu!h conductin!
speech chants involvin! chan!es in tempo dynamics pitch and so forth.
+2, Conductin! fosters sensitivity to musical e#pression.
e. &usical analysis.
+1, )tudents should compare their listenin! and playin! e#periences.
+2, )tudents should be encoura!ed to verbali6e their musical analysis.
A. Fosters understandin! and s$ills within historical'cultural conte#t.
8. 0evelops understandin! of the styles idioms performance media and purposes of types
of music which are part of our multicultural herita!e.
C. Reveals the relationships between people and their music.
0. Communicates to students that;
1. &usic is a part of livin! and can communicate feelin!s li!hten labors and satisfy
emotional needs.
2. &usic as therapy has power to satisfy emotional needs.
4. )ocial influences affect choices in music.
-. Present%day musical instruments have evolved from simple be!innin!s.
2. &usical instruments were created from material from people7s environments.
@. &usic has its own forms periods and cultural characteristics.
A. E#tends beyond $nowled!e and s$ills
8. /s the comprehension of beauty and the e#pression of feelin! in music.
C. <as as its !oal to provide a basis on which students can ma$e intelli!ent *ud!ments of
musical value.
1. &usic is a uni"ue medium for human e#pression
2. Hnowled!e about music can increase one7s ability to choose music that is meanin!ful
to the individual.
4. The ability to ma$e aesthetic *ud!ments can hei!hten personal pleasure derived from
3&ossa"$ o! M)s%ca& Te"ms-
Alle!ro E Fast tempo.
8ar lines E The vertical lines on the staff used to mar$ off the !roupin! of beats.
8eat E The underlyin! pulse present in most music.
8rasses E >ind instruments made of metal includin! the trumpet French horn trombone and
Chamber music E Gne to twenty performers.
Chord E )everal notes sounded to!ether.
Clavichord E A small predecessor of the piano.
Clef E The symbol indicatin! the pitch of the notes.
Consonance E The combination of tones that produces a "uality of rela#ation.
0issonance E The combination of tones that produces a "uality of tension.
0ynamics E The loudness of music.
Fu!ue% A fu!ue is based upon a short theme called a sub*ect. The fu!ue sub*ect contains both
rhythmic and melodic motifs. The openin! of the fu!ue is announced by one voice alone.
A second voice then restates the sub*ect usually on a different scale. A third and then a
fourth voice enter each carryin! the sub*ect.
<armony E Refers to the chordal aspect of music.
<arpsichord E Another predecessor of the piano sounded by pluc$in! the strin!s.
/nterval E The distance between notes.
.ar!o E 9ery slow tempo.
.ento E )low tempo.
.yre E An ancient harp.
&ass E &usic for a Catholic service.
&easure E The space on a staff between two bar lines.
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&elody E Concerns the se"uence of notes.
&eter E The or!ani6ation of beats into !roups.
&eter si!nature E The numerical symbol at the be!innin! of a composition to indicate the meter
E for e#ample 2'- I @'1 -'-.
&oderato E /ntermediate tempo.
&otif E A recurrin! !roup of notes as the four in 8eethoven7s Fifth )ymphony.
&ovement E A lar!e section of a len!thy composition.
Bote E A musical sound of specific pitch as middle C.
Gpus E >or$ usually identified by a number.
Gratorio E A ma*or orchestral piece with solo voices and chorus.
Grchestra E A lar!e !roup of instrument players usually seventy%five to ninety.
Percussion E /nstruments sounded by stri$in! as drums cymbals and chimes.
Pitch E The fre"uency of a sound wave.
Polyphony E Choral music with several simultaneous voice%lines.
Presto E 9ery fast tempo.
Rhythm E Concerns the relative duration of the notes.
Rondo E The main feature of a rondo is the return of the main theme which alternates with
secondary themes. For e#ample
)imple rondo; A8A8A
)econd rondo; A8ACA
Third rondo; A8ACA8A
)cale E The succession of notes arran!ed in an ascendin! order.
)onata E A wor$ for one or two instruments.
)on! Form E >hen the first section of a simple ternary form is repeated E for e#ample AA8A.
+A simple ternary form is music in three sections with the third !enerally an e#act
repetition of the first A8A,
)taff E The five lines on which notes are written.
)trin!s E 9iolin viola cello and double bass +bass viol,.
)ub*ect E The principal melodic motif or phrase especially in a fu!ue.
)ymphony E A ma*or orchestral composition.
)yncopation% A rhythmic effect produced when the e#pected rhythm.
Tempo E The pace of the music.
Timbre E The characteristic sound of a voice
Tone E A musical sound of a specific pitch.
>oodwinds E /nstruments ori!inally made of wood includin! the piccolo flute clarinet oboe
En!lish horn bassoon and sa#ophone.
A* L%ne*
1. Can ta$e many forms such as thic$ or thin and wavy or strai!ht.
2. Gperates in terms of the visual field +for e#ample as an ed!e as the meetin! of
areas or to su!!est space,.
