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CPT Section D - Quantitative Aptitude Chapter 6

CA. Loveneesh Kapoor


Learning Objectives
Understand the concept of Sequence and Series
Understand the nature of sequences-Arithmetic Progression
(A.P.) and Geometric Progression (G.P.)
To find any term of the sequence or the sum of all terms in the
sequence
Understand various formulas of A.P and G.P series.
Numerical as well as mathematical problems related to the A.P
and G.P Series.
Sequences-Pattern
Guess the next number in the following cases
1,4,7,10,__,___
Next no. will be 13 and then 16 following a definite order of succession of 3.
5,15,25,__,
Next term will be 35, adding definite succession of 10 to the previous number
25.
Now Next Number can be judged because there is a definite pattern and the
sequence is worked out with a common difference among all the numbers.
This succession is called as ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION (A.P.)
Sequence-Meaning
A succession of terms arranged in a definite order and following
some definite rule or law.
In other words, numbers or objects arranged in a definite order.
Example
1,3,5,7,9, .. Odd Numbers
2,4,6,8,10 ..Even Numbers
Arithmetic Progressions
(A.P. Series)
nth term of the series
5, 10, 15, 20, 25, ..next term will be 30 following pattern of
succession of 5.
t
1
= 5 = 5 + 0(5) = a + 0 (d)
t
2
= 10 = 5 + 1(5) = a + 1 (d)
t
3
= 15 = 5 + 2(5) = a + 2 (d)
t
n
= 5 + (n-1)(5) = a + (n-1)d
Thus,
n
th
term i.e, t
n
= a + (n-1)d


& the series is
a, a+d, a+2d, a+3d..a+(n-1)d
Example-1
Q : 1,4,7,10, Find the 20
th
term.

Sol: Here a = 1, d = 4 - 1 = 3, n=20
t
n
= a + (n-1) d
t
20
= 1 + (20-1) 3
= 1 + 19 (3)
= 1+57
= 58
Example-2(a)
Q : 12,24,36,.. Find t
14
.
Solution: a=12, d= 24-12=12, n =14
t
n
= a + (n-1)d
t
14
= 12+(14-1)12
= 12+13(12)
= 12+156
=168
Example-2 (b)
Q : 12,24,36,.. Which term is 228.
Sol: a=12, d= 24 12 = 12, t
n
= 228
=t
n
= a + (n-1)d
=t
n
= 12+(n-1)12
= 12+(n-1)12 =228
= (n-1)12 = 228-12
= (n-1)12 = 216
= (n-1) = 216/12
= n-1 = 18
= n = 18+1
= n = 19
Thus 228 is 19
th
term of the series.
Example-3
Q: If 5th and 12th terms of an A.P. are 14 and 35 respectively, find the A.P.
Sol: Here t
5
=14, t
12
=35
t
5
= a + 4d =14
t
12
= a + 11d =35
Solving we get d =3 and a =2
Thus the series 2, 5, 8,.
Example 4
Q : How many terms are there in the series -3,3,9,117
Sol: Here a=-3, d =3 - (-3) =6 and last term =117
Last term =t
n
=a+(n-1)d =117
=117 =-3+(n-1)6
=117+3 =(n-1)6
=120 =(n-1)6
=120/6 =(n-1)
=20+1 =n
=21 =n
Thus 117 is t
21
or 21
st
term
Arithmetic Mean
In case of AP series all the numbers lying between 1st and
the last term are Arithmetic Means.
i.e, A.M= (a + b) / 2
In case of AP series all the numbers lying between 1
st
and
the last term are Arithmetic Means.
Example : The Arithmetic Mean between 8 & 48 is calculated
as (8 + 48)/ 2 = 28.
Thus 8, 28, 48 is an A.P.
Example 5
Q : Insert 4 AMs between 4 & 324.
Sol: A.P. Series 4, --, --, --, --, 324
Here t
1
=a =4
t
6
=a +5d =324
Now, t
6
=4 +5d =324
= 5d=324-4
= 5d=320
= d =320/4
= d =64
Thus, t
2
=a +d =4 +64 =68
t
3
=a +2d= 4 +2(64) =132
t
4
=a +3d =4 +3(64)=196
t
5
=a+4d =4 +4(64) =260
Q : Insert 4 AMs between 4 & 324.
Sol: A.P. Series 4, --, --, --, --, 324
Here t
1
=a =4
t
6
=a +5d =324
Now, t
6
=4 +5d =324
= 5d=324-4
Example 6
Q : Find three terms of AP such that their sum is 33 and product is 1155.
Sol: Let the three terms are (a-d), (a), (a+d)
Sum =a - d +a +a +d=33
3a =33
a =11
Now, (a-d).(a).(a+d) =1155
(11-d).11.(11+d) =1155
(11
2
d
2
) =1155/11
121-d
2