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4. Can hold emotional "ualities.
a. )trai!ht lines su!!est ri!idity.
b. 0ia!onal lines su!!est opposition.
c. 9ertical lines su!!est stren!th.
d. <ori6ontal lines su!!est stability and repose.
e. Curved lines su!!est movement.
f. )weepin! curved lines su!!est calm.
!. )harp short curved lines su!!est a!itation.
'* Co&o"*
1. 0epends on the reflection and absorption of li!ht +hue value and intensity,.
2. Affects the emotions directly.
4. /s dependent on derived li!ht +for e#ample ni!ht li!ht appears as shades of !ray and
bri!ht dayli!ht casts stron! shadows,.
-. /ncludes these types;
a. Primary; red yellow and blue.
b. )econdary; oran!e !reen and violet5 produced by mi#in! e"ual amounts of two
primary colors.
c. Tertiary; produced by mi#in! une"ual amounts of two primary colors.
2. /s used to;
a. 0efine certain spatial "ualities of a composition.
b. Provide or!ani6ation and unity.
c. Create balance.
d. Convey emotion and symboli6e ideas such as hope and despair.
C* +a&)e
1. /s defined as the amount of li!ht and dar$ areas in a composition5 can ran!e from
blac$ to white.
2. Allow for contrasts creatin! the appearance of form on a flat surface.
4. Can;
a. 8e created by the placement of lines.
b. Produce te#tures.
c. Create form by depictin! shadows and hi!hli!hts caused by direct li!ht.
-. Allows for e#pressive "ualities and moods by usin!;
a. Primarily dar$ areas to su!!est melancholy or uneasiness.
b. Primarily li!ht areas to su!!est happiness and freedom.
D* S#ape (!o"m)*
1. /s based on the use of contours.
2. Can be defined by the use of value color and te#tures.
4. Can ran!e from purely representational to completely abstract allowin! for creativity
and individualism.
-. &ay su!!est two dimensions or three dimensions.
E* Te/t)"e*
1. /s the su!!estion of how somethin! feels to the touch ran!in! from sil$y smooth to
2. /s sometimes uni"ue to the medium +such as pencil crayon in$ watercolor or oil
4. Can be simulated by;
a. The application of line +thin to thic$,.
b. The shadin! effect that helps define space.
F* Space*
1. /s defined as the representation of depth and the relative positions of ob*ects.
2. /s manipulated throu!h the use of such elements as color line value and
4. Techni"ues include;
a. /ndistinct drawin!; su!!est distant ob*ects.
b. Gverlappin! ob*ects; establishes their relative positions.
c. (radation of color; creates depth.
d. .inear perspective; creates depth by usin! parallel lines that conver!e on a
vanishin! point.
1. /s defined as the harmonious arran!ement of elements in a composition.
2. /s dependent on ob*ect placement si6e and direction.
a. Placement; the area occupied by shapes chosen to create harmony or lac$ of it.
b. )i6e; variation of ob*ect si6e to balance or unbalance a composition +for e#ample
a lar!e circular shape may be balanced by three smaller circular shapes while a
lar!e circular shape and a sin!le small circular shape may be unbalanced,.
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c. 0irection; drawin! of the viewer7s eye to elements in a composition by use of
ob*ect position to represent directional forces.
1. &ay be achieved throu!h the use of une"ual elements with no a#is or central point.
2. Associated with dynamic e#pressive "ualities.
1. Achieved throu!h the use of une"ual elements with no a#is or central point.
2. Associated with dynamic e#pressive "ualities.
1. /s defined as the recurrin! elements in a composition.
2. Creates rhythm +flow, unity and balance.
1. /s defined as differences in form line te#ture and color.
2. Adds variety and increases viewer interest in and attention to a wor$.
1. /s defined as the emphasis of a featured point.
2. ?ses contrast between featured point and other elements.
A. <ow are the lines in the composition arran!ed +hori6ontally vertically and dia!onally,=
8. <ow do the lines in the composition create action mood interest shadin! and the li$e=
C. <ow is the color used to show contrast hi!hli!ht an area or create a mood=
0. <ow does color create spatial relationships=
E. >here are the li!ht and dar$ areas in a composition= <ow does li!ht enhance the
directionality= 0oes it CleadD the viewer=
F. >hat types of shapes are used= (eometric= <ow do the various shapes affect the
composition as a whole=
(. >hat te#tures are used in the pictures= >hat feelin!s do the te#tures convey=
<. /s there controlled space in the picture=
/. Are the elements in the picture in perspective=
J. /s the composition balanced +symmetrical or asymmetrical,= <ow is the balance
H. >hat elements are repeated= 0o the various elements contrast with or complement each
.. /s one area or element dominant= >hat does this indicate about the pictures=
&. >hat is the overall effect of the composition +busy cluttered etc.,= <ow does the total
composition affect your feelin!s= >hy= >hat is the artist attemptin! to convey= <ow can
you determine this=
Abstract E A nonrepresentational composition created throu!h the use of form line and color.
Accent E The emphasis in a picture set off by the use of value shape or contrastin! color.
Advancin! colors E Colors that appear to Ccome forwardD usually red oran!e and yellow.
Analo!ous colors E Colors that are closely related to one another +for e#ample blue blue%!reen
and !reen,.
Area E The flat surface within the borders of a picture.
Asymmetrical E ?ne"ual5 not identical on both sides of a central line.
8alance E A harmonious arran!ement of the elements of a composition.
8lendin! E A device used to allow one color or tone to mer!e with another.
Center of /nterest E The area of focus5 the part of a picture that attracts the most attention.
Chroma E The stren!th of purity of color.
Colla!e E An artwor$ made by !luin! pieces of paper photo!raphs cloth and other materials
to!ether in an overlappin! desi!n.
Color E .i!ht waves of different len!ths create colors to the eye. Color also includes hue value
and intensity.
Color harmony E An effect that is unified and aesthetically pleasin!. Color harmony is produced
by combinin! colors that are similar in one or more aspects.
Color scheme E The dominant color arran!ement of forms colors lines and other elements
used in a drawin! or paintin!.
Complementary colors E Colors opposite each other on the color wheel complement each other
+for e#ample red and !reen purple and yellow and oran!e and blue,.
Composition E The particular arran!ement of forms colors lines and other elements used in a
drawin! or paintin!.
Contour E An outline or profile of an ob*ect.
Contrast E )tron! differences in form line te#ture and'or color create contrast.
Cool Colors E (reen blue%!reen blue and violet are cool colors often used to su!!est wet
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0epth E The illusion of distance on a flat surface.
0esi!n E A planned arran!ement of the composition elements.
0istortion E Arran!in! art elements to su!!est other than a natural shape. 0istortion is used to
create emotion in the viewer.
0ominant E The most si!nificant element of a composition.
Ed!e E The outline or border of a form or shape. A sharp or distinct border is called a hard ed!e.
A blurred or diffused border is called soft ed!e.
Ellipse E The shape of a circle when viewed at an an!le used to obtain perspective.
Emphasis E The stress or accent on a particular element of composition.
Eye level E +1, The hori6ontal plane depicted by the artist in a composition also called the
hori6on line5 +2, the eye level of the artist.
Focal point E The center of interest in a composition.
Form E The actual three%dimensional shape and structure of composition ob*ect.
(radation E The !radual chan!e in value tint or color as rendered in a picture.
<armony E The pleasin! arran!ement of picture elements based on usin! similar "ualities of
shape si6e and color.
<ori6on line E An ima!inary hori6ontal line which represents the hei!ht or actual direction of the
observer7s vision.
<ue E The name used to distin!uish a color such as red blue or blue%!reen.
/ntensity E The stren!th saturation or purity of color.
.ine E Any continuous unbro$en mar$.
Gpa"ue E The limitation of li!ht5 not transparent or translucent.
Gutline E The outside ed!e of a fi!ure or ob*ect5 a s$etch usin! only line without shadin!.
Perspective E A !eometric method for representin! three%dimensional relations on a flat surface
and for indicatin! depth.
Primary colors E 8lue red and yellow are the primary colors and other hues can be prepared
by combinin! these three.
Proportion E The relationship +si6e, of one part of a composition such as colors forms values
and lines.
Realism E The depiction of a form in a realistic or true%to%life manner5 re%creatin! the
semblance of an ob*ect.
Relief E )culpted fi!ures pro*ectin! from a bac$!round.
Rhythm E The repetition of similar elements in a composition such as colors forms values and
)econdary colors E Gran!e !reen and violet are the secondary colors. They are prepared by
mi#in! e"ual amounts of two primary colors.
)hade E +1, The result of mi#in! a pure color and a "uantity of blac$5 +2, surface shadows on an
ob*ect used to indicate form.
)hape E The flat two%dimensional form of an ob*ect.
)till life E The pictorial arran!ement of inanimate ob*ects.
)ymmetry E Arran!ement of ob*ects so there is a similarity in si6e shape and relative
positionin! on opposite sides of a composition5 mirror%ima!e or e"ual balance in
Techni"ue E +1, The characteristics of a particular medium5 +2, the style of a particular artist.
Tertiary colors E /ntermediate colors prepared by mi#in! une"ual amounts of two primary colors.
Te#ture E The appearance or su!!ested feel of a flat surface.
Three%dimensional E Possessin! the "ualities of hei!ht width and depth.
Tint E A mi#ture of white and a pure color.
Translucent E A material or representation that transmits li!ht but not an ob*ect can be clearly
seen throu!h it.
Transparent E A material or representation throu!h which ob*ects can be clearly seen.
Two%dimensional E Representin! only the dimensions of width and hei!ht without delineatin!
depth thic$ness or solid form.
9alue E The li!htness or dar$ness of a color or hue.