=105
16 =d
2

4 = d

Thus if d = 4, numbers are 7,11, 15 & if d =- 4, numbers are 15, 11, 7
Example 7
Q : Find the number of terms between 74 & 25556 divisible by 5.
Sol : Between 74 & 25556 the series of numbers divisible by 5 are forming an AP series
75, 80, 85, ..25555
Now 25555 is the nth term of the series
t
n
= a + (n-1)d = 25555
75+ (n-1)5 = 25555
(n-1)5 = 25555-75
(n-1)5 = 25480
(n-1) = 25480/5
n = 5096+1 = 5097
Thus there are 5097 terms of in the AP series.
Example 8(a)
Q : Find the 1
st
three terms of the series
t
n
= n
2
2n
Sol : The series can be formed by putting 1,2,3 in place of n in the given
function
t
1
= (1)
2
2(1) = 1 - 2 = -1
t
2
= (2)
2
2(2) = 4 - 4 = 0
t
3
= (3)
2
2(3) = 9 - 6 = 3
Thus the three terms are -1, 0, 3
Example 8 (b)
Q : Find the nth term of the series 1,3,5,7,.
Sol : Here a =1, d = 3-1 = 2
nth term = t
n
= a + (n-1)d
= 1 + (n-1)2
= 1 + 2n-2
= 2n-1
Thus nth term is expressed by the function 2n-1
Sum of A.P. Series
In an Arithmetic Progression (A.P.) Series, the
sum of all the terms upto n terms has been
formulated as
S
n
= n/2{2a+ (n-1)d}
Here a is the 1
st
term
d is the common difference
n is the no . of terms
Also S
n
= n/2 [a + l]
a is the 1
st
term of the series
l is the last term of the series

Example 9
Q : Find the sum upto 50 terms of the series2,4,6,8,.
Sol Here a = 2 d = 4-2 =2, n = 50
S
n
= n/2{2a+ (n-1)d}
= 50/2[ 2*2 + (50-1)2]
=25[4+49*2]
= 25[4+98]
= 25[102]
= 2550
Example 10
Q : Find S
100
for the series 9, 5, 1,.
Sol : Here a = 9, d = 5-9 = -4, n = 100
S
n
= n/2{2a+ (n-1)d}
S
100
= 100/2[ 2*9 +(100-1) -4]
= 50[18+99*(-4)]
= 50[18-396]
=50[-378]
=(18900)
Example 11
Q : The 1
st
and the last term of an A.P. series are -4 and 146
respectively. The sum of terms is 7171, find the number of terms.
Sol : Here a=-4, l =146, S
n
=7171
S
n
=n/2[a +l] =7171
=n/2 [-4+146] =7171
=n/2[142] =7171
=71n =7171
=n =7171/71=101
Thus the number of terms are 101
MCQ-1
Q : The Sum of all natural numbers between 100 and 1000
which are multiples of 5 is
a)98450
b) 96450
c) 97450
d) 95450
Answer : (a) 98450
Hint : a=105, d = 5, t
n
= 995
MCQ-2
Q : Insert 4 AMs between 3 and 18
a) 12,15,9,6
b) 6,9,12,15
c) 9,6,12,15
d) 15,12,9,6
Answer : (b) 6,9,12,15
Hint : a=3, t
6
= 18
MCQ-3
Q : Find the sum of series 8+3-2-7..20 terms
a)-790
b) 790
c) -970
d) 970
Answer : (a) -790
Hint : a=8, d= -5, n = 20
MCQ-4
Q : The value of x such that 8x +4, 6x-2, 2x+7 will form an A.P
a) 15
b) 2
c) 15/2
d) None of these
Answer : (c) 15/2
Hint : d = t
2
t
1
= t
3
t
2

MCQ-5
Q : The sum of three integers in AP is 15 and their product
is 80. The integers are
a) 2,8,5
b) 8,2,5
c) 2,5,8
d)5,8,2
Answer : (c) 2,5,8
Hint : Let the three terms are
(a - d), a , (a + d)
MCQ-6
Q : The sum of a certain number of terms of an AP series
-8,-6,-4, ..52. The number of terms is
a) 12
b) 13
c) 11
d) 14
Answer : (b) 13
Hint : a= -8, d = +2, S
n
=52
MCQ-7
Q : The sum of a 1
st
n odd numbers is
a) n
2

b) (n-1)
2

c) (n+1)
2

d) n
Answer : (a) n
2

Hint : a= 1, d = 2
MCQ-8
Q : The last term of the AP is 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, . to 13 terms is
a) 8.7
b) 7.8
c) 7.7
d) 8.8
Answer : (b) 7.8
Hint : a= 0.6, d = 0.6
MCQ-9
Q : The sum of all natural numbers between 500 and 1000
which are divisible by 13.
a) 28405
b) 24805
c) 28540
d) 28450
Answer : (a) 28405
Hint : Sum of series 507, 520, 533.988
All the Best !!!