9anishin! point E The point at which recedin! parallel lines conver!e.
>arm colors E Colors that are associated with heat or dry ob*ects !enerally red oran!e and
This section reviews basic concept of <ealth.
/. <ealth is the "uality of life that includes physical mental%emotional and family%social health.
/t is the combination of physical mental'emotional and social well bein!.
A. 0omains of <ealth
1. P#$s%ca& Hea&t# E the condition of a person7s body. Eatin! healthful meals and
!ettin! e#ercise and sleep are e#amples of ways to $eep the body in !ood condition.
2. Menta&2Emot%ona& Hea&t# E the condition of a person7s mind and the ways that a
person e#presses feelin!s. Ta$in! the time to understand feelin!s e#press them in
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healthful ways and meet needs without interferin! with the ri!hts of others are ways
to $eep emotional health in condition.
4. Fam%&$2Soc%a& Hea&t# E the condition of a person7s relationships with others.
Focusin! on e#pressin! oneself clearly and listenin! intently when others are spea$in!
are e#amples of ways to $eep family%social health in !ood condition.
8. >ellness )cale
1. >ellness is another way to describe the "uality of life. /t is the "uality of life that
includes physical mental%emotional and family%social health.
2. The >ellness )cale depicts the ran!es in the "uality of life from optimal well%bein! to
hi!h level wellness avera!e wellness minor illness or in*ury ma*or illness or in*ury
and pre%mature death
4. There are nine factors that influence health and wellness over which a person has
some de!ree of control. <ealth status is the sum total of the positive and ne!ative
influence of;
a. The level of health $nowled!e a person has
b. The behaviors a person chooses
c. The situations in which a person participates
d. The relationships in which a person en!a!es
e. The decisions a person ma$es
f. The resistance s$ills a person has
!. The protective factors a person possesses
h. The de!ree to which a person is resilient
i. The de!ree of health literacy a person has achieved
//. The Comprehensive )chool <ealth Pro!ram
A. A comprehensive )chool <ealth Pro!ram is an or!ani6ed set of policies procedures and
activities desi!ned to protect and promote the health safety and well bein! of students
and staff.
8. The ei!ht components of the comprehensive school health pro!ram are;
1. Hea&t# e)cat%on E a planned se"uential H%10 curriculum that addresses the
physical mental emotional and social dimensions of health.
2. Sc#oo& Hea&t# Se"v%ces = services desi!ned to appraise protect and promote the
health of students.
4. Sa!e an Hea&t#!)& Sc#oo& Env%"onment% is an environment that attends to the
physical and aesthetic surroundin!s and psychosocial climate and culture that
ma#imi6es the health and safety of students and staff.
-. P#$s%ca& E)cat%on E is a planned se"uential H%10 curriculum that provides
co!nitive content and learnin! e#periences in a variety of activity areas includin!
basic movement s$ills5 physical fitness rhythms and dance !ames5 team dual and
individual sports5 tumblin! and !ymnastics5 and a"uatics.
2. N)t"%t%on Se"v%ces E are services that provide students with nutritionally balanced
appealin! and varied meals and snac$s in settin!s that promote social interaction
and rela#ation.
@. Co)nse&%n(0 Ps$c#o&o(%ca&0 an Soc%a& Se"v%ces E are services that provide broad%
based individual and !roup assessments interventions and referrals which attend to
the mental emotional and social health of students.
3. Hea&t# P"omot%on !o" Sta!! E is health promotion pro!rams such as health
assessments health education and health%related fitness activities that protect and
promote the health of those on the school and staff.
1. Pa"ent an Comm)n%t$ Invo&vement E is a dynamic partnership in which the
school parents a!encies community !roups and businesses wor$ collaboratively to
address the health needs of children and their families.
C. The comprehensive school health education curriculum is an or!ani6ed se"uential H%12
plan for teachin! students the information and s$ills they need to become health%literate
maintain and improve health prevent disease and reduce health%related ris$ behaviors.
0. The ten content areas for which students learn health $nowled!e and life s$ills are;
1. Menta& an Emot%ona& Hea&t# E the area of health that focuses on !ainin! health
$nowled!e and practicin! life s$ills5 ma$in! responsible decisions5 usin! resistance
s$ills when appropriate5 choosin! behaviors to promote a healthy mind5 developin!
positive self%esteem5 communicatin! with others in healthful ways5 e#pressin!
feelin!s5 and copin! with stress in healthful ways.
2. Fam%&$ &%v%n( E the area of health that focuses on developin! relationship s$ills5
avoidin! discrimination5 practicin! conflict resolution s$ills5 strivin! for healthful
family relationships5 ma$in! healthful ad*ustments to family chan!es5 formin!
healthful and responsible friendships5 reco!ni6in! harmful relationships5 identifyin!
resources to improve relationships5 developin! s$ills to prepare future family life5 and
practicin! life s$ills o support abstinence.
4. 3"o1t# an Deve&opment E the area of health that focuses on carin! for the body
systems5 reco!ni6in! chan!es durin! !rowth periods5 acceptin!
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maleness'femaleness5 acceptin! physical appearance5 acceptin! one7s learnin! style5
achievin! appropriate developmental tas$s5 learnin! about the be!innin! of new life5
reco!ni6in! the needs of people of different a!es5 preparin! for a!in!5 and sharin!
feelin!s about dyin! and death.
-. N)t"%t%on E the area of health that focuses on plannin! a healthful diet and includes
choosin! foods from the Food (uide Pyramid5 adherin! to dietary !uidelines5 readin!
food labels5 ma$in! healthful food selections to reduce the ris$ of disease5 ma$in!
healthful selections when dinin! out5 considerin! food safety5 maintainin! desirable
wei!ht5 eatin! for healthful reasons5 and reco!ni6in! eatin! disorders.
2. Pe"sona& Hea&t# E the area of health that focuses on ma$in! a personal health
mana!ement plan that includes bein! well%!roomed5 carin! for the body5 havin!
re!ular chec$ups5 followin! a dental health plan5 obtainin! ade"uate rest and sleep5
and achievin! a desirable level of physical fitness.
@. A&co#o&0 To.acco0 an Ot#e" D")(s E the area of health that focuses on $inds of
dru!s and their safe use5 understandin! the ris$ factors and protective factors
associated with dru! misuse and abuse5 preventin! the misuse and'or abuse of
alcohol tobacco and controlled substances5 reco!ni6in! how dru! use increases the
li$elihood of </9 infection5 see$in! help for personal or family dru! misuse and
abuse5 bein! aware of school and community intervention and treatment resources5
choosin! to be safe and dru!%free and usin! resistance s$ills when pressured to use
3. Comm)n%ca.&e an C#"on%c D%sease E the area of health that focuses on
reco!ni6in! communicable and non%communicable diseases5 $eepin! the immune
system healthy5 preventin! the spread of patho!ens5 reducin! the ris$ of infection
with common communicable diseases )T0s and </95 obtainin! a family history for
diseases5 reducin! the ris$ of cardiovascular diseases and cancer5 and reco!ni6in!
ways to mana!e chronic diseases.
1. In>)"$ P"event%on an Sa!et$ E the area of health that focuses on followin! safety
rules in the home school and community5 the followin! safety !uidelines for
different weather conditions and natural disasters5 bein! able to !et help for
emer!ency situations5 bein! s$illed in basic first aid procedures5 reducin! the ris$ of
violence5 protectin! oneself from those who are dan!erous5 and stayin! safe while
ridin! in a car and when en*oyin! e#ercise.
F. Cons)me" an Comm)n%t$ Hea&t# E the area of health that focuses on choosin!
sources of health%related information products and services5 analy6in! advertisin!5
reco!ni6in! and reportin! "uac$ery5 spendin! money and time wisely5 usin! school
nurse and school services when appropriate5 usin! health care providers and health
care facilities5 cooperatin! with people in the community who protect health and
safety5 volunteerin! in school clubs and community or!ani6ations and a!encies that
promote health.
10. Env%"onmenta& Hea&t# E the area of health that focuses on showin! concern about
environmental issues5 $eepin! the air clean5 $eepin! the water clean5 $eepin! the
indoor environment free of pollution5 $eepin! noise at a healthful level5 protectin!
oneself from radiation5 disposin! solid wastes properly5 recyclin!5 bein! aware of the
effects of overcrowdin!5 and cooperatin! with environmental protection a!encies.
3&ossa"$ o! Hea&t# Te"ms-
Acne E is a s$in disorder characteri6e by inflammation of s$in !lands and hair follicles and the
eruption of pimples.
Ao&escent p"e(nanc$ E is a pre!nancy in the years between puberty and the end of the teen
A%"1a$")ct%on E is a condition in which breathin! is partly or completely prevented by a
bloc$a!e in the part of the air passa!es $nown as laryn#.
A&co#o& E is a psychoactive dru! that depresses the central nervous system dulls the mind
impairs thin$in! and *ud!ment and lessens coordination and interferes with the ability to
respond "uic$ly to dan!erous situations.
A&&e"(%es E are hypersensitive reactions by immune system to a forei!n anti!en +protein,.
Ana.o&%c ste"o%s E are powerful derivatives from the male hormones that produce muscle
!rowth and can chan!e health and behavior.
Ast#ma E is an aller!ic disease of the lun!s manifested by constrictions of the small air
passa!es called bronchioles.
Attent%on De!%c%t H$pe" Act%v%t$ D%so"e" (ADHD) E is a developmental disorder
characteri6e by inattention and fre"uently impulsiveness hyperactivity and inability to follow
'&ee%n( E is conditions in which blood escapes from the vessels that naturally contain it.
'one In>)"%es E are dama!e to bones that result from physical trauma.
')&%m%a E is an eatin! disorder in which a person has uncontrollable ur!es to eat e#cessively
and then en!a!es in self%induced vomitin! and or e#cessive use of la#atives or diuretics.
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Ca"%ac A""est E is a condition in which a person7s heart has stopped beatin!.
C#%& A.)se E is a maltreatment of a person under a!e of 11.
C#%& In!ect%o)s D%seases E are communicable disease usually in youn! persons that are
caused by microor!anisms and viruses that are readily transmitted from one person to another.
C#"on%c Hea&t# Con%t%ons E are recurrin! or persistent health conditions.
Co&2Tempe"at)"e Re&ate Eme"(enc%es E are physical conditions that result from e#posure
to low temperatures either below or above free6in!.
Con>)nct%v%t%s E is an inflammation of membrane linin! the eyelids and coverin! the eyeball
Deat#% is the permanent cessation of brain heart and lun! function.
Denta& P"o.&ems E are nontraumatic tooth%related conditions that e#ist as a result of structure
infections or diet.
D%a.etes Me&&%t)s E is a condition characteri6e by an e#cess of !lucose in the blood resultin!
when the pancreas produces too little or no insulin.
D")( A.)se E is the use of dru!s that results in impairment of a user7s ability to function
normally or that is harmful to the user or others.
Eat%n( D%so"e"s E are food%related dysfunctions in which a person chan!es eatin! habits in a
way that is harmful to the mind or body.
Ep%&eps$ E is a condition in which there is a disturbance of impulses in the brain leadin! to
E$e %n>)"%es E are irritations to the eye and dama!e to the eyeball.
Fa%nt%n(% is the partial or complete loss of consciousness that occurs when there has been
reduce blood flow to the brain.
Hea In>)"%es E are traumatic physical events that involve the head.
Hea"%n( Loss E is the reduced ability to detect sound.
Heat Eme"(enc%es E are physical conditions that result when a person is e#posed to hi!her
than normal temperatures for varyin! periods of time.
Hemop#%&%a E is a hereditary disorder characteri6e by the impaired ability of the blood to clot.
HI+7AIDS (H)man Imm)noe!%c%enc$ +%")s, E is the patho!en that destroys the body7s
immune system allowin! the development of A/0).
Impet%(o E is hi!hly conta!ious bacterial infection of the s$in.
Insect St%n(s an '%tes E are wounds from bees spiders and other insects.
Nose.&ees E are loss of blood from the mucous membranes that line the nose.
P#$s%ca& A.)se E is maltreatment that harms the body.
Sca.%es E is infectious s$in disease caused by small parasitic mites that burrow themselves
under the s$in.
Sco&%os%s E is a deformity of the spine in which the spine shows either the lateral or )% shaped
Se/)a& A.)se E is a maltreatment that involves inappropriate se#ual behavior between an
adult and a child.
Se/)a&&$ T"ansm%tte D%seases (STDs, E are diseases caused by patho!ens that are
transmitted from an infected person durin! the intimate se#ual contact.
S#oc, E is a condition in which the blood cannot be circulated to all parts of the body.
So!t T%ss)e In>)"%es E are in*uries to the layers of the s$in fat and muscles.
Sp"a%ns an St"a%ns E are stretchin! or partial or complete tearin! of li!aments at a *oints.
S)%c%e E is the intentional ta$in! of one7s own life.
+%s)a& D%so"e"s E are conditions that adversely affect a person7s si!ht.
)ample Test :uestios and )trate!ies for the Content Hnowled!e )ection.
Each of the followin! e#amples represents an area tested on the learnin! competencies in
&APE<. An analysis follows each "uestion.
1. >hich of the followin! s$ill is described in the followin! e#ample=
The balance is on one foot5 the body is then thrust forward into space with the individual
landin! on the same foot as the ta$eoff foot.
a. <op c. )$ip
b. (allop d. Jump
The correct answer is +A,. 9isuali6e the locomotor movement described. The hop is the only
choice listed that uses only one foot. <oppin! is basic structured locomotor movement. /n
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hoppin! both the body lean and the position of the hands help balance the movement of
landin! on one foot. )$ippin! +8, is a series of step%hops done with alternate feet.
2. >hich of the followin! is not a measurable element of health%related fitness=
a. Cardiorespiratory endurance
b. 8ody composition
c. Coordination
d. &usculos$eletal fitness
The correct answer is + C ,. <ealth%related fitness is associated with disease and illness
prevention by the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle. As a physical education term health%
related fitness is not directly related to sports s$ills such as dribblin! a bas$etball ball or a
catchin! a football but rather to such thin!s as body composition muscular endurance and
fle#ibility. Coordination + C , the ability to perform motor tas$s on demand "uic$ly and
efficiently is fundamentally a motor%performance fitness attribute. &otor%performance fitness is
associated with a!ility balance power speed and stren!th.
4. Rhythm is the flow of music in
a. time c. form
b. space d. harmony
The correct answer is +A,. All music moves in time not space. &usic must be internali6ed Cas it
!oes by.D After a composition has been completed one must evaluate it in retrospect
necessitatin! the development of a musical memory. /n other art forms the viewer has the
lu#ury of analy6in! the piece in detail since it e#ists in space. Each musical composition has a
rhythm a beat a pulse which e#ist in time. Form + C , is the overall structure of a piece.
<armony +0, is the combination of tones which accompany the main theme +melody,.
-. A walt6 is best represented by which of the followin! meter si!natures=
a. 4'- c. @'1
b. -'- d. -'- or @'1
+A, The meter si!nature 4'- characteri6es a walt6 which is set in the time of one%two%three
one%two%three. The si!nature is a way to count time. /n 4'- time 4 means three beats to
the measure and - means that a "uarter note !ets one beat.
2. >hen complementary colors are mi#ed to!ether in e"ual amounts the resultin! color is
a. blac$ c. !ray
b. brown d. white
+8, Complementary colors are directly opposite each other on the color wheel as are blue and
oran!e red and !reen or yellow and purple +with the first color of each pair here bein!
primary and the second secondary,. >hen mi#ed to!ether in e"ual amounts complementary
colors produced brown.
@. >hich of the followin! most accurately describes the proper follow%throu!h body motion in the
mature sta!e of throwin! a ball=
a. The feet remain stationary in preparation for the throw.
b. As the trun$ rotates wei!ht is completely shifted to the foot opposite the throwin!
side of the body.
c. /n the initial throwin! motion the person throwin! steps forward with the foot that is
on the same side as the throwin! arm.
d. The wei!ht is shifted from the front to the bac$ foot.
3. An early primary%level child who e#hibits poor perceptual%motor development would most li$ely
have difficulty in all of the followin! EKCEPT
a. runnin! for sustained period of time
b. understandin! the verbal directions for a !ame
c. s$ippin! bac$ward after learnin! how to s$ip
d. handlin! a bean%ba! in a !roup activity
1. /n trac$in! an ob*ect the visual concentration of a primary%level child will dramatically improve
a. the ob*ect is circular
b. the ob*ect is thrown to the child with an arc or loft.
c. the child is familiar with the rules of the !ame bein! played
d. the child has modeled the e#pected outcome
F. To practice catchin! s$ills a child should reach out for an ob*ect and then draw the arms toward
the body as the catch is made. The purpose of this catchin! techni"ue is to
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a. combine appropriate techni"ues to facilitate twistin! and rotatin! motions
b. bend the an$les $nees and hips while visually trac$in! the ob*ect
c. allow the force of the ob*ect to be absorbed over a lon!er period of time
d. model behaviors that are consistently used by professionals athletes
10. &imetics is used an important approach in teachin! basic concepts of a new motor s$ill. >hich
of the followin! is the best e#ample of usin! mimetics to teach a new s$ill=
a. /ncreasin! the len!th of practice sessions so that s$ills can be mastered
b. Practicin! the rudiments of a s$ill without usin! an implement such as a ball bat or
physical ob*ect
c. Gr!ani6in! an activity !eared to the interest level of the children involved
d. 0evelopin! a se"uential lesson based on !ross%motor s$ills.
11. /n music when a central theme alternates with subordinate themes +for e#ample A8ACA, the
form is referred to as
a. 8inary c. rondo
b. Theme and variation d. canon
12. >hich of the followin! most closely characteri6es a smooth flowin! musical presentation=
a. .e!ato c. Fortissimo
b. )taccato d. Pianissimo
14. A melody played or sun! by several instruments or voices enterin! at different times best
defines a
a. rondo c. canon
b. ballet d. carol
1-. A strin! "uartet most typically consists of which of the followin! combinations of instruments=
a. 9iolin viola cello
b. Clarinet viola double bass violin
c. 9iolin cello harp oboe
d. 9iola cello bass double bass
12. /t is the succession of notes arran!ed in an ascendin! order.
a. ran!e c. staff
b. scale d. pitch
1@. .ine can ta$e many forms it can hold emotional "ualities. >hich of the followin! su!!est
a. 9ertical lines c. dia!onal lines
b. <ori6ontal lines d. strai!ht lines
13. /n art contour lines move across the form of an ob*ect to indicate
a. 0istance and space c. solid and void
b. &ass and volume d. stren!th and stability
11. /f a composition uses overlappin! shapes recedin! color intensity and lac$ of detail in the
distance the artist is probably attemptin! to
a. create an abstract landscape or seascape
b. control space by usin! the rules of perspective
c. create a flat one%dimensional bac$!round
d. incorporate elements of solid and void
1F. >hich of the followin! best characteri6es an asymmetrical composition=
a. ?nity is easily attained throu!h the repetition of similar elements.
b. A featured point is shown in contrast with its surroundin! area.
c. 8alance can be achieved throu!h the use of une"ual elements.
d. The eye of the viewer is not focused on any particular feature.
20. >hich of the followin! is true about a fresco=
a. A fresco is associated with meticulous brush techni"ues and is usually applied on
wooden surfaces.
b. The bindin! material in fresco paint is e!! yol$ or some other viscous material.
c. The colors of a fresco are !enerally limited to earth tones because these pi!ments are
usually not affected by the calcium in plaster.
d. A fresco allows the painter ma#imum fle#ibility in applyin! color.
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1. Fundamental s$ills consist of
a. .ocomotor nonlocomotor and manipulative s$ills.
b. Twistin! bendin! and bouncin!
c. Throwin! and $ic$in!
d. )e"uencin! and definin! problem
2. >hat applies force to the bones to create movement=
a. muscles c. li!aments
b. tendons d. levers
4. 8eanba!s balls and other small ob*ects are used to teach children
a. .ocomotor movements c. manipulative s$ills
b. Bonlocomotor movements d. tumblin! and stunts
-. The cardiorespiratory system consist of the
a. <eart c. bones
b. <eart and lun!s d. lun!s
2. Ta$in! off on both feet and landin! on both feet describes what locomotor movement=
a. hoppin! c. slidin!
b. leapin! d. *umpin!
@. The basis of physical education is
a. affective development c. co!nitive development
b. movement d. sports
3. /n addition to uni"ue contributions in the area of fitness and s$ill development physical
education is also concerned with
a. co!nitive learnin! c. self%concept enhancement
b. affective learnin! d. alterin! future lifestyles
1. /n terms of cardiorespiratory fitness which of the followin! is an incorrect pairin!=
a. Abduction; raisin! the arms
b. Adduction; lowerin! the arms
c. Circumduction; circular motion of the trun$
d. Fle#ion; stretchin! the arms
F. /f a third%!rade student cannot sustain the locomotor movement of s$ippin! for a distance of
fifty feet the best method to improve this s$ill is to
a. re"uire the student to practice the s$ill until it is mastered
b. isolate the student from the class so that when practicin! s$ippin! the child7s self%
esteem will not suffer
c. offer a reward to the student for any attempts to improve on s$ippin! s$ills
d. individuali6e the instruction by brea$in! down the pattern and reinforcin! the
10. A female !rade - student fre"uently refuses to dress for her physical education class. The
teacher is not ma$in! much headway in convincin! the student that her behavior is
inappropriate. The teacher reco!ni6es that this student is overwei!ht and withdrawn. Gf the
e#amples which is the most accurate statement in e#planation of the student7s behavior=
a. The student is bein! influenced by a peer !roup that considers dressin! for physical
education Cuncool.D
b. The student is e#hibitin! self%esteem problems.
c. The student has e#perienced ne!ative reinforcement in previous P.E. classes.
d. The teacher should use the class to improve student interaction.
11. )arun!ban!!i is a fol$son! from what province=
a. Ta!alo! c. 9isaya
b. /locano d. 8icol
12. /t is a son! that belon!s to the nation=
a. 8allad c. Plainson!
b. Humintan! d. Bational )on!
14. /t is the hi!hness or lowness of a tone and it creates melody
a. 0uration c. /nterval
b. Pitch d. Ran!e
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1-. &r. Franco a !rade @ music teacher is inte!ratin! values to his lesson. >hat musical materials
will he use when teachin! the concept of nationalism=
a. )ana7y >ala n! >a$as c. &ay &inamahal
b. /isan! .ahi d. &ay 8u$as Pa
12. <earin! son!s composed by 8uencamino ma$es us ever aware of our Filipino character traits.
This describes what functions of music=
a. &usic as Recreation c. &usic as Therapy
b. &usic as )elf%E#pression d. &usic as a Power for >orld Peace
1@. >hich of the followin! least describe as a !uidin! philosophy of Art Education=
a. Art education emphasi6es the human dimension in education.
b. Art education should be tau!ht not *ust for the sa$e of the end products.
c. Art education should find its clima# in the mature individual who because of his
e#periences has developed !reater awareness of the self and others.
d. Art education must concentrate on the teachin! of specific concepts and s$ills about
the elements of the arts.
13. &r. Rioflorido in his art class is teachin! some wor$s of !reat visual artists. <e shows a paintin!
pertainin! to various nationalistic or class stru!!les producin! varied strands activism and
artistic claims. >hich classification of paintin! can this theme reflect=
a. tradition c. communities
b. fi!ures and )pace d. art for the people
11. >hich of the followin! is considered as warm colors=
a. blue !reen pin$ c. brown violet purple
b. yellow red oran!e d. lavender lilac carnation
1F. &s. Joy draws a vertical line to represent an electric post in her art class. >hich meanin! of a
vertical line wants &s. Joy to emphasi6e=
a. di!nity c. motion
b. sadness d. continuity
20. The !reat wor$ of Juan .una7s )polarium depicts interpretation of war. <e e#erted much effort to
e#press his desi!n. >hat style of paintin! did he use=
a. /mpressionistic c. E#pressionistic
b. &odernistic d. Baturalistic
